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2019
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. Abstract47529-51080-1-pb.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb1.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environmental Earth Science.. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb2.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

B.L. A, Onyango CM, Kathumo VM, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN. "Climate Change Effects on Crop Production in Yatta sub-County: Farmer Perceptions and Adaptation Strategies." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2019;19(1):14010-14042.
Maluk MD, Kahiu N, Olubayo F, Eric M, Muthomi J, Nzuve F, Ochanda N. "Combining ability for earliness and yield among south sudanese F1 sorghum genotypes." Journal of Agriculture. 2019;6(3):1-13.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Olesarioyo JS, Van Ranst E. "Community-Based Conservation: An Emerging Land Use at the Livestock-Wildlife Interface in Northern Kenya. .". In: In Wildlife Management-Failures, Successes and Prospects. London: IntechOpen Limited; 2019.
Mureithi SM, Verdoodt A, Njoka JT, Olesarioyo JS, Van Ranst E. "Community-Based Conservation: An Emerging Land Use at the Livestock-Wildlife Interface in Northern Kenya. .". In: In Wildlife Management-Failures, Successes and Prospects. London: IntechOpen Limited; 2019.
Ayuke FO, Kihara J, Ayaga G, Micheni AN. "Conservation agriculture enhances soil fauna richness and abundance in low input systems: examples from Kenya." Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2019;7 :97.
Olago DO. "Constraints and solutions for groundwater development, supply and governance in urban areas in Kenya." Hydrogeology Journal. 2019;27(3):1031-1050. Abstractolago2019_article_constraintsandsolutionsforgrou.pdfWebsite

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ. "A cultural paradigm shift in Central Africa: Sociocultural determinants and cultural dimensions." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2019;14(1):83-99.
Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Midiwo MHJO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of Fagaramide Derivative and Canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) Species against Multidrug Resistant Leukemia Cells." Natural Products Research. 2019;https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1587424:1-8.omosa_et_al_2019 pdf
Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2019:1-8. Abstract

In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia.

Omosa LK, Mbogo GM, Korir E, Omole R, Ean-JeongSeo, Yenesew A, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of fagaramide derivative and canthin-6-one from Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species against multidrug resistant leukemia cells." Natural product research. 2019:1-8. Abstract

In our continuous search for cytotoxic compounds from the genus Zanthoxylum, chromatographic separation of the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of Z. chalybeum yielded one new alkamide; 4-(isoprenyloxy)-3-methoxy-3,4-deoxymethylenedioxyfagaramide (1) and a known one; fagaramide (2). Similarly, from the MeOH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) extract of the stem bark of Z. parachanthum four known compounds; canthin-6-one (3), dihydrochelerythrine (4), lupeol (5) and sesamin (6) were isolated. Characterization of the structures of these compounds was achieved using spectroscopic techniques (NMR and MS). Using resazurin reduction assay 1, 3 and 6 displayed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values below 50 μM against the drug sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 leukemia cell lines. It is interesting to note that 3 was more active than the standard drug, doxorubicin against CEM/ADR5000 leukemia …

Adem FA, Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Irungu B, Yenesew A, Efferth T. "Cytotoxicity of isoflavones and biflavonoids from Ormocarpum kirkii towards multi-factorial drug resistant cancer." Phytomedicine. 2019;58:152-853. Abstract

While incidences of cancer are continuously increasing, drug resistance of malignant cells is observed towards almost all pharmaceuticals. Several isoflavonoids and flavonoids are known for their cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells.

Kwadha CA, Janet Irungu, George Ongamo, Paul Ndegwa, Suresh Raina AFT. "Decanal as a major component of larval aggregation pheromone of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2019;143(4):417-429.
Obosi OJ. "Decentralized Governance in the Management of Urban Health Care Systems in Developing Countries." Open Journal Of Political Science. 2019;9(1):189-202.
Kawakyu N, Nduati R, Obimbo E, Munguambe K, Coutinho J, Mburu N, DeCastro G, Inguane C, Zunt A, Abburi N, Sherr K, S. G. "Development and Implementation of a Mobile Phone-Based Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV Cascade Analysis Tool: Usability and Feasibility Testing in Kenya and Mozambique." JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2019;13;7(5):( doi: 10.2196/13963.):e13963.
"Device Simulation of Sb2S3 Solar Cells by SCAPS-1D Software." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2019;3, 2019. Abstract

Antimony sulphide (Sb2S3) has drawn research interest due to its promising properties for photovoltaic applications. The progress in developing highly efficient Sb2S3 solar cells has stimulated this study to a great extent. In this paper, we present the results of a simulation of solar cell processing parameters on the performance of the solar cell through theoretical analysis and device simulation using SCAPS software. The results of this simulation show that the solar cell performance can be enhanced to a great extent by adjusting the thickness, doping concentration and defect density of both the TiO2 buffer layer and Sb2S3 absorber layer and also the electron affinity of the TiO2 buffer layer. Optimized parameters were found to be: doping concentration of (1.0 X 1017CM3 for TiO2 and 3.0 X 1016 CM3 for Sb2S3), defect density of the Sb2S3 absorber at (1.0 X 1015.....3) and the electron affinity of the buffer layer at (4.26 eV). The results obtained were as follows: Voc of 750 mV, Jsc of 15.23 mA/cm2, FF of 73.55% and efficiency of 8.41%. These results show that Sb2S3 is a potential earth-abundant compound that can yield highly efficient solar cells.

Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Kithinji AM. "The Effect of Bank Restructuring on Financial Performance Controlled by Customer Deposits: An Empirical Investigation of Commercial Banks in Kenya ." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR INNOVATIVE RESEARCH IN MULTIDISCIPLINARY FIELD. 2019;5(1):13-19. Abstract

Abstract: The ability of commercial banks to provide market knowledge, transaction efficiency and contract
enforcement create demand for its services in the financial markets. Commercial banks operating in Kenya have
undertaken restructuring so as to be more competitive, to restore bank solvency, to increase the banking sector
capacity for financial intermediation and to improve financial performance. Previous researches done on the aspects
of bank restructuring and financial performance found conflicting results and some of them did not include the
intervening effect of deposits on this relationship. The study is informed by the theory of financial intermediation,
agency theory, and the institutional theory. This study sought to investigate the relationship between bank
restructuring, deposits and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The population of the study was
the 44 commercial banks licensed and registered under the banking act to do business in Kenya but data availed
from financial statements of 39 commercial banks which were in operation for the period 2002 to 2014. Descriptive
and inferential data analysis methods were used to analyze the secondary data collected. The empirical findings
conclude that commercial banks use all the four types of bank restructuring which were financial, capital, operational
and asset restructuring. The findings of the first model revealed that capital restructuring, and asset restructuring
were the only variables found to have significant positive and negative influence respectively on the performance of
commercial banks in Kenya. In testing the second hypothesis, deposit were used as an intervening variable on the
relationship between bank restructuring and financial performance, where financial restructuring and capital
restructuring was found to significantly cause an increase in the profit margin of commercial banks while operational
restructuring and deposits were found to have a significant negative effect on bank profits. The composite variable
of financial services was not found to have a significant effect. Therefore, the research disclosed that operational
restructuring, and deposits did not influence banks profitability. The research concludes that the performance of most
commercial banks in Kenya is determined through restructuring banks’ financial and capital ratios The study
recommends that there is need to institute policy reforms geared towards viable restructuring and deposit
mobilization and that to continuously improve bank performance banks should encourage more borrowing and funds
from shareholders and banks need to continuously focus on restructuring rather than ownership.

Key Words: Bank Restructuring, Capital, Financial, Asset, Operational, Deposits.
1. INTRODUCTION:
Bank restructuring is usually undertaken to address the problems in individual banks experiencing

Mutundi AN, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM, Leley PK, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Farm Saved Maize (Zea mays L.) Seed on Intensity of Foliage Diseases." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2019;11(8):45-57.
Kithinji AM. "The Effect of Government Expenditure on Fiscal Deficits in Kenya." THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLEDGE . 2019;7(2):122-125. Abstract

Abstract:
In many economies world over, accountability and transparency as well as fiscal discipline in public expenditures take
priority as the main catalysts to economic growth. However, large fiscal deficits have been reported in most developing
countries which lead to inflation and currency devaluations. In this case, Kenyan government is no exception as its
expenditures are consistently way above its revenues. This study therefore attempted to assess the relationship between
government expenditure and fiscal deficit in Kenya. This study used a causal research design. Secondary data was
obtained from the financial records of National Bureau of Statistics, The Economic Surveys, Kenya Institute of Policy
Analysis and Research (KIPRA) and the Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR) ranging from year 2004/05 to
2010/11. Regression model was used to estimate the effect of government expenditure on fiscal deficits. The study
established that a unit increase in government expenditure, increases fiscal deficit of GDP. The study recommends that
the government of Kenya should come up with strong working policy to regulate the expenditure of its resources.

Keywords: Government expenditure, fiscal deficits, recurrent expenditures, development expenditures, budget deficits

Okumu OO, Muthomi JW, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu JH. "Effect of Legume Extracts on Germination, Seedling Health of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Soil Microorganisms." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2019;28(1):1-13.
Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. Abstract

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations

W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of Azolla and inorganic nitrogen application on growth and yield of rice in Mwea Irrigation Scheme." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (3):1-8.
W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of inorganic nutrient P and N application on Azolla biomass growth and nutrient uptake." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (02):1-9.
Marete GN, Kanja LW, Mbaria JM, Okumu MO, Ateku PA, Korhonen H, Joutsjoki V. "Effects of the Use of Good Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxin Levels in Maize Grown in Nandi County, Kenya." SCi. 2019;1(28)(MDPI):1-19.
Murimi EK, Njeru LK, Gichimu BM, Ndirangu SN. "Effects of Urban Expansion on Agricultural Resources: A Case Study of Embu Town in Kenya." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. 2019;33(4): (ISSN: 2320-7027):1-11.abstract.pdf
Oyang WA, P.A K, J.I. K. "Effects of Varied Nitrogen Levels and Plant Density on Growth and Yield of Nerica 1 Rice Variety ." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS) . 2019;12(3):72-77.
Lydia W. Njenga, Njogu REN, Fodran P, Kariuki DK, Amir O. Yusuf, Scheblykin I, Ola F. Wendt, Wallenti C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium(III)2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene ." Synlett. 2019;30:A-G.
Nyberg, Gert, Stephen M. Mureithi, Deborah N. Muricho, Ostwald M. "Enclosures as a land management tool for food security in African drylands." Journal of Land Use Science. 2019:1-12.
Yohannis MA, Agnes N. Wausi, Hutchinson MJ, Waema TM. "Enhancing Access and Use of Climate Information through ICTs." Journal of Climate Change and Sustainability. 2019;3(1):1-12. AbstractWebsite

Although the role of ICTs in improving human life in Kenya is acknowledged widely, the focus of much
of ICT-related developments has been on human experiences at the level of disease and needs for
communication and mobility. Less obvious is how such technological interventions may be used to
address seemingly abstract yet grave concerns like climate change and its impact on the quality of human
life. This review paper, therefore, shall investigate the different situations where ICTs may be deployed
in relaying packaged and relevant localized climate information that can help rural farmers in Kitui
County, Kenya to make pertinent and timely decisions to improve their productivity and, ultimately, their
livelihoods. We hypothesize that rural communities' use ICT tools such as the mobile phones and the
community radios to access localized climate information (weather, seasonal forecasts, and agroadvisories)
and that livelihood assets and livelihood strategies positively change with the increasing
availability and use of the ICT-based climate information. The idea of the paper presented is to merge
theoretical and applied research outcomes to narrow the gap between the theory of ICTs usage and the
practice of it, while linking it to climate information and enhanced rural livelihood strategies. The review
of this paper shall be captured in social-scientific terms, and shall contribute to knowledge by helping
researchers and policymakers to determine climate information needs of rural ASAL communities,
knowledge on innovations related to ICTs, among others.

Wainaina Samuel Murigi, Mbaria James Mucunu, Wakonyu KL, Misonge OJ. "Ethnobotanical Survey of Plants Used For Management of Arthritis In Nyamira North Sub-County of Nyamira County, Kenya." The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. 2019;130(2019)(ISJN):1510-1531.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of Formulated Nano-NPK Slow Release Fertilizer Composite on the Perfomance and Yeild of Maize, Kale and Capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;05:10.
M.Adwet W, J.Pant H, J.Mangala M, A.Masinza S. "Evaluation of hydraulic performance of an anaerobic pond using radiotracer technique." Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2019;145:101-105.
Mewa, E. A. OKRMWCN. "Experimental evaluation of beef drying kinetics in a solar tunnel dryer." Renewable Energy. 2019;139:235-241.
Henry M, Victor T, David K. "Factors Affecting Adoption Of Embryo Transfer Technology In Dairy Cattle In Kenya." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. 2019;5(8):456-463.mutembei-kios_2018.pdf
Onyango OS, Mukoya-Wangia SM, Kinama JM, Olet PA. "Factors affecting farmers’ Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis control methods in Lamu County, Kenya." International Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. 2019;4(2)(ISSN):21-29.
Ferrer N, Folch A, Lane M, Olago D, Odida J, Custodio E. "Groundwater hydrodynamics of an Eastern Africa coastal aquifer during the recent La Niña 2016-17 drought." Science of The Total Environment. 2019;661:575-597. AbstractWebsite

In 2016–17 much of East Africa was affected by a severe drought which has been attributed to Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño Southern Oscillation conditions. Extreme events such as this have immediate and knock-on effects on water availability for household, agricultural and industrial use. Groundwater resources can provide a buffer in times of drought, but may themselves be stressed by reduced recharge and increased usage, posing significant challenges to groundwater resource management. In the context of East Africa, groundwater management is also hampered by a lack of information on aquifer characteristics. With the aim of addressing this knowledge gap, this study shows the hydrogeological behaviour before and during La Niña 2016/17 drought in southern coastal Kenya on a groundwater system which sits within a geological structure which is representative of an important portion of the East African coast. Diverse hydrochemical and isotopic campaigns, as well as groundwater head variation measurements, were carried out to study the groundwater hydrodynamics and thus characterize the aquifer system under climatic conditions before and during the La Niña event. This information is complemented with an estimation of changes in local recharge since 2012 using local data sets. The main consequence of the drought was a 69% reduction of recharge compared to an average climatic year. There was reduced recharge during the first rainy season (April–June) and no recharge during the second wet season (October–December). There was a concurrent increase in seawater intrusion even during the wet season.

Xu Y, Seward P, Gaye C, Lin L, Olago DO. "Groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa." Hydrogeology Journal. 2019;27(3):815-822. AbstractWebsite

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; Fig. 1) refers to an area encompassing the countries in Africa that are fully, or partially, located south of the Sahara. The remaining African countries are generally referred to as belonging in North Africa. Although the socio-economic and hydrogeological conditions in SSA are diverse, they are sufficiently distinct (in general) from the conditions in North Africa to warrant being assessed separately—for example, high-yielding, high-storage, sedimentary aquifers are more common in North Africa than in SSA, while low-yielding, low-storage, basement aquifers are more widespread in SSA than in North Africa. The use of fossil groundwater is more typical in North Africa, while the use or renewable groundwater is more typical in SSA. Other hydrological characteristics associated with SSA include: groundwater resources that are generally under-utilized; lack of research and development that often prevents the optimal use of groundwater rather than over-development; and a heavy reliance by the rural and urban poor on shallow unconfined or semi-confined groundwater for potable water supplies, other domestic uses, and subsistence agriculture. Because of distinguishing characteristics such as these, there are good reasons for treating the hydrogeology of SSA as a whole, and separate from North Africa.

Macharia FK, Mwangi PW, Yenesew A, Bukachi F, Nyaga NM, Wafula DK. "Hepatoprotective effects of Erythrina abyssinica Lam Ex Dc against Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Sprague Dawley Rats." BioRxiv. 2019:577-607. Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome recognized as the most prevalent chronic liver disease across all age groups. NFLD is strongly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Extensive research efforts are geared, through pharmacological approach, towards preventing or reversing this. Erythrina abyssinica Lam ex DC is an indigenous tree used widely used in traditional medicine, including for the treatment of liver related diseases, and has been shown to possess hypoglycemic, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial and anti-plasmodia effects. The present study is aimed at establishing the effects of E. abyssinica on the development of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease induced by a high-fat and high-sugar diet in rats, in-vivo model. Methods: Forty rats (40) were randomly divided into five groups: positive control (pioglitazone), Negative control (high fat/high sugar diet), low test dose (200 mg/kg), high test dose (400 mg/kg) and normal group (standard chow pellets and fresh water). The inhibitory effect of the stem bark extract of E. abyssinica on the development of NAFLD was evaluated by chronic administration the herb extracts to rats on a high-fat/high-sugar diet. Biochemical indices of hepatic function including serum lipid profile, serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels were then determined. Histological analysis of liver samples was carried out to quantify the degree of steato-hepatitis. Liver weights were taken and used to determine the hepatic index. The data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA, and Tukey9s post-hoc tests

Ndwigah SN. "Herbal medicines require regulation like conventional medicines." Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya. 2019;24:20.
R. TRBO &. "Housing clusters and typologies in the slums: a case of Korogocho slum Nairobi, Kenya. ." (http://ijcrs.org/issue-details/171. 2019;Vol. 3(No. 2):171.
Dr. Kamenju J. https://mukuyu.wordpress.com.; 2019.
Mutuku, J., Nzuma, M.J., Irungu P. "Impact of World Food Programmer’s (WFP) Purchase for Progress (P4P) Pilot Project on Farm Incomes in Kenya. Case of Uasin Gishu and Narok Counties." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2019;7(1):797-808.
Ojwang BO, Musau PM, Omondi HA. "Implementation of HVDC Technology with Technical Challenges for Economic Dispatch.". In: 2019 IEEE PES GTD Grand International Conference and Exposition Asia (GTD Asia). Bangkok, Thailand; 2019.implementation_of_hvdc_technology_with_technical_challenges_for_economic_dispatch.pdf
Musau PM, Ojwang BO, Kiprotich M. "Improving Frequency Stability for Renewable Energy Power Plants with Disturbances.". In: 2019 IEEE PES GTD Grand International Conference and Exposition Asia (GTD Asia). Bangkok, Thailand; 2019.improving_frequency_stability_for_renewable_energy_power_plants_with_disturbances.pdf
Onyango DW, Midiwo JO. "In vivo Evaluation of Anti-malarial Activity of Stem and Root Extracts of Erythrina abyssinica." European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2019;27(4): Page: 1-5. Abstract

Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the in vivo anti-malarial activity of stem and root extracts of E. abyssinica using the 4-day suppressive in vivo anti-malarial test.
Methodology: Female mice weighing approximately 20±2 g were intra-peritoneally injected with mice passaged Plasmodium berghei parasites. The extracts were then administered orally 2 h post-infection and, subsequently, daily for 4 days. On the 4 th day, blood smears were prepared from all the mice, stained with giemsa and parasitaemia as well as chemosuppression determined.
Results: Comparatively, the root extracts exhibited higher chemosuppression than stem extracts and the level of chemosuppression was dose dependent being the highest at 50 mg/kg and lowest at 12.5 mg/kg. Survival time in extract treated and chloroquine treated groups was 2 to 3 fold higher than the–ve control.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that the root extracts are more efficacious in suppressing the development of full blown malaria compared to stem extracts and may be a useful candidate in managing malaria in future.

Chepkonga DS, Kinanu T. "Influence of Financial Corporate Governance Practices on School Development in Primary Schools in Igembe South Sub County." International Journal of Research Publications. 2019;29(2):16.
Mulwa, J.K. AKWJ & JM. "Influence of Principals’ use of Collaborative Decision Making on Students’ discipline in public secondary schools in Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2019;7(1):220-240.
Njeru NK, Midega CAO, Muthomi JW, WAGACHA JOHNMAINA, Khan ZR, Khan ZR. "Influence of socio‐economic and agronomic factors on aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in western Kenya." Food Science and Nutrition. 2019;00:1-11.
Waweru JN, Odenyo F. "Innovative content Delivery for library patron 2.0.". In: Digital Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management. Eldoret: Moi University Press; 2019.
Mary Mwangi, Nathan Gichuki RCPN. "Insights into the diet and feeding behaviour of Red-capped Lark Calandrella cinerea (Aves: Passeriformes: Alaudidae)." Journal of Threatened Taxa. 2019;11(6):13727-13733.
Mwololo, M.H., Nzuma, M.J., Ritho, N.C., Aseta, A. "Is the type of agricultural extension services a determinant of farm diversity? Evidence from Kenya." Development Studies Research. 2019;6(1):40-46.
Simonich CA, Doepker L, Ralph D, Williams JA, Dhar A, Yaffe Z, Gentles L, Small CT, Oliver B, Vigdorovich V, Mangala Prasad V, NNduati R. "Kappa chain maturation helps drive rapid development of an infant HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody lineage.". 2019.
Nic Cheeseman, Karuti Kanyinga GLMRJW&. "Kenya’s 2017 elections: winner-takes-all politics as usual.". 2019.
Lockwood NM, Lypen K, Shalabi F, Kumar M, Ngugi E, Diener L, GW. H. "'Know that You are not Alone.' Influences of Social Support on Youth Newly Diagnosed with HIV in Kibera, Kenya: A Qualitative Study Informing Intervention Development." Int J Environ Res Public Health.. 2019; 4;(16(5):. pii: E775. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16050775.
Osaliya. R., O. V. Wasonga., J. G. M. Mwanjalolo., Kironchi G, Adipala E. "Land conversion is changing the landscape in the semi-arid Kapir catchment, northeastern Uganda.". 2019;3(3).
and Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga GGLMOJMJGMM. "Land Cover and Soil Properties Influence on Forage Quantity in a Semiarid Region in East Africa." Applied and Environmental Soil Science. 2019;2019.
wa Mutiso K. "Mchango wa Wanawake wa Kiswahili katika Uongozi, Dini na Ushairi ." Mwanga wa Lugha . 2019;3(1):1-26.
Ongarora D, Karumbi J, Minnaard W, Abuga K, Okungu V, Kibwage I. "Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in private health facilities in low-income settlements in Nairobi county, Kenya." Pharmacy. 2019;7:40. Abstract

Medicine prices are a major determinant of access to healthcare. Owing to low availability of medicines in the public health facilities and poor accessibility to these facilities, most low-income residents pay out-of-pocket for health services and transport to the private health facilities. In low-income settlements, high retail prices are likely to push the population further into poverty and ill health. This study assessed the retail pricing, availability, and affordability of medicines in private health facilities in low-income settlements within Nairobi County. Medicine prices and availability data were collected between September and December 2016 at 45 private healthcare facilities in 14 of Nairobi’s low-income settlements using electronic questionnaires. The International Medical Products Price Guide provided international medicine reference prices for comparison. Affordability and availability proxies were calculated according to existing methods. Innovator brands were 13.8 times more expensive than generic brands. The lowest priced generics and innovator brands were, on average, sold at 2.9 and 32.6 times the median international reference prices of corresponding medicines. Assuming a 100% disposable income, it would take 0.03 to 1.33 days’ wages for the lowest paid government employee to pay for treatment courses of selected single generic medicines. Medicine availability in the facilities ranged between 2% and 76% (mean 43%) for indicator medicines. Prices of selected medicines varied within the 14 study regions. Retail medicine prices in the low-income settlements studied were generally higher than corresponding international reference prices. Price variations were observed across different regions although the regions comprise similar socioeconomic populations. These factors are likely to impact negatively on healthcare access.

KANOTI JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo S, Ayah R. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya." Journal of Water Resource & Protection. 2019;11:404-418. Abstractjwarp_2019042514420797.pdfWebsite

Safe water of adequate quantity, and dignified sanitation, is vital for the sustenance of a healthy and productive human population. In the recognition of this, the United Nations formulated the Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 to ensure access to safe water and sanitation by all by 2030. Actualization of this Goal requires information on the existing status of water resources and sanitation levels. Knowledge on contamination of groundwater is essential to prevent risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater contamination in Kisumu, Kenya. A total of 275 water samples were collected from 22 sites within the informal settlements between December 2016 and December 2017. The samples were analysed for bacterial contamination and physical chemical quality. Thermal tolerant coliform bacteria enumeration was used as a proxy to bacteria contamination, and the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature were used as physical chemical indicators of contamination. The results indicate that groundwater in Kisumu hosed coliform bacteria and therefore didn’t comply with contamination limits for domestic water proposed by WHO and local KEBS standards. The results further indicated that the levels of bacteriological contamination vary with water type, shallow well having the highest bacterial loads. The study concluded that there were potential risks to human health due to high content of coliform bacteria. The study attributed the contribution to pit latrines that were present in virtually all compounds. The pit latrines are located close to the water points. The study recommended the definition of minimum distance between the pit latrines and shallow wells to minimize contamination. The low income dwellers should be educated on simple ways of treating drinking water contaminated by microbial to minimize enteric infections.

Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "The Minamata Convention on Mercury and its implications for management of dental caries in low‐and middle‐income countries." International Dental Journal. 2019:doi: 10.1111/idj.12461.
Isinta, H, Aduda J, Magutu P. "The Moderating Effect of Sales Channels on the Relationship between Bancassurance and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2019;8(2):41-54 .
E Mulinge, SM Njenga OD, Magambo J. "Molecular identification of zoonotic hookworms in dogs from four counties of Kenya." Journal of helminthology. 2019:1-8.
Achwoka D, Waruru A, Chen TH, Masamaro K, Ngugi E, Diener L, Kimani M, Mukui I, Oyugi JO, R M, Achia T, Katana A, Ng'ang'a L, Cock D. "Noncommunicable disease burden among HIV patients in care: a national retrospective longitudinal analysis of HIV-treatment outcomes in Kenya, 2003-2013." BMC Public Health. . 2019; 3;): doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6716-2.(19(1):372.
Njagi L, Nzimbi BM, Moindi SK. "A note on isomorphy and unitary isomorphy of Hilbert space frames." International Journal of Mathematics Trends and Technology(IJMTT). 2019;65(1):15-30.
Kamau RW, Midiwo JO, Mgani QA, Masila VM, Omosa LK, Bwire RN, Jacob MR, Frank T. Wiggers IM. "Oleanolic Acid and other Compounds Isolated from Cordia Africana Lam which Inhibit Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(3):91-95.rahab_et_al_2019_pharmacognosy.pdf
Kamau RW, Midiwo JO, Mgani QA, Masila VM, Omosa LK, Bwire RN, Jacob MR, Wiggers FT, Muhammad I. "Oleanolic Acid and other Compounds Isolated from Cordia africana Lam which Inhibit Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(6):91-95. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Introduction: Treatment of microbial infections has become complicated
due to increased resistance of microbes to the current drugs. The current
study investigates crude extracts and seven compounds from root and
stem bark of Cordia africana Lam. for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity.
Methods: Extraction was done using 50% methanol in dichloromethane,
followed by chromatographic separation of compounds, whose structures
were established by interpretation of spectroscopic data. The in vitro
susceptibility of selected microbes to the crude extracts and pure compounds was determined. Cytotoxicity of 1, 6 and 7 was determined against
the drug sensitive, CCRF-CEM and resistant CEM/ADR-5000 cells, with
doxorubicin used as the standard. Results: The root bark extract of
C. africana yielded six known compounds: oleanolic acid (1), 3-β-lup-20(29)-
en-3-ol (2) stigmast-5,22-dien-3β-ol (3), 2-(2Z) -(3-hydroxy-3,7-dimethylocta2,6-dienyl)-1,4-benzenediol (4), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy- benzaldehyde (5)
and 7-hydroxy-4′-methoxyisoflavone (6). The stem bark extract resulted to
1 and 2 alongside, ubiquinone-8 (7) and 1-octacosanol (8). Compound 1
showed moderate activity against Enterococcus faecium (IC50 of 14.44 µg/
mL), with vancomycin being inactive. Compounds 1, 6 and 7 showed cell
viability >50% against CEM/ADR5000 and CCRF-CEM cells at 10 µM and
therefore were considered inactive. Surprisingly, 1 was relatively more active compared to the standard, with cell viability of 57.93% against CEM/
ADR5000, versus 78.97% for doxorubicin. Conclusion: To the best of our
knowledge, this is the first report of the eight compounds from C. africana.
The cytotoxicity of 1, 6 and 7 are reported here for the first time. Traditional
use of the plant extract in management of various infections may be attributed to presence of 1, which displayed moderate antimicrobial activity.
Key words: Cordia africana, Ubiquinone-8, Oleanolic acid acid, 7-hydroxy4′-methoxyisoflavone, VRE.
Correspondence:
Rahab W. Kamau
Department of Chemistry, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 190-50100-Kakamega, KENYA.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "An overview of groundwater and sanitation challenges in Kisumu City, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;8(4). Abstract144205-350530-1-sm.pdfWebsite

The sub-surface is used in most parts of Africa as a repository of human waste and as a source of groundwater through pit latrines and shallow wells respectively. The wells provide freshwater to millions of people in Africa who are either not connected to the piped water or have intermittent supplies. These shallow wells are hand dug and therefore are mostly less than 20 meters in depth. This same sub-surface environment is also used as a repository of human waste through pit latrines. The water points and the sanitation facilities are mostly located close to each other. This study aimed at appraising the groundwater and sanitation challenges based on a rapid survey, sampling, interviews, existing literature review and historical borehole data in Kisumu city, Kenya. Previous studies in the area have shown that the number of shallow wells, city buildings, density of unimproved pit latrines and sanitary risks have increased tremendously between 1999 and 2019. Most of the wells are shallow and therefore prone to contamination by pollutants. Fluoride and chloride content in most boreholes are above the recommended WHO maximum values and the local KEBS standards. The study confirmed that the main water and sanitation challenges in Kisumu are poor and deteriorating water quality, poor waste disposal management systems and poor sanitation services. There is need for the introduction of new and sustainable groundwater approaches supported by scientific models and involving all stakeholders. Current deficiencies in the provision of adequate water and dignified sanitation to the poor in Kisumu can be remedied through improved knowledge on shallow aquifer dynamics and innovative research. It was noted that apart from the donor agencies and multi-national NGOs, the private investors are unwilling to invest in water projects in Kisumu due in part to government legislation that constrains the cost that may be levied on water

Gatere AW. Parenting: Counselling in the Home. Nairobi: The Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2019.
Daniel Nthiwa, Silvia Alonso DO, Eucharia Kenya BB. "A participatory epidemiological study of major cattle diseases amongst Maasai pastoralists living in wildlife-livestock interfaces in Maasai Mara, Kenya." Tropical animal health and production. 2019:1-7.
Alexander O’o J, Shitandi OB, Kerubuo MM, Ngure KB. "Pattern of stroke in a rural Kenyan hospital." Malawi Medical Journal . 2019;31(1):50-55. Abstractpattern_of_stroke_in_a_rural_kenyan_hospital.pdfCC BY-NC-ND

Background
The pattern of stroke in rural population differs from that in urban ones. Although there are many studies on this condition in sub-Saharan Africa, few studies about stroke pattern in a Kenyan rural area exist.. This study therefore aims at describing the characteristics of stroke in a rural Kenyan hospital.
Patients and Methods
The study was conducted on 227 consecutive patients admitted with a World Health Organization (WHO) diagnosis of stroke in Kangundo Hospital, a level IV facility in Machakos, Eastern Kenya, between April 2015 and September 2016. The sub-type and anatomical distribution of stroke as well as the age, gender of the patients were recorded prospectively. Diagnosis was made through physical neurological examination and confirmed by Computerized Tomography (CT) scan imaging. Only those with complete bio-data, past medical and social history, clinical and physical findings of the patients and imaging results were included. The data were entered into a pre-formatted questionnaire, analysed for means, standard deviations and frequencies, and are presented in tables and bar charts.
Results
Out of 3200 medical admissions, 227 (7.09%) had a confirmed diagnosis of stroke. Ischaemic stroke was more common (67.4%) than haemorrhagic stroke (32.6%). It affected mainly the anterior circulation, especially the middle cerebral artery (39%). The mean age of patients was 68.8 years, (Range 32 – 96). It was more common in females (62%) than in males (38%). Hypertension was the most common (74%) risk factor followed by alcohol abuse (63%), tobacco smoking (48%) and diabetes mellitus (42%).
Conclusion
Ischaemic stroke was the more common major cause of morbidity in the rural hospital studied in Kenya. It occurred most commonly among elderly females, with the most frequent comorbidities being hypertension. In addition, modifiable lifestyle factors like alcohol abuse and cigarette smoking contributed to the prevalence; hence we recommend the control of blood pressure and glucose as well as lifestyle modification to reduce the scourge in our studied population.

Karanja DN, Wahome RG, Kunyanga CN, Onyango CM. "Perceptions and Attitudes of Academic Staff Towards Agricultural Training in Kenyan Universities ." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research . 2019;7(4):375-386.
Ngotho-Esilaba, Onono J.O, Ombui J.N., J.F L, H.O W. "Perceptions of Challenges Facing Pastoral Small Ruminant Production in a Changing Climate in Kenya.". In: Springer, Cham.; 2019.
Ogeng’o JA, Obimbo MM, Zhou Y, McMaster MT, Cohen CR, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Ong’ech J, Fisher SJ. "Placental Structure in Preterm Birth Among HIV-Positive Versus HIV-Negative Women in Kenya." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 2019;80(1):94-102. Abstractplacental_structure_in_preterm_birth_among_hiv-positive.pdfWolters Kluwer Health, Inc

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major cause of infant
morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Recent data suggest
that in addition to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection,
use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of PTB. As the
mechanisms remain unexplored, we conducted this study to
determine whether HIV and ART were associated with placental
changes that could contribute to PTB.
Setting: We collected and evaluated placentas from 38 HIVpositive
women on ART and 43 HIV-negative women who had
preterm deliveries in Nairobi, Kenya.
Methods: Anatomical features of the placentas were examined at
gross and microscopic levels. Cases were matched for gestational
age and compared by the investigators who were blinded to maternal
HIV serostatus.
Results: Among preterm placentas, HIV infection was significantly
associated with thrombosis (P = 0.001), infarction (P = 0.032),
anomalies in cord insertion (P = 0.02), gross evidence of membrane
infection (P = 0.043), and reduced placental thickness (P = 0.010).
Overall, preterm placentas in both groups were associated with
immature villi, syncytial knotting, villitis, and deciduitis. Features of
HIV-positive versus HIV-negative placentas included significant
fibrinoid deposition with villus degeneration, syncytiotrophoblast
delamination, red blood cell adhesion, hypervascularity, and reduction
in both surface area and perimeter of the terminal villi.
Conclusions: These results imply that HIV infection and/or ART
are associated with morphological changes in preterm placentas that
contribute to delivery before 37 weeks. Hypervascularity suggests
that the observed pathologies may be attributable, in part, to hypoxia.
Further research to explore potential mechanisms will help elucidate
the pathways that are involved perhaps pointing to interventions for
decreasing the risk of prematurity among HIV-positive women.
Key Words: preterm birth, term birth, placenta, HIV, ART

Mnyika GM, Olago DO. "The Potential for CO2 Geosequestration in Kenya: A Suitability Assessment of the Lamu Basin." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2019;3:28-38. Abstract1798-6305-1-pb.pdfWebsite

There is a consensus that current trends in climate change may be due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (predominantly methane and carbon dioxide) from anthropogenic emissions. Among measures proposed for curbing this increase is Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) in geological media. CCS incorporates three technologies comprising; (a) carbon capture, (b) compression and transportation, and (c) injection into geological media. This paper focuses on CO2 injection into geological media and its applicability to the Lamu basin. Sedimentary basins, which host the geological formations suitable for subsurface CO2 storage, are ideal to varied extents determined by such factors as their tectonic settings. A (coarse) basin scale suitability assessment of the Lamu basin was undertaken using the following parameters; size and depth, tectonic and structural settings, seismicity, geothermal-hydrodynamic regimes, basin maturity (based on hydrocarbon well density) and economic resources. The assessed attributes are used to constrain GIS data, delineating possible CCS trap areas with the production of a preliminary map of potential trap areas. Also, a suitability matrix table is generated in comparison with analogous basins such as the Alberta basin in Canada. Following this assessment, the Lamu basin can be considered geologically suitable for geosequestration given its stable tectonic settings, good depth and size. However, the western flanks of the basin and the coastal strip are unsuitable due to shallowness, population and protected zones respectively.

Justus O. Inyega DBM. "Pre-service graduate teachers' perceptions on instructional supervision in relation to preparation and planning for teaching and learning in Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2019;4(1):26-31.
K; M, Beniamino T, Cenci-Goga, Prosperi A, Eric Etter, El-Ashram S, McCrindle C, N OJ, Karake A. "Prevalence and risk factors associated with Campylobacter spp. occurrence in healthy dogs visiting four rural community veterinary clinics in South Africa." Ondersport Journal of Veterinary Research, . 2019.
Irene M, swaleh. Pure non-gestational ovarian carcinoma.; 2019.
Angeyo KH, Bhatt B, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A. "Rapid nuclear forensics analysis via machine-learning-enabled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)." AIP Conference Proceedings 2109. 2019;2019(1). Abstract

Nuclear forensics (NF) is an analytical methodology that involves analysis of intercepted nuclear and radiological materials (NRM) so as to establish their nuclear attribution. The critical challenge in NF currently is the lack of suitable microanalytical methodologies for direct, rapid, minimally invasive detection and quantification of NF signatures. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has the potential to overcome these limitations with the aid of machine-learning (ML) techniques. In this paper, we report the development of ML-enabled LIBS methodology for rapid NF analysis and attribution in support of nuclear security. The atomic uranium lines at 385.464 nm, 385.957 nm, and 386.592 nm were identified as NF signatures of uranium for rapid qualitative detection of trace uranium concealed in organic binders and uranium-bearing mineral ores. The limit of detection of uranium using LIBS was determined to be 34 ppm. A multivariate calibration strategy for the quantification of trace uranium in cellulose and uranium-bearing mineral ores was developed using an artificial neural network (ANN, a feed forward back-propagation algorithm) and spectral feature selection: (1) uranium lines (348 nm to 455 nm), (2) uranium lines (380 nm to 388 nm), and (3) subtle uranium peaks (UV range). The model utilizing category 2 was able to predict the 48 ppm of uranium with a relative error prediction (REP) of 10%. The calibration model utilizing subtle uranium peaks, that is, category 3, could predict uranium in the pellets prepared from certified reference material (CRM) IAEA-RGU-1, with an REP of 6%. This demonstrates the power of ANN to model noisy LIBS spectra for trace quantitative analysis. The calibration model we developed predicted uranium concentrations in the uranium-bearing mineral ores in the range of 54–677 ppm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the LIBS spectra (200–980 nm) utilizing feature selection of the uranium-bearing samples collected from different regions of Kenya clustered into groups related to their geographic origins. The PCA loading spectrum revealed that the groupings of these samples were mainly due to rare earth elements, namely, cerium, dysprosium, praseodymium, promethium, neodymium, and samarium. ML-enabled LIBS therefore has utility in field NF analysis and attribution of uranium in NRM under concealed conditions.

Cyr JL, Gawriluk TR, Kimani JM, Rada B, Watford WT, Kiama SG, Seifert AW, Ezen VO. "Regeneration-Competent and -Incompetent Murids Differ in Neutrophil Quantity and Function.". 2019.
Ogeng’o J, Obimbo M, Munguti J, Cheruiyot I, Olabu B, Kariuki BN. "Remembering Prof. Hassan Saidi: The Pillar for Young Anatomists and Trainee Doctors." Ann Afr Surg. 2019;16(1):38-39. Abstractremembering_prof._hassan_saidi_the_pillar_for_young_anatomists.pdfThe ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY

The late Prof. Hassan Saidi (rest in peace) was a father, husband, an administrator and a surgeon. To many in the medical fraternity, he was a teacher and a mentor. As a mentor, many know of the impact he had on resident surgeons in training, but his contribution to shaping the minds of young anatomists and trainee doctors is often underestimated (1). Prof. Saidi taught in the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, for 28 years (7 of which he was the chairman). He had also served previously as the coordinator for the Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery (MBChB) and Intercalated Bachelor of Science, Human Anatomy programs (BSc Anat) (2).

Ondicho TG. "Rethinking the New world order and its Implications for Africa.". In: Contemporary Africa and the Foreseeable World Order. London: Lexington Books; 2019.
Gikunju M, Nyamato-Kwenda R, Kwanya T. "A review of citizen librarianship in academic libraries in Kenya.". In: Digital Technologies for Information and Knowledge Management. Nairobi: Technical University of Kenya; 2019.
Yohannis M, Agnes Wausi, Waema T, Hutchinson M. "The Role of ICT Tools in the Access of Climate Information by Rural Communities." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(2):32-38. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT
This paper, seeks to explore how rural communities especially women in Kitui county use
ICT tools to access localized climate information and how Digital Capital facilitates or
impedes the process. Our view is that the continued access to, and use of, ICT tools like
the mobile phone and radios offer diverse opportunities for rural communities to use
timely and relevant climate information to enhance their livelihood strategy. We
hypothesize that rural communities’ use ICT tools such as mobile phones and the
community radios to access localized climate information (weather, seasonal forecasts
and agro-advisories). A household survey of 419 respondents was adopted for data
collection and analysis, guided by the sustainable livelihood framework. The research
findings disclosed that the radios combined with the mobile phone are commonly
available, accessible and cost-effective ICT tools that have played a role in improving
rural women’s access to real-time, relevant climate and agro-advisory information
reducing information asymmetry in rural settings. The study is motivated by the
increasing challenges of climate variability and climate change that are global. Kitui
County has had its share of climate variability and climate change related problems such
as drought which create problems such as food insecurity.

Kirimi FK, Njeru LK, M’uthari JM. "THE ROLE OF INTERNAL SAVINGS AND LENDING COMMUNITIES (SILC) IN ENHANCING HOUSEHOLD’S LIVELIHOODS IN IGEMBE NORTH SUB COUNTY, KENYA ." International Journal of Business Management and Economic Review. 2019;2(4)(ISSN: 2581-4664 ):40.
Kinyungu TN, Muthomi JW, Subramanian S, Miano DW, Olubayo FM’mogi, Maobe MA. "Role of maize residues in transmission of maize chlorotic mottle virus and effect on yield." International Journal of Biosciences. 2019;14(4):338-349.
Benignus Valentine Ngowi, Henri Edouardo-Zefack Tonnang, Fathiya Khamis, Evans Mungai Mwangi, Brigitte Nyambo PNN, Subramanian S. "Seasonal abundance of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and diversity of its parasitoids along altitudinal gradients of the eastern Afromontane." Phytoparasitica. 2019:1-17.
Kyomuhimbo D, Michira IN, Mwaura FB, Derese S, Feleni U, Iwuoha EI. "Silver-Zinc Oxide nanocomposite Antiseptic Extract of Bidens Pilosa." SN Applied Sciences. 2019;1:681.
Derese S. "Silver–zinc oxide nanocomposite antiseptic from the extract of Bidens pilosa." Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019. 2019;1(7):681. Abstractsilver-zinc_oxide_nanocomposite_antiseptic_from_the_extract_of_bidens.pdf

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs) and zinc oxide–silver (ZnO–Ag-NPs) were biosynthesized based on
the rich matrix of alkaloids, flavones, tannins capping/stabilizing agents present in Bidens pilosa extract. Different plant
parts-root, leaf and seed ware used to prepare the plant extract for synthesis. Also, zinc and silver nitrate salts were
used as precursor materials. The surface plasmon peaks (SPR) based on the UV–Vis results for the Ag-NPs, ZnO-NPs were
located between 408–411 and 365–450 nm respectively. The SPR peaks for the Ag–ZnO-NPs occurred at 300–450 nm
indicating both blue and red shifts. The Ag–ZnO-NPs SPR shifts were associated with possible nanoparticle size reduction
and change in dielectric constant of the synthesis medium. Raman measurement peaks at 356, 484, 1350, 1578,
2435 cm−1 associated with OH, –C==C–, –C–O, S=O, =C–H moieties indicated successful capping. Nanoparticle yield was
temperature dependent and optimal yield could not be tied to a particular plant part as source of extract. Tunneling
electron microscope results showed Ag-NPs and ZnO-NPs were globular/spherical with a diameter range of 2–20 nm.
Interestingly, ZnO-NPs TEM displayed isolated miniaturized globular nanoparticles (< 2 nm) which then joined up to form
a large donut shaped structure indicating different formation mechanisms for the nanoparticles. XRD results showed the
Ag-NPs, ZnO-NPs and the Ag–ZnO-NPs particles were crystalline in nature. The high signal/noise in XRD originated from
possible crystalline biomaterials in the extracts. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) elemental composition results
confirmed successful formation of the nanoparticles. Anti-Microbial activity of the synthesized Ag-NPs, ZnO-NPs and
ZnO–Ag-NPs were studied against gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus
aureus and fungus Candida albicans. Different ZnO: Ag-NPs nanocomposite ratios were used to test for antimicrobial
activity. Optimal antimicrobial activity was attained at Ag-NPs:ZnO-NPs ratio of 4:1 which also displayed the least minimum
inhibition concentration (MIC) and therefore was used as the active ingredient in formulating a hand sanitizing
antiseptic. The formulated antiseptic exhibited good antimicrobial activity.
Keywords

Mbugua, M., Nzuma, M.J., Muange, J. "Social networks and Ex-post risk management among smallholder farmers in Kenya." Development Studies Research. 2019;6(1):30-39.
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Gweyi-Onyango JP, Kimenju JW. "Socio-economic and Institutional Factors Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2019:1-11.
Chimoita EL, Onyango CM, Gweyi-Onyango JP, Kimenju JW. "Socioeconomic and Institutional Factors Influencing Uptake of Improved Sorghum Technologies in Embu, Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2019;2(1):DOI: 10.1080/00128325.2019.1597568.
Nyangacha RM, Oyieke F, Erastus Muniu, Stanley Chasia MO. "Spatial distribution, prevalence and potential risk factors of Tungiasis in Vihiga County, Kenya." PLoS neglected tropical diseases. 2019;13(3):e0007244.
Nyangacha RM, Odongo D, Oyieke F, Bii C, Muniu E, Chasia S, Ochwoto M. "Spatial distribution, prevalence and potential risk factors of Tungiasis in Vihiga County,Kenya." PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019;13:e0007244.nyangacha_et_al._2019.pdf
and Werikhe, G. KORCNMW. "Status and process analysis of koche, a traditional pastoral meat product in Kenya." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. 2019;9(6).
O.Akinyemi R, O.Owolabi M, MasafumiIhara, AlbertinoDamasceno, AdesolaOgunniyi, CatherineDotchin, Stella-MariaPaddick, Ogeng’o J, RichardWalker, N.Kalaria R. "Stroke, Cerebrovascular Diseases and Vascular Cognitive impairement in Africa." Brain res Bull. 2019;145:97-108. Abstract

With increased numbers of older people a higher burden of neurological disorders worldwide is predicted. Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases do not necessarily present with different phenotypes in Africa but their incidence is rising in tandem with the demographic change in the population. Age remains the strongest irreversible risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. Modifiable factors relating to vascular disease risk, diet, lifestyle, physical activity and psychosocial status play a key role in shaping the current spate of stroke related diseases in Africa. Hypertension is the strongest modifiable risk factor for stroke but is also likely associated with co-inheritance of genetic traits among Africans. Somewhat different from high-income countries, strokes attributed to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) are higher >30% among sub-Saharan Africans. Raised blood pressure may explain most of the incidence of SVD-related strokes but there are likely other contributing factors including dyslipidaemia and diabetes in some sectors of Africa. However, atherosclerotic and cardioembolic diseases combined also appear to be common subtypes as causes of strokes. Significant proportions of cerebrovascular diseases are ascribed to various forms of infectious disease including complications of human immunodeficiency virus. Cerebral SVD leads to several clinical manifestations including gait disturbance, autonomic dysfunction and depression. Pathological processes are characterized by arteriolosclerosis, lacunar infarcts, perivascular spaces, microinfarcts and diffuse white matter changes, which can now all be detected on neuroimaging. Except for isolated cases of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy or CADASIL, hereditary arteriopathies have so far not been reported in Africa. Prevalence estimates of vascular dementia (2–3%), delayed dementia after stroke (10–20%) and vascular cognitive impairment (30–40%) do not appear to be vastly different from those in other parts of the world. However, given the current demographic transition in both urban and rural settings these figures will likely rise. Wider application of neuroimaging modalities and implementation of stroke care in Africa will enable better estimates of SVD and other subtypes of stroke. Stroke survivors with SVD type pathology are likely to have low mortality and therefore portend increased incidence of dementia.

Bishop RP, Thomas T Dolan, Rosemary B Dolan RSPSAD. "THEILERIOSIS IN MOUNTAIN BONGO REPATRIATED TO KENYA: A CLINCAL AND MOLECULAR INVESTIGATION." Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2019;50(2):342-349.
Kalambuka Angeyo H, KokonyaSichangi E, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019;(Available online 10 June 2019). Abstract

Direct diagnosis and characterization of cancer in tissue via trace biometals analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is challenging, as it requires sensitive detection and accurate quantitative analysis of the appropriate cancer biomarkers. The EDXRF spectrometry technique is not directly applicable due to the complexity of the tissue biopsy samples that are of limited size and irregular geometry, enhanced scatter from the sample dark matrix and extreme matrix effects as well as spectral overlaps and prominent Bremsstrahlung that masks the subtle biomarker analyte peaks. We report on the direct determination of biometals namely Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn; Mg, Co and Na and associated speciation (for Cu, Mn, Fe) in soft body tissue in the context of disease diagnostics utilizing a robust chemometrics enabled energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometric method. The EDXRFS method exploits, in addition to multiple fluorescence spectral signatures, scatter profiles associated with the trace metals and dark matrix to determine through hybridized multivariate chemometrics calibration models, the biometals in thin (10 μm) tissue sections. Wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) were used for spectral preprocessing towards model optimization using con-jointly artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least squares (PLS) based on paraffin wax ‘standards’ spiked with the cancer biomarker trace metals. Results obtained from applying oyster tissue standard validated models (to ≤6% accuracy) to dog tissues (used here as human body tissue analogues) show that both prostate and mammary malignant tissues have significantly high concentration of Zn i.e. 301 ± 4 μg/g and 301 ± 4 μg/g respectively when compared to benign tissues i.e. 160 ± 3 μg/g and 171 ± 10 μg/g. The same is the case for Fe and Cu. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mg in malignant (mammary) as compared to benign tissues occur in the ratios 3:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 2:1. On the other hand, for prostate malignant compared to benign tumor the corresponding ratios are 5:2, 2:1, 2:1 and 2:1 respectively. Prostate cancer was found to be characterized by strong positive correlation between Cu and Mg (0.999) and Mn and Fe (0.999) while mammary cancer is characterized by strong negative correlations between Cu and Mg (−0.994), Mn and Fe (−0.974). ICA and PCA were further used to successfully discriminate the dog tissue to 97% accuracy as either cancerous or non-cancerous based on validated pattern recognition PCA-ICA models for the determination of speciation of Cu, Fe and Mn in soft body tissue. For both mammary and prostate cancer malignancy was characterized by higher speciation of Cu, Fe and Mn (i.e. Cu2+, Fe3+, and Mn7+) compared to the benign. The results of this study demonstrate that robust chemometrics enabled EDXRFS spectrometry not only determine directly and rapidly but also accurately in a diagnostics manner cancer biomarker trace metals in soft body tissue. The technique has an additional advantage in that it has inbuilt multivariate capability to model the determined levels, their ratios and correlations as well as alterations in the speciation of the biometals to detect and characterize cancer (according to severity) as well discriminate among different types of cancer in the same tissue in a simple methodology that has potential for clinical applications.

Ateto OP, Chepkonga DS. "Trade Union Officials' Perception of their Effectiveness in Industrial Dispute Resolution." International Journal of Research Publications. 2019;29(2):15.
T.N. Mudimba. "Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activity of Carpobrotus edulis: A global perspective. ." The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 2019;Volume 8 Issue 3, 2019 (pp. 33-40):pp. 33-40.
Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Heydenreich M, Malebo HM, Gathirwa JW, Ochieng SA, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "Two lignans derivatives and two fusicoccane diterpenoids from the whole plant of Hypoestes verticillaris (LF) Sol. Ex roem. & schult." Phytochemistry Letters. 2019;30:194-200. Abstract

Bioassay-guided screening of Hypoestes verticillaris whole plant CH2Cl2:MeOH (1:1) extract for anti-plasmodial activity yielded four new compounds: two lignans 2, 6-dimethoxysavinin (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-(7E)-7,8-dehydroheliobuphthalmin (2); and two fusicoccane diterpenoids: 11(12)-epoxyhypoestenone (3) and 3(11)-epoxyhypoestenone (4). The chemical structures were determined using various spectroscopic techniques: UV–vis, IR, CD, 1D, 2D and MS. Two fractions (RAO-43B and RAO-43D) and the isolated compounds were tested for activity against CQ susceptible (D6) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum parasite strains, in vitro and the IC50 values determined. While the whole extract and some resultant fractions displayed moderate activity, the isolated compounds exhibited mild anti-plasmodial activity against the both strains ranging from IC50 value of 328 μM in 1 to 93 μM in 3 against W2 strain.

Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Heydenreich M, Malebo HM, Ochieng’ SA, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "Two novel lignans derivatives and two fusicoccane diterpenoids from whole plant of Hypoestes verticillaris (L.f.) Sol. ex Roem. & Schult." Phytochemistry Letters. 2019;30:194-200.omole_et_al_2019.pdf
Ru BL, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Njaku M, Assefa Y, Chipabika G, George Ong’Amo, Jérôme Barbut GKJ. "Updated phylogenetic and systematics of the Acrapex albivena Hampson, 1910 and A. stygiata (Hampson, 1910) species groups (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini, Sesamiina), with the description of nine new species from the Afrotropics." Annales de la Société entomologique de France (NS). 2019;55(3):219-248.
Ogeng’o JA, Mpekethu N, Gichangi P, Olabu B, Odula P, Munguti J, Misiani M. "VARIANT ANATOMY OF THE TESTICULAR ARTERY AMONG BLACK KENYANS." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2019;8(1):1358-1367. Abstractvariant_anatomy_of_the_testicular_artery_among.pdf

Variant anatomy of the testicular artery is important for safe surgery in the retroperioneal area, and
accurate diagnosis of testicular and renal disease. The pattern of origin, number, course and branching
display ethnic and geographical variations. Data from black African populations and especially Eastern
Africa is scarce. The objective of this study was, therefore, to describe the topography of the intraabdominal
part of testicular artery in a sample of the Kenyan population. This was a descriptive crosssectional
study on one hundred (100) testicular arteries at the Department of Human Anatomy, University
of Nairobi. The samples were obtained from autopsy cases and cadaveric specimens. Standard midline
abdominal incisions were made, flaps of the anterior abdominal wall reflected and the intestines,
mesentery and pariental peritoneum retracted systematically to expose the testicular arteries. Their site
and level of origin, number, course and branching were examined. Macrographs of representative
variations were taken using a high resolution digital camera. The results were analysed using SPSS
version 21, and are presented using macrographs and frequency tables. Thirty three (33%) of the arteries
displayed a variant anatomy, with regard to their site of origin (8%), number (4%), course (14%) and
branching pattern (7%). Among the 14 cases of aberrant course, five (5%) arched over the left renal
vein, eight (8%) were retrocaval and one (1%) had a retroureteric course. Seven (7%) bifurcated within
the abdomen. The level of origin along the aorta varied from 1 centimetre above the renal arteries to 5.5
centimetres below them while the vertebral level of origin ranged from T12 to L4. This shows that the
testicular artery among Kenyans displays a high prevalence of variant anatomy characterized by origin
from the accessory renal artery, high level of aortic origin, duplication, retrocaval course and
intraabdominal; division. Preopertaive evaluation of renal and gonadal vasculature is recommended to
minimize misdiagnosis and inadvertent injury retroperitoneal surgery.

JK Omari, Mworia JK, Gichuki N, Mligo C. "Woody Species Composition in Upper Tana River Floodplain of Kenya: Potential Effects of Change in Flood Regimes." Journal of sustainability, environment and peace . 2019;1:91-97.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. AbstractWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. AbstractWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Otange B, Birech Z, Rop R, Julius Oyugi. "Estimation of HIV-1 viral load in plasma of HIV-1-infected people based on the associated Raman spectroscopic peaks." Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. 2019. Abstract
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KANOTI JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo S, Ayah R. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya." Journal of Water Resource & Protection. 2019;11:404-418. AbstractWebsite

Safe water of adequate quantity, and dignified sanitation, is vital for the sustenance of a healthy and productive human population. In the recognition of this, the United Nations formulated the Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 to ensure access to safe water and sanitation by all by 2030. Actualization of this Goal requires information on the existing status of water resources and sanitation levels. Knowledge on contamination of groundwater is essential to prevent risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater contamination in Kisumu, Kenya. A total of 275 water samples were collected from 22 sites within the informal settlements between December 2016 and December 2017. The samples were analysed for bacterial contamination and physical chemical quality. Thermal tolerant coliform bacteria enumeration was used as a proxy to bacteria contamination, and the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature were used as physical chemical indicators of contamination. The results indicate that groundwater in Kisumu hosed coliform bacteria and therefore didn’t comply with contamination limits for domestic water proposed by WHO and local KEBS standards. The results further indicated that the levels of bacteriological contamination vary with water type, shallow well having the highest bacterial loads. The study concluded that there were potential risks to human health due to high content of coliform bacteria. The study attributed the contribution to pit latrines that were present in virtually all compounds. The pit latrines are located close to the water points. The study recommended the definition of minimum distance between the pit latrines and shallow wells to minimize contamination. The low income dwellers should be educated on simple ways of treating drinking water contaminated by microbial to minimize enteric infections.

KANOTI JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo S, Ayah R. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya." Journal of Water Resource & Protection. 2019;11:404-418. AbstractWebsite

Safe water of adequate quantity, and dignified sanitation, is vital for the sustenance of a healthy and productive human population. In the recognition of this, the United Nations formulated the Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 to ensure access to safe water and sanitation by all by 2030. Actualization of this Goal requires information on the existing status of water resources and sanitation levels. Knowledge on contamination of groundwater is essential to prevent risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater contamination in Kisumu, Kenya. A total of 275 water samples were collected from 22 sites within the informal settlements between December 2016 and December 2017. The samples were analysed for bacterial contamination and physical chemical quality. Thermal tolerant coliform bacteria enumeration was used as a proxy to bacteria contamination, and the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature were used as physical chemical indicators of contamination. The results indicate that groundwater in Kisumu hosed coliform bacteria and therefore didn’t comply with contamination limits for domestic water proposed by WHO and local KEBS standards. The results further indicated that the levels of bacteriological contamination vary with water type, shallow well having the highest bacterial loads. The study concluded that there were potential risks to human health due to high content of coliform bacteria. The study attributed the contribution to pit latrines that were present in virtually all compounds. The pit latrines are located close to the water points. The study recommended the definition of minimum distance between the pit latrines and shallow wells to minimize contamination. The low income dwellers should be educated on simple ways of treating drinking water contaminated by microbial to minimize enteric infections.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "An overview of groundwater and sanitation challenges in Kisumu City, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;8(4). AbstractWebsite

The sub-surface is used in most parts of Africa as a repository of human waste and as a source of groundwater through pit latrines and shallow wells respectively. The wells provide freshwater to millions of people in Africa who are either not connected to the piped water or have intermittent supplies. These shallow wells are hand dug and therefore are mostly less than 20 meters in depth. This same sub-surface environment is also used as a repository of human waste through pit latrines. The water points and the sanitation facilities are mostly located close to each other. This study aimed at appraising the groundwater and sanitation challenges based on a rapid survey, sampling, interviews, existing literature review and historical borehole data in Kisumu city, Kenya. Previous studies in the area have shown that the number of shallow wells, city buildings, density of unimproved pit latrines and sanitary risks have increased tremendously between 1999 and 2019. Most of the wells are shallow and therefore prone to contamination by pollutants. Fluoride and chloride content in most boreholes are above the recommended WHO maximum values and the local KEBS standards. The study confirmed that the main water and sanitation challenges in Kisumu are poor and deteriorating water quality, poor waste disposal management systems and poor sanitation services. There is need for the introduction of new and sustainable groundwater approaches supported by scientific models and involving all stakeholders. Current deficiencies in the provision of adequate water and dignified sanitation to the poor in Kisumu can be remedied through improved knowledge on shallow aquifer dynamics and innovative research. It was noted that apart from the donor agencies and multi-national NGOs, the private investors are unwilling to invest in water projects in Kisumu due in part to government legislation that constrains the cost that may be levied on water

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "An overview of groundwater and sanitation challenges in Kisumu City, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;8(4). Abstract

The sub-surface is used in most parts of Africa as a repository of human waste and as a source of groundwater through pit latrines and shallow wells respectively. The wells provide freshwater to millions of people in Africa who are either not connected to the piped water or have intermittent supplies. These shallow wells are hand dug and therefore are mostly less than 20 meters in depth. This same sub-surface environment is also used as a repository of human waste through pit latrines. The water points and the sanitation facilities are mostly located close to each other. This study aimed at appraising the groundwater and sanitation challenges based on a rapid survey, sampling, interviews, existing literature review and historical borehole data in Kisumu city, Kenya. Previous studies in the area have shown that the number of shallow wells, city buildings, density of unimproved pit latrines and sanitary risks have increased tremendously between 1999 and 2019. Most of the wells are shallow and therefore prone to contamination by pollutants. Fluoride and chloride content in most boreholes are above the recommended WHO maximum values and the local KEBS standards. The study confirmed that the main water and sanitation challenges in Kisumu are poor and deteriorating water quality, poor waste disposal management systems and poor sanitation services. There is need for the introduction of new and sustainable groundwater approaches supported by scientific models and involving all stakeholders. Current deficiencies in the provision of adequate water and dignified sanitation to the poor in Kisumu can be remedied through improved knowledge on shallow aquifer dynamics and innovative research. It was noted that apart from the donor agencies and multi-national NGOs, the private investors are unwilling to invest in water projects in Kisumu due in part to government legislation that constrains the cost that may be levied on water

KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019:105635. Abstract
n/a
KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019:105635. Abstract
n/a
KokonyaSichangi E, Kalambuka Angeyo H, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019:105635. Abstract
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2018
Kamweru K. "Housing as Process: An Approach Based of a Multiple Client Approach.". In: 8th Annual East Africa Workshop and Exhibition,. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2018.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

"The entitled family relations." People Daily, May 29, 2018.
Kiragu H, Mwangi E, Kamucha G. "A rapid MRI reconstruction method based on compressive sampling and concomitant artifacts suppression.". In: 19th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON). Marrakesh, Morocco ; 2018.
Kanyinga K. "Amusing game of corruption in Africa as the rule of law fails." Sunday Nation, March 24, 2018.
Kanyinga K. "Expected break with past is still elusive." Sunday Nation, March 10, 2018.
Mitema A, Okoth S, Rafudeen SM. "Molecular biomarkers and phenotypic characterization as a means of determining genetic diversity in Aspergillus flavus isolates.". In: 40th Mycotoxin Workshop Munich 2018. Munich; 2018.
Kanyinga K. "What it takes to unify the country goes beyond mega development projects." Sunday Nation, January 28, 2018.
Nambati EA, Kiarie WC, Kimani F, Kimotho JH, Otinga MS, Too E, Kaniaru S, Limson J, Bulimo W. "Unclear association between levels of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in saliva of malaria patients and blood parasitaemia: diagnostic implications?" Malaria Journal. 2018;17:9. Abstractnambati_et_al_2018.pdfnambati_et_al_2018.pdfWebsite

The use of saliva in diagnosis of infectious diseases is an attractive alternative to procedures that involve blood drawing. It promises to reduce risks associated with accidental needle pricks and improve patient compliance particularly in malaria survey and drug efficacy studies. Quantification of parasitaemia is useful in establishing severity of disease and in assessing individual patient response to treatment. In current practice, microscopy is the recommended technique, despite its limitations. This study measured the levels of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in saliva of malaria patients and investigated the relationship with blood parasitaemia.

Kanyinga K. "How to boost citizens’ participation in decision-making." Sunday Nation, February 24, 2018.
Mumbi M. "limate Responsive Architecture: Learning from the History of the Origin, Spread and Development of Tropical Modern Architecture.". In: annual Eastern African Regional Workshop, Nairobi. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2018.
Kanyinga K. "You needed to get close to the man to understand diplomacy." Sunday Nation, August 19, 2018.
Muigua K. "Towards an Overarching Policy: Understanding Kenya’s Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms Landscape and Culture.". In: 1st Nairobi Centre for International Arbitration (NCIA) Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) National Conference. Intercontinental Hotel, ; 2018.towards_an_overarching_policy-ncia_conference_paper-ncia_conference_conference_paper_6th_june_2018_kariuki_muigua_ph.d.pdf
Muigua K. "Utilising Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms to Manage Commercial Disputes.". In: 1st Nairobi Centre for International Arbitration (NCIA) Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) National Conference. InterContinental Hotel, Nairobi; 2018.
Muthomi J. "Technologies and innovations in Phytosanitary Systems.". In: The 2nd Phytosanitary Conference. KEPHIS Headquarter, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Mwangi N, Minnies D, Parsley S, Patel D, Gichuhi S, Muthami L, Moorman C, Macleod D, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Developing open online learning resources: Lessons from a short course on the control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy.". In: College of Ophthalmologists in Eastern Central & Southern Africa (COECSA). Addis Ababa; 2018. Abstract

Background: A need identified during another study prompted the development of the open online course on control of blindness from diabetic retinopathy. In our technological age, potential for learning online can provide a unique opportunity to develop context-specific content for local relevance. We report on the lessons learnt in the development of this short online course for an international audience of diverse eye care practitioners.

Methods: We developed this online short course through a formal planning process facilitated by UNESCO. The participants included eye health educators, learning designers, and content experts. The course curriculum was informed by learning from an ongoing doctorate program, as well as by clinical, public health and educational experience.

Results: Lessons learnt include:
1. Identifying the need and content – Learning and research from a doctorate research program can inform content development.
2. Identifying the relevance – the content needs to be customized for the target audience and local context.
3. Developing the learning design – promoting digital teaching skills and co-creation of content are valuable entry points.
4. Accommodating appropriate peer review and mentorship may enhance learning and quality assurance.
5. Resource planning activities need to be documented as a learning point.
6. There are significant costs in course development, such as time spent in content development, and ongoing maintenance eg maintaining the online platform.
7. Sources of quality open access resources in eye care are limited.

Conclusion: Content development is a unique learning experience, and it is essential to develop and support context specific learning resources. Open educational practice supports a collaborative process that enhances relevance and quality of training. The online format emphasizes the importance of learning design requirements to bridge the transactional distance between the participant and the educator.

Osiro OA, Kariuki DK, Gathece LW. "Composition, Particle Size, Setting Time of Clinker and Geopolymer Cements.". In: IADR. London, UK; 2018.
Otieno CA, Wairimu S, Madadi VO, Kimani E, Jama HH, Ayah R. "TO DETERMINE THE USE OF LOCAL RAW MATERIALS IN MANUFACTURE OF MEDICAL DEVICES: CASE STUDY OF ZEOLITE FOR OXYGEN CONCENTRATOR .". In: 1st Annual Conference on Science for Development: Supporting Manufacturing, Affordable Housing, Universal Healthcare and Food Security . Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Ayah R, Gitau S, Rogge M, Mugasia D, Hoyle W, Ogot M. "Creating High Value, High Impact Products from Recycled Plastic: Case Study, Building Digital Microscopes for Malaria Diagnosis. .". In: 1st Annual Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga L, Nguli1 M, M. J. Gatari1, Shepherd2 K. "Assessment of Selected Micronutrients in Common Beans in Kenya.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga LW, Mbugua, M., Onani, M.O., Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO. "New Bis(Pyrrolylimine) Platinum (II) and Palladium (II) Complexes: Synthesis, X-Ray Structure Determination, Spectroscopic Characterization, and in vitro Anticancer Activity on Various Human Carcinoma Cell Lines.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Njenga1 LW, Njogu1 REN, Kariuki1 DK, AY1O, Wendt OF. "Tris-Cyclometalated Iridium (III) Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Selected Applications.". In: INTERNATIONAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE. Best western Meridian Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Lolgisoi LB, Kimani EK, Ayah R, Jama HH. "Improving the Prototyping Manufacturing Processes: The Development of an Assembly Manual for Suction Machine.". In: 1 st Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Kimani EK, Ayah R, Jama HH. "Prototyping Process at the University of Nairobi Maker-Space: A Case Study of Medical Devices for Maternal Newborn Health.". In: 1 st Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
BIRIR J, Gatari MJ, RAJAGOPAL P, Mwea SK, MUIA ML. "Interaction of ultrasonic waves with defects.". In: NDE2018. Mumbai, India; 2018.
"Live Attenuated Zoster Vaccine Boosts Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)-Specific Humoral Responses Systemically and at the Cervicovaginal Mucosa of Kenyan VZV-Seropositive Women." J. Infect. Dis.. 2018;218(8):1210-1218. Abstract

Attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a promising vector for recombinant vaccines. Because human immunodeficiencyvirus (HIV) vaccines are believed to require mucosal immunogenicity, we characterized mucosal VZV-specific humoral immunity following VZVOka vaccination.

Marangu D, Pillay K, Banderker E, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: an important cause of interstitial lung disease in infants." Respirol Case Rep. 2018;6(7):e00356. Abstract

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP), an important cause of interstitial lung disease, often goes unrecognized. We conducted a retrospective study of children with histologically confirmed ELP at Red Cross Children's Hospital, South Africa. Twelve children of Zimbabwean heritage aged 2.1-10.8 months were identified between 2012 and 2017. Repeated oral administration of plant-based oil for cultural reasons was reported by 10 of 11 caregivers. Cough (12/12), tachypnoea (11/12), hypoxia (9/12), and diffuse alveolar infiltrates on chest radiography (12/12) were common at presentation. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacification with lower zone predominance (9/9) and interlobular septal thickening (8/9). Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens appeared cloudy/milky, with abundant lipid-laden macrophages and extracellular lipid on Oil-Red-O staining (12/12), with polymicrobial (6/12) and Mycobacterium abscessus (2/12) co-infection. Antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, and therapeutic lavage were interventions in all eight and five patients, respectively. Clinicians should consider ELP in children with non-resolving pneumonia in settings with similar practices.

Nangia V, Jonas JB, George R, Lingam V, Ellwein L, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA. "Prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment: magnitude, temporal trends and projections in South and Central Asia." Br J Ophthalmol. 2018. AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND:To assess prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia.

METHODS: A systematic review of medical literature assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity<3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18) in Central and South Asia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020.

RESULTS: In Central and South Asia combined, age-standardised prevalences of blindness, MSVI and MVI in 2015 were for men and women aged 50+years, 3.72% (80% uncertainty interval (UI): 1.39-6.75) and 4.00% (80% UI: 1.41-7.39), 16.33% (80% UI: 8.55-25.47) and 17.65% (80% UI: 9.00-27.62), 11.70% (80% UI: 4.70-20.32) and 12.25% (80% UI:4.86-21.30), respectively, with a significant decrease in the study period for both gender. In South Asia in 2015, 11.76 million individuals (32.65% of the global blindness figure) were blind and 61.19 million individuals (28.3% of the global total) had MSVI. From 1990 to 2015, cataract (accounting for 36.58% of all cases with blindness in 2015) was the most common cause of blindness, followed by undercorrected refractive error (36.43%), glaucoma (5.81%), age-related macular degeneration (2.44%), corneal diseases (2.43%), diabetic retinopathy (0.16%) and trachoma (0.04%). For MSVI in South Asia 2015, most common causes were undercorrected refractive error (accounting for 66.39% of all cases with MSVI), followed by cataract (23.62%), age-related macular degeneration (1.31%) and glaucoma (1.09%).

CONCLUSIONS: One-third of the global blind resided in South Asia in 2015, although the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI decreased significantly between 1990 and 2015.

Andreieva IO, Konstantynovska O, Midulla F, Marangu D, Mchedlishvili N. "Summer schools of adult and paediatric respiratory medicine: course report." Breathe (Sheff). 2018;14(1):9-12. Abstract
Mwangi N, Gachago M, Gichangi M, Gichuhi S, Githeko K, Jalango A, Karimurio J, Kibachio J, Muthami L, Ngugi N, Nduri C, Nyaga P, Nyamori J, Zindamoyen ANM, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Adapting clinical practice guidelines for diabetic retinopathy in Kenya: process and outputs." Implement Sci. 2018;13(1):81. Abstract

The use of clinical practice guidelines envisages augmenting quality and best practice in clinical outcomes. Generic guidelines that are not adapted for local use often fail to produce these outcomes. Adaptation is a systematic and rigorous process that should maintain the quality and validity of the guideline, while making it more usable by the targeted users. Diverse skills are required for the task of adaptation. Although adapting a guideline is not a guarantee that it will be implemented, adaptation may improve acceptance and adherence to its recommendations.

Mwangi N, Ng'ang'a M, Gakuo E, Gichuhi S, Macleod D, Moorman C, Muthami L, Tum P, Jalango A, Githeko K, Gichangi M, Kibachio J, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Effectiveness of peer support to increase uptake of retinal examination for diabetic retinopathy: study protocol for the DURE pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial in Kirinyaga, Kenya." BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):871. Abstract

All patients with diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy (DR), a progressive and potentially blinding condition. Early treatment of DR prevents visual impairment and blindness. The natural history of DR is that it is asymptomatic until the advanced stages, thus annual retinal examination is recommended for early detection. Previous studies show that the uptake of regular retinal examination among people living with diabetes (PLWD) is low. In the Uptake of Retinal Examination in Diabetes (DURE) study, we will investigate the effectiveness of a complex intervention delivered within diabetes support groups to increase uptake of retinal examination.

Wilson KS, Wanje G, Masese L, Simoni JM, Shafi J, Adala L, Overbaugh J, Jaoko W, Richardson BA, McClelland RS. "A Prospective Cohort Study of Fertility Desire, Unprotected Sex, and Detectable Viral Load in HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2018;78(3):276-282. Abstract

Little is known about fertility desire in HIV-positive female sex workers. Fertility desire could increase HIV transmission risk if it was associated with condomless sex or lower adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

Pankau MD, Dalton Wamalwa, Benki-Nugent S, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Langat A, Otieno V, Moraa H, Maleche-Obimbo E, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC, Lehman DA. "Decay of HIV DNA in the Reservoir and the Impact of Short Treatment Interruption in Kenyan Infants." Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018;5(1):ofx268. Abstract

We compared change in HIV reservoir DNA following continued antiretroviral therapy (ART) vs short treatment interruption (TI) in early ART-treated Kenyan infants. While HIV DNA in the reservoir decayed with continued ART, HIV DNA levels were similar to pre-TI HIV DNA reservoir levels in most children after short TI.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Pertet AM, Kaseje D, Otieno-Odawa CF, Kirika L, Wanjala C, Ochieng J, Jaoko M, Otieno W, Odindo D. "Under vaccination of children among Maasai nomadic pastoralists in Kenya: is the issue geographic mobility, social demographics or missed opportunities?" BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1389. Abstract

Nomadic lifestyle has been shown to be a significant factor in low immunization coverage. However, other factors which might aggravate vaccination uptake in nomadic pastoralists are poorly understood. Our study aimed at establishing the relative influence of social demographics, missed opportunities, and geographical mobility on severe under vaccination in children aged less than two years living in a nomadic pastoralist community of Kenya.

Davis SM, Pals S, Yang C, Odoyo-June E, Chang J, Walters MS, Jaoko W, Bock N, Westerman L, Toledo C, Bailey RC. "Circumcision status at HIV infection is not associated with plasma viral load in men: analysis of specimens from a randomized controlled trial." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2018;18(1):350. Abstract

Male circumcision provides men with approximately 60% protection from acquiring HIV infection via heterosexual sex, and has become a key component of HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. Possible mechanisms for this protection include removal of the inflammatory anaerobic sub-preputial environment and the high concentration of Langerhans cells on the inside of the foreskin, both believed to promote local vulnerability to HIV infection. In people who do acquire HIV, viral load is partially determined by infecting partner viral load, potentially mediated by size of infecting inoculum. By removing a portal for virion entry, prior male circumcision could decrease infecting inoculum and thus viral load in men who become HIV-infected, conferring the known associated benefits of slower progression to disease and decreased infectiousness.

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