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Forthcoming
Habwe J, Foundation KFJK. "The Ekegusii Determiner Phrase. Analysis in the Minimalist Programme. ." International Journal of Linguistics and Communication. Forthcoming.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Editor, Local Social Development Systems in Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya and Zimbabwe (forthcoming 2006) - Chapter on Kenya.". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Editor, Local Social Development Systems in Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya and Zimbabwe (forthcoming) - Chapter on Kenya.". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Submitted
P.OCHILO. "The Electronic Media and Advocacy for Health.". In: The International Planned Parenthood Federation Seminar,for IPPF affiliate Personnel from four of IPPF’s six Worldwide Regions - Africa Arab World, Western Hemisphere, East and South Asia and Oceanic. ; Submitted.
Atoh FO. "Exploring the New Ohangla Music in the Context of Urbanization: The Search for Relevance for Sustainability. .". In: International Conference on Refocusing Music and Performing Arts for Sustainable Development . Kabarak University ; Submitted.
Onjala J. "Economic Performance across Monetary Unions in Africa.". In: Aloysius Amin (ed) Monetary and Financial Institutions, Integration and Economic Performance in Africa. Palgrave Macmillan; Submitted.
Mbuge DO, MM K, E BKM, S M, DA M, J A. "The Effect of Drying Temperature on Nutrient levels in Oyster Mushroom." AJST. Submitted.
Mbuge DO, Kanyara MM, B.K.Mutai E, Murunga S, Mutuli DA, Agullo J. "The Effect of Drying Temperature on Nutrient levels in Oyster Mushroom." AJST. Submitted; ( ). Abstractdocument_2.pdf

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Mutembe N, Elly D. "Effect of Financial Literacy on Voluntary Retirement Planning Among Employees of State Corporations Under the Ministry of Health in Nairobi County, Kenya ." African development finance journal . Submitted;1(1):1-27 . Abstracteffect_of_financial_literacy_on_voluntary_retirement_planning_among_employees_of_state_corporations_under_the_ministry_of_health_in_nairobi_county_kenya.pdf

Purpose - The study sought to determine the effect of financial literacy on voluntary retirement planning among employees of state corporations under the Ministry of Health in Nairobi County, Kenya. Methodology – This study adopted a descriptive study design and uses primary data collected using a questionnaire with a five point Likert scale on the parameters of each variable. The study applied simple random sampling technique to select respondents to participate in the study. Data is analysed using means, percentages and frequencies. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the relationship between financial literacy and voluntary retirement planning. Findings – Financial literacy was found to influence the level of voluntary retirement planning among the employees since they are able to make key decisions that involve money in such a way that there is minimal risk to them. The study also established that financial literacy has a positive impact on voluntary retirement planning, however the results indicate that other factors such as income levels, age, marital status and level of education are also strongly related to retirement planning. Implications – To boost the voluntary retirement planning process, the eventuality of retirement should be made obvious for all the employees in the Kenyan economy so as to influence peoples’ attitude and receptiveness to the process. There is therefore need to develop financial education programs that focus particularly on important financial planning aspects for employees that will help them strike a balance between consumption and saving. Value – The findings of this study would also be valuable to the Retirement Benefits Authority and the Government of Kenya in development of policies and regulations

Olang' POR. Effects of Spinal Anesthesia during Elective Caesarean Section on Neonatal outcome at the Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

Utero-placental circulation and hence fetal well-being depends on maternal blood pressure.
Spinal anesthesia for cesarean section causes sudden and severe drops in blood pressure thus
threatening fetal and neonatal acid-base balance. Several protocols have been formulated to
prevent maternal hypotension but none has been shown to totally eliminate this risk.

This was a prospective non-randomized descriptive study that adopted a consecutive sampling
method. All eligible ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) I and ASA II mothers slated
for elective cesarean section at the Labour Ward of The Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi
were visited in the ante-natal ward the day or night before surgery and an informed consent
obtained for inclusion in the study. Any pre-selected mother who ended up needing emergency
surgery or changed her mind about inclusion in the study was excluded. Similarly, any willing
mother who did not qualify for spinal anesthesia was excluded from the study.
A sample size of 172 cases was taken and this required approximately 15 weeks of data
collection. Maternal blood pressures were recorded every minute until delivery. Immediately
after delivery, a section of the umbilical cord was clumped with 2 clumps. Umbilical arterial and
venous blood samples were collected in heparinized syringes and taken to the laboratory within
one hour of collection and analyzed for blood gases and pH as a measure of foetal! neonatal
compromise. Apgar scores were also noted at birth and after 5 minutes and later correlated with
the cord blood gas analyses and maternal blood pressures.
The anesthesia provider was requested to complete a data sheet which was then collected by the
principal investigator on the same day the surgery was performed.
Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16.0 and presented in the form of tables,
graphs and charts.

A total of 172 patients were successfully recruited into the study and the total number of
umbilical cord blood samples analyzed (both arterial and venous) was 316. 28 blood samples
clotted and were not available for analysis.
43 babies (27.2%) were born with neonatal acidemia defined as umbilical arterial blood pHS 7.2.
There was, however, no significant relationship between neonatal acidemia and low Apgar
scores; neither was there a significant relationship between low Apgar scores and maternal
hypotension. 104 patients (65.8%) had a wedge inserted under the right hip as recommended for
prevention of aorto-caval compression. There was, however, no significant difference in the
incidence of maternal hypotension among those with a wedge and those without. Vasopressors
were used in 84 patients (53.2%). These included the use of ephedrine alone or epinephrine
alone or a combination of the two in the process of treating or preventing maternal hypotension.
The use of Va sopressors resulted in significantly fewer incidences of hypotension (p=0.018). The
use of preload with crystalloids before induction of spinal anaesthesia was noted to be
significantly related to the use of Vasopressors whenever the volume of preload was less than
500mls (p=0.027). Similarly, maximum levels of spinal block above T6 resulted in significant
incidences of maternal hypotension (p=O.OO1). Maternal height < 155cm did not have any
significant effect on the incidence of maternal hypotension.

Maternal hypotension can lead to poor neonatal outcome due to its effects on placental perfusion
and hence foetal oxygenation. This study has shown that vasopressor use during spinal
anaesthesia effectively minimizes the incidence of maternal hypotension. Crystalloid preload of
over 500mls is effective in preventing or moderating maternal hypotension.
A well conducted spinal anaesthetic for caesarean section with meticulous control/management
of adverse effects results in healthy neonates and mothers

Nyabul P, Owakah F, Muyila JW. Elements Philosophy.; Submitted.
Thongoh MW, Mutembei HM, Mburu J, Kathambi BE. "Evaluating Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Livestock Value Chain Actors on Climate Smart Agriculture/Livestock (CSA/L) in Kajiado County, Kenya." Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology. Submitted;39(4):134-148.
Githaiga JW. Evaluation of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and needle paracentesis in the management of penetrating and blunt abdominal trauma, at Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients

Muirhead JD, Kattenhorn SA, Lee H, Mana S, Turrin BD, Fischer TP, Kianji G, Dindi E, Stamps DS. "Evolution of upper crustal faulting assisted by magmatic volatile release during early-stage continental rift development in the East African Rift." Geosphere. Submitted;12(6):1-31.
D.N. Kariuki PMC. Explore Chemistry, Form 4.; Submitted.
Janet Muhalia Chumba, Andanje Mwisukha RMK. "Extent of public support for physical education in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. Submitted;4(10). Abstract

Abstract The mass media have a fundamental role to play in the development of Sports.
Their contribution towards uplifting performance and popularizing sports is particularly
critical in the developing countries where sports programmes tend to receive minimal
attention and resource allocation. The mass media are important tools for marketing,
publicizing and popularizing sports. Their specific roles include bringing talent into the
limelight, giving recognition/appreciation to outstanding sports personalities and ...

Munyoki JM,, Kibera FN, Ogutu M. "Extent To Which University- Industry Linkage Exists In Kenya: A Study Of Medium And Large Manufacturing Firms In Selected Industries In Kenya." Business Administration and Management . Submitted;Vol 1(4):163-169, .
Wazid AM, Anyenda OE, Tole NM. "Eye Lens and Thyroid gland dose during CT head scanning in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." South Africa Journal of Radiology. Submitted.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "e-learning module II contents for 'Coordination Chemistry'.". In: A 3rd year BED Science course material. UoN; Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Effects of Chemical Events on Environment in Africa.". In: Pontifical Academy of Science's Study Week on "Chemical Events in the Atmosphere and Their Impact", November 1983, P.649-673. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Electric Dipole Moments of Monohalogen Derivatives of German.". In: Letters. 7, 71 (1971). Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Electrocatalytic decomposition of organohalides in microemulsion,".". In: Submitted to Journal of Electrochimica Acta. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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NYAMBANE MN, GATARI MJ, Githiri JG,... "Energy and Exergy Analysis Concepts: Modelling of Olkaria II Geothermal Power Plant in Kenya." promitheasnet.kepa.uoa.gr. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Condensers of geothermal power plants need to operate at low pressures to ensure optimal use of energy resources. To optimize the steam condensation process cooling water temperature is varied to determine the value that gives a higher condenser efficiency …

DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "Enviromental Risk Assesment of Genetically Modified Organisms.Vol. 2. Methodologies for Assesing Bt.Cotton in Brazil .. CAB International, Wallingford , UK .". In: Royal Botanic Gardens , Kew , England. El-Banhawy, E. M.; Submitted. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Maina DM, Gatari MM, Bartilol SK, Nguli MK. "ESSENTIAL TRACE METALS IN SELECTED MAIZE FLOUR BRANDS CONSUMED IN NAIROBI, KENYA: APPLICATION OF TXRF." imeko.org. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Human beings obtain their essential trace metals form their diets. The objective of this study was to determine the Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn concentration levels in maize flour and based on the results estimate the daily intake of these essential metals through consumption of Ugali; …

NGUTA DRJOSEPHMWANZIA. "Ethnodiagnostic Skill of the Digo Community for Malaria: A lead to traditional bioprospecting. J.M.Nguta*, J.M.Mbaria; D.W.Gakuya;P.K.Gathumbi; J.D.Kabasa; S.G.Kiama.". In: Frontiers in Pharmacology. Frontiers, 2011; Submitted. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
JAMES DRMWAURA. "Experiences, Knowledge and Perceptions of Women on Gender Based Violence; A case study of Komu Sub-location, Thika Municipality, Kenya.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal volume 37. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted.
NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Extraction of vernonia oil from Vernonia galamensis seeds and it.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; Submitted.
In Press
2021
MO F, MO O, M E-T, A K, OB A-B, B G, RJ S. "An ecological study on the association between early childhood caries and intimate partner violence in 20 low- and middle-income countries; 2007-2017." AAS Open Res. 2021;2021; 4:39.(2021; 4:39.):2021; 4:39.
MO F, ME T, JI V, CA F, M R, AM K, R V, OB A‐B, R A, B G, SZ M, A A, H D, A V, RJ S, for the Group ECCA. "An ecological study on the association between universal health service coverage index, health expenditures, and early childhood caries." BMC Oral Health. 2021;2021; 21:126.(2021; 21:126.):2021; 21:126.
Mwinami T, Junga JO, Oduma JA, Chesire D, Musina J, Kioko E, Ayiemba W, Harper DM. "EFFECT OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON AVIAN SPECIES COMPOSITION, DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION WITHIN AN UPLAND TROPICAL FOREST ECOSYSTEM:.". 2021.
Shiwani, D.I., Kalai, J.M., Gatumu JC, Akala WJ. "Effect of Head Teachers’ Acquisition of Teaching and Learning Resources on Implementation of Inclusive Education in Public Primary Schools in Nairobi City County. ." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2021;2(1):90-108.
Mutuli GP, Mbuge DO, Gitau AN. "Effect of humidity on Aflatoxin contamination on selected African leafy vegetables. ." Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2021.
Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Mbega ER. "Effect of plant extracts on important fungal pathogens and germination of tomato seed." International Journal of Biosciences (IJB). 2021;18(4):77-92.
Onyango SO, Abong GO, Okoth MW, Kilalo DC, Mwang’ombe AW. "Effect of Pre-treatment and Processing on Nutritional Composition of Cassava Roots, Millet, and Cowpea Leaves Flours." Nutrition and Sustainable Diets, a section of the journal Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021;5(625735):1-8.
Sura M, Osoti A, Gachuno O, Musoke R, Kagema F, Gwako G, Ondieki D, Ndavi PM, Ogutu O. "Effect of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on preterm neonates in Kenya: A randomized controlled trial." PloS one. 2021;16(1):e0246109.
Mandeep S, Osoti A, Gachuno O, Musoke R, Kagema F, Gwako G, Ondieki D, Ndavi PM. "Effect of umbilical cord milking versus delayed cord clamping on preterm neonates in Kenya: A randomized controlled trial.". 2021.
D S, O OR, O OW, N MJ. "Effect of Waste Clay Brick Powder on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste." Open Civil Engineering Journal. 2021;Vol 15.
Wang’ombe DN, Mose BR, Maranga SM, MBUYA TM. "Effects of friction stir welding on microstructure and mechanical properties of extruded secondary aluminum 6061 alloy." Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik. 2021;52(3):270-278 . Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1002/mawe.202000094

Experiments were carried out to determine the effects of friction stir welding on microstructure and properties of recycled Aluminum 6061 alloy, whose alloy content varied from that of primary alloy. The alloy was processed at tool speed and feed ranges of 530 rev/min–1320 rev/min and 40 mm/min–100 mm/min respectively. Microstructure examination; tensile test and Vickers microhardness evaluation were carried out. Microstructure of the alloy was in four zones including: base metal, heat affected zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone and stirred zone. Average grain size of unprocessed material was 93 μm. Processing the alloy at 530 rev/min and 100 mm/min resulted in grains of average size 93 μm, 183 μm and 7 μm; in base metal, heat affected zone and stirred zone respectively. Tensile failure occurred in heat affected zone; that was exposed to high heat. The alloy hardness decreased to a minimum in heat affected zone, followed by a brief rise in thermo-mechanically affected zone, to another maximum in stirred zone. Processed zone hardness was inversely proportional to tool speed and directly proportional to feed rate. Increase in the speed and decrease in feed, increased heat which deteriorated the properties.

Jerop B, Segera DR. "An Efficient PCA-GA-HKSVM-Based Disease Diagnostic Assistant." Hindawi Biomed Research International. 2021;2021(2021):1-10.
Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB, Muge EK. "Electrochemical Determination of Penicillin G in Cow Milk and pharmaceuticals in SDS/Acetate buffer." Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.. 2021;16(4):1-13.
Dabasso BH, Wasonga OV, Irungu P, Kaufmann B. "Emerging pastoralist practices for fulfilling market requirements under stratified cattle production systems in Kenya's drylands." Animal Production Science. Accepted 23 February 2021. 2021.
JW G, J O’o, P G. "Endometriosis Diagnosis correlation of Laparoscopic visualization and histopathology confirmation in low Resource setting." Open J Obs Gyne. 2021;11(7):845-852. Abstractojog_2021071515313873.pdfWebsite

Abstract

Background: Endometriosis is enigmatic clinical entity which is described as the location of the endometrial tissue external of the uterine cavity. Endometriosis constitutes a serious health issue due to its high affliction of 10% of reproductive women. With limited resources in Africa, it is essential to assess whether diagnosis of endometriosis by laparoscopic visualization can be used as a substitute for histology. Objective: To correlate the diagnosis of endometriosis by laparoscopic visualization and the histological confirmation of the biopsy taken. Methods: A prospective cross sectional study with a sample size of 443 was undertaken in the diagnosis of endometriosis among Africans in Nairobi, Kenya from March 2019 to March 2021. Women undergoing laparoscopy were screened for endometriosis by visualization and a biopsy was taken for histopathology. Diagnosis of endometriosis by visualization was correlated with histological confirmed endometriosis. Results: Women with a diagnosis of endometriosis through laparoscopic visualization were found to be 77 (17.4%) and 30 (6.8%) had positive histology for endometriosis. Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a low positive predictive value of 39%. Conclusion: Laparoscopic visualization diagnosis had a low positive predictive value of 39% and this did not correlate with histopathologic diagnosis. It is essential to perform biopsy with histopathology for the confirmation of endometriosis.

3. Onwonga RN, Chemining’wa GN, Jumbo MB. "Enhancing yellow maize production for sustainable food and nutrition security in African ." Journa Kenya. East l of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(1):00.
Chepkwony EC, Gitao GC, Muchemi GM, Sangula AK, Kairu-Wanyoike SW. "Epidemiological study on foot-and-mouth disease in small ruminants: Sero-prevalence and risk factor assessment in Kenya." PLOS ONE . 2021;16 ((8)):e0234286. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0234286.goat_fmdplos_one.pdf
KathambiBE, N MUTHAMAJ, AnguC. "Essence of Water Governance for SMEs for Sustainable Consumption in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(2).
Kathambi EB, Muthama JN, Ang'u C. "Essence of Water Governance for SMEs for Sustainable Consumption in Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2.
S.I.Akaranga, Situma JW. "The Ethical dimensions of Entrepreneurial Practice in three traditions." East African Journal of Traditions, Culture and Religion. 2021;3(1):23-34.east_african_journal_of_traditions_culture_and_religion_vol_3_no_1__23_34.pdf
Mushori J, Charles Mallans Rambo, Wafula CM, Matu J. "Evaluating Contractors’ Safety Record and Its Influence on Performance of Road Infrastructural Projects." World Journal of Engineering and Technology. 2021;2021(9):203-228 .
Muigai DK, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN, Mohammed A. "Evaluating maize performance under varying water depletion levels in bura irrigation scheme." Kenya.Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res. . 2021;18(1):19-29.
Amare GG, Degu A, Njogu P, Kifle ZD. "Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of the leaf latex of Aloe weloensis (Aloaceae) against plasmodium parasites." Evid-based Complem. Altern. Med. 2021;2021:6664711.
A A Fabuyide, Cornish LA, Apata AO, Rading GO, Muobeni TN, Witcomb MJ, Jain PK, Borode JO. "Experimental Liquidus Surface Projection and Isothermal Section at 1000C of the V-Ni-C System, J of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion.". 2021.
R. Sungura, Onyambu C, Mpolya E, E. Sauli, Vianney J-M. "Extended scope of neuroimaging and prospects in brain atrophy mitigation: A systematic review." Interdisciplinary neurosurgery . 2021;23:100875.
Amwoka EM, Ambuko JL, Jesang HM, Owino WO. "Effectiveness of Selected Cold Chain Management Practices to Extend Shelf Life of Mango Fruit." Advances in Agriculture. 2021;2021. Abstract
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Bitange NM, Chemining’wa GN, Ambuko JL, WO O, Bitange NM. "EFFECTS OF MODE AND TIMING OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE APPLICATION ON TISSUE CALCIUM CONCENTRATION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF MANGO FRUITS." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2021;21:18552-18574. Abstract
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Sila JM, Guto PM, Michira IN, Mwaura FB, Muge EK. "Electrochemical Determination of Penicillin G in Cow Milk and pharmaceuticals in SDS/Acetate buffer." International Journal of Electrochemical Science. 2021;16. Abstract
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2020
Muthomi M, Mumenya S, Mwero J. "Effect of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Strengthening on the Axial Capacity and Ductility of Non-slender Square Concrete Columns.". In: Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi; 2020.
Nyatuka DM, Ralwala AO. "Effectiveness of Health and Safety Policy and Audit on Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Project performance in Nakuru County, Kenya.". In: Scarcity and Creativity: Addressing Critical Spatial Needs. Sub-theme: Learning for Resource Efficiency and Resourcefulness. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online conference, JKUAT; 2020.
Bishop RP, Kappmeyer LS, Onzere CK, Odongo DO, Githaka N, Sears KP, Knowles DP, Fry LM. "Equid infective Theileria cluster in distinct 18S rRNA gene clades comprising multiple taxa with unusually broad mammalian host ranges." Parasit Vectors. 2020;13(1):261. Abstract

Equine theileriosis, a tick-transmitted disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites Theileria equi and Theileria haneyi, affects equids throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is a significant regulatory concern in non-endemic countries, where testing for equine theileriosis is required prior to horse import to prevent parasite entry. Within endemic areas, infection causes significant morbidity and mortality, leading to economic losses. No vaccine for equine theileriosis is available, and current drug treatment protocols are inconsistent and associated with significant side effects. Recent work has revealed substantial genetic variability among equine theileriosis organisms, and analysis of ribosomal DNA from affected animals around the world indicates that the organisms can be grouped into five distinct clades. As these diverse parasites are capable of infecting a wide range of both tick and mammalian hosts, movement of different equine Theileria species between endemic countries, and eventually into non-endemic countries, is a significant concern. Furthermore, the substantial genetic variability of these organisms will likely render currently utilized importation diagnostic tests unable to detect all equine Theileria spp. To this end, more complete characterization of these diverse parasites is critical to the continued global control of equine theileriosis. This review discusses current knowledge of equine Theileria spp. in this context, and highlights new opportunities and challenges for workers in this field.

Kabaka JM, Wachira BM, Mang'era CM, Rono MK, Hassanali A, Okoth SO, Oduol VO, Macharia RW, Murilla GA, Mireji PO. "Expansions of chemosensory gene orthologs among selected tsetse fly species and their expressions in Glossina morsitans morsitans tsetse fly." PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020;14(6):e0008341. Abstract

Tsetse fly exhibit species-specific olfactory uniqueness potentially underpinned by differences in their chemosensory protein repertoire. We assessed 1) expansions of chemosensory protein orthologs in Glossina morsitans morsitans, Glossina pallidipes, Glossina austeni, Glossina palpalis gambiensis, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and Glossina brevipalpis tsetse fly species using Café analysis (to identify species-specific expansions) and 2) differential expressions of the orthologs and associated proteins in male G. m. morsitans antennae and head tissues using RNA-Seq approaches (to establish associated functional molecular pathways). We established accelerated and significant (P<0.05, λ = 2.60452e-7) expansions of gene families in G. m. morsitans Odorant receptor (Or)71a, Or46a, Ir75a,d, Ionotropic receptor (Ir) 31a, Ir84a, Ir64a and Odorant binding protein (Obp) 83a-b), G. pallidipes Or67a,c, Or49a, Or92a, Or85b-c,f and Obp73a, G. f. fuscipes Ir21a, Gustatory receptor (Gr) 21a and Gr63a), G. p. gambiensis clumsy, Ir25a and Ir8a, and G. brevipalpis Ir68a and missing orthologs in each tsetse fly species. Most abundantly expressed transcripts in male G. m. morsitans included specific Or (Orco, Or56a, 65a-c, Or47b, Or67b, GMOY012254, GMOY009475, and GMOY006265), Gr (Gr21a, Gr63a, GMOY013297 and GMOY013298), Ir (Ir8a, Ir25a and Ir41a) and Obp (Obp19a, lush, Obp28a, Obp83a-b Obp44a, GMOY012275 and GMOY013254) orthologs. Most enriched biological processes in the head were associated with vision, muscle activity and neuropeptide regulations, amino acid/nucleotide metabolism and circulatory system processes. Antennal enrichments (>90% of chemosensory transcripts) included cilium-associated mechanoreceptors, chemo-sensation, neuronal controlled growth/differentiation and regeneration/responses to stress. The expanded and tsetse fly species specific orthologs includes those associated with known tsetse fly responsive ligands (4-methyl phenol, 4-propyl phenol, acetic acid, butanol and carbon dioxide) and potential tsetse fly species-specific responsive ligands (2-oxopentanoic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, hydroxycinnamic acid, 2-heptanone, caffeine, geosmin, DEET and (cVA) pheromone). Some of the orthologs can potentially modulate several tsetse fly species-specific behavioral (male-male courtship, hunger/host seeking, cool avoidance, hygrosensory and feeding) phenotypes. The putative tsetse fly specific chemosensory gene orthologs and their respective ligands provide candidate gene targets and kairomones for respective downstream functional genomic and field evaluations that can effectively expand toolbox of species-specific tsetse fly attractants, repellents and other tsetse fly behavioral modulators.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Mwesigye J, Ayebazibwe B, Onyango J, Bazira J, Newton R, Gichuhi S, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Cohort Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2020;27(2):121-131. AbstractWebsite

: To describe the epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis (MK) in Uganda.: We prospectively recruited patients presenting with MK at two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. We collected information on clinical history and presentation, microbiology and 3-month outcomes. Poor vision was defined as vision < 6/60).: 313 individuals were enrolled. Median age was 47 years (range 18-96) and 174 (56%) were male. Median presentation time was 17 days from onset (IQR 8-32). Trauma was reported by 29% and use of Traditional Eye Medicine by 60%. Majority presented with severe infections (median infiltrate size 5.2 mm); 47% were blind in the affected eye (vision < 3/60). Microbiology was available from 270 cases: 62% were fungal, 7% mixed (bacterial and fungal), 7% bacterial and 24% no organism detected. At 3 months, 30% of the participants were blind in the affected eye, while 9% had lost their eye from the infection. Delayed presentation (overall = .007) and prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine (aOR 1.58 [95% CI 1.04-2.42], = .033) were responsible for poor presentation. Predictors of poor vision at 3 months were: baseline vision (aOR 2.98 [95%CI 2.12-4.19], < .0001), infiltrate size (aOR 1.19 [95%CI 1.03-1.36], < .020) and perforation at presentation (aOR 9.93 [95% CI 3.70-26.6], < .0001).: The most important outcome predictor was the state of the eye at presentation, facilitated by prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine and delayed presentation. In order to improve outcomes, we need effective early interventions.

Munyua M M, W MS, N MJ. "Effect of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Strengthening on the Axial Capacity and Ductility of Non-Slender Square Concrete Columns.". In: UoN Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi Kenya; 2020.
M. KA, W KI, Riechi AR. "eacher Competency on Learner Promotion in Embu County Integrated Public Primary Schools, Kenya." World Journal of Education . 2020;10(3).
Brizuela V, Bonet M, Romero CLT, Abalos E, Baguiya A, Fawole B, Knight M, Lumbiganon P, Minkauskienė M, Nabhan A, Osman NB, Qureshi ZP, Souza JP. "Early evaluation of the ‘STOP SEPSIS!’ WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Awareness Campaign implemented for healthcare providers in 46 low, middle and high-income countries." British Medical Journal . 2020;10(5). AbstractWebsite

Objective To evaluate changes in awareness of maternal sepsis among healthcare providers resulting from the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) awareness campaign.

Design Independent sample precampaign/postcampaign through online and paper-based surveys available for over 30 days before campaign roll-out (pre) and after study data collection (post). Descriptive statistics were used for campaign recognition and exposure, and odds ratio (OR) and percentage change were calculated for differences in awareness, adjusting for confounders using multivariate logistic regression.

Setting and participants Healthcare providers from 398 participating facilities in 46 low, middle and high-income countries.

Intervention An awareness campaign to accompany GLOSS launched 3 weeks prior to data collection and lasting the entire study period (28 November 2017 to 15 January 2018) and beyond.

Main outcome measures Campaign recognition and exposure, and changes in awareness.

Results A total of 2188 surveys were analysed: 1155 at baseline and 1033 at postcampaign. Most survey respondents found the campaign materials helpful (94%), that they helped increase awareness (90%) and that they helped motivate to act differently (88%). There were significant changes with regard to: not having heard of maternal sepsis (−63.4% change, pre-OR/post-OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.68) and perception of confidence in making the right decisions with regard to maternal sepsis identification and management (7.3% change, pre-OR/post-OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.06).

Conclusions Awareness raising campaigns can contribute to an increase in having heard of maternal sepsis and an increase in provider perception of confidence in making correct decisions. Offering the information to make accurate and timely decisions while promoting environments that enable self-confidence and support could improve maternal sepsis identification and management.

MO F, ME T, B G, RJ S, J C, OB A-B, A K, AC MD, V P, M R. "An Ecological Study of the Association Between Environmental indicators and early childhood caries." BMC Res Notes. 2020;2020, 13:474.(2020, 13:474.):2020, 13:474.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Environmental Planning and Management. 2020;63(2).
and Caroline K. Kariuki EMWMWM. "Effect of Bacillus and Trichoderma species in the management of the bacterial wilt of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in the field." Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control. 2020;30(109):doi.org/10.1186/s41938-020-00310-4 .
O OD, N MJ, K KC. "The Effect of Cassava Starch on the Durability Characteristic of Concrete." The Open Civil Engineering Journal. 2020;Vol 14:289-301.
S W, A K, S K, I M. "Effect of Combining Clinical Teaching Tools on Clinical Judgment Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students in Kenya." South Asian Research Journal of Nursing and Healthcare . 2020;2(1):117-123.
Mutuma Kiambi, B, Onono, P, Maingi, N. "Effect of Crude Oil Prices on Economic Growth in Kenya in the Period 1981 To 2018." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. 2020;7(10):340-349.
A.M H, Ongeri BO. "Effect of Islamic banking development on economic growth –A case of the Kenyan Economy." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2020;7(2).
Anastacia K, Ibrahim K. "Effect of Pupil-Teacher Ratio on Graduation Rate of Early Childhood Development and Education in Embu County Public Primary Schools, Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2020;1(1):18-21.
P M, O AS, N MJ, Mang'uriu GN. "Effect of Selected Commercially Available Corrosion Inhibitors in Kenya on Bond Strength of Reinforced Concrete." British Journal of Civil and Architecture Engineering. 2020;Vol 02(1):133-152.
Mukui G, Onjala J, Awiti J. "Effect of Tax and Debt Financed Government Expenditure on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Economics, Management and Trade. 2020;26(1):1-13.
Busienei J, Irungu P, Gichungi H, Muriithi B, Diiro G. "Effect of Technological Innovation on Gender Roles: The Case of Fruit Fly IPM Adoption on Women’s Decision‑Making in Mango Production and Marketing in Kenya." The European Journal of Development Research. 2020;10.1057(s41287-020-00282-z).
Urinayo, V., D. K. Kariuki, Opere A. "Effects of Erratic Rainfall on Water quality of Yanze River in Kigali, Rwanda." J. sustain. environ. peace . 2020;3 (2) :49-57.
Mudavadi Patrick Ongadi, Emmanuel A Mpolya, Charles Gachuiri, Francis Namasake Muyekho, Lukuyu AB. "Effects of Season Variation on Water, Feed, Milk Yield and Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows in Smallholder Farms in Eastern Africa." Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International. 2020.
OTHOO, Dulo, Olago, D. O., Ayah. "Effects of Shallow Water Table on the Construction of Pit Latrines and Shallow Wells in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City." Sanitation Value Chain, J-STAGE an electronic journal platform for science and technology. 2020;5(1).
Maina J, Wandiga S, Gyampoh B, Gachene C. "Effects of Supplemental Irrigation on Crop Yields: Case Study Kales (Brassica Oleracea) Crop." Journal of Ecological Engineering. 2020;(21):209-213. AbstractEcological Engineering

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects that supplemental irrigation (SI) has on Kale (Brassica Oleracea) crop yields as compared to wholly rain-fed crop. The experiments were conducted in Kieni, Central Kenya where the rainfall pattern was bimodal. The planting for rain-fed crops was done in three blocks each measuring 10m x1m with a spacing of 30cm between plants and 45cm between rows of plants and the procedure repeated for the crops receiving SI. The average weekly yields were computed for both crops for each season comprised of 14 weeks. The average weekly yields were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine whether the average yields from rain-fed and supplemental irrigated crops were statistically different. This was done by MS Excel 2016 spread sheets by setting a statistical level of significance of 5%. F value was 17.94 higher than the critical value of 4.01 while the P-value of 9x10-5 was lower than the 5% level of confidence meaning that there was a significant difference in the yield means of rain-fed and SI crops. The total rain-fed crop yields for the period was 147.0 Kgs and that of the one under SI was 238Kgs, an increase of about 62%. Therefore, supplemental irrigation can be adopted in areas where rainfall trends are declining to increase crop yields when all other factors remain constant for farmers to increase resilience.

Li D, Zhang Y, Guo Q, Sun X, Zhang H, Wang S, Birech Z, Hu J. "An efficient LSPR method to quantitatively detect dimethoate: Development, characterization and evaluation. ." Plos one. 2020;15(9):e0239632.
Nkunu Z, M GP, J.G. K. "Electrocatalytic reduction and characterization of Tetrachlorvinphos in acetonitrile-water (1:1) media in presence of cyanocobalamin." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2020;4:xxxx. AbstractAfrica Journal of Physical Sciences

Abstract

This work investigates a possible electrocatalytic degradation of tetrachlorvinphos pesticide in acetonitrile-water media using cyanocobalamin as the catalyst. The catalyst and its derivatives are employed in some organic synthesis due to their ability to form and selectively cleave Co-C bonds. There is inadequate data from previous related works. This study explores possible electrocatalytic route for degradation of tetrachlorvinphos using the catalyst at temperature of 24 ± 1° by cyclic voltammetry method. Tetrachlorvinphos exhibited two consecutive reduction peaks at ~-0.710 ± 0.004 V and ~ -1.096 ± 0.029 V Versus Ag/AgCl. The second reduction peak registered a diffusion coefficient value of 3.68 x 10-5 cm2s-1 and current density of be 5.83 x 10-5 A/cm2. The reduction potential for tetrachlorvinphos in presence of cyanocobalamin was observed to be -0.923 ± 0.03 V versus Ag/AgCl. The diffusion coefficient and current density value was reported at 3.37 x 10-5 cm2s-1 and 2.56 X 10-5 A/cm2 respectively for an electro-reduction process. This implies that, catalytic reduction of the pesticide occurred at a significantly lower potential compared to direct reduction. The over potential saving of about 0.168 V is an indication of the catalyst efficiency on the pesticide degradation.

Nkunu ZN, Guto PM, Kithure JG. "Electrocatalytic Reduction and Characterization of Tetrachlorvinphos in Acetonitrile-Water (1:1) Media in Presence of Cyanocobalamin." African Journal of Physical Sciences (AJPS). 2020;4:60-67.
O PA, Rambo CM. "Emerging Challenges in the Completion of Construction Projects through Public Private Partnerships: Empirical Literature Review." Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research. 2020:263-272.
Kaunda, Mwea, Dulo. "Emissions of Vehicular Traffic along Uhuru Highway Corridor in Nairobi." Journal of Engineering and Architecture. 2020;8(2):22-27.
Gathiaka JK, Muriithi MK. "Empirical Analysis of Livelihood Strategies and Food Insecurity in Turkana County, Kenya." Tanzanian Economic Review. 2020;10(1):139-162.
G M, G MI, J M. "End-of-Life Care Education Needs OF Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study." Annals of Nursing and Practice. 2020;7(1).
Ombongi FO, Absaloms HO, Kibet PL. "Energy Efficient Resource Allocation in Millimeter-Wave D2D Enabled 5G Cellular Networks." Engineering, Technology and Applied Science Research (ETASR). 2020;10(4):6152-6160.
Mwangi P, Muvengei O, MBUYA TO, Ndeto M. "Energy Optimisation of a Single Toggle Jaw Crusher using Discrete Element Method." Journal of Sustainable Research in Engineering. 2020;5(4):180-193. Abstracthttps://jsre.jkuat.ac.ke/index.php/jsre/article/view/98

Comminution process has always been associated with very low energy efficiencies. Most of the energy during
comminution is lost through noise, heat and vibrations. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the optimal operating parameters of a comminution machine. In this research, the efficiency of a jaw crusher has been optimised using Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Discrete Element Method (DEM) techniques. DEM, even though a powerful tool, demands high computational capabilities hence a scaled down jaw crusher was used for simulation purposes. The GA codes were used in determining the critical velocity and also in developing the equation for up-scaling the jaw crusher. Critical parameters which affect the power consumption of a jaw crusher are toggle speed, throw and reduction ratio. These parameters were varied during the simulation as guided by the design of experiment technique. In addition, a Bonded Particle Model (BPM), was used in modelling the rock used in the simulation. A BPM model gives more realistic results than Particle Replacement Model (PRM) and Fast Breakage Model (FBM). To create the BPM of an irregularly shaped rock, custom API factory was coded in C++ and loaded to EDEM software. At the end of this research, the optimal energy efficiency was obtained as 59.7758% at a toggle speed of 157.7965 rpm, a throw of 33.445 mm and a reduction ratio of 4. A mathematical model showing the relationship between energy efficiency and process parameters was also developed.

Mwangi M, Kituyi E, Ouma G. "Enhancing adoption of climate services through an innovation systems approach." Scientific African. 2020:e00445. Abstractdoi.org

Abstract
Recent years have marked the emergence of the innovation systems approach as a shift from the conventional linear models of technology transfer. Linear technology diffusion models hinder participatory approaches of local actors such as smallholder farmers and regards them as spectators in the development process, which impedes wide adoption of technology by the intended beneficiary. This article sought to understand the potential of the innovations systems approach as an incentive to enhance the adoption of climate services by smallholder farmers through regarding them and other relevant stakeholders as part of the process, fostering knowledge sharing and interactive learning. The methodology included stakeholder/actor identification, mapping of stakeholder linkages, capacity building and active involvement of stakeholders through the climate services process. The results showed that unlike the conventional linear knowledge delivery process, the innovation systems approach takes into consideration the complex processes that are highlighted by non-linear processes, feedback loops, and other complex interactions that occur among heterogeneous actors. As such in place of the linear knowledge delivery approach, a more systems approach is necessary to help mobilize science and technology such as climate services to deliver benefits, which has the potential to enhance access, salience, credibility, and legitimacy of the scientific information.

Keywords
Innovation systems approach; Climate services; Stakeholder linkages; Adoption

Nyawade S, Gitari HI, Karanja NN, Gachene CKK, Schulte-Geldermann E, Sharma K, Parker ML. "Enhancing Climate Resilience of Rain-Fed Potato Through Legume Intercropping and Silicon Application.". 2020.
Bauza V, Madadi V, Ocharo R, Nguyen TH, Guest JS. "Enteric pathogens from water, hands, surface, soil, drainage ditch, and stream exposure points in a low-income neighborhood of Nairobi, Kenya." Science of The Total Environment. 2020;709:135344. AbstractScience of The Total Environment

Description
Child exposure to fecal-oral pathogens occurs through several transmission pathways. However, the relative importance of different exposure points for pathogen transmission both inside and outside households is not well understood. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the urban slum of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya, collecting 237 environmental samples from 40 households from source water, stored drinking water, caregiver hands, child hands, household surfaces, soil, standing water, open drainage ditches, and streams. We quantified the fecal indicator Escherichia coli and the enteric pathogens of adenovirus, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and Vibrio cholerae. At least one enteric pathogens was detected in 13% of household stored water, 47% of hand, 46% of table surface, 26% of plate surface, 75% of floor surface, 96% of soil, 56% of standing water, 77% of drainage ditch …

Bauza V, Madadi V, Ocharo R, Nguyen TH, Guest JS. "Enteric pathogens from water, hands, surface, soil, drainage ditch, and stream exposure points in a low-income neighborhood of Nairobi, Kenya." Science of The Total Environment. 2020;709(March 2020):135344.
Okumu MO, Mbaria JM, Gikunju JK, Mbuthia PG, Madadi VO, Ochola FO. "Enzymatic activity and brine shrimp lethality of venom from the large brown spitting cobra (Naja ashei) and its neutralization by antivenom." BCM Research Notes. 2020;13(25):1-7.
Urinayo V. KODKA. "Erratic Rainfall Patterns Impact on Water Quality of Yanze River, Kigali Rwanda." Journal of Climate Change and Sustainability. 2020;3(2):49-57.
Wanjala G, Ongosi BO. "Establishing the Impact of Double-Intake Programmes on the Physical Infrastructural Learning Environment at the University of Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge . 2020;5(2):17-29 .abstract.pdf
Kipchirchir IC. "ESTIMATINGAN EXPONENTIALLY DECAYINGFUNCTION OF RATE PARAMETER OF APOISSON PROCESS." Advances and Applications in Statistics. 2020;6(1):1-17. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we consider point estimation of an exponentiallydecaying function of rate parameter of Poisson process usingdiscrete (increments) and continuous (interarrival times) variablesundermaximum likelihood and minimum variance paradigms. It isfound that for increments, momentsof estimators are in terms ofelementary function-the exponential function whereas for interarrivaltimes, moments of estimators are in terms of special functions-modified Bessel function ofthethirdkind for maximum likelihoodestimators and confluent hypergeometric function for the uniformlyminimum variance unbiased estimators. Behaviourally, the momentsmirror the exponentially decaying function of. The maximumlikelihood estimators are biased, however, it is found thatasymptoticunbiasedness forfixedn wheren is the sample size corresponds to a

O OT, O. KD, N. MJ. "Evaluating Superplasticizer Compatibility in the Production of High Performance Concrete using Portland Pozzolana Cement CEM II/B-P." SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering. 2020;Vol. 7(6):92-100.
Peter Aweer Duot Ajak, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Wanyoike MMM. "Evaluation of Dairy Cattle Productivity in Smallholder Farms in Nyeri County, Kenya." East African Journal of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2020;2(1).
"Evaluation of Stakeholders Preparedness And Secondary Education in Nakuru County-Kenya Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP)ISSN: 2708-261X. 2020;Vol.1(Issue 2):PP.95-114.
N. MJ. "Evaluation of Stiffnesss of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Dry and Green Bamboo." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;Vol 10(4):676-687.
Ronoh M, Chirove F, Wairimu J, Ogana W. "Evidence-based modeling of combination control on Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS dynamics." PloS one. 2020;15(11):0242491. AbstractWebsite

We formulate a sex-structured deterministic model to study the effects of varying HIV testing rates, condom use rates and ART adherence rates among Adolescent Girls and Young Women (AGYW) and, Adolescent Boys and Young Men (ABYM) populations in Kenya. Attitudes influencing the Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS control measures both positively and negatively were considered. Using the 2012 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) microdata we constructed our model, which we fitted to the UNAIDS-Kenya youth prevalence estimates to understand factors influencing Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS prevalence trends. While highly efficacious combination control approach significantly reduces HIV/AIDS prevalence rates among the youth, the disease remains endemic provided infected unaware sexual interactions persist. Disproportional gender-wise attitudes towards HIV/AIDS control measures play a key role in reducing the Kenyan youth HIV/AIDS prevalence trends. The female youth HIV/AIDS prevalence trend seems to be directly linked to increased male infectivity with decreased female infectivity while the male youth prevalence trend seems to be directly associated with increased female infectivity and reduced male infectivity.

Magutu PO, Inyega JO, Nyaanga RO. Evidence-based training assessment approaches and methodologies in procurement planning and supply chain managemen. Knowledge Empowerment Foundation. ISBN: 978-81-942015-4-0; 2020.
N MJ, N OV. "Experimental Study on Behavoir of Lightweight Concrete with Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregates with Expanded Polystyrene." The Open Journal of Scientific and Research Publication. 2020;Vol 10(2):351-362.
Kabue KG, Njogu PM, Mwangi AN. "Exploring different approaches to improve the success of drug discovery and development projects." Futur. J. Pharm. Sci. 2020;6:27.
Muasya, Juliet N, Kahiga, Ruth W. "Exploring Men and Women Students Experiences of Sexual Harassment: A Case Study of one Public University in Kenya." International Journal of Gender and Women’s Studies . 2020;8 (2):122-130.
Mosenda E, Chemining'wa G, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Effect of Water Stress on Growth and Yield Components of Selected Spider Plant Accessions." Journal of Medicinally Active Plants. 2020;9:81-97. Abstract
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Mwangi WE. "Epidural Lidocaine and Medetomidine-Ketamine Anaesthesia in Feline Orthopaedic Surgery." International journal of veterinary sciences. 2020;9:164-167. Abstract
n/a
2019
N NB, O OT, O KD, N MJ. "Exploring the Possible Use of EN 197 CEM II/B-P and CEM IV/B-P in the Production of High-Performance Concrete.". In: IEK-EBK Conference. Diani, Kenya; 2019.
Ruto LC, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Mureithi S, Nyberg G. "Emerging forms of land market participation and implications on pastoralists’ livelihoods in Kenya.". In: 20th Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Washington DC, USA; 2019.
Mutwedu VB, Ayagirwe RBB, Bacigale SB, Mwema LM, Butseme S, Kashosi T, Mitima B, Manyawu GJ, Nyongesa AW. "Effect of dietary inclusion of small quantities of Mucuna pruriens seed meal on sexual behavior, semen characteristics, and biochemical parameters in rabbit bucks (Oryctolagus cuniculus)." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2019;51(5):1195-1202. Abstract

The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Mucuna pruriens seed meal (MSM) on sexual behavior, semen, and biochemical parameters in rabbit bucks. Twenty-four 12-week-old rabbit bucks weighing 1002 to 1156 g were randomly allocated to three experimental diets containing 0, 1.5, and 3% of MSM in a 3-month trial. Sexual behavior parameters such as mounting latency, mounting frequency, successful mounting frequency, intromission latency, and post ejaculatory interval were monitored at the end of the experiment by mating with receptive females. Thereafter, rabbits were weighed, stunned, and humanely sacrificed and testes, epididymis, and vas deferens were harvested for evaluation of organ weights and semen characteristics. Results indicate that supplementing rabbit diet with MSM induced a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in mounting latency (69.7%) and intromission latency (19.7%), while it significantly (P < 0.05) increased successful mounting frequency (60%) as well as relative weight of testis (33.3%) and vas deferens (54.5%). There was a dose-dependent increase (P < 0.05) in sperm motility (35.7%) and concentration (65.9%), serum albumin (19.1%) and protein concentration (9.9%), and a decrease in sperm morphological alterations (68.3%), serum cholesterol (13.4%), and urea (11.6%) in treatment groups where MSM was supplemented at 3% compared to controls. From the findings, it appears MSM is a potential enhancer of male reproductive performance that can be recommended to rabbit farmers for improving reproductive performance and quality of semen, hence a boon to reproduction and production in rabbit farming industry.

Marangu D, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia in children: A systematic review." Paediatr Respir Rev. 2019. Abstract

To describe the clinical-radiological-pathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of children with suspected exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP).

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-composite NPK fertilizer on growth and yield of maize, kale and capsicum29th Soil Science Society of Eastern Africa (SSSEA) held in Lake Naivasha Country Club in Naivasha town,Nakuru County from 18th-22nd Nov2019.". In: 29th Soil Science Society of Eastern Africa (SSSEA) . Lake Naivasha Country Club in Naivasha town, Nakuru County ; 2019.
Owino B, Ogacho A, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Odari V. "Effect of TiO2 Compact Layer on Photovoltaic Characteristics of TiO2/Nb2O5 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.". In: 10th International Conference of the African Materials Research Society (AMRS2019). Arusha, Tanzania, ; 2019.
Odhiambo SA, ZP Q, PM N, Kosgei RJ, AB K, Ayieko P, PK K, A O, Odawa FX, GN G, MK K, O K, O O. "Early Neonatal Outcomes among Mothers receiving variable doeses of Dexamethasone for Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes at Kenyatta National Hospital: A restrospective Cohort Study ." Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of East & Central Africa. 2019;30(2):54-61.Website
Winfred Sila, Gachuiri CK, John Recha, James Audho, Ojango JMK. "Economic Performance of Small Ruminants on Smallholder Farms in Climate Smart Villages of Nyando.". 2019.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Kaaria LM, Oduma JA, Kaingu CK, Mutai PC, Wafula DK. "Effect of Asparagus racemosus on selected female reproductive parameters using Wistar rat model.". 2019;6(4):199-204.
Kithinji AM. "The Effect of Bank Restructuring on Financial Performance Controlled by Customer Deposits: An Empirical Investigation of Commercial Banks in Kenya ." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR INNOVATIVE RESEARCH IN MULTIDISCIPLINARY FIELD. 2019;5(1):13-19. Abstract

Abstract: The ability of commercial banks to provide market knowledge, transaction efficiency and contract
enforcement create demand for its services in the financial markets. Commercial banks operating in Kenya have
undertaken restructuring so as to be more competitive, to restore bank solvency, to increase the banking sector
capacity for financial intermediation and to improve financial performance. Previous researches done on the aspects
of bank restructuring and financial performance found conflicting results and some of them did not include the
intervening effect of deposits on this relationship. The study is informed by the theory of financial intermediation,
agency theory, and the institutional theory. This study sought to investigate the relationship between bank
restructuring, deposits and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The population of the study was
the 44 commercial banks licensed and registered under the banking act to do business in Kenya but data availed
from financial statements of 39 commercial banks which were in operation for the period 2002 to 2014. Descriptive
and inferential data analysis methods were used to analyze the secondary data collected. The empirical findings
conclude that commercial banks use all the four types of bank restructuring which were financial, capital, operational
and asset restructuring. The findings of the first model revealed that capital restructuring, and asset restructuring
were the only variables found to have significant positive and negative influence respectively on the performance of
commercial banks in Kenya. In testing the second hypothesis, deposit were used as an intervening variable on the
relationship between bank restructuring and financial performance, where financial restructuring and capital
restructuring was found to significantly cause an increase in the profit margin of commercial banks while operational
restructuring and deposits were found to have a significant negative effect on bank profits. The composite variable
of financial services was not found to have a significant effect. Therefore, the research disclosed that operational
restructuring, and deposits did not influence banks profitability. The research concludes that the performance of most
commercial banks in Kenya is determined through restructuring banks’ financial and capital ratios The study
recommends that there is need to institute policy reforms geared towards viable restructuring and deposit
mobilization and that to continuously improve bank performance banks should encourage more borrowing and funds
from shareholders and banks need to continuously focus on restructuring rather than ownership.

Key Words: Bank Restructuring, Capital, Financial, Asset, Operational, Deposits.
1. INTRODUCTION:
Bank restructuring is usually undertaken to address the problems in individual banks experiencing

R. Mogwasi, D.K.Kariuki GMZ. "Effect of Farm Additives on the Potential Bioavailability of some Nutritional Elements from Kenyan Wild Plants." Biological Trace Elements. 2019;DOI.10.1007/s12011-019-01855-8.
Mutundi AN, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM, Leley PK, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Farm Saved Maize (Zea mays L.) Seed on Intensity of Foliage Diseases." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2019;11(8):45-57.
Gaudence N, Aimable N, MBUYA TO, Mose BR. "Effect of Fe, Mn and Sr on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Secondary Al-Si-Cu-Mg Cast Alloys." Journal of Engineering Research and Technology. 2019;8(5):284-289. Abstracthttp://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV8IS050281

This paper presents results on the effect of Sr, Fe and combined additions of Fe and Mn on the microstructure and tensile properties of a secondary Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy. The microstructure features of base alloy consisted mainly of a structure with primary Al-matrix, coarse acicular Si particles and intermetallic phases such as Al2Cu and AlCuNi. When 0.02%Sr was added to the base alloy, coarse acicular Si particles were modified to a fine fibrous form. With addition of 0.38%Fe, results in the formation of large eutectic silicon particles and Fe rich intermetallic. Moreover, when 0.45%Mn was added in combination with 0.9%Fe, the Al2Cu, and -AlFeMnSi with Chinese script morphology were identified. It is noticed that after T6 heat treatment, the Si particles are seen to spheroidize and fragment while the Al2Cu phases dissolve completely. These changes lead to improved mechanical performance of the alloy. The addition of strontium decreases the ultimate Tensile strength and increases percent elongation while addition of low iron and iron with manganese decreases UTS and percent elongation in the as cast condition. T6 heat treatment increases the ultimate tensile strength while ductility decreases due to the fragmentation and spheroidization of eutectic silicon particles.

Muia SM, Kariuki MI. "Effect of Financial Management Practices on Performance of Savings and Credit Co-Operative Societies in Mombasa County, Kenya. ." Journal of Economics and Finance (IOSR-JEF). 2019;10(4):47-57.
Kithinji AM. "The Effect of Government Expenditure on Fiscal Deficits in Kenya." THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLEDGE . 2019;7(2):122-125. Abstract

Abstract:
In many economies world over, accountability and transparency as well as fiscal discipline in public expenditures take
priority as the main catalysts to economic growth. However, large fiscal deficits have been reported in most developing
countries which lead to inflation and currency devaluations. In this case, Kenyan government is no exception as its
expenditures are consistently way above its revenues. This study therefore attempted to assess the relationship between
government expenditure and fiscal deficit in Kenya. This study used a causal research design. Secondary data was
obtained from the financial records of National Bureau of Statistics, The Economic Surveys, Kenya Institute of Policy
Analysis and Research (KIPRA) and the Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR) ranging from year 2004/05 to
2010/11. Regression model was used to estimate the effect of government expenditure on fiscal deficits. The study
established that a unit increase in government expenditure, increases fiscal deficit of GDP. The study recommends that
the government of Kenya should come up with strong working policy to regulate the expenditure of its resources.

Keywords: Government expenditure, fiscal deficits, recurrent expenditures, development expenditures, budget deficits

Patrick G Mwangi, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mbugua PN, Isako T. "EFFECT OF GROWTH STAGE OF DUAL PURPOSE SORGHUM ON SILAGE QUALITY." American Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019;4.
Okumu OO, Muthomi JW, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu JH. "Effect of Legume Extracts on Germination, Seedling Health of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Soil Microorganisms." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2019;28(1):1-13.
Osore CK, Mwero JN. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Cement with Ground and Unground Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." International Journal of Scientific Research Publications. 2019;Vol 9(1):349-365.
A. MEWAE, W. OM, N. KC, MN R. "EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON DESORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR BEEF." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and Environment. 2019;5(1):1-7.
Catherine K, Fidahusein DS, Wanjiru LC, Maina WJ, Carla K, Hahn D, Serge F, Paul G, Thomas S. "Effect of Vernodalol, a Sesquiterpene Lactone, on Economically Important Agricultural Fungi." International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology. 2019;4(3):685-694. Abstract

The status of food insecurity in the world is devastating and fungal based diseases are a major cause that result in approximately 40-60% crop yield loss. Although synthetic chemical fungicides have been the preferred immediate method for management of fungal diseases, they have undesirable effects on human and animal health; causes environmental hazards, and are expensive. This study investigated whether the natural products from Vernonia glabra (Asteraceae) could be used as alternative biofungicide against disease causing agricultural fungi. Fractions were separated from V. glabra methanolic flower crude extract, using bioassay-guided fractionation. The single pure fraction yielded was selected for bioassay tests, and was isolated and characterized using chromatographic and spectrometric methods. In vitro bioassay test was performed against spore germination of Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides, Zymoseptoria tritici, Ustilago maydis, and Pyricularia oryzae. A known sesquiterpene lactone, Vernodalol was identified using high resolution mass spectrometry. In vitro bioassay results revealed that spores of Z. tritici were the most susceptible to Vernodalol, (42% spore inhibition) at 33 μg/100 μL compared to Azoxystrobin, a standard fungicide, (100% inhibition) against the fungus at 0.005 μg/100 μL. Vernodalol sprayed on 7 days old wheat seedlings that were inoculated with spores of Zymosepteria tritici, Puccinia triticina, and Helminthosporium sativum, at 50 and 200 ppm did not exhibit any disease control under greenhouse conditions. Azoxystrobin exhibited 90-100% disease control. V. glabra extracts have sesquiterpene lactones which are antifungal, however Vernodalol needs further research on its structural modification to increase efficacy against fungal pathogens.
Keywords:- Plant Fungal Diseases; Alternative Biofungicides; Sesquiterpene Lactones; Food Security.

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. Abstract

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. AbstractEnergy Procedia

Description

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations …

HM M. "Effective monitoring and Evaluation of progress in postgraduate training." Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture postgraduate induction workshop, Nakuru; 2019.
P G, H S, D M, L L, E B, T MD, L O, V W, C W, Z Q, E O, A G, R M. "Effectiveness of an Electronic Partogram: A Mixed-Method, Quasi- experimental Study." Global Health: Science and Practice. 2019;7(4):521-539. AbstractWebsite

Background: Timely identification and management of intrapartum complications could significantly reduce maternal deaths, intrapartum stillbirths, and newborn deaths due to hypoxia. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies monitoring of labor using the paper partograph as a high-priority intervention for identifying abnormities in labor and fetal well-being. This article describes a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of an Android tablet-based electronic, labor clinical decision-support application (ePartogram) in limited-resource settings.

Methods: The study, conducted in Kenya from October 2016 to May 2017, allocated 12 hospitals and health centers to an intervention (ePartogram) or comparison (paper partograph) group. Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in both groups received a 2-day refresher training in labor management and partograph use. The intervention group received an additional 1-day orientation on use and care of the Android-based ePartogram app. All outcomes except one compare post-ePartogram intervention versus paper partograph controls. The exception is outcome of early perinatal mortality pre- and post-ePartogram introduction in intervention sites compared to control sites. We used log binomial regression to analyze the primary outcome of the study, suboptimal fetal outcomes. We also analyzed for secondary outcomes (SBAs performing recommended actions), and conducted in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and SBAs to ascertain acceptability and adoptability of the ePartogram.

Results: We compared data from 842 clients in active labor using ePartograms with data from 1,042 clients monitored using a paper partograph. SBAs using ePartograms were more likely than those using paper partographs to take action to maintain normal labor, such as ambulation, feeding, and fluid intake, and to address abnormal measurements of fetal well-being (14.7% versus 5.3%, adjusted relative risk=4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95–8.19). Use of the ePartogram was associated with a 56% (95% CI=27%–73%) lower likelihood of suboptimal fetal outcomes than the paper partograph. Users of the ePartogram were more likely to be compliant with routine labor observations. SBAs stated that the technology was easy to use but raised concerns about its use at high-volume sites. Further research is needed to evaluate costs and benefit and to incorporate recent WHO guidance on labor management.

Conclusion: ePartogram use was associated with improvements in adherence to recommendations for routine labor care and a reduction in adverse fetal outcomes, with providers reporting adoptability without undue effort. Continued development of the ePartogram, including incorporating new clinical rules from the 2018 WHO recommendations on intrapartum care, will improve labor monitoring and quality care at all health system levels.

P G, H S, D M, L L, E B, T MD, L O, V W, C W, Z Q, E O, A G, R M. "Effectiveness of an Electronic Partogram: A Mixed-Method, Quasi- experimental Study." Global Health: Science and Practice. 2019;7(4):521-539. AbstractWebsite

Background: Timely identification and management of intrapartum complications could significantly reduce maternal deaths, intrapartum stillbirths, and newborn deaths due to hypoxia. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies monitoring of labor using the paper partograph as a high-priority intervention for identifying abnormities in labor and fetal well-being. This article describes a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of an Android tablet-based electronic, labor clinical decision-support application (ePartogram) in limited-resource settings.

Methods: The study, conducted in Kenya from October 2016 to May 2017, allocated 12 hospitals and health centers to an intervention (ePartogram) or comparison (paper partograph) group. Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in both groups received a 2-day refresher training in labor management and partograph use. The intervention group received an additional 1-day orientation on use and care of the Android-based ePartogram app. All outcomes except one compare post-ePartogram intervention versus paper partograph controls. The exception is outcome of early perinatal mortality pre- and post-ePartogram introduction in intervention sites compared to control sites. We used log binomial regression to analyze the primary outcome of the study, suboptimal fetal outcomes. We also analyzed for secondary outcomes (SBAs performing recommended actions), and conducted in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and SBAs to ascertain acceptability and adoptability of the ePartogram.

Results: We compared data from 842 clients in active labor using ePartograms with data from 1,042 clients monitored using a paper partograph. SBAs using ePartograms were more likely than those using paper partographs to take action to maintain normal labor, such as ambulation, feeding, and fluid intake, and to address abnormal measurements of fetal well-being (14.7% versus 5.3%, adjusted relative risk=4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95–8.19). Use of the ePartogram was associated with a 56% (95% CI=27%–73%) lower likelihood of suboptimal fetal outcomes than the paper partograph. Users of the ePartogram were more likely to be compliant with routine labor observations. SBAs stated that the technology was easy to use but raised concerns about its use at high-volume sites. Further research is needed to evaluate costs and benefit and to incorporate recent WHO guidance on labor management.

Conclusion: ePartogram use was associated with improvements in adherence to recommendations for routine labor care and a reduction in adverse fetal outcomes, with providers reporting adoptability without undue effort. Continued development of the ePartogram, including incorporating new clinical rules from the 2018 WHO recommendations on intrapartum care, will improve labor monitoring and quality care at all health system levels.

Ndono PW, Nzioka JM, Muigua K. "Effectiveness of the Nyumba Kumi community policing initiative in Kenya." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(2):63-67.
Githanga D. "The effects of aflatoxin exposure on Hepatitis B-induced immunity in Kenyan children." Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2019. 2019:1-14. Abstractresearchgate

Background: Globally, approximately three million children die each year from vaccine preventable infectious diseases mainly in developing countries. Despite the success of the expanded immunization program, not all infants and children around the world develop the same protective immune response to the same vaccine. A vaccine must induce a response over the basal immune response that may be driven by population-specific, environmental or socio-economic factors. Mycotoxins like aflatoxins are immune suppressants that are confirmed to interfere with both cell-mediated and acquired immunity. The mechanism of aflatoxin toxicity is through the binding of the bio-activated AFB1-8, 9-epoxide to cellular macromolecules. Methods: We studied Hepatitis B surface antibodies [anti-HBs] levels to explore the immune modulation effects of dietary exposure to aflatoxins in children aged between one and fourteen years in Kenya. Hepatitis B vaccine was introduced for routine administration for Kenyan infants in November 2001. To assess the effects of aflatoxin on immunogenicity of childhood vaccines Aflatoxin B1-lysine in blood serum samples were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence detection while anti-HBs were measured using Bio-ELISA anti-HBs kit. Results: The mean § SD of AFB1-lysine adducts in our study population was 45.38 § 87.03 pg/mg of albumin while the geometric mean was 20.40 pg/mg. The distribution of AFB1-lysine adducts was skewed to the right. Only 98/205 (47.8%) of the study population tested positive for Hepatitis B surface antibodies. From regression analysis, we noted that for every unit rise in serum aflatoxin level, anti-HBs dropped by 0.91 mIU/ml (¡0.9110038; 95% C.I ¡1.604948,¡0.21706). Conclusion: Despite high coverage of routine immunization, less than half of the study population had developed immunity to HepB. Exposure to aflatoxin was high and weakly associated with low anti-HBs antibodies. These findings highlight a potentially significant role for environmental factors that may contribute to vaccine effectiveness warranting further research.

W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of Azolla and inorganic nitrogen application on growth and yield of rice in Mwea Irrigation Scheme." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (3):1-8.
Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua SW. "Effects of butorphanol, meloxicam and butorphanol-meloxicam combination on wound healing after ovariohysterectomy in dogs." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2019;8(4):300-307.
Ang’u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Kong’ani LNS. "Effects of civil conflicts on global oil prices and their impact on the energy sector." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):12-18.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Kong'ani LNS. "Effects of civil conflicts on global oil prices and their impact on the energy sector." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):12-18.
W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of inorganic nutrient P and N application on Azolla biomass growth and nutrient uptake." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (02):1-9.
Dambolachepa HB, Muthomi JW, Mutitu EW, Njoroge SM. "Effects of postharvest handling practices on quality of groundnuts and aflatoxin Contamination." Novel Research in Microbiology Journal. 2019;3(3):396-414.
Marete GN, Kanja LW, Mbaria JM, Okumu MO, Ateku PA, Korhonen H, Joutsjoki V. "Effects of the Use of Good Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxin Levels in Maize Grown in Nandi County, Kenya." SCi. 2019;1(28)(MDPI):1-19.
Oyang WA, P.A K, J.I. K. "Effects of Varied Nitrogen Levels and Plant Density on Growth and Yield of Nerica 1 Rice Variety ." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS) . 2019;12(3):72-77.
Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Aboge GO. "Efficacy of Ivermectin, Liquid Paraffin, and Carbaryl against Mange of Farmed Rabbits in Central Kenya." Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2019;130:1487-1504.
Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Aboge GO. "Efficacy of ivermectin, liquid paraffin, and carbaryl against mange of farmed rabbits in central Kenya." Hindawi Journal of Tropical Medicine.. 2019;2019.
Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Aboge GO. "Efficacy of Ivermectin, Liquid Paraffin, and Carbaryl against Mange of Farmed Rabbits in Central Kenya." Journal of Tropical Medicine . 2019;Volume 2019, Article ID 5092845(https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5092845).
Njogu REN, Fodran P, Tian Y, Njenga LW, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Scheblykin I, Wendt OF, Wallentin C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium (III) 2-(1-naphthyl) pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene." Synlett. 2019;3007:792-798. AbstractJournal Publication

Description
A systematic study of the photophysical and electrochemical properties of triscyclometalated homoleptic iridium(III) complexes based on 2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine (npy) ligands is presented. A systematic investigation of ligand substitution patterns showed an influence on the lifetime of the excited state, with slight changes in the absorption and emission spectral features. Specifically, the emission lifetime of a complex of an npy ligand substituted with a strongly electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl group was longer than that of the corresponding complex with the electronically nonperturbed ligand (3.7 μs versus 1.5 μs). Electronically complementary ligands and complexes with orthogonal configurations showed slightly shorter excited state lifetimes compared with unsubstituted npy (1.4–3.0 μs). All complexes displayed reversible or quasireversible redox-couple processes, with the complex of the trifluoromethylated …

Njogu REN, Fodran P, Tia Y, Njenga LW, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Scheblykin I, Wendt OF, Wallentin C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium (III) 2-(1-naphthyl) pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene." Synlett. 2019;30(07):792-798. AbstractSynlett

Description
A systematic study of the photophysical and electrochemical properties of triscyclometalated homoleptic iridium(III) complexes based on 2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine (npy) ligands is presented. A systematic investigation of ligand substitution patterns showed an influence on the lifetime of the excited state, with slight changes in the absorption and emission spectral features. Specifically, the emission lifetime of a complex of an npy ligand substituted with a strongly electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl group was longer than that of the corresponding complex with the electronically nonperturbed ligand (3.7 μs versus 1.5 μs). Electronically complementary ligands and complexes with orthogonal configurations showed slightly shorter excited state lifetimes compared with unsubstituted npy (1.4–3.0 μs). All complexes displayed reversible or quasireversible redox-couple processes, with the complex of the trifluoromethylated …

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