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h, D.N. Mungai OP, R. Betch 2005. "Environment and Water Programme, Kenya Follow-up Mission." Royal Netherlands Embassy, Kenya, 35 pp; 2005. Abstract
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kITHIIA SM, Musingi JK. "Effects of Land Use Systems on the Water Quality within the Nairobi River Sub-catchment." Eastern and Southern Africa Geographical Journal. 1995;Vol. 6 No. 1, 1995 (1995):17-36 . AbstractWebsite

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

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(Phd) DRNAOMIGIKONYOWM. "EMPOWERING COMMUNITIES THROUGH ADULT EDUCATION: CLOSING THE CHASM THROUGH DISTANCE LEARNING.". In: Research in Adult Education. Makerere University, Uganda; 2009. Abstract

ABSTRACT
This paper is a brief description of how the University of Nairobi through distance learning is empowering and developing the communities through distance education. The paper outlines the background against which the paper is based and the problem statement. The objectives of this paper will be to examine the role of adult education in community empowerment and development; and to explore how distance education has closed the chasm of access to education by the adults from remote communities. The paper stresses the indisputable need for promoting community- driven development and educational approaches as an important starting point for adult education and learning as well as poverty reduction.

Key words: Adult education, closing the chasm, Poverty, community empowerments

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. DRNYANGAYAJAMESA. "Ethanol Fuel substitution Through Fumigation Kenya Journal of Science and Technology Series A vol. 10 No.1 (1996).". In: J Obst Gynecol East Cent. Afric. DR. MARK NELSON AWORI; PROF. PANKAJ G. JANI; 1996. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Elastoplastic Constitutive Parameters for Rice En-masse. African Journal of Science and Technology, Series A: 8(2): 15-25.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1990. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Energy for Agriculture Including Energy Plantation: Special case of Biogas Slurry system for Small Scale Kenyan Farmers. Papers presented at the Former DAAD scholarship holders seminar, October 22 - 24, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1987. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "The Environment and Waste Management in African Agriculture. Paper Presented at SESAE96 International Conference. Arusha Tanzania. 2- 4 October.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1996. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Edited book entitled "Primary School Visual Geographies - Africa" by V.P. Aggarwall, 1966.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1966. Abstract
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and 1. Chepkemoi J, R. N. Onwonga KKGNVM. "Efficiency and interactive effects of Tillage Practices, Cropping Systems and Organic Inputs on Soil Moisture Retention in Semi-Arid Yatta Sub-County, Kenya." Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences . 2014;3(2):145-156.
and 1. J. K. Kibugu, J.N. Makumi KNGMMMJMJJN. Effects of mycotoxins on the pathogenesis of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in mice. . Panafric Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya ; 2013.
15. Ngaboyisonga, Njoroge K, Kirubi D, Githiri SM. "Effects of field conditions, low nitrogen and drought on genetic parameters of protein and tryptophan concentrations in grain of quality protein maize." International Journal of Plant Production. 2008;2:137-151.
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3. Onwonga RN, Chemining’wa GN, Jumbo MB. "Enhancing yellow maize production for sustainable food and nutrition security in African ." Journa Kenya. East l of Science, Technology and Innovation. 2021;2(1):00.
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8. Gladys A. Mbaringong, Nyaboga EN, Wang’ondu V, Kanduma E. "Evaluation of Selected Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivars Grown in Kenya for Resistance to Bacterial Blight Disease." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(2):94-101.
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A A’oD, J.O O, M H. "The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances On Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya:." The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances On Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya. 2017;6(3):1-10.
A MRSOMBOKMARGARET. "Enterpreneurial behaviour: A manual for Higher Diploma in Enterpreneurship ILO, UNOP,.". In: The Kenya Times (Nairobi: November 27,1983), p.6. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1993. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
A MRKABURIAHF. "Efficiency of Myrsine africana, albizia anthelmintica and Hilderbrantia sepalosao herbal remedies against mixed natural sheep helminthsosis in Samburu district, Kenya. Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2004) 91: 7-12.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2004. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
A MRKABURIAHF. "Efficacy of Myrisine africana, Albezia anthelmintica and Hilderbrantia sepalosa herbal remedies against mixed natural sheep helminthosis in Samburu District, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of The First National Workshop on medicinal, aromatic and other under utilized plant species in Kenya held on 29th October to 3rd November 2001 at Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2001. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
A A Fabuyide, Cornish LA, Apata AO, Rading GO, Muobeni TN, Witcomb MJ, Jain PK, Borode JO. "Experimental Liquidus Surface Projection and Isothermal Section at 1000C of the V-Ni-C System, J of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion.". 2021.
A J N Ndathi, Nyangito MM, Musimba NKR, Mitaru BN. "Enhancing output oriented livestock improvement strategies in drylands of Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2011;23 ((6) ). Abstract

Farmers in the drylands practice mixed crop and livestock production systems. Both production systems have mutual relationships and understanding of target outputs in each system is important. With increasing demand for livestock products, livestock production is expected to be the major driving enterprise during a predicted food revolution. Targeting the most valued livestock species and the premium products or services from that species will improve the farmers’ interest and adoption of recommended technologies. In this cross sectional survey carried out in Kibwezi District, Kenya, this research team aimed at identifying the most valued livestock species and the premium products or services targeted. Systematic sampling method using road transects was used to select farmers to be involved in the survey. The pair wise ranking method was used in importance ranking during the survey and a focused group discussion held to discuss the survey results.

The farmers’ importance ranking of the livestock species was topped by the goat followed by chicken, cattle and sheep. Draft power was ranked most important followed by beef, milk and lastly manure. To produce the top ranked product (draft power) the most valued livestock age/sex class is the entire bulls followed by the heifers, mature females, castrates and lastly the calves. Therefore, to improve livestock production in Kibwezi District, we recommend that farmers focus on improving the performance of entire bulls for draft power and mature females for milk production.

Keywords: Cattle, draft power, livestock products, milk, mixed production systems

A Obiero, J Kalai OU. "Effect of Home Related Factors on Students Discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Education and Social Science. 2018;5(10):2415-1246 .
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Evaluating the Process and Products of a Programme".". In: Presented at the UNICEF second Sub-Regional workshop: Nazareth, Ethiopia, November 1982. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1982. Abstract
   
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Embree J E, Datta P, Stackiw W, Sekla L, Braddick J, Kreiss J K, Pamba HO, WAMOLA I.A . Increased risk of early measles in infants of HIV-1 seropositive mothers. J. Inf. Dis. 165: 262-7, 1992.". In: J. Inf. Dis. 165: 262-7, 1992. IBIMA Publishing; 1992. Abstract
An increase in illness due to measles is one of the potential consequences of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Africa. During a study of perinatal HIV transmission conducted in Kenya, the risk of acquiring measles before vaccination (9 months of age) was found to be 3.8 times higher in infants born to HIV-seropositive mothers than in control infants (10 [9%] of 109 vs. 5 [3%] of 194 infants; P = .02; odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-13.2). The majority of infants who developed measles in this study had significant sequelae related to their measles infection. The increased risk of measles appeared to be related to relatively lower anti-measles antibody titers detected in cord blood samples of affected infants born to HIV-seropositive mothers. However, 94% of all infants were susceptible to measles on the basis of ELISA testing at age 6 months regardless of maternal HIV serology. These observations highlight the need for improved measles vaccination strategies in Africa and for studies to delineate the effects of HIV infection on the incidence,
A. OA, Abuodha SO, Mwero JN. "The Effect of Specimen Shape on the Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fiber-Reinforced Concrete." The Open Civil Engineering Journal.. 2018;Vol 12:368-382.
A. OA, Abuodha SO, Mwero JN. "Experimental Investigation of the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fiber-Reinforced Concrete." Recent Advancement in Fiber Reinforced Concrete and Its Appications. 2018;Vol 6(3):53-60.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Evaluation Models".". In: Presented at the Institute of Adult Studies, University of Nairobi seminar, 1982. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1982. Abstract

 

 

A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Early Detection of of Lung Cancer.". In: The African Journal of Hospital Medicine. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2001. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Evaluation Models".". In: Presented at the Institute of Adult Studies, University of Nairobi seminar, 1982. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1982. Abstract
   
A. DROTIENOALFREDT. "An Event History Analysis of Factors influencing entry into Parenthood in Nairobi.". In: Published African Population studies. March 2006. E Afr Med J; 2004. Abstract
African Population Studies 19 (2): 42-62
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Ejide AO and WAMOLA I.A. The bacteriology of burns at Kenyatta National Hospital. EAMJ Vol 53 pp. 415 (1976).". In: EAMJ Vol 53 pp. 415 (1976). IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "The Effects of Aorta-Iliac Operations on Sexual Function in the Male Re- emphasis on possible Preventive Measures.". In: East African Medical Journal 56 (10): 490 - 497. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1979. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Education systems in East Africa. Trends and Issues".". In: The KAAD Association of Scholars in East Africa (KASEA) Seminar on the "Impact of Brain Drain of the Economic Situation on Higher Education in East Africa" 17th to 21st Sept 1997 Nairobi. Kenya (co- authored with Prof. J. Shiundu). Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1997. Abstract

 

 

A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Education systems in East Africa. Trends and Issues".". In: The KAAD Association of Scholars in East Africa (KASEA) Seminar on the "Impact of Brain Drain of the Economic Situation on Higher Education in East Africa" 17th to 21st Sept 1997 Nairobi. Kenya (co- authored with Prof. J. Shiundu). Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1997. Abstract
   
A. MEWAE, W. OM, N. KC, MN R. "EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON DESORPTION ISOTHERMS FOR BEEF." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and Environment. 2019;5(1):1-7.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "English M, Ngama M, Musumba C, Wamola B, Bwika J, Mohammed S, Ahmed M, Mwarumba S, Ouma B, McHugh K, Newton C.Causes and outcome of young infant admissions to a Kenyan district hospital. Arch Dis Child. 2003 May;88(5):438-43.". In: Arch Dis Child. 2003 May;88(5):438-43. IBIMA Publishing; 2003. Abstract
AIMS: To provide a comprehensive description of young infant admissions to a first referral level health facility in Kenya. These data, currently lacking, are important given present efforts to standardise their care through the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) and for prioritising both health care provision and disease prevention strategies. METHODS: Prospective, 18 month observational study in a Kenyan district hospital of all admissions less than 3 months of age to the paediatric ward. RESULTS: A total of 1080 infants were studied. Mortality was 18% overall, though in those aged 0-7 days it was 34%. Within two months of discharge a further 5% of infants aged <60 days on admission had died. Severe infection and prematurity together accounted for 57% of inpatient deaths in those aged <60 days, while jaundice and tetanus accounted for another 27%. S pneumoniae, group B streptococcus, E coli, and Klebsiella spp. were the most common causes of invasive bacterial disease. Hypoxaemia, hypoglycaemia, and an inability to feed were each present in more than 20% of infants aged 0-7 days. Both hypoxaemia and the inability to feed were associated with inpatient death (OR 3.8 (95% CI 2.5 to 5.8) and 7.4 (95% CI 4.8 to 11.2) respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Young infants contribute substantially to paediatric inpatient mortality at the first referral level, highlighting the need both for basic supportive care facilities and improved disease prevention strategies.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Enlargements of the Prostate.". In: M. Med. Dissertation. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1975. Abstract
A clinical, radiological, histological, and geographical study of carcinoma of the esophagus in Kenya is reported. It was found that this cancer is diagnosed more often in males than in females, with a ration of 8:1 (Kenya Cancer Registry). The most common age in males and females is 50 to 59 years. The regions of the esophagus most commonly involved are the middle and lower thirds, in almost equal proportions. An unexplained tendency for the tumor to be poorly differentiated towards the lower third is noted. In addition a review on the possible etiological factors is presented.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Evaluating the Process and Products of a Programme".". In: Presented at the UNICEF second Sub-Regional workshop: Nazareth, Ethiopia, November 1982. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1982. Abstract

 

 

A.B R, M G, G.J W, a.w Wanhohi. "Education for Environmental Awareness’ in Nairobi. Social and Religious Concerns of E. Africa, A ." Education for Environmental Awareness’ in Nairobi. Social and Religious Concerns of E. Africa, A . 2005.
A.M H, Ongeri BO. "Effect of Islamic banking development on economic growth –A case of the Kenyan Economy." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2020;7(2).
Abakiri D, Rose O, Anthony M. "Effects of Domestic Gender Roles on Pupils’ Performance in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Public Primary Schools in Garba Tula District, Kenya ." Journal of Education and Practice . 2014;5( 2222-1735 (Paper) 2222-288X (Online)).
Abala DO. "Export propensity and intensity of Kenyan manufacturing firms: An Empirical Analysis." Journal of Emerging issues in Economics ,Finance and Banking (JEIFB) . 2013;2(2):616-634.
Abate A;, Wakhungu JW;, Mutiga ER. "Effect of feeding system on animal production and reproduction.".; 1992.
Abayo GO;, Ransom JK;, Oswald A;, Ariga ES;, Friesen D. "Effect Of Short-term Improved Fallow On Striga Infestation In Maize.".; 2000.
ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Elsharkawi S, Abdel Malek AK et al. 1991. Morphological features of foot impressions of Upper Egyptians. Proc 9th Ann conf Fac Med. Assiut Univ.". In: Proc 9th Ann conf Fac Med. Assiut Univ. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1991. Abstract
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Abea FBO. "Enterprise Risk Management." KASNEB Newsline. 2012;3 (July - September)(No. 3):3-14.
Abea FBO. "Enterprise Risk Management." KASNEB Newsline. 2012;July - September(Issue No. 3):Pg. 3-14.
Abinya ONA, Abwao HO, Bird P, Baraza R, BYAKIKA B, Kodwavwalla Y. Experience with breast cancer in a single oncology clinic in Nairobi.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2006.
Abinya NA, Mwanda WO, Maina JMD, Odhiambo AO, Oyiro PO, Mwanzi SA, Dindi E, Waweru A. "Exploring Occupational and Familial Risks for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia." Journal of US-China Medical Science . 2017;1(14):31-35.cml_risk_us-china_publ.pdf
Abong GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, Kabira JN. "Evaluation of selected Kenyan potato cultivars for processing into potato crisps." AGRICULTURE AND BIOLOGY JOURNAL OF NORTH AMERICA. 2010;1(5):886-893.
Abong GO;, Okoth MW. "Edward G. Karuri1, Jackson N. Kabira2 and Francis M. Mathooko3."; 2009. Abstract

Potato is an important crop in Kenya, with a major role in food and income security, being second only to maize in terms of utilization.• Production occurs mainly in the highlands (1500-3000 m above sea level).• Many potato varieties including Roslin Eburu, Roslin ...

Abong GO;, Okoth MW. "Edward G. Karuri1, Jackson N. Kabira2 and Francis M. Mathooko3."; 2009. Abstract

Potato is an important crop in Kenya, with a major role in food and income security, being second only to maize in terms of utilization.• Production occurs mainly in the highlands (1500-3000 m above sea level).• Many potato varieties including Roslin Eburu, Roslin ...

ABONG&#39; MRGEORGEOOKO. "Evaluation of selected Kenyan potato cultivars for processing into French fries.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol. 2 (3): 141 . Biosciences; 2009.
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, J.K I, J.N K. "Evaluation of selected Kenyan potato cultivars for processing into potato crisps." Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1(5): 886-893. 2010;1(5):886-893.potato_for_crisps_abstract_pdf.pdfWebsite
Abong' GO, Kabira JN, Okoth MW. "Enhancing b-carotene, ascorbic acid and sensory properties of potato crisps using carrot powder as a flavoring agent .". In: Trends and opportunities in the production, processing and consumption of staple foods crops in Kenya. Dresden: TUD Press; 2013.
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, Kabira JN. "Effect of packaging and storage temperature on the shelf life of crisps from four Kenyan potato cultivars." American Journal of Food Technology. 2011;6(10):882-892.2011_-_crisps_and_shelf_life.pdf
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Karuri EG, Kabira JN, Mathooko FM. "Evaluation of selected Kenyan potato cultivars for processing into French fries." Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences. 2009;2(3):141-147.
Abong'o DA, Onyatta JO, Mbugua H. "The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances on Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;6(3):1-10.
Abong’ GO, Kabira JN, Okoth MW. "Enhancing β-carotene, ascorbic acid and sensory properties of potato crisps using carrot powder as a flavoring agent.". In: Trends and opportunities in the production, processing and consumption of staple food crops in Kenya-Conference. Hotel intercontinental, Nairobi; 2013.flavored_crisps_for_staple_foods_conference_abstract.doc
Achieng BO, Nzuve FM, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM. "Evaluation of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes for resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2017;10(6):85-94.
Achieng AA, Gunga.O.Samson, Guantai.J.Mboroki. "East Africa Journal of Humanities and Science ." East Africa Journal of Humanities and Science . 2012.
Achieng J, Odenyo F. "Enhancing access to Information in the Gender Discourse: A case of University of Nairobi Library." Pathways to African Feminism and Development: Journal of African Women’s Studies . 2016.
Achilla R, Bulimo W, Schnabel D. "An Evaluation of the Epidemiology of Adenovirus Infections in Kenya Using a Sustained Laboratory-Based Sentinel Surveillance System." International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2008;12:e303-e304. AbstractWebsite
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Achola EA, Basweti NO, Barasa D. "EKEGUSII DP AND ITS SENTENTIAL SYMMETRY: A MINIMALIST INQUIRY." International Journal of Linguistics and Communication. 2015;2(2):93-107.
Achola EA, Basweti NO, Barasa D. "Ekegusii DP and its Sentential Symmetry: A Minimalist Inquiry." International Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2015;2(2):93-107.
ADAM PROFADAMMOHAMED. "Environmental Protection in the Tomsk Region of the Russian Federation: A Case Study.Environ Manage. 2000 Nov;26(5):585.". In: Environ Manage. 2000 Nov;26(5):585. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2000. Abstract

Implementation of environmental management in Russia is undergoing rapid changes. Federal responsibility rests with the Russian Federation State Committee for Environmental Protection (RFSCEP) and is delegated at regional level to local State Committees for Environmental Protection (SCEPs). This paper focuses on the functioning of the SCEP for Tomsk oblast' (region) in Siberia, which is strongly committed to forging constructive links with regional government, academia, industry, and environmental NGOs. Considerable difficulties exist for SCEPs in Russia, however, and prominent among these are (1) a rigidly vertical civil service structure, with separate organs having responsibility for different natural resources, persisting from Soviet times, which hinders effective intergrated and holistic environmental management; and (2) a lack of open access to environmental information from military and quasi-military sites

ADAMS DOLOO. "East Africa: One Identity or Multiple Identities?". In: East African Scenarios Project Research Compendium. NAIROBI: Society for International Development; 2007.
Addae-Mensah, Achenbach H, Thoithi G, Waibel R, Mwangi J. "Epoxychiromodine and other contituents of Croton megalocarpus." Phytochemistry. 1992;31:20552058.
ADHIAMBO MRSOSANJOL. "The Entrepreneur and Entrepreneurship.". In: Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT). ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract

This research examines the relationship between commercial banks (CBs) and the small enterprise sector (SES) and identifies constraints' which impede the flow of financial assistance from the commercial banks to the latter in Kenya. The variables that were examined included; requirements for successful loan application, lending levels, degree of risk attached to small enterprise lending, levels of economic impact and stages in business development at which banks become willing to support. For the small enterprises, the study sought to profile the business and its owner and, to examine its financing. The sampling units were drawn from CBs and SES within Nairobi. In data collection, questionnaires, interview and document review was employed. The study found that high interest rates and long processing procedures kept small businesses away from banks. The study established that, on the part of the banks, the entrepreneurs lacked business management skills and did not keep proper records. Moreover, the banks experienced general reproach from the small business owners, based upon conventional beliefs.

Aduda BO, Ravirajan P, Choy KL, Nelson J. "Effect of morphology on electron drift mobility in porous TiO2.". 2004.Website
Aduda BO. "ENERGY DEMAND, USAGE AND CONSEQUENCES: THE KENYAN CASE.". In: Conclave of Afro Asia Young Scientists. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research; Jakukur, Bangalore-560 64, India; 2010. Abstract

Kenya is a developing country aspiring to gain the status of an industrialized country by the year 2030. In pursuit of this political goal various policies and targets are being proposed and pursued. It has thus become very apparent that the stated goal would not be achieved unless there is sufficient exploitable energy available to meet the anticipated demand. To this end various options such as nuclear energy, exploration of oil, exploitation of the geothermal energy reservoirs, building of windmills for energy generation, solar energy, and biofuels are proposed. We discuss Kenya’s present situation and preparedness with respect to the stated goal and how these present and proposed sources of energy have impacted/will impact on the environment and climate and development.

Aduda J, Chogii R, Magutu PO. "AN EMPIRICAL TEST OF COMPETING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE THEORIES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FIRMS LISTED AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." European Scientific Journal. 2013;9(13). Abstractan_empirical_test_of_competing_corporate_governance_theories_on_the_performance_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

The focus of this study was on linking these variables to the contrasting and competing theories of Corporate Governance such as Agency Theory, Stewardship Theory, and Resource Dependence Theory, among others. The role of the Board as a corporate governance tool is widely acknowledged in much of the literature on Corporate Governance. Scholars and practitioners have sought to understand the relationship between various board composition variables and some measure of performance as a means of establishing what the significant board composition variables are and the likely effect of adding or dropping some of these variables in the process of establishing effective boards. This study investigated significance of the board composition variables of size of the board, proportion of outside directors, proportion of inside directors, and the role of CEO duality on firm performance. This study found that the overall regression models for firm performance for both the Return on Assets and Tobin Q ratio are significant. This means that the board composition variables cited above are important predictors of firm performance. The study also found that the significance of the individual variables in the overall specification models have differing significant variables on the basis of the measure of performance selected for the firm. For example, when firm performance is measured by the Return on Assets, the significant variable in the model is the size of the board. Under the Tobin Q ratio firm performance measure, on the other hand, proportion of outside directors is the significant variable. These results imply that under the ROA, there seems to be a dominance of the Resource Dependence Theory while under the Tobin Q ratio, the Agency Theory dominates. The study also found that most surveyed firms tended to favour outside directorships over inside directorships. The prevalence of outside directorships was twice as much as for inside directorships and is in favour of the Agency Theory. The study also found that surveyed firms tended to favour having different persons occupying the two positions of CEO and that of the Chairman of the Board which is in line with the Agency Theory.
Keywords: Corporate Governance, Firm Performance, Listed Firms, Nairobi Securities Exchange & Kenya

Aduda J, Chogii R, Murayi MT. "The Effect of Capital Market Deepening on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Applied Finance & Banking. 2014;4(1):141-159. Abstractthe_effect_of_capital_market_deepening_on_economic_growth_in_kenya.pdf

The capital market is important since it connects the financial sector with other non-financial sectors of the economy. This study examines the effect of Capital Market Deepening on economic growth in Kenya. Controversy exists among researchers on the role of deep capital markets in growth. The finance growth nexus forms the basis of the research with the capital markets assumed to have a supply leading effect on economic growth. This study aimed at addressing the issue by incorporating a measure of bond market turnover. The research objective was to determine the effect of capital market deepening on economic growth in Kenya. The study used data from the Nairobi Securities Exchange from 1992-2011 and GDP data from The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. The study therefore concludes that Capital Market Deepening has a positive effect on GDP growth in Kenya and therefore lends support to the finance growth nexus. The Capital market plays an important role in economic growth and therefore the study recommends the government should take policy initiatives to foster growth of the capital market and especially so the bond market which is instrumental in providing finance for development of the Vision 2030 socio economic blue print.

Aduda J, Chogii R, Magutu PO. "AN EMPIRICAL TEST OF COMPETING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE THEORIES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FIRMS LISTED AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." European Scientific Journal. 2013;9(14). Abstractan_empirical_test_of_competing_corporate_governance_theories_on_the_performance_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

The focus of this study was on linking these variables to the contrasting and competing theories of Corporate Governance such as Agency Theory, Stewardship Theory, and Resource Dependence Theory, among others. The role of the Board as a corporate governance tool is widely acknowledged in much of the literature on Corporate Governance. Scholars and practitioners have sought to understand the relationship between various board composition variables and some measure of performance as a means of establishing what the significant board composition variables are and the likely effect of adding or dropping some of these variables in the process of establishing effective boards. This study investigated significance of the board composition variables of size of the board, proportion of outside directors, proportion of inside directors, and the role of CEO duality on firm performance. This study found that the overall regression models for firm performance for both the Return on Assets and Tobin Q ratio are significant. This means that the board composition variables cited above are important predictors of firm performance. The study also found that the significance of the individual variables in the overall specification models have differing significant variables on the basis of the measure of performance selected for the firm. For example, when firm performance is measured by the Return on Assets, the significant variable in the model is the size of the board. Under the Tobin Q ratio firm performance measure, on the other hand, proportion of outside directors is the significant variable. These results imply that under the ROA, there seems to be a dominance of the Resource Dependence Theory while under the Tobin Q ratio, the Agency Theory dominates. The study also found that most surveyed firms tended to favour outside directorships over inside directorships. The prevalence of outside directorships was twice as much as for inside directorships and is in favour of the Agency Theory. The study also found that surveyed firms tended to favour having different persons occupying the two positions of CEO and that of the Chairman of the Board which is in line with the Agency Theory.
Keywords: Corporate Governance, Firm Performance, Listed Firms, Nairobi Securities Exchange & Kenya

Adwet WM, Pant HJ, MANGALA MJ,... "Evaluation of hydraulic performance of an anaerobic pond using radiotracer technique." Applied Radiation and …. 2019. AbstractWebsite

A radiotracer investigation was carried out in a wastewater stabilization pond using radiotracer technique. Residence time distribution (RTD) of wastewater was measured using Iodine-131 as a radiotracer. The measured RTD was treated and mean residence time …

Agwanda A, and BP, Kahasakhala A, Owuor S. "The effect of economic crisis on youth precariousness in Nairobi: An analysis of itinerary to adulthood of three generations of men and women in Nairobi .". In: at Union of African Population Studies Conference. Tunis, Tunisia: E Afr Med J; 2003. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda A, and MM, Omollo D. "Early Teenage Pregnancy in South Nyanza.". In: Population of Association of America Annual Meeting . Minneopolis USA: E Afr Med J; 2003. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda AO. "The effect of economic crisis on youth precariousness in Nairobi: An analysis of itinerary to adulthood of three generations of men and women.". In: Document De Travail DT/2004/04 Development et insertion Internationale (DIAL) http://www.dial.prd.fr/dial . E Afr Med J; 2004. Abstract

African Population Studies 19 (2): 42-62

Ajuoga, P. O, A., Mwabora JM, Aduda BO. "Effects of concentration of dopant states on photoactivity in niobium-doped TiO2.". In: 7th College on Thin Film Technology. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2006. Abstract

Various studies have revealed that incorporation of cations of valence higher than that of the parent cations e.g., W6+, Ta5+, Nb5+ into the crystal matrix of TiO2 enhances its rate of photoactivity. In the present study, we propose incorporation of Nb5+, pentavalent dopant into TiO2 matrix in order to attempt to establish its optimal concentration for maximum photoactivity. The niobium-doped TiO2 was prepared by high temperature diffusion of the doping cations into the crystal matrix of the parent oxide. The doped samples were found to change from white to light yellow/brown. XRD analysis for anatase-rutile content of the doped samples was performed. At low mol% Nb (0.1197 – 0.2360) in TiO2, the crystalline structure was predominantly rutile at calcinations temperature of 650 oC, but at high mol% Nb (> 1.0000), a relatively higher anatase content was observed at the same calcinations temperature for a period of 2.5 hours.

Akala J, Maithya PM. "Effects of Teacher Recruitment and Utilization Policy on Quality of Secondary School Education in Kenya." IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME) . 2014;Vol.4(No.1 Ver.III):10-17.
Akaranga SI, Makau BK. "Ethical considerations and their applications to Research: A case of the University of Nairobi." Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research. 2016;3(12):1-9.429-825-2-pb.pdf
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Establishment of Cold Storage Facilities a Strategic Landing Beaches along Lake Victoria', in Dying Lake Victoria (1996) Annex IX pp 77.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Echessah P. and C. Ackello-Ogutu, Editors (2002). Opportunities and Challenges of Intra-regional Trade in East and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
Akinyeye R, Michira I, Botha S, Baker P, Iwuoha E. "Electrocatalytic Sensor Applications of Nanostructured Polypyrolles and Polythiophenes.". In: Recent advances in Electroanalytical chemistry. Vol. T.C. 37/661(2), Fort P.O., Trivandrum-695 023, kerala, India. Keralala, India: Transworld Network; 2007:.
Alasow KB. Efficiency of light curing units in Dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.; 2010. Abstract

Background: To achieve adequate cure, a resin composite restoration must be
exposed for a specified duration of time to a light of sufficient intensity and the right
wavelength. However, some commonly used light curing units (LCUs) may yield
inadequately cured restorations due to their insufficient light intensity output.
Furthermore, the efficiency of light curing units in dental clinics and the extent to which
dentists practice the recommended maintenance techniques is largely unknown.
Objective: To determine the efficiency of Light Curing Units (LCUs) in dental clinics in
Nairobi, Kenya.
Study design: A laboratory-based, cross-sectional analytical study.
Study area: The study was set in private and public dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. A
total of 83 light curing units selected through a convenient sampling procedure were
used.
Materials and methods: The light intensity output of light curing units in dental clinics
was measured using a digital dental radiometer and the result entered in a data
collection form. Each light curing unit was then used to polymerise two cylindrical resin
composite specimens made using custom-made split brass moulds; one measuring
4mm in diameter and 6mm in thickness used to determine the depth of cure (DOC) and
the other 8mm in diameter and 3mm in thickness used to determine the surface
hardness by using a Vickers Hardness tester. Within 6-7 hours of fabrication, the depth
of cure specimens were immersed in a capsule containing 99%- acetone solvent which
was then vibrated in a mixing device. The DOC was calculated from the undissolved
length of the specimen. The surface Vickers Hardness was evaluated by making three
xv
surface indentations with a diamond indenter using a load of 200g and a dwell time of
15-seconds. A conversion table was used to convert measurements from the diamond
indentations into hardness numbers. The light intensity output and the depth of cure and
surface micro-hardness numbers of the resin composite specimens were then used to
assess the efficiency of each dental light curing unit. Three main components of the
maintenance history of the light curing units, as well as the age and type of the light
curing unit were also recorded.
The data was entered into a computer using SPSS version 12. The independent sample
t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Post Hoc test and Chi-square tests
were used for data analysis. The results were summarized in tables and figures.
Results: Of the 83 LCUs studied, 43(51.8%) were LED and 39(47.0%) were OTH and 1
(1.2%) was PAC light.
LCU type and light intensity output, DOC and hardness: Mean light intensity for OTH
and LED lights was 526.59mW/cm2 and 493.67mW/cm2 respectively (p=0.574), while
the mean DOC for OTH lights was 1.71mm and LED was 1.67mm (p=0.690). Mean
VHN for LED was 57.44 and for OTH was 44.14 (p=0.713). Light curing unit type had no
statistically significant effect on DOC, surface hardness and the intensity of the light.
Effect of age of LCU on light intensity output, hardness and DOC: Mean light intensity
for LCUs ::;5years was 596.03mW/cm2 and 363.17mW/cm2 for units> 5years old. Age
showed a significant effect on light intensity (p=O.024). The mean DOC for the two age
groups was 1.74mm and 1.57mm respectively (p=O.073). For surface micro-hardness,
the ::; 5years and > 5years age groups gave a mean VHN of 58.81 and 51.46
respectively (p=O.1)
XVI
Efficiency of the LCUs: when intensity was used to measure efficiency, 48 (57.8%)
LCUs were efficient and 35 (42.2%) were inefficient. Only the LCU age significantly
affected efficiency by light intensity output (p=O.008). Only 24 (28.9%) LCUs gave
sufficient DOC as opposed to 59 (71.1%), which gave insufficient DOC. Of the units
tested for surface micro-hardness, 15 (25.9%) had adequate surface micro-hardness
while the rest (43 or 74.1%) had inadequate surface micro-hardness. The type of LCU
and its age did not significantly influence efficiency as measured using depth of cure
and surface micro-hardness of the resin restoration.
On the whole, 11 (19%) of the LCUs which had all the three tests of efficiency done
were satisfactory in all the 3 aspects.
Conclusions: Eleven (19%) of the light curing units used in Nairobi dental clinics were
efficient when subjected to a combined light intensity, and composite resin depth of cure
and surface hardness evaluation, and that the type and maintenance history of a LCU
had no significant influence on its efficiency. Age had a significant influence on the light
intensity of the curing units - there was a decrease in light intensity output with increase
in age of the units. There was a non-linear relationship between the light intensity output
of a LCU and the depth of cure and surface micro-hardness of the cured composite.

Alekseenko SV, Shkorbatova YP, Toporova SN. "Effects of {Strabismus} and {Monocular} {Deprivation} on the {Sizes} of {Callosal} {Cells} in {Cortical} {Fields} 17 and 18 in the {Cat} {Brain}." Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology. 2014;44:101-106. AbstractWebsite

Structural changes in the visual cortex were studied in conditions of deranged binocular experience by assessing the sizes (body areas) of callosal cells in fields 17 and 18 in monocularly deprived cats and in cats with convergent strabismus. These cells were detected by injection of horseradish peroxidase into columns in cortical fields 17 and 18 and the fields 17/18 transitional zone. In both groups, the mean size of callosal cells in field 17 was greater than normal, though this difference in field 18 was seen only in monocularly deprived cats. Differences in the mean sizes of field 17 and 18 cells in cats of the study groups were found to be due to the number of large cells. In cats with strabismus, callosal cells of size greater than 200 μm2 accounted for 58% of cells in field 17 and 8% in field 18. In monocularly deprived cats, there was no difference in the proportions of large callosal cells in these fields (28% and 26%, respectively). These data provide evidence that cytoarchitectonic changes occurred in layers of the visual cortex, serving as sources of interhemisphere connections, in conditions of early derangement of binocular experience.

Alekseenko SV, Shkorbatova YP, Toporova SN. "Effects of {Strabismus} and {Monocular} {Deprivation} on the {Sizes} of {Callosal} {Cells} in {Cortical} {Fields} 17 and 18 in the {Cat} {Brain}." Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology. 2014;44:101-106. AbstractWebsite

Structural changes in the visual cortex were studied in conditions of deranged binocular experience by assessing the sizes (body areas) of callosal cells in fields 17 and 18 in monocularly deprived cats and in cats with convergent strabismus. These cells were detected by injection of horseradish peroxidase into columns in cortical fields 17 and 18 and the fields 17/18 transitional zone. In both groups, the mean size of callosal cells in field 17 was greater than normal, though this difference in field 18 was seen only in monocularly deprived cats. Differences in the mean sizes of field 17 and 18 cells in cats of the study groups were found to be due to the number of large cells. In cats with strabismus, callosal cells of size greater than 200 μm2 accounted for 58% of cells in field 17 and 8% in field 18. In monocularly deprived cats, there was no difference in the proportions of large callosal cells in these fields (28% and 26%, respectively). These data provide evidence that cytoarchitectonic changes occurred in layers of the visual cortex, serving as sources of interhemisphere connections, in conditions of early derangement of binocular experience.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Entrenching Animal welfare in Policy and Legislations Frameworks: Is Africa ready? (2010). Mogoa, E.M. and Aleri, J.W.". In: Africa Animal Welfare Action (AAWA) Conference 2010 . AAWA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Evaluation of a Portable Blood Lead Analyzer as an Alternative to Graphite Furnace AtomicAbsorption SpectrophotometerTom M. Olewe*; Mutuku A. Mwanthi; Joseph K. Wang.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences, (2008), Vol. 10:483-487. ISSN 1997-5902:. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Elizabeth, N., Kimani, V.N., Mwanthi, M.A. and Joyce O.Community Based Care in Resource Limited Settings: A Framework for Action, WHO (Book Publication).". In: A Framework for Action, WHO (Book Publication). 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Elizabeth Ngugi, Violet Kimani, Mutuku Mwanthi and Joyce Olenja, Community Based Care in Resource Limited Settings:.". In: A Framework for Action,WHO (Book publication ). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
Alfred A, Musembi RJ, Waita SM, Mwabora JM. Effects of Oxygen Partial Pressure and Substrate Temperature on Optical Properties of Sputter Deposited Thin Films. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

The effects of oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperature on optical properties of CuCrO_2 thin films deposited on float glass substrate by reactive DC magnetron sputtering system using CuCr alloy targets have been studied. The sputtering was performed in Argon (Ar) and Oxygen (O_2) atmosphere and the substrate temperature varied up to 263 °C. The optical constants: refractive index, n, extinction coefficient, k, dielectric constant, ε, and absorption coefficient, α, at different oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperatures were determined from measured transmittance and reflectance data fitted in SCOUT software for wavelength range 200-2247 nm. The optical studies gave energy band gap of about 2.47 eV at 0.153 μbar Po2 and 3.7 eV at 263 °C substrate temperature. The values obtained for Urbach energy were 0.27-0.31 eV for samples prepared at Po2 between 0.153-0.187 μbar and 0.81-1.45 eV for those prepared at substrate temperature of 263 °C and as-grown film, respectively.

Alison C. Roxby1*, Alison L. Drake2 FO-O10 JK7 BR2 DM7 JN 4 N. "Effects of Valacyclovir on Markers of Disease Progression in Postpartum Women Co-Infected with HIV-1 and Herpes Simplex Virus-2.". 2012. Abstractplosone

Objective: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression has been shown to reduce HIV-1 disease progression in non-
pregnant women and men, but effects on pregnant and postpartum women have not been described.
Methods: We analyzed data from a cohort of Kenyan women participating in a randomized clinical trial of HSV-2
suppression. Pregnant HIV-1-seropositive, HSV-2-seropositive women who were not eligible for antiretroviral therapy (WHO
stage 1–2, CD4.250 cells/ml) were randomized to either 500 mg valacyclovir or placebo twice daily from 34 weeks gestation
through 12 months postpartum. Women received zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine for prevention of mother-to-child
HIV-1 transmission. HIV-1 progression markers, including CD4 count and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, were measured serially.
Multivariate linear regression was used to compare progression markers between study arms.
Results: Of 148 women randomized, 136 (92%) completed 12 months of postpartum follow-up. While adjusted mean CD4
count at 12 months (565 cells/ml placebo arm, 638 cells/ml valacyclovir arm) increased from antenatal levels in both arms, the
mean CD4 count increase was 73 cells/ml higher in the valacyclovir arm than placebo arm (p = 0.03). Mean increase in CD4
count was 154 cells/ml in the valacyclovir arm, almost double the increase of 78 cells/ml in the placebo arm. At 12 months,
adjusted HIV-1 RNA levels in the placebo arm increased by 0.66 log10 copies/ml from baseline, and increased by only 0.21
log10 copies/ml in the valacyclovir arm (0.40 log10 copies/ml difference, p = 0.001).
Conclusion: Women randomized to valacyclovir suppressive therapy during pregnancy and postpartum had greater
increases in CD4 counts and smaller increases in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels than women in the placebo arm. Valacyclovir
suppression during pregnancy and breastfeeding may improve outcomes and delay antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1/HSV-
2 co-infected women.

Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Environmental Planning and Management. 2020;63(2).
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
AM K, WO O. "Exploring the intricacies of contemporary PhD research process." East Afri Med J. 2015;2015; 92 (6): 308-314(2015; 92 (6): 308-314):2015; 92 (6): 308-314.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Effect of the chronic dose of diazepam on the intensity and characteristics of the precipitated abstinence syndrome in the dog. Sloan JW, Martin WR, Wala E.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jun;265(3):1152-62.". In: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jun;265(3):1152-62. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
The ability of different chronic doses of diazepam to produce dependence was studied in groups of six dogs who received diazepam p.o. (0.05625, 0.225, 0.5625, 4.5, 9 or 36 mg/kg/day) every 8 hr. After 5 to 6 weeks of stabilization, the intensity of precipitated abstinence was measured by benzodiazepine-precipitated abstinence scores (BPAS) after the p.o. administration of graded doses of the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil (0.66, 2, 6, 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg or a placebo). A modified Latin square design was used. Dogs receiving the two lowest stabilization doses of diazepam showed only liminal signs of precipitated abstinence even with 72 mg/kg of flumazenil. The intensity of the precipitated abstinence syndrome increased with the stabilization dose of diazepam. There was also a dose-related increase in BPAS for increasing doses of flumazenil for all doses of diazepam except the 9-mg/kg/day dose. Not only were quantitative differences observed in precipitated abstinence signs for different levels of diazepam dependence, but the pattern of abstinence signs differed also. Dogs dependent on high doses of diazepam were more sensitive to flumazenil than those dependent on lower doses. Furthermore, seizure activity was seen only in dogs dependent on 9 and 36 mg/kg/day of diazepam. BPAS increased linearly with plasma and brain total and free levels of the sum of diazepam and its metabolites (oxazepam and nordiazepam), but not with free plasma and brain levels of diazepam.
Amare GG, Degu A, Njogu P, Kifle ZD. "Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of the leaf latex of Aloe weloensis (Aloaceae) against plasmodium parasites." Evid-based Complem. Altern. Med. 2021;2021:6664711.
Ambrose SH, Kyule MD. "The evolution of modern human behavior in East Africa.". In: International Council of African Museums. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 2004. Abstract

Genetic evidence suggests an African origin for modern human ANATOMY, and archaeological evidence suggests a subSaharan African origin for modern
human BEHAVIOR. Testing the latter hypothesis requires a reliable, precise and accurate chronology for the first appearance of innovations considered hallmarks of the origin of modern human behavior, including ground bone tools, art, ornamanentation, sophisticated stone tool technologies and resource exploitation patterns, and systematic trade over long distances. These innovations are conventionally associated with the transition from the Middle to the Later Stone Age. This transition may be earlier than the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in N. Africa and W. Eurasia, but this is difficult to prove because most chronometric techniques that can be used in this time range (40-100,000 years ago) are highly unreliable, particularly radiocarbon dating.

Advances in techniques of radiogenic argon dating (40Ar/39Ar) by single crystal laser fusion dating of volcanic tephra make it possible to obtain accurate and precise dates on eruptions as young as 2000 years old. The central and southern Rift Valley regions of Kenya have many Middle and early Later Stone Age sites with stratified volcanics. The primary sources of traded obsidian are in the central Rift and the southern Rift sites often have excellent bone preservation. Several archaeological sites with multiple stratified volcanic horizons have now been sampled in both areas of the Rift. In the southern Rift, test excavations have been conducted at four sites that have MSA and/or early horizons. Each site has two to four volcanic layers stratified within the archaeological deposits. Argon dating will be performed by Dr. Alan Deino at the Berkeley Geochronology Center, USA. Amino acid racemization of ostrich eggshell provides an additional means of dating archaeological sites. Dr. Gifford Miller of the University of Colorado, Boulder, has dated the top of an 8-meter thick Early LSA to MSA sequence to 32,000 BP. The shell also produced a radiocarbon date of 29,975 BP. The MSA/LSA transition occurs approximately 7 meters below this date, and one meter below a volcanic ash. The late MSA and transitional horizons have high frequencies of traded obsidian. The results of chronometric dating on the tephra from the transitional industries at two of these sites should make it possible to test the hypothesis for an east African origin for modern human behavior.

We thank the Office of the President for research clearance, the L.S.B. Leakey Foundation, the University of Illinois Graduate College and Research Board, and the National Museums of Kenya, for financial and/or logistical support for this research.

Ambrose SH, Deino A, Mwanzia D. Kyule, Steele I, Williams MAJ. "The emergence of modern human behavior during the Late Middle Stone Age in the Kenya Rift Valley.". In: Paleoanthropology Society Meetings. Adam’s Mark Hotel, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A; 2002. Abstract

Archaeological evidence suggests modern human behavior patterns emerged during the late Middle Stone Age (MSA) and early Later Stone Age (LSA) in Africa between 50 and 100 ka. Sites of this age are scarce and their chronologies are ambiguous. We report on excavations at new archaeological sites in the central and southern Kenya Rift Valley that contain late MSA and early LSA occurrences with stratified volcanic ashes (tephra) that are being dated by the 40Ar/39Ar technique and chemically fingerprinted for regional tephrostratigraphic correlation. Obsidian artifacts are being sourced to study mobility and interaction patterns.Marmonet Drift (GtJi15) is located in the Naivasha-Nakuru basin close to the main obsidian sources. Four main MSA horizons and twelve tephra are stratified in a 21 m paleosol sequence. Assemblages from the three earliest horizons contain radial cores and faceted platform flakes. The youngest horizon contains retouched points and has the most distant obsidian sources.Sites on the western margin of the southern Rift are 60-90 km from the major central Rift obsidian sources. Ntuka River 4 (Norikiushin, GvJh12) contains a 2.5 m sequence with large obsidian backed ‘‘microliths’’, blades with faceted platforms and points from radial cores, stratified above and between two tephra. Ntuka River 3 (Ntumot, GvJh11) contains a 9 m sequence with two stratified tephra. Obsidian bifacial points and narrow backed microliths are stratified 1-3 m below the lowest tephra. Three major LSA horizons lie 3-5 m above this tephra. The youngest LSA is dated 29,975 bp. In the central and southern Rift the highest frequencies of non-local lithic raw materials occur in the youngest MSA and in MSA/LSA occurrences. Lithic source distance data indicate increased range size and/or intensification of regional exchange networks. Dramatic changes in socio-territorial organization may have accompanied the MSA/LSA transition. Supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (BCS-0113565) and the L.S. B. Leakey Foundation.

Ambuko J, Yumbya MP, Shibairo S, Owino WO. "Efficacy of 1–methylcyclopropene in purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) as affected by dosage and maturity stage." International Journal of Postharvest Technology and Innovation. 2014;4:126-137. Abstract
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Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Zanol G, Gemma H. "Effect of postharvest hot air treatments on ripening and soluble sugars in banana fruits, Musa spp.'Williams'.". In: XXVIII International Horticultural Congress on Science and Horticulture for People (IHC2010): International Symposium on 934.; 2010:. Abstract
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Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Itoh F, Nakamura K, Gemma H. "Effect of seasonal variation, cultivar and production system on some postharvest characteristics of the banana.". In: IV International Conference on Managing Quality in Chains-The Integrated View on Fruits and Vegetables Quality 712.; 2006:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Chemining'wa GN, Mwachoni E, Wanjiru F, Owino WO, Nenguwo N, others. "Evaporative cooling technologies: simple and effective cooling alternatives for smallholder horticultural farmers.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Yumbya PM, Hutchinson MJ, Shibairo SI, Gemma H, Owino WO. "Efficacy of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) in Purple Passion (Passiflora edulis Sims) Fruits as Affected by Dosage and Maturity Stage.". In: HORTSCIENCE. Vol. 48. AMER SOC HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE 113 S WEST ST, STE 200, ALEXANDRIA, VA 22314 …; 2013:. Abstract
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Ambuko J, Githiga RW, Hutchnison MJ, Gemma H, Owino WO. "Effect of maturity stage and cultivar on the efficacy of 1-MCP treatments in mango fruits.". In: II All Africa Horticulture Congress 1007.; 2012:. Abstract
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Amimo JO, Wakhungu JW, Inyangala BO, Mosi RO. "The effects of non-genetic factors and estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends for milk yield in Ayrshire cattle in Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

Dairy cattle production in Kenya has been growing into an important agricultural sector, but it still faces numerous difficulties in environmental constraints. The purpose of this study was to identify significant non-genetic effects on milk production to give advices for farm management and estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for milk traits. Data consisting of 4475 lactation records from 10 large-scale Ayrshire herds collected from 1980 to 2005 were used to evaluate effects of non-genetic factors and determine genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends of 305 d milk yield (305d MY). The data analyses using least square techniques of Proc GLM of SAS identified significant sources of variation by herd, parity and year of calving on 305d MY. The overall mean for 305d MY was 3009.8 ±1098 kg, with the corresponding heritability and repeatability estimates of 0.12 ±0.05 and 0.35 ± 0.01 respectively. Genetic trend for 305d MY was -2.1 kg/yr and statistically significant (P<0.01) indicating annual decrease in breeding values over the study period. The high variation as indicated by both large standard errors and low heritabilities of the milk trait indicate that much improvement in this trait could be achieved through improved management. The negative annual genetic changes in milk yield observed could largely be due to ineffective breeding strategies both at herd and national level.

Amwoka EM, Ambuko JL, Jesang HM, Owino WO. "Effectiveness of Selected Cold Chain Management Practices to Extend Shelf Life of Mango Fruit." Advances in Agriculture. 2021;2021. Abstract
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AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Effects of exposure to effluent contaminated river water on boar reproduction." Inter J Vet Sci. 2017;6(1):49-52.
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Effects of Effluent Contaminated River Water on Testicular Histology of Mice." . Sch J Agric Vet Sci. 2016;3(6):411-415.
Anastacia K, Ibrahim K. "Effect of Pupil-Teacher Ratio on Graduation Rate of Early Childhood Development and Education in Embu County Public Primary Schools, Kenya." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice. 2020;1(1):18-21.
and AA, Bocquier P. "An Event History Analysis of Factors influencing entry into Parenthood in Nairobi." : African Population Studies . 2004;19(2):42-62. AbstractWebsite

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and NNH, Gichuki NN. "Effects of plant structure on butterfly diversity in Mt. Marsabit Forest, northern Kenya." African Journal of Ecology. 2010;(48):304-312.
Andere C.Miruka, David K. Kariuki AOYJOO. "Efficiency of a Wastewater Treatment Plant in the City of Nairobi." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research . 2018;38(1):152-162.
Andersson M, De Benoist B, Rogers L. "Epidemiology of iodine deficiency: salt iodisation and iodine status." Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2010;24:1-11. AbstractWebsite
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Andima M, Costabile G, Isert L, Ndakala AJ, Derese S, Merkel OM. "Evaluation of β-Sitosterol loaded PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles for effective treatment of breast cancer: Preparation, physicochemical characterization, and antitumor activity." Pharmaceutics. 2018;10(2):232. AbstractPharmaceutics

Description
β-Sitosterol (β-Sit) is a dietary phytosterol with demonstrated anticancer activity against a panel of cancers, but its poor solubility in water limits its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. In this study, poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA) and block copolymers of poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (lactic acid)(PEG-PLA) were used to encapsulate β-Sit into nanoparticles with the aim of enhancing its in vitro anticancer activity. β-Sitosterol-loaded PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles (β-Sit-PLGA and β-Sit-PEG-PLA) were prepared by using a simple emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The nanoparticles were characterized for size, particle size distribution, surface charge, and encapsulation efficiency. Their cellular uptake and antiproliferative activity was evaluated against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells using flow cytometry and MTT assays, respectively. β-Sit-PLGA and β-Sit-PEG-PLA nanoparticles were spherical in shape with average particle sizes of 215.0±29.7 and 240.6±23.3 nm, a zeta potential of− 13.8±1.61 and− 23.5±0.27 mV, respectively, and with narrow size distribution. The encapsulation efficiency of β-Sit was 62.89±4.66 and 51.83±19.72% in PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles, respectively. In vitro release in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and PBS/with 0.2% Tween 20 showed an initial burst release, followed by a sustained release for 408 h. β-Sit-PLGA nanoparticles were generally stable in a protein-rich medium, whereas β-Sit-PEG-PLA nanoparticles showed a tendency to aggregate. Flow cytometry analysis (FACS) indicated that β-Sit-PLGA nanoparticles were efficiently taken up by the cells in contrast to β …

Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Kong'ani LNS. "Effects of civil conflicts on global oil prices and their impact on the energy sector." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):12-18.
Ang’u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Kong’ani LNS. "Effects of civil conflicts on global oil prices and their impact on the energy sector." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):12-18.
Anyenda EO, Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, Nguyen TTT, et al. "Exposure to daily ambient particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients: A longitudinal study." Atmospheric Environment. 2016;140:pp 34-41.
Anzeze DA, Onyari JM SPMGJW. "Equilibrium and Kinetics studies for the biosorption of aqueous Cd (II) ions onto Eichhornia crasippes biomass,." IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2014;Volume 7(Issue 1 Ver. II. (Feb. 2014)):29-37.
Appleton S, Bigsten A, Manda DK. "Educational E xpansion and Economic Decline: Returns to Education in Kenya, 1978 - 95.". In: Centre for the Study of African Economies, Working Paper Series, No. 99/. Oxford University, Britain.; 1999.
Ariga ES, Narla R, Amuyunzu P. "Efficacy of herbicide (nicosulfuron) in the control of weeds in maize (Zea mays L).)." E. Afr. agric. For. J.. 2014; 80(3):127-133.
Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Mwesigye J, Ayebazibwe B, Onyango J, Bazira J, Newton R, Gichuhi S, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Cohort Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2020;27(2):121-131. AbstractWebsite

: To describe the epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis (MK) in Uganda.: We prospectively recruited patients presenting with MK at two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. We collected information on clinical history and presentation, microbiology and 3-month outcomes. Poor vision was defined as vision < 6/60).: 313 individuals were enrolled. Median age was 47 years (range 18-96) and 174 (56%) were male. Median presentation time was 17 days from onset (IQR 8-32). Trauma was reported by 29% and use of Traditional Eye Medicine by 60%. Majority presented with severe infections (median infiltrate size 5.2 mm); 47% were blind in the affected eye (vision < 3/60). Microbiology was available from 270 cases: 62% were fungal, 7% mixed (bacterial and fungal), 7% bacterial and 24% no organism detected. At 3 months, 30% of the participants were blind in the affected eye, while 9% had lost their eye from the infection. Delayed presentation (overall = .007) and prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine (aOR 1.58 [95% CI 1.04-2.42], = .033) were responsible for poor presentation. Predictors of poor vision at 3 months were: baseline vision (aOR 2.98 [95%CI 2.12-4.19], < .0001), infiltrate size (aOR 1.19 [95%CI 1.03-1.36], < .020) and perforation at presentation (aOR 9.93 [95% CI 3.70-26.6], < .0001).: The most important outcome predictor was the state of the eye at presentation, facilitated by prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine and delayed presentation. In order to improve outcomes, we need effective early interventions.

Asfaw A;, Kimani PM. "Estimation of genetic parameters for some quantitative traits in large seeded bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL.) lines by factorial analysis of generation means."; 2005. Abstract

Understanding the nature of gene action in the breeding materials is helpful for breeders in formulating breeding strategy. In order to understand the type of gene actions operating in the breeding materials, six generation means (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) from two crosses among large seeded bean lines grown at Awassa 2002 were used to estimate the genetic effects of some quantitative traits. The result revealed that for seed yield (gm/plant), pods/plant and pod length additive genetic model was not sufficient to explain most of the genetic variation for the expression of these traits. Epistatic effects contributed to the inheritance of these traits in the two crosses used. For seeds/pod and plant height epistatic gene effect was present in one of the two crosses. The nature of epistasis operating in the inheritance of seed yield (gm/plant), pods/plant, pod length, and plant height is duplicate type whereas it is complimentary type for seeds/ pod. This indicates that particular allelic combinations at several loci determine the performance of these traits. Thus, population improvement and gamete selection breeding methods may help to improve these traits. Realized heterosis (over mid-parent) was observed for seed yield(gm/plant), pods/plant and plant height in one of the two crosses with no inbreeding effect in F2 indicating that the heterosis is largely caused by non-allelic interaction even though over dominance was also observed. Pods/plant could be an important trait for plant selection in segregating generations as it revealed a significant positive correlation and high direct effect with seed yield.

Asingo PO. "Ethnicity and Political Inclusivity in Kenya: Retrospective Analysis and Prospective Solutions.". In: Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya: The National Study. Nairobi: Kenya Human Rights Commission; 2018.Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Environmental Considerations and the Changing Patterns of Diseases in Kenya. Paper submitted for publication in the Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography.". In: Paper submitted for publication in the Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Atieno L, Owino W, Ateka EM, Ambuko J, others. "Effect of Surface Coatings on the Shelf life and Quality of Cassava." Journal of Food Research. 2018;7:46-60. Abstract
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Atieno L, Ateka EM, Ambuko J, Owino W, others. "Effect of edible coatings on shelf life and quality of cassava roots.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Atoh FO. "Exploring the New Ohangla Music in the Context of Urbanization: The Search for Relevance for Sustainability. .". In: International Conference on Refocusing Music and Performing Arts for Sustainable Development . Kabarak University ; Submitted.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Extension education and farmers.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1985.
Avery" "L, Crockett" "M, Kihara" "A, Murila" "F, Njoroge" "P. Enhancing maternal health, Global Engagement in action - Highlights from the Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants (CAREG): . Canada: Canada-Africa Research Exchange Grants (CAREG): ; 2012.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Environmental Surveying and Surveillance.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

In this section, we discuss the quantitative and qualitative data that could be collected using GNSS satellites, and in so doing, attempt to answer the question “what can GNSS satellites deliver that is of use to environmental monitoring?” The observed parameters necessary for environmental monitoring vary, depending upon the indicators being assessed.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Environmental Impact Assessment.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is defined by Munn (1979) as the need to identify and predict the impact on the environment and on man’s health and well-being of legislative proposals, policies, programs, projects, and operational procedures, and to interpret and communicate information about the impact.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Environmental Monitoring and Management.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

A natural way to begin this monogram is by posing several pertinent questions. Firstly, what exactly does the term “monitoring” mean. Furthermore, is monitoring synonymous to measuring or observing? And more specifically, what does it mean within an environmental perspective? Monitoring has been defined by James (2003) as observing, detecting, or recording the operation of a system; watching closely for purposes of control; surveillance; keeping track of; checking continually; detecting change.

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Environmental Pollution.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

There exist various definitions to the word pollution depending on one’s jurisdiction and the laws of a particular country. Springer (1977, see references therein) looks at the meaningful concept of defining pollution in international law by posing the questions: “What are you talking about when you are talking about pollution? What is pollution? How would you define it if you are going to remove the concept of damage from it?” These questions are not easily answerable and as Springer (1977) acknowledges, the term pollution is a word whose precise meaning in law, particularly international law, is not easily discerned Springer (1977). It has been used in a wide variety of contexts, from international conventions to pessimistic speeches about the state of the environment, to describe different levels and kinds of man-induced changes in the natural world Springer (1977).

Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. Environmental Geoinformatics : Monitoring and Management.; 2013. AbstractWebsite

There is no doubt that today, perhaps more than ever before, humanity faces a myriad of complex and demanding challenges. These include natural resource depletion and environmental degradation, food and water insecurity, energy shortages, diminishing biodiversity, increasing losses from natural disasters, and climate change with its associated potentially devastating consequences, such as rising sea levels. These human-induced and natural impacts on the environment need to be well understood in order to develop informed policies, decisions, and remedial measures to mitigate current and future negative impacts. To achieve this, continuous monitoring and management of the environment to acquire data that can be soundly and rigorously analyzed to provide information about its current state and changing patterns, and thereby allow predictions of possible future impacts, are essential. Developing pragmatic and sustainable solutions to address these and many other similar challenges requires the use of geodata and the application of geoinformatics. This book presents the concepts and applications of geoinformatics, a multidisciplinary field that has at its core different technologies that support the acquisition, analysis and visualization of geodata for environmental monitoring and management. We depart from the 4D to the 5D data paradigm, which defines geodata accurately, consistently, rapidly and completely, in order to be useful without any restrictions in space, time or scale to represent a truly global dimension of the digital Earth. The book also features the state-of-the-art discussion of Web-GIS. The concepts and applications of geoinformatics presented in this book will be of benefit to decision-makers across a wide range of fields, including those at environmental agencies, in the emergency services, public health and epidemiology, crime mapping, environmental management agencies, tourist industry, market analysis and e-commerce, or mineral exploration, among many others. The title and subtitle of this textbook convey a distinct message. Monitoring -the passive part in the subtitle - refers to observation and data acquisition, whereas management - the active component - stands for operation and performance. The topic is our environment, which is intimately related to geoinformatics. The overall message is: all the mentioned elements do interact and must not be separated. Hans-Peter B ahr, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr.h.c., Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany.

Awino ZB. "An Empirical Study Of Top Management Team Diversity, And Performance In The Service Industry.". In: International Conference on Ongoing Research on Management and IT VIII (INCON VIII). university of Pune, Chinchwad, Pune, 411019, Maharastra, India; 2013.
Awino ZB, Lorika J, K'Obonyo P. "Effectiveness of the Value Chain Strategy in the Selected Producer-owned Dairy Groups in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;1(3):93-100.
Awino ZB, GITURO WAINAINA. "An Empirical Investigation of Supply Chain Management Best Practices in Large Private Manufacturing Firms in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;Volume 1(12):26-31.
Awiti AO, Okoth OS, Aila FO, Okelo S, Odera O, Ogutu M. "Effect of airport expansion on business opportunities in Kisumu." International Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences. 2013;3(2). Abstracteffect_of_airport_expansion_on_business_opportunities_in_kisumu.pdf

The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of airport expansion on business opportunities. The study location was in Kisumu, Kenya and the population was 11,132 businesses comprising of wholesalers, retailers, hoteliers, car hires, bankers and beach management units. Systematic sampling was employed to select 100 wholesalers and retailers while a census was conducted for the 30 hotels, 22 car hires, 25 banks and 8 beach management units respectively. Semi structured survey questionnaires were utilized to
collect primary data. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the results indicate that the airport expansion has led to: increased visitors and tourist visits; increased sales of both wholesale and retail trade and increased number of financial institutions. The study concludes that despite the airport expansion creating relatively meaningful benefits to the business community, the facility has not been fully utilized to create maximum businessopportunities in Kisumu.

Keywords: Business opportunities, airport expansion, Kisumu

Awiti J. Essays on Health Determinants in Kenya. University of Nairobi.; 2012.
Awori KO, Ating’a JEO. "Early outcome of vascular lower limb amputations at a National Referral Hospital in Kenya." Annals of African Surgery. 2007;1. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Majority of lower limb amputations performed in the African setting have been reported to be mainly due to trauma and neoplasms. These affect mainly young
and therefore, fit individuals with lower risks of complications. Recent local studies show an increase in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases including peripheral vascular diseases.
These are associated with higher rates of both systemic and amputation stump-related complications. There is however little published data in Africa on the outcomes of vascular lower
limb amputations.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the early outcome of vascular lower limb amputations.
DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study, conducted between July 2003 and June 2004.
SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest referral and teaching hospital in Kenya.
SUBJECTS: All patients with gangrene of the lower limb due to occlusive peripheral vascular disease not caused by trauma or inappropriate limb splintage who were amputated at Kenyatta
National Hospital during the study period were included.
OUTCOME MEASURES: These included the wound healing time, number of stump revisions, number of conversions to a higher
amputation level, the thirty-day post-operative mortality and the hospitalization period.
CONCLUSION: While the findings of this study compare with other series, the prolonged hospital stay is of concern considering the younger average age of the patients.

Awuor OB, Zipporah O, Ooko J. "The Effect of Managerial Ownership on Stock Performance of Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017;4:279-290. Abstract
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