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K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of Mucuna Planting Density and Time on Water and Light Use in Maize .". In: Paper presented in the 6th Conference of the African Crop Science Society held in Nairobi, Kenya 12th to 17th October. University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of Mucuna Planting Density and Time on Water and Light Use in Maize .". In: African Crop Science Proceedings 6: 536-540. Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Obonyo N, Cheroigin K, Kariuki M, Sumuni K, Lang’at O, Njogu B, Masika M, Patel N. "The Effects of MÛGÛKA (Catha edulis vahl) on the Behaviour of Rats." Nairobi Journal of Medicine. 2006. Abstractabstract_-_the_effects_of_muguka_on_rats.pdfeffects_of_muguka_catha_edulis_vahl_on_the_behavior_of_rats-_nairobi_journal_of_medicine_jun_2006.pdf

The Effects of MÛGÛKA (Catha edulis vahl) on the Behaviour of Rats

N.G Obonyo, K.S Cheroigin, M.M Kariuki, K.M Sumuni, O Lang’at, Njogu, M.M Masika, N.B Patel

INTRODUCTION: Mûgûka (Catha edulis vahl) are ‘residue’ leaves, which are chewed to elicit a stimulant effect. It is grown in Eastern province (mostly in Mbeere and Embu districts) of Kenya and is very popular with the local residents in this part of the country. It is closely related to miraa (Catha edulis forsk), which is reported to be one of the most recklessly abused drugs in Kenya by NACADA (National Agency for the Campaign Against Drug Abuse). Whereas lots of research has been done on miraa, little, if any, research has been done on mûgûka.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of mûgûka on the behaviour of Sprague Dawley rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five Sprague Dawley rats were used. The experiment was divided into three phases: Baseline, Normal saline and Mûgûka. Baseline phase established the normal behaviour of the rats before injection of mûgûka plant extract (mûgûka phase). Normal saline was used as a control. We conducted an Open field Test. The behaviours exhibited during a 30-minute trial were recorded for each of the experimental phases. The four behavioural parameters recorded for each experimental phase were line crossings, rearing counts, grooming time and defecation pellets count.

RESULTS: The behavioural changes noted after injection of mûgûka plant extract were; the line crossing counts increased but the grooming time, rearing counts and defecation pellet counts decreased. However, none of these changes was statistically significant. Sniffing behaviour was also markedly increased when the mûgûka was administered.

DISCUSSION: The results obtained above suggest that there are changes in the behavioural parameters although they are not statistically significant. The sample size probably needs to be increased and serial dose-response measurements for the injected mûgûka plant extract need to be done.

Keywords: Mûgûka (Catha edulis vahl), miraa (Catha edulis forsk), NACADA (National Agency for the Campaign Against Drug Abuse) in Kenya

Published in the Nairobi Journal of Medicine, June 2006

and 1. J. K. Kibugu, J.N. Makumi KNGMMMJMJJN. Effects of mycotoxins on the pathogenesis of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in mice. . Panafric Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya ; 2013.
Tschanz SA, Makanya AN, Haenni B, Burri PH. "Effects of neonatal high-dose short-term glucocorticoid treatment on the lung: a morphologic and morphometric study in the rat." Pediatr. Res.. 2003;53(1):72-80. Abstract

Glucocorticoids are often applied in neonatology and perinatology to fight the problems of respiratory distress and chronic lung disease. There are, however, many controversies regarding the adverse side effects and long-term clinical benefits of this therapeutic approach. In rats, glucocorticoids are known to seriously impair the formation of alveoli when applied during the first two postnatal weeks even at very low dosage. The current study investigates short-term and long-term glucocorticoid effects on the rat lung by means of morphologic and morphometric observations at light and electron microscopic levels. Application of a high-dosage protocol for only few days resulted in a marked acceleration of lung development with a precocious microvascular maturation resulting in single capillary network septa in the first 4 postnatal days. By postnatal d 10, the lung morphologic phenotype showed a step back in the maturational state, with an increased number of septa with double capillary layer, followed by an exceptional second round of the alveolarization process. As a result of this process, there was an almost complete recovery in the parenchymal lung structure by postnatal d 36, and by d 60, there were virtually no qualitative or quantitative differences between experimental and control rats. These findings indicate that both dosage and duration of glucocorticoid therapy in the early postnatal period are very critical with respect to lung development and maturation and that a careful therapeutic strategy can minimize late sequelae of treatment.

M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Effects of New Land Laws on Surveying & Related Professions: Highlights of Aspects the Land Act(2012) relating to Land Economists.". In: The Institution of Surveyors of Kenya Workshop. Kenya Bankers Sacco, Nairobi.; 2012.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI. "Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertiliser on growth and yield of ironweed (Vernonia galamesis) East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal. 69:109-118.". In: Proceedings of 19th Soil Science Society of East AfricaConference,2-7 2001, Moshi, Tanzania. Pp 1-13. University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth and yield of ironweed (Vernonia galamesis). East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal, 60 (2): 109- 118.". In: Proceedings. 6th triennial congress of the African Potato Association (APA). 5-10 April, 2004. Agadir, Morocco. Pp.298-299. Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Amimo JO, Wakhungu JW, Inyangala BO, Mosi RO. "The effects of non-genetic factors and estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends for milk yield in Ayrshire cattle in Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

Dairy cattle production in Kenya has been growing into an important agricultural sector, but it still faces numerous difficulties in environmental constraints. The purpose of this study was to identify significant non-genetic effects on milk production to give advices for farm management and estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for milk traits. Data consisting of 4475 lactation records from 10 large-scale Ayrshire herds collected from 1980 to 2005 were used to evaluate effects of non-genetic factors and determine genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends of 305 d milk yield (305d MY). The data analyses using least square techniques of Proc GLM of SAS identified significant sources of variation by herd, parity and year of calving on 305d MY. The overall mean for 305d MY was 3009.8 ±1098 kg, with the corresponding heritability and repeatability estimates of 0.12 ±0.05 and 0.35 ± 0.01 respectively. Genetic trend for 305d MY was -2.1 kg/yr and statistically significant (P<0.01) indicating annual decrease in breeding values over the study period. The high variation as indicated by both large standard errors and low heritabilities of the milk trait indicate that much improvement in this trait could be achieved through improved management. The negative annual genetic changes in milk yield observed could largely be due to ineffective breeding strategies both at herd and national level.

Owino-Cerroh C, Keter ] KA. "The Effects of Nutrient Solution Acic{ity (l'il}, Aluminium Content Taproot Elongation, Formation on Field Rosecoco f)iscovery and Innovatior Vol. 5 no. 1 March 1993 Rcrct Crowth in Irhosroils r,l.tlgatis L. cv Roser-trco 35 and Rhizobium Inoculati*n rrn .". 1993. Abstract

The effects of nutrient solution pH.aluminium concentration and Rhizobium irr6ttrrlalis.,i i,i1 !-rl\rir::f r,16;11g6{i111r, rgi1t p:rt-,wth and nqltrle ftrrmatittn on field beans (Plrascolrts ttulgaris L). cv Rosecoco, Ct.l, 2lyyc ., .., ,.ii;, li",! i;r i'r grr,fitlrr;rrsr' Ilrere was a highly significant reduction (p < 0.001) of the mean taproot length. lVith res1..,,,,'l t'i nutrient solution afli(ri,t, the highest mean taprrxtt length was observed at pH 4.0. These differences were attlitruil .r !,r i|16, exis{:ence of forrns of Al having varying degrees of toxicity, controlled by the ptl of the nutrient solutirxr. 'l'he c*o,.r,nlration of Al in ttrr: nrrtriept solution did not affect the mean root dry matter weight significantly but affected thc nlr.li,lo lrumbers wltirh dpcr+,ased as the concentration of this eleme,nt increased in the nutrient solution. The highest ntean trrurl!q,r,r.rf rro,;lrrles li:rrtred was 13.12 at pH 5.8 and 0 ppm Al. Field beans cultivar "Rosecoco", CLP 2, showed a poor teslxlrrse trr irirN:ui;rtiorr corlparxl tg pthers. Nutrient solution acidity inhibited nodulation of the beans. It is suggested that tlre inhibitliy efft,::t *f Al nray d;:pend on the sPecific ionic form of this element apart from its concentration and pH of the nutrient sr,iiir,ir;i;.

Mwangi S, Elly DD. "Effects of Operating Environment Factors on Infrastructure Finance Flows in the Capital Markets in Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):132-159 . Abstract

Purpose – This study sought to establish the whether the operating environment factors affect efficient infrastructure finance flows in the capital markets in Kenya. Policy framework, legal environment, regulations and institutions are the operating environment factors which influence the infrastructure finance flows through the capital markets.

Methodology – The study was undertaken using descriptive research design where a questionnaire was used targeting a population of 100 infrastructure related institutions. The questionnaire used to collect quantitative data was on the Likert scale with numerical scores 1 to 5. Descriptive and regression analysis were conducted on the data to show how each independent variable of the operating environment factors influences the infrastructure finance flows.

Findings – Majority of respondents think that there are inadequate policies, laws and regulations while half of these respondents believe that the institutions lack the necessary capacity to operate efficiently and effectively. From the results, majority of these respondents agreed that there is need for an urgent review of the existing financial sector policies and institutions. Half of the respondents want the regulations revised but majority of these respondents believe that the existing laws do not require review. The results indicated that the policy framework, legal environment, regulations and institutions significantly affect the infrastructure finance flows through the capital markets in Kenya. From the results, it can be concluded that there are no adequate policy, legal, regulatory and institutional arrangements to facilitate the uptake of infrastructure finance in the capital markets. Further, it can be deduced that the policy, legal, regulatory and institutional regimes are poorly configured to deliver financing of infrastructure projects in the capital markets of Kenya. Finally, it can be inferred that the financial sector policies, regulations and institutions are not strong enough to provide a supportive environment in delivery of infrastructure finance.

Implications – The financial sector policies, laws, regulations and institutions need to be reviewed in order to create a conducive operating environment for financing of infrastructure investments. Benchmarking studies are critical for enhancement of policies, laws, regulations and institutions based on the international best practices for efficient and effective delivery of infrastructure finance through the capital markets in Kenya. Further research is recommended on effects of operating environment factors on infrastructure finance flows in the capital markets in Kenya.

Keywords: Infrastructure investments, policy framework, legal environment, regulations, institutions

Wambugu SN, Towett PK, Kiama SG, Abelson KS, Kanui TI. "Effects of opioids in the formalin test in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii).". 2010. Abstract

Little is known about analgesia in lower vertebrates such as the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy'sspekii), yet of late they are increasingly being adopted as pets. The effects of morphine (5, 7.5,10 and 20 mg/kg), pethidine (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and naloxone (5 mg/kg) on nociception induced by the formalin test (12.5%, 100 microL) were studied in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Formalin induced a monophasic limb retraction behavioural response and its duration was recorded. The behaviour lasted for 16.4 +/- 0.8 min. Morphine (7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and pethidine (20 and 50 mg/kg) induced significant decrease in the duration of limb retraction in the formalin test. The anti-nociceptive effects were naloxone (5 mg/kg) reversible. The data suggest that the formalin test is a good test for studying nociception and anti-nociception in tortoises and
that the opioidergic system plays a role in the control of nociception in these animals.

PMID:
20646195
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

N WS, KIPKEMOI TOWETPHILEMON, SG K, KSP A, TI K. "Effects of Opioids in the Formalin Test in the Speke’s Hinged Tortoise (Kinixys spekii)." Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2009;33(4):347-351. AbstractWebsite

Little is known about analgesia in lower vertebrates such as the Speke’s hinged tortoise (Kinixy’s spekii), yet of late they are increasingly being adopted as pets. The effects of morphine (5, 7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), pethidine (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and naloxone (5 mg/kg) on nociception induced by the formalin test (12.5%, 100 μL) were studied in the Speke’s hinged tortoise. Formalin induced a monophasic limb retraction behavioural response and its duration was recorded. The behaviour lasted for 16.4 ± 0.8 min. Morphine (7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and pethidine (20 and 50 mg/kg) induced significant decrease in the duration of limb retraction in the formalin test. The anti‐nociceptive effects were naloxone (5 mg/kg) reversible. The data suggest that the formalin test is a good test for studying nociception and anti‐nociception in tortoises and that the opioidergic system plays a role in the control of nociception in these animals.

Wambugu SN, Towett PK, Kiama SG, Abelson KSP, Kanui TI. "Effects of opioids in the formalin test in the Speke’s hinged tortoise (Kinixy’s spekii.". 2009. Abstract

Little is known about analgesia in lower vertebrates such as the Speke’s hinged tortoise (Kinixy’s spekii), yet of late they are increasingly being adopted as pets. The effects of morphine (5, 7.5, 10 and 20 mg⁄ kg), pethidine (10, 20, and 50 mg⁄ kg) and naloxone (5 mg⁄ kg) on nociception induced by the formalin test (12.5%, 100 lL) were studied in the Speke’s hinged tortoise. Formalin induced a monophasic limb retraction behavioural response and its duration was recorded. The behaviour lasted for 16.4 ± 0.8 min. Morphine (7.5, 10 and 20 mg⁄ kg) and pethidine (20 and 50 mg⁄ kg) induced significant decrease in the duration of limb retraction in the formalin test. The anti-nociceptive effects were naloxone (5 mg⁄ kg) reversible. The data suggest that the formalin test is a good test for studying nociception and anti-nociception in tortoises and that the opioidergic system plays a role in the control of nociception in these animals

Kemoli AM, van Amerongen WE. "Effects of oral hygiene, residual caries and cervical marginal-gaps on the survival of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment approach restorations." Contemporary Clin Dent. 2011;2(4):318-323. Abstract

Aim: To investigate the effects of oral hygiene, residual caries and cervical marginalgaps on the survival rate of proximal restorations placed in primary molars using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach.
Materials and methods: A total of 804 children participated in the study. They had
their dental plaque levels assessed at baseline and after two years by trained examiners.
Each of the children also had one proximal carious lesion in a primary molar restored by
trained operators and their assistants using the ART approach, 3 brands of glass ionomer
cements and 2 tooth-isolation methods. The restorations were clinically evaluated soon
after placement and after 2 years. Post-operative bite-wing radiographs were also taken
immediately after restoring the teeth and evaluated. The data collected were analyzed
using SPSS version 14.
Results: The cumulative survival of the restorations decreased from 94.4% soon after
placement to 30.8% after 2 years. The plaque index changed from 2.34 (SD 0.46) at
baseline to 1.92 (SD 2.1) after 2 years. Higher plaque indices were associated with
higher restoration failure. Only 507 bite-wing radiographs out of the possible 804 of the restored teeth were of good quality for the study. A total of 48 (9.5%) restorations had residual caries, 63 (12.4%) cervical marginal gaps and 9 (1.8%) both residual caries and cervical marginal gaps related to them. The survival rate of the restorations with both residual caries and cervical marginal gaps was significantly lower (Chi-square, p= 0.003) when related to the restorations that did not have any.
Conclusions: Low survival rate of proximal restorations in the study was associated with the presence of cervical marginal restoration gaps.

Nyangau IK, Mburu DK, Ogollah K. "EFFECTS OF OUTSOURCING STRATEGY ON PROCUREMENT PERFORMANCE AMONG UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA ." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management . 2014;2(11):1-18.nyangau_isaac_kebaso_and_ogollah_2014.pdf
Dulu T.D, kanui T.I., P.K. T, G.M. M, K.S. A. "The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail flick, hot plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber)." In vivo. 2014;28(1):39-48. AbstractWebsite

Abstract. The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a
promising animal model for the study of pain mechanisms,
therefore a thorough characterization of this species is
essential. The aim of the present study was to establish the
naked mole-rat as a model for studying the cholinergic
receptor system in antinociception by investigating the
involvement of muscarinic, nicotinic and opioid receptors in
nociceptive tests in this species. The effects of systemic
administration of the muscarinic receptor agonist
oxotremorine and the nicotinic receptor agonist epibatidine
were investigated in the tail-flick, the hot-plate, and the
formalin tests. The effects of co-administration of the
muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the nicotinic
receptor antagonist mecamylamine, and the opioid receptor
antagonist naloxone were also investigated. Oxotremorine
and epibatidine induced a significant, dose-dependent
antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin
tests, respectively. The effects of oxotremorine and
epibatidine were blocked by atropine and mecamylamine,
respectively. In all three nociceptive tests, naloxone in
combination with oxotremorine or epibatidine enhanced the
antinociceptive effects of the drugs. The present study
demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic
receptors produces antinociceptive effects in the naked-mole
rat. The reversal effect of atropine and mecamylamine
suggests that this effect is mediated by cholinergic receptors.
As naloxone increases the antinociceptive effects of
cholinergic agonists, it is suggested that the cholinergic
antinociception acts via a gateway facilitated by opioid
receptor blockage; however, the precise interaction between
these receptor systems needs further investigation.

Alfred A, Musembi RJ, Waita SM, Mwabora JM. Effects of Oxygen Partial Pressure and Substrate Temperature on Optical Properties of Sputter Deposited Thin Films. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

The effects of oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperature on optical properties of CuCrO_2 thin films deposited on float glass substrate by reactive DC magnetron sputtering system using CuCr alloy targets have been studied. The sputtering was performed in Argon (Ar) and Oxygen (O_2) atmosphere and the substrate temperature varied up to 263 °C. The optical constants: refractive index, n, extinction coefficient, k, dielectric constant, ε, and absorption coefficient, α, at different oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperatures were determined from measured transmittance and reflectance data fitted in SCOUT software for wavelength range 200-2247 nm. The optical studies gave energy band gap of about 2.47 eV at 0.153 μbar Po2 and 3.7 eV at 263 °C substrate temperature. The values obtained for Urbach energy were 0.27-0.31 eV for samples prepared at Po2 between 0.153-0.187 μbar and 0.81-1.45 eV for those prepared at substrate temperature of 263 °C and as-grown film, respectively.

S PE, Mutuku RN, N MJ. "Effects of Palm Kernel Shell and Rice Husk Ash as Partial Replacements of Normal Weight Aggregate and ordinary Portland Cement in Concrete." European international Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;Vol 6(8):42-54.
Mburu DN, Mbugua SW, Skoglund LA, Lokken P. "Effects of paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid on the post‐operative course after experimental orthopaedic surgery in dogs.". 2008. Abstract

In placebo-controlled cross-over trials in dogs, two ‘identical’ operations were performed on the forelimbs of each animal with an interval of 28 days, to evaluate how daily doses of 1.5 g paracetamol, 1.5 g acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and 0.5 g ASA might modulate an acute post-operative inflammatory reaction. On the third post-operative day the reductions in swelling compared with placebo averaged 33% with 1.5 g paracetamol (P = 0.02), 24% with 1.5 g ASA (P = 0.03) and 15% with 0.5 g ASA (P= 0.18); while the reductions in pain estimates averaged 47% with 1.5 g paracetamol (P= 0.01), 32% with 1.5 g ASA (P= 0.07) and 28% with 0.5 g ASA {P= 0.21). There were no clinical signs of adverse drug effects, such as vomiting, haematochezia, cyanosis or depression. The results disagree with the traditional view that paracetamol has little or no anti-inflammatory effect, and demonstrate that paracetamol may reduce an acute inflammatory reaction, at least as efficiently as ASA. The potential proinflammatory effect of ASA in low doses is discussed. It is concluded that paracetamol appears to be a valuable drug against post-operative or post-traumatic sequelae in the veterinary as well as in the human clinic.

T
NICHOLAS OBIRI AMBOLWA, MICHAEL MWARERI WANGAI AMOTHOLUOCHMOSESJAMESSHINACHIANGATIAHARRISONJABUYATINGACHEPTOOWILSONKOROMBORIJAPHETHSHITUBIDAVID.KIPSAATNIALMUTK. THE EFFECTS OF PARENTAL INVOLMENT IN PROVISION OF QUALITY PRIMARY EDUCATION IN KENYA.. Kenya School of Government-Embu Campus; 2012. Abstract
n/a
E
Mukisira EA, Phillip LE, Mitaru BN. "Effects of partial removal of alkaloids in sweet white lupin seed on performance and nitrogen balance in lambs.". 2001. Abstract

The impact on animal performance of extracting alkaloids in lupin seed (LS) was evaluated with 30 lambs (average weight, 14 kg) fed for 90 d. Sunflower seed (SFS) in the control diet was replaced by intact LS, or LS steeped in water (detoxified) to remove alkaloids. The test diets contained either 15% (LUI- 15) or 30% (LUI-30) intact LS, or 15% (LUD-15) or 30% (LUD-30) detoxified LS. Lambs fed SFS exhibited lower (P < 0.05) organic matter intake (OMI) and daily gains (ADG) than those fed LS. During the first 30 d of feeding, OMI was greater (P< 0.01) with diets containing LUD-15 or LUD-30 (752.7 and 727.9 g d–1, respectively) than with LUI-15 or LUI-30 (708.1 and 600.5 g d–1, respectively); ADG was also greater with LUD-15 and LUD-30 (P < 0.01) than with LUI-15 and LUI-30. Nitrogen retention ranged from 6.1 g d–1 for control to 14.6 g d–1 for LUD-15; when corrected for N intake (NI), N retention was similar (P > 0.05) across diets. This study suggests that alkaloids in LS restricted feed intake and limited ADG, but over the 90-d experimental period, lambs seemed to adapt the presence of alkaloids in LS

Wafula EM, Limbe MS, Onyango FE, Nduati R. "Effects of passive smoking and breastfeeding on childhood bronchial asthma." East Afr Med J. 1999;76(11):606-9. Abstract

To evaluate the effect of passive smoking and breastfeeding on the severity and age of onset of bronchial asthma.

MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Effects of passive smoking and breastfeeding on childhood bronchial asthma. Wafula EM, Limbe MS, Onyango FE, Nduati R.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Nov;76(11):606-9. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of passive smoking and breastfeeding on the severity and age of onset of bronchial asthma. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Paediatric observation ward and paediatric chest clinic, Kenyatta National Hospital. PATIENTS: Children aged between one and 120 months. RESULTS: More than fifty per cent of the children had their first wheeze at less than 12 months of age and 68% were categorised as having moderate to severe asthma. Passive smoking was positively significantly associated with early onset of wheezing (chi 2 = 6.22
YUKO- DRJOWICHRISTINEA. "The effects of Percutaneous balloon mitral Valvotomy on pulmonary venous flow. Yonga G, Bonhoeffer P, Jowi C. EAMJ, Vol 76, No 1 , Page 28 ,1999.". In: EAMJ, Vol 76, No 1 , Page 28. uon press; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy (PBMV) on the deranged systolic and diastolic pulmonary venous flows in mitral stenosis. DESIGN: Open, non-randomised, case-control study. SETTING: Mater Misericordiae Cardiac Catheterisation Laboratory and Kenyatta National Hospital Cardiac Catheterisation Laboratory. PATIENTS: Twelve consecutive patients with severe symptomatic mitral stenosis with valve characteristics suitable for PBMV on echocardiographic evaluation. INTERVENTION: Percutaneous baloon mitral valvotomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Peak systolic and diastolic pulmonary flow velocities and velocity time integrals (VTI). RESULTS: Peak sytolic pulmonary flow velocity increased from 29.8 +/- 9.6 to 46.1 +/- 8.5 cm/s p < 0.01) and systolic VTI from 2.6 +/- 1.0 to 5.5 +/- 0.9 cm (p < 0.01). Peak diastolic flow velocity increased from 39.3 +/- 5.7 to 43.0 +/- 6.9 cm/s (p < 0.05) and diastolic VTI from 3.9 +/- 1.5 to 4.8 +/- 1.6 cm (p < 0.05). Mean mitral valve area increased from 0.65 +/- 0.15 to 1.98 +/- 0.34 cm2 (p < 0.001) and mean left atrial pressures from 30.5 +/- 9.1 to 11.9 +/- 5.1 mmHg (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe mitral stenosis and sinus rythm, left atrial filling is biphasic with diastolic preponderance. Successful PBMV causes predominant increase in atrial systolic filling.
E T R, Arimi SM, C W D. "Effects of pH on distribution of Listeria ribotypes in corn, hay, and grass silage.". 1997. Abstract

Listeria app, isolated from 13 of 129 (10%) corn silage samples, 21 of 76 (28%) hay silage samples, and 3 of 5 (60%) grass silage samples during a previous Vermont survey were subjected to automated ribotype (RT) analysis. The 13 positive corn silage samples contained 3 Listeria monocytogenes isolated (three RTs, including one known clinical RT) and 10 L. innocua isolates (four RTs). Similarly, 2 L. monocytogenes isolates (two RTs) and 19 L. innocua isolates (three RTs) were identified in the 21 positive hay silage samples. The three positive grass silage samples contained two L. innocua isolates (two RTs) and one isolate of L. welshimeri. One hundred seven of 129 (83%) high-quality (pH < 4.0) corn silage samples accounted for 8 of 13 Listeria isolates from corn silage, including isolates belonging to one L. monocytogenes clinical RT. In contrast, low-quality hay silage (70 of 76 [92%] samples having a pH of > or = 4.0) harbored 20 of 21 isolates, including isolates belonging to two nonclinical L. monocytogenes RTs. Poor-quality silage is readily discernible by appearance; however, these findings raise new concerns regarding the safety of high-quality (pH < 4.0) corn silage, which can contain Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes strains belonging to RTs of clinical importance in cases of food-borne listeriosis.

F. O,.L. CJB, O. MJ. "Effects of Phenobarbital and carbon tetrachloride on liver enzymes." J. Appl. Biosci.. 2012;Volume 56(ISSN 1997 - 5902):4097-4107. Abstract

RESUME
Introduction: Barbiturates and carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) are known to have effects on liver enzymes. More ever, barbiturates which are used as sedative hypnotics, anticonvulsants, generally cause induction of liver microsomal enzymes while CCL4 cause hepatoxity releasing various liver enzymes.
Objective: To determine the effects of Phenobarbital and carbon tetrachloride on some selected liver enzymes.
Methodology and results: Rats treated with Phenobarbital had higher levels of activity of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and longer to gain writing reflex while CCl4 treated rats had reduced levels of the mentioned enzyme and shorter time to gain writing reflex .
Conclusion and application: Treatment with Phenobarbital needs continuous adjustment and regulation of dosage by the attending clinician. A history of the patient is required before administration of other drugs or carrying a therapeutic drug monitoring to confirm toxicology. It was therefore concluded that barbiturates are inducers of liver enzymes while CCl4 is a liver toxicant

Ssali H, Keya SO. "The effects of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizer level on nodulation, growth and dinitrogen fixation of three bean cultivars.". 1986. Abstract

Application of P (150 kg P/ha) increased nodulation, dry matter yield, P uptake, tissue N yield, dinitrogen fixation and seed yield of the three bean cultivars (Rose Coco, Canadian Wonder and Mwezi moja) at both N levels (10 and 100 kg N/ha). A high dose of N severely reduced nodulation only where P was not applied but severely reduced dinitrogen fixation at both P levels. Where P was applied cultivars fixed comparable quantities of dinitrogen. At no P + 10 kg N/ha cultivar Rose Coco nodulated well early in the growth stages and fixed substantial dinitrogen

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Effects of phosphorus supply on the growth and nodulation of cowpeas..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effects of P supply (0, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 kg/ha) on growth and nodulation of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) cv. Vita 4 and Ife Brown grown in a podzolic soil (Haplustult) was studied in a greenhouse trial. The seeds were inoculated with Bradyrhyzobium CB 756. Plants were harvested at the beginning of flowering. The number of trifoliate leaves and DM yield in both cv. increased with increasing P application. The yield of the tops of Vita 4 was maximum at 160 kg P/ha and that of Ife Brown at 320 kg P/Ha. Extractable P related linearly to the rate of applied P, and DM yield increased with increase in extractable P. Plants grown without P had fewer and smaller nodules. An increase in P from 1 to 160 kg/ha increased the number of nodules/plant from 16 to 113 in Vita 4 and from 14 to 70 in Ife Brown. Similarly, increasing P increased nodule dry weight. The P conc. of the youngest fully expanded leaf (YFEL) and in the whole plant top increased with increasing P supply in both cv. and was generally higher in the YFEL than in the whole top. A critical P conc. of 0.3 and 0.25% was found in the YFEL and the whole top, resp., for cv. Vita 4.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Effects of phosphorus supply on the growth and nodulation of cowpeas..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effects of P supply (0, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 kg/ha) on growth and nodulation of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) cv. Vita 4 and Ife Brown grown in a podzolic soil (Haplustult) was studied in a greenhouse trial. The seeds were inoculated with Bradyrhyzobium CB 756. Plants were harvested at the beginning of flowering. The number of trifoliate leaves and DM yield in both cv. increased with increasing P application. The yield of the tops of Vita 4 was maximum at 160 kg P/ha and that of Ife Brown at 320 kg P/Ha. Extractable P related linearly to the rate of applied P, and DM yield increased with increase in extractable P. Plants grown without P had fewer and smaller nodules. An increase in P from 1 to 160 kg/ha increased the number of nodules/plant from 16 to 113 in Vita 4 and from 14 to 70 in Ife Brown. Similarly, increasing P increased nodule dry weight. The P conc. of the youngest fully expanded leaf (YFEL) and in the whole plant top increased with increasing P supply in both cv. and was generally higher in the YFEL than in the whole top. A critical P conc. of 0.3 and 0.25% was found in the YFEL and the whole top, resp., for cv. Vita 4.

Menza, Mwalimu K; Shibairo SNRDP; KJGPI; O; N. Effects of pit, dark and cold pre-storage treatments and their duration on dormancy breaking and sprouting of seed potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.).; 2008. Abstract

Potato is the second most important food crop after maize in Kenya. In the traditional areas of potato production with a bimodal rainfall pattern in the country, poor sprouting, due to seed tuber dormancy, is a major drawback. There is little time between growing seasons to permit adequate sprouting of the seed tubers. Therefore, effects of pit, dark and cold pre-storage treatments and their duration on dormancy breaking and sprouting of seed potato tubers of variety Asante were determined. Tubers were evaluated for sprouting, number of sprouts per tuber and sprout vigor for 12 weeks. Pit and dark pre-storage treatments resulted in significantly higher sprouting, number of sprouts per tuber and vigor scores than cold pre-storage treatment and the control (diffused light storage). 100% sprouting of seed potato tubers was attained under pit storage by the fourth week for all pre-storage treatment durations while dormancy ended after 6 weeks of storage in the control. Sprouting was suppressed during cold pre-storage treatment. In pit and dark pre-storage treatments, vigor scores increased with increasing duration of pre-storage treatment while in the cold, vigor scores were reduced with longer pre-storage treatment duration. Pit and dark pre-storage treatments for short durations of up to one week respectively followed by two weeks of diffused light storage are recommended to break dormancy and promote sprouting of good quality seed potato tubers of Asante variety.

and NNH, Gichuki NN. "Effects of plant structure on butterfly diversity in Mt. Marsabit Forest, northern Kenya." African Journal of Ecology. 2010;(48):304-312.
Ssekandi J, Mburu J, Oliver Wasonga, MacOpiyo L, Charles F. "Effects of Post Eviction Resettlement on Land-Use and Cover Change in Uganda.". 2017. Abstract
n/a
Dambolachepa HB, Muthomi JW, Mutitu EW, Njoroge SM. "Effects of postharvest handling practices on quality of groundnuts and aflatoxin Contamination." Novel Research in Microbiology Journal. 2019;3(3):396-414.
Ndiritu AW. EFFECTS OF PRINCIPALS’ TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP CHARACTERISTICS ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NAIROBI COUNTY, KENYA. Kimani PG, NYAGAH DGRACE, Karagu DN, eds. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2012. Abstract

This study explored the relationship between transformational leadership characteristics of secondary school principals’ and students’ academic performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). Although transformational leadership had been linked with academic performance in developed countries, the study attempted to investigate which specific characteristics could be attributed to improved academic performance in Kenya. The study was carried out in Nairobi County, Kenya. Stratified sampling process was used to ensure that both public and private schools in Nairobi were captured in the study. Leadership behaviour was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-(“Self” and “others”) (Kouzes & Posner, 1993). Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between transformational leadership characteristics and academic performance. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test if a relationship existed between selected demographic characteristics and the interaction of leadership characteristics of principals’ and students’ academic performance. To test relationships between principals’ ratings and teachers’ ratings, ratings of male principals and female principals, t-test was used. Results indicated a positive correlation of “Inspiring a shared vision”, “Encouraging the heart” and “Challenging the process” characteristics and academic performance. There was however, a weak but not statistically significant correlation between “Modeling the way” and “Enabling others to act” characteristics and academic performance. It was recommended that secondary school principals should exhibit transformational leadership characteristics in order to succeed in today’s changing world of educational leadership. Suggestions made for further studies included a replication of the study in more counties.

Orskov ER, Fraser C. "The effects of processing of barley-based supplements on rumen pH, rate of digestion of voluntary intake of dried grass in sheep." Br. J. Nutr.. 1975;34(3):493-500. Abstract

1. In one experiment the effect on rumen pH of feeding with restricted amounts of whole or pelleted barley was studied. With whole barley there was little variation in rumen pH associated with feeding time, but with pelleted barley the pH decreased from about 7-0 before feeding to about 5-3, 2--3 h after feeding. 2. The rate of disappearance of dried grass during incubation in the rumens of sheep receiving either whole or pelleted barley was studied in a second experiment. After 24 h incubation only 423 mg/g incubated had disappeared in the rumen of sheep receiving pelleted barley while 625 mg/g incubated had disappeared when it was incubated in the rumen of sheep receiving whole barley. 3. The voluntary intake of dried grass of lambs was studied in a third experiment when they received supplements of either 25 or 50 g whole or pelleted barley/kg live weight 0-75. At the high level, pelleted barley reduced intake of dried grass by 534 g/kg but whole barley reduced it by only 352 g/kg. The digestibility of acid-detergent fibre was reduced more by pelleted barley than by whole barley but there was a tendency for a small increase in digestibility of the barley due to processing. 4. The implications of these findings on supplementation of roughages with cereals are discussed.

Rambo CM. "Effects of Procurement reforms on Expenditure Management in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya,." DBA Africa Management Review Journal. 2012;Vol. 2 No. 3 :150-168.
MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "The effects of Prosopis juliflora Hyne (DC) and Acacia tortilis (Forssk) trees on herbaceous plants species and soil physical and chemical properties, on Njemps flats Baringo District, Kenya. Kahi, C.H., Ngugi, R.K., Mureithi, S.M. and J.C. Ng.". In: Tropical and Sub-tropical Ecosystems 10 (3) (441-449). Tropical and Sub-tropical Ecosystems 10 (3) (441-449).; 2009. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
Koech OK. Effects of Prosopis juliflora Seedpod Meal Supplement on Weight gain of Weaner Galla goats. NAIROBI: UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2010. Abstractkoech_oscar_thesis.pdf

This study was conducted to determine the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora
seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess
the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production
system. The study further sought to evaluate the economic viability of supplementing goats with
Prosopis seed pods and establish the optimum supplementation level for improved performance.
The experiment involved 20 weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg)
which were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No
Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4
(400g /goat /day Prosopis). Supplementation involved providing the goats with their respective
portions of Prosopis seedpod meal in the morning before the grass hay was offered. The animals
were weighed on weekly basis and the average weight gains calculated as the difference between
that weeks’ weight and the previous week’s weight divided by five. The experiment lasted for 70
days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1
(control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences
were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences
in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Overall, treatment T3 exhibited highest total
weight gain (3.96kg), followed by T4 (2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment
(-0.009kgs). The cost benefit analysis indicated that it is profitable to supplement the goats with
200g/goat/day, which was the most cost effective with a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.50. T2 was
also cost effective, but at a lower level (RBC=1.47). Treatment T4 was not cost effective BCR
(0.57). It is therefore recommended that supplementation at optimum level of Prosopis seedpods
increases growth rates.

Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Wahome RG, Choge SK. "Effects of Prosopis juliflora Seedpod Meal Supplement on Weight Gain of Weaner Galla Goats in Kenya." Research Journal of Animal Sciences. 2010;4(2):58-62. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100g/goat/day Prosopis), T3 (200 g/goat/day Prosopis) and T4 (400 g/goat/day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% Dry Matter (DM), 18.5% Crude Protein (CP), 83.2% Organic Matter (OM), 51.8% Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However for the first 3 weeks these differences were not statistically significant (p<0.05). From the 5th week on wards however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (p<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg) followed by T4 (2.70 kg). Group T1 had lowest weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200 g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Wahome RG, and Choge SK. "Effects of Prosopis juliflora Seedpod Meal Supplement on Weight Gain of Weaner Galla Goats in Kenya." Research Journal of Animal Sciences. 2010;4(2):58-62. AbstractWebsite

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100g/goat/day Prosopis), T3 (200 g/goat/day Prosopis) and T4 (400 g/goat/day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% Dry Matter (DM), 18.5% Crude Protein (CP), 83.2% Organic Matter (OM), 51.8% Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However for the first 3 weeks these differences were not statistically significant (p<0.05). From the 5th week on wards however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (p<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg) followed by T4 (2.70 kg). Group T1 had lowest weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200 g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "The Effects of Pruning and Altitude on the Fatty Acids Composition of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) shoots. Tropical Science, 30, 299-306.". In: Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract
   
Kimata MD, Mwangi(S)RW, Mathiu(S)P. Effects of Rearing Methods and Hormones on Growth and Reproduction of the Helmeted Guinea Fowl Numida meleagris. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007.
S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of recharging on moisture loss and quality changes during short term storage of sweet potato (Ipomea batata L.). Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences, 2: 67-78.". In: Journal of Plant Nutrition. Taylor & Francis; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Fagundes A, Pereira AH, Corrêa RK, de Oliveira MT, Rodriguez R. "Effects of removal of the adventitia of the descending aorta and structural alterations in the tunica media in pigs." Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões. 2012;39:133-138. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of removal of the adventitia on the tunica media in a pig model. METHODS: The experiment was performed in eight pigs. The adventitia of the descending aorta was removed. Following euthanasia, at two, four, six and eight weeks, the aortic segment was removed. Next, slices of the aorta were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Weigert-Van Gieson. RESULTS: After two weeks there was a slight cellular breakdown in the outer third of the media. After four weeks structural breakdown of elastic fibers was observed in the outer two thirds of the same layer. In six weeks, several areas of necrosis and almost complete disruption of elastic fibers were identified. Finally, after eight weeks, there was fibrosis of the entire wall with disruption of the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: The removal of the adventitia leads to degeneration of the media, determining loss of the normal structure of the aortic wall that is variable in its location, intensity and shape, depending on the length and duration of the ischemic insult.

Fagundes A, Pereira AH, Corrêa RK, de Oliveira MT, Rodriguez R. "Effects of removal of the adventitia of the descending aorta and structural alterations in the tunica media in pigs." Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões. 2012;39:133-138. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of removal of the adventitia on the tunica media in a pig model. METHODS: The experiment was performed in eight pigs. The adventitia of the descending aorta was removed. Following euthanasia, at two, four, six and eight weeks, the aortic segment was removed. Next, slices of the aorta were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Weigert-Van Gieson. RESULTS: After two weeks there was a slight cellular breakdown in the outer third of the media. After four weeks structural breakdown of elastic fibers was observed in the outer two thirds of the same layer. In six weeks, several areas of necrosis and almost complete disruption of elastic fibers were identified. Finally, after eight weeks, there was fibrosis of the entire wall with disruption of the internal elastic lamina. CONCLUSION: The removal of the adventitia leads to degeneration of the media, determining loss of the normal structure of the aortic wall that is variable in its location, intensity and shape, depending on the length and duration of the ischemic insult.

D E, D O. "The effects of Rights Issue Announcements on Stock Returns for Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Education and Research . 2016;3(9): 2411-5681 . AbstractEffects_of_rights_issue_announcements_on_stock_returns_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange-1.pdf

Rights issue is a secondary equity issue in which new additional shares are issued to the existing
shareholders in exchange for cash (capital) needed by a publicly quoted company, either for
expansion purposes or to finance company operations. The rights are issued to the shareholders in
the proportion of their existing holdings. Empirical studies give mixed results on the direction of
stock returns upon a rights issue announcement. Since there has been no consensus on how capital
markets generally respond to rights issue announcement, this study investigates the effect of rights
issue announcement on stock returns of companies listed at an organised exchange. The study
adopts an event study technique on a sample of twelve companies which issued rights between
January 1, 2007 and August 31, 2014. Secondary data on share prices is collected from the Nairobi
Securities Exchange (NSE) database. The study establishes that stock prices and returns changes
significantly in the post announcement period than in the preannouncement period. Analysis of
mean abnormal return reveales that rights issue announcement results into either positive or
negative stock return. Based on the cumulative average abnormal return (CAAR), the study
concludes that rights issue announcement results into a negative abnormal stock return for the listed
firms. The study therefore recommends that the investment banks and listed companies should
consider the negative abnormal stock price reactions and the subsequent negative abnormal stock
return changes to the announcement of rights issue while setting the discounted rights issue prices
so as to ensure that during the issue period, the stock trading prices do not fall below the rights issue
price, a fact that can lead to the collapse of the rights issue exercise. The study recommends further
academic exploration on the effects of repeat rights issues on stock prices and returns so as to
understand the possible response of investors to seasonal issues.

Kipyegon AN, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Effects of ripe Carica papaya seed powder on testicular histology of boars." Int. J. Vet. Sci., . 2012;1:1-4.
Kipyegon AN, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Effects of ripe papaya (Carica papaya) seed powder on the seminiferous epithelium of the boar testis.". 2012. Abstract

The effect of oral administration of ripe Carica Papaya seed powder on testicular histology of Sus scrofa domestica boars has been addressed in the present article. Fifteen pubertal Large White boars were randomly selected and divided into two groups. Each boar in the experimental group received a daily dose of 300mg C Papaya mixed with 0.5 kg of conventional pig feed while the control group received a placebo. The experiment was carried out for 56 days in the University of Nairobi. After every two weeks, one boar from the control group and two from the experimental group were castrated and testicular tissue samples processed for histology. At the end of 56 days the remaining entire boars were maintained for 14 days and 60 days respectively without the papaya powder to assess reversibility. The test material had no effect on haematological parameters. However, histopathological changes of the seminiferous epithelium which appeared to be dependent upon duration of C Papaya consumption was noticed, these changes were reversible. Although the mechanism(s) for the effect of papaya seed extract is not explained by this study, it is observed that papaya seed powder causes gradual disorganization, exfoliation and loss of spermatocytes and spermatids.

Oiye SO, Konyole S, Ngala SN. "Effects of Rosemary Spice (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) and Nitrite Picking Salt Combination on Keeping and Organoleptic Quality of Beef Sausages.". 2012. Abstract

The potential use in foods as antioxidants and antimicrobials coupled by increasing interest in the use of natural preservatives (for safety reasons) motivated the demonstration of the possibility of substituting rosemary spice for nitrite pickling salt in beef sausages. Five types of beef sausage with similar ingredients in type and quality except for the level of rosemary spice (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) and nitrite pickling salt were prepared conventionally and stored at 50C. The sausages had spice-nitrite pickling salt combinations from sample with no rosemary spice and 8gm nitrite picking salt /Kg beef (standard sausage) to sample with 0.5% rosemary spice (based on sausage mass) and with no nitrite pickling salt. Microbial proliferation was monitored for 9 days and extent of rancidity development for 11 days as measured by absorbance of their light petroleum (40C-60C) extract at 269nm. Twenty panelists appraised the organoleptic quality using a hedonic scale of 7. It was found that rosemary spice can substitute nitrite pickling salt to produce organoleptically acceptable sausages of comparable microbiological quality - with 0.4% rosemary spice and 6mg/Kg nitrite picking salt mixture as the optimum combination in microbial inhibition. However, it was demonstrated that rosemary spice/ nitrite picking salt mixes are not effective (relative to rosemary spice and NPS when separate) in halting production of secondary products of lipid oxidation.

K MJ, E.N.M N, Lerna KN. Effects of Schistosoma mansoni infection on Mammalian host glucose metabolism. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1998.munyua_files_2.png
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "Effects of Sea Level Changes on Geomorphological Processes along the coast. Workshop Report No.77 UNESCO.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1991. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Mudavadi Patrick Ongadi, Emmanuel A Mpolya, Charles Gachuiri, Francis Namasake Muyekho, Lukuyu AB. "Effects of Season Variation on Water, Feed, Milk Yield and Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows in Smallholder Farms in Eastern Africa." Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International. 2020.
Nganga CJ. "Effects of seasons on the occurrence of peri- parturient rise in trichostrongylid nematode egg output in Dorper ewes in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya.". In: 12th Annual meeting of the ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern & Southern Africa. Morogoro, Tanzania; 2003.
K'Obonyo P, et al. "Effects of Selected Corporate Governance Characteristics on Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence from Kenya." International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues . 2011;Volume 1(Issue 3):pp. 99-122. Abstract

This paper examines the interrelations among ownership, board and manager characteristics and firm performance in a sample of 54 firms listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE). These governance characteristics, designed to minimize agency problems between principals and agents are operationalized in terms of ownership concentration, ownership identity, board effectiveness and managerial discretion. The typical ownership identities at the NSE are government, foreign, institutional, manager and diverse ownership forms. Firm performance is measured using Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Dividend Yield (DY). Using PPMC, Logistic Regression and Stepwise Regression, the paper presents evidence of significant positive relationship between foreign, insider, institutional and diverse ownership forms, and firm performance. However, the relationship between ownership concentration and government, and firm performance was significantly negative. The role of boards was found to be of very little value, mainly due to lack of adherence to board member selection criteria. The results also show significant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively, these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreign, manager (insider) and institutional ownership forms, but significantly differ concerning the effects of ownership concentration and diverse ownership on firm performance.

K'Obonyo PO, Ongore VO. "Effects of Selected Corporate Governance Characteristics on Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence from Kenya." International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues. 2015;Vol 1(Iss No 3):pp 99-122. Abstract

This paper examines the interrelations among ownership, board and manager characteristics and firm performance in a sample of 54 firms listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange(NSE). These governance characteristics, designed to minimize agency problems between principals and agents are operationalized in terms of ownership concentration, ownership identity, board effectiveness and managerial discretion. The typical ownership identities at the NSE are government, foreigh, instituttional manager and diverse ownership forms. Firm performance is measured using Return on Assets(ROA), Return on Equity(ROE) and Divident Yield(DY). Using PPMC, Logistic Regression and Stepwise Regression, the paper presents evidence of significant positive relationship between foreign, insider, institutional and diverse ownership concentration and government and firm performance, was significantly negaive. the role of boards was found to be of very littele value, mainly due to lack of adherence to board member selection criteria. The results also show significant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreign, manager (insider) and institutional ownership forms, but significantly differ concerning the effects of ownership concentration and diverse ownership on firm performance.

"EFFECTS OF SELECTED FIRMS CHARACTERISTICS ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE DECISIONS OF FIRMS LISTED AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE ." African development finance journal . 2017;1(2):102-116 . Abstracteffects_of_selected_firms_characteristics_on_capital_structure_decisions_of_firms_listed_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

Purpose - Capital structure choice remains a crucial decision alongside the vital choices intended by a corporate since they have a high consequence on the value and the cost of the company. Therefore this study main focus was to examine the effects of selected firms characteristics on the capital structure decisions of companies registered at the Nairobi Stock exchange.
Methodology - The study adopted a descriptive research design and used secondary data. The collected data was analyzed with the help of the SPSS software version 23 and presented with the help of frequency distributions, computation of mean and standard deviation. The association between the research variables was presented in a correlation matrix and a regression model.
Findings - Firm size showed greatest influence on the company choice of capital structure among the firms followed by asset structure, profitability and liquidity. Further, the regression model also generated adjusted R squared value of 0.692 that is to mean 69.2% of the variations in financing options can be well illustrated by variations in the firm size, asset structure, profitability and liquidity. The findings from the study indicated an affirmative correlation among firm’s size and the financing options. The findings also revealed an affirmative association among assets structure against the source of financing. The findings from the research also showed that there is undesirable association among the firm’s profitability and source of financing of the firms listed at the NSE while a negative relationship among liquidity and the principal investment was exhibited in the research findings. This leads to a conclusion that rise in company size resulted to a rise in the investment structure of a firm therefore increase in demand to increase the capital base by seeking more financing. The study also found out that an increase in asset structure resulted in an increase in capital structure while an increase in profitability levels resulted in decrease in capital structure; increase in in liquidity levels led to a decrease in capital structure of the firms listed at the NSE.
Implications –The study findings emphasize that firms should understand the specific characteristics that influence choice of their respective capital structure in order to opt for the best financing option. The study also further suggested that similar studies should be carried out every three to five years to find out the significance of firm characteristics on choice of capital structure of firms listed at the NSE
Value -The findings of the study would be significant to public institutions and other non-listed firms in the choice of financing options and design of capital structure. Policy makers would infer the findings in formulation of relevant capital structure policies.
Key words: Capital structure decisions, size of the firm, asset structure, profitability, liquidity

Chege IN, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karanja S, Derese S. "The Effects of Selected Kenyan Herbal Formulations on Glucose, Lipid Levels and Hepatic Function in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats." Global journal of Biotechnology, Agriculture & Health Sciences. 2015;4(2):101-107. AbstractUSIU Digital Repository

Abstract
Introduction: Polyherbal formulations used for management of diabetes in Kenya lack studies to determine their
efficacy or safety. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of two anti-diabetic polyherbal formulations (LUC and
MUI). Method: Herbs were collected, dried and formulated. Formulations were evaluated using grouped alloxan induced
wistar rats. Effects were compared to conventional drugs; pioglitazone (3mg/kg bw), glibenclamide (100 mg/kg bw),
metformin (100 mg/kg bw) and normal control group. Each group received an individual drug/water once daily orally for
fourteen days. Blood glucose levels were evaluated every seven days using a glucometer. Liver function tests and lipid
profile were measured on day 14. The data was expressed in mean ± SEM. Analysis was by ANOVA and post hoc multicomparison Turkey test (p < 0.05). Results: No mortalities reported. Both herbal preparations had hypoglycemic effects.
LUC was more potent. MUI increased all lipid levels. LUC caused intestinal gas distention on gross examination.
Conclusion: The herbal formulations were hypoglycemic at the tested doses.
Key words: polyherbal formulations, diabetes mellitus

Korir BK, Nyariki DM, Nyariki DM. "Effects of Selected Routine Husbandry Practices on Growth Rate of Weaned Small East African Goats." Research Journal of Animal Sciences. 2010;4(Issue: 2 ):66-71. Abstract

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effects of overnight housing, helminthes control, supplementation and their combinations on average weight gain of weaned Small East African Goats (SEAG) in the semi-arid southeastern rangelands of Kenya. The study also evaluated the economic viability of these goat husbandry practices. About 40 weaned Small East African Goats of similar age (7±1 months) and weights (21±3 kg) were randomly assigned to the following eight treatments: housing (Th); helminthes control (Td); supplementation (Ts); housing+supplementation (Ths); housing+helminthes control (Thd); supplementation+ helminthes control (Tsd); housing+supplementation+helminthes control (Thsd) and control (Tc-traditional husbandry). All the animals were weighed every week and weight gains calculated as the difference between the current and previous weight. The experiment lasted for 18 weeks. All treatment groups consistently exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than the control over the entire trial period. However, the enhanced weight gains were not statistically significant (p<0.05) up to the end of 3rd week. On the 4th week, however all treatment groups except housing, registered significantly (p<0.05) higher weight gains than the control. Overall a combination of all the three treatments (Thsd) had the highest impact on the goats weight gain (6.95 kg) followed by Tsd (6.65 kg). The cost-benefit analysis indicated that the most cost-effective treatment was helminthes control with a Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) of 9.45. Supplementation and supplementation combined with helminthes control with 2.35 and 2.75 RBCs, respectively were also cost-effective. The results of this study support the conclusion that housing; control of internal parasites; enhancement of nutrition or a combination of any of these practices has the potential of substantially improving the weight gain rate of weaned Small East African Goats which would translate into increased off-take and ultimately, income.

Gitonga ER, Njororai WWS. "Effects of selected School factors in socialization into Sport of Kenyan Secondary school Athletes." African Journal of educational research and development. 2007;2(1):240-246.
Muasya JN. "Effects of Sexual Harassment on Women Students’ Access to Opportunities and Facilities: A Case Study of the University of Nairobi, Kenya." Global Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, (GJISS) 3 (4),. 2014;3(4):83-90.
OTHOO, Dulo, Olago, D. O., Ayah. "Effects of Shallow Water Table on the Construction of Pit Latrines and Shallow Wells in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu City." Sanitation Value Chain, J-STAGE an electronic journal platform for science and technology. 2020;5(1).
Ndegwa SK. The effects of share splits on long run stock returns for companies listed at the Nairobi securities exchange. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

Share splits are a common corporate event among listed companies. Though it is
commonly practiced it has been described as a mere accounting change that increases
the number of shares outstanding without any benefit to the shareholders. This study
sought to determine the effects of share splits on long run stock returns among listed
companies at the Nairobi securities Exchange. The study covered returns for twenty
four months after the company had undergone a share split. The study therefore
sampled firms that had been in operation for at least twenty four months after they
had undergone a share split. There were eleven firms listed at the NSE that fulfilled
this condition and were therefore sampled for this study.
The study used the long run study methodology and applied the buy and hold
benchmark approach. The method required the identification of the event firm and its
benchmark firm and comparing the returns achieved by each of these firms
correspondingly for the same month. Secondary data obtained from the Nairobi
Securities Exchange was used in this study. The data consisted of monthly opening
and closing share prices of each of the sampled firms together with those of its
identified benchmark firm for the entire twenty four months of the study. The study
method required the determination of each of the sampled event firm’s monthly buy
and hold returns and comparing these returns with those of its benchmark firm, which
acted as a proxy for the market. The benchmark firm was identified as another firm
which had not undergone a share split and was within 70% to 130% of the share
capital of the event firm at the time of the event firm’s share split, and has a book to
market equity (BE/ME) ratio that is closest to that of the event firm. The monthly
returns of the event firm are then compared with those of its benchmark firm. The
difference in the monthly returns achieved by the paired firms constitutes the buy and
hold abnormal return (BHAR) for the event firm. The buy and hold abnormal returns
for each firm were then tested for difference from zero at 5% significance level in
order to determine whether there is any difference between the returns of the event
firm and the returns of its benchmark firm.
The study found that among all the eleven firms sampled; only two firms achieved a
positive mean buy and hold abnormal return of 1.89% and 3.72% respectively. The
other nine firms representing 82% of the sampled firms achieved a mean negative buy
and hold abnormal returns ranging from -4.94 % to -0.14 %. These returns were
however found to be insignificant at 95% confidence level. This implies that there
was no significant difference between the returns achieved by the event firm and the
returns achieved by its benchmark firm for the period under study. The study
therefore concluded that share splits at the Nairobi securities exchange have
insignificant effects on stock returns for the first two years following a share split.
However further studies on its effects on periods longer than two years would be
recommended in order to develop a hypothesis. The criteria for the choice of the
benchmark firm would also need to include a consideration of the industry in which
the event firm is operating in order to allow for proper benchmarking of the paired
firms returns. Firms from the same industry would be affected by market conditions in
the same way.

Wangolo EE, Onyango CM, Gachene CKK, Mong’are PN. "Effects of Shoot Tip and Flower Removal on Growth and Yield of Spider Plant (Cleome gynandra L.) in Kenya." American Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 2015;8(6):367-376.
Musyoka R, Wambugu HW, Kaluwoyo V. "The Effects of Shoppers’ Individual Characteristics, Price and Product Knowledge on Shoppers Purchase Behavior.". 2014. Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of demographic factors on the amount of milk bought from supermarkets in Kenya. Based on regression analysis, the study employed a survey design and a primary data set of 1000 consumers of fresh processed milk. Except for shopper’s gender and price, other shoppers’ individual characteristics (education, age, family size) and product knowledge (knowledge level for processed milk) had a significant effect on the outcome of behavior in terms of the amount of milk bought from the supermarket sin Kenya. The study provides empirical evidence on the effect of shoppers’ individual characteristics, price and level of product knowledge on the amount of processed milk bought from supermarkets in Kenya. From the accessible literature, there is no study that has investigated the effect of shoppers’ individual characteristics, price and product Knowledge on the amount of processed milk bought from supermarkets in Kenya. The findings could guide milk processing companies and supermarkets’ management when planning and implementing their marketing strategies in attempt to increase sales.

Kimania ST, Nyongesa AW. "Effects of single daily khat (Catha edulis) extract on spatial learning and memory.". 2008. Abstract

This study investigated the effects of fresh khat extract on learning and memory in CBA mice. A total of 20 male CBA mice, weighing 20–30 g, 5–6 weeks old were administered intraperitoneally with a single daily dose of khat extract for 5 days. The animals were divided into four groups, each comprising five animals. The first three groups were administered three doses (40, 120 and 360 mg/kg body weight) of khat extract, respectively. The last group served as controls and was administered with 0.5 ml normal saline intraperitoneally. The animals were then subjected to Morris water maze (MWM) task performance. Moderate and high doses (120 and 360 mg/kg body weight) of khat extract significantly impaired (P < 0.05) while low dose (40 mg/kg body weight) of khat extract did not have a significant effect on CBA mice acquisition learning. The high dose of khat extract significantly (P < 0.05) improved while moderate and low doses impaired accuracy for spatial memory of the platform location. This study has shown that khat extract has selective effect on spatial learning and memory, with low dose having no effect on learning but impairing memory, whereas high dose impairs learning but improves memory.

THUU MRKIMANISAMUEL. "Effects of single daily khat (Catha edulis) extract on spatial learning and memory in CBA mice.Kimani ST, Nyongesa AW. Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: PMID: 18588917 [PubMed - in process]. Kiama SG, Bhattacharjee J, Kiama TN and Mwangi DK.; 2008. Abstract
This study investigated the effects of fresh khat extract on learning and memory in CBA mice. A total of 20 male CBA mice, weighing 20-30 g, 5-6 weeks old were administered intraperitoneally with a single daily dose of khat extract for 5 days. The animals were divided into four groups, each comprising five animals. The first three groups were administered three doses (40, 120 and 360 mg/kg body weight) of khat extract, respectively. The last group served as controls and was administered with 0.5 ml normal saline intraperitoneally. The animals were then subjected to Morris water maze (MWM) task performance. Moderate and high doses (120 and 360 mg/kg body weight) of khat extract significantly impaired (P<0.05) while low dose (40 mg/kg body weight) of khat extract did not have a significant effect on CBA mice acquisition learning. The high dose of khat extract significantly (P<0.05) improved while moderate and low doses impaired accuracy for spatial memory of the platform location. This study has shown that khat extract has selective effect on spatial learning and memory, with low dose having no effect on learning but impairing memory, whereas high dose impairs learning but improves memory.
Wambua BN, Omoke KJ, Mutua TM. "effects of socio - economic factors on food security situation in kenyan drylands ecosystem." Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food science(ISSN:2321-1571). 2014;02(01 february 2014).893-4145-1-pb.pdf
F C, AM K, R O, M M. "Effects of socio-economic and behavioural factors on early childhood caries among children attending a dental clinic in Nairobi, Kenya." Eat Afr Med J. 2016;2016; 93(8): 378-385(2016; 93(8): 378-385):2016; 93(8): 378-385.
Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, Geiger V. "The effects of sociocultural determinants on cultural dimensions: A case of East Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2018;13(4)(ISSN 2324-7584):19-37.
O. ER, W MR, Otieno DJ. "The Effects of Sociocutural Determinants on Cultural Dimensions: A Case of East Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2018;13(4):19-37.
Okoth S. "Effects of Soil Chemical Characteristics on the Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes." British Journal of Applied Science & Technology. 2014;4(16):2333-2343. AbstractWebsite

This study was conducted to determine the effect of selected soil chemical characteristics on the occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) under different land uses in Embu and Taita Districts in Kenya.
Study Design: The sampling points were systematically marked in a grid-mesh construction using GPS marking.
Place and Duration of Study: Soil sampling was done between January 2008 and May 2008 in Embu district in the highlands of Central and Taita-Taveta district in the Coastal highlands of Kenya.
Methodology: EPNs were baited from soil using Galleria mellonella larvae and infective juveniles identified using morphological- biometric characteristics. The nematode occurrence was evaluated through relative abundance and recovery frequency expressed as percentage from the soils.
Results: EPNs were detected in 43.3% of the samples with Steinernema spp being the dominant species. The occurrence of EPNs is affected by selected soil chemical properties, land use systems and heavy metals.
Conclusion: Soil fertility management practices and heavy metals influence the occurrence of EPNs and should be considered for their effective use as biological control agents.

Kawaka F, Kimenju J, Okoth SA, Ayodo G, Mwaniki S, Muoma J, Orinda G. "Effects of soil chemical characteristics on the occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology.". 2014;4:2333-2343.
Wambua BN, shadrack Kithiia M. "Effects of soil erosion on sediment dynamics, food security and rural poverty in Makueni District, Eastern Kenyan." International Journal of Applied science and Technology. 2014;vol 4(No 1:January 2014):101-107.ijast_publication_2014.pdf
Lelei DK, Karanja NK, Ayuke FO, Kibunja CN, Vanlauwe B. "Effects of soil fertility management practices on soil aggregation, carbon and nitrogen dynamics." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2013;78(1):113-118. Abstract

Poor resource farmers cultivate steep slopes without soil conservation measures and apply insufficient plant nutrients thus degrading the soils. Use of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients is one of the approaches being advocated to farmers as a way of improving soil health and increasing crop production.
A study was conducted from a 31 year-old long-term trial at Kabete, Central Kenya to investigate the effect of inorganic and organic inputs (maize stover and farmyard manure) on soil aggregates, carbon, and nitrogen in a humic nitisol soil under annual maize-bean crop rotation. The treatments for this study were: i) Inorganic fertilizer; ii) Farmyard manure plus or minus inorganic fertilizer; iii) Maize stover plus or minus inorganic fertilizer and iv) control (no inputs applied). The treatments were replicated three times in a randomized complete block design. Soil samples were collected and subjected to wet sieving and fractionation analyses to assess for water stable aggregates. Carbon and total nitrogen were measured for all aggregate fractions and whole soil. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance.

The results showed significant increase in macroaggregates in 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths under manure plus inorganic fertilizer treatment. Also, there was significant increase in mean weight diameter of soil aggregates, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in macroaggregates and microaggregates, in treatment with farmyard manure plus inorganic fertilizer.
Long-term use of manure plus inorganic fertilizer improved the stability of the macroaggregates and increased mean weight diameter in both 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths. Thus integration of farmyard manures and inorganic fertilizers would result in buildup of soil organic matter in the long-term, thus contributing to carbon sequestration in soils.

Key words: Soil aggregate fractions; carbon; nitrogen

Lelei DK, Karanja NK, Ayuke FO, Kibunja CN, Vanlauwe B. "EFFECTS OF SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL AGGREGATION, CARBON AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS." E. Afr. agric. For. J. 113-118. 2012;78(1):113-118.
Gicheru PT, Gachene CKK. "Effects of soil management practices and tillage systems on soil moisture conservation and maize yield on a sandy loam in semiarid Kenya.". 2005. Abstract

Maize is an important crop in the high and medium rainfall areas of Kenya and thus, there is a need for additional information on the effect of tillage and soil management practices on water conservation and yield of maize. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of seven soil management practices: bare with conventional tillage (BC), bare with minimum tillage (BM), incorporated mulch with conventional tillage (IMuC), manure with conventional tillage (MaC), manure with minimum tillage (MaM), surface mulch with conventional tillage (SMuC), and surface mulch with minimum tillage (SMuM) on water conservation and yield of maize. Soil water content was greater in minimum tilled plots than in the conventionally tilled (hand hoeing) plots during the study period. This was demonstrated by the manure with minimum tilled treatment, which had the highest soil moisture (7.6% and 8.3%) both at 0-7 cm and 7-23 cm depth. However, when organic matter additions were analyzed separately, it was observed that manure irrespective of tillage had the highest soil moisture in both depths (7.6% and 8.1%). The differences within the treatments occurred when soil water contents were highest shortly after the rains. When the amount of soil water for each management practice was averaged for all the seasons, a significant difference was found at P = 0.0001. Manure (Ma) and surface mulched (Smu) treatments had significantly higher soil moisture content than the other treatments. The higher moisture content found under these treatments was attributed to higher infiltration rates, better cover that reduced the rainfall kinetic energy, and to better structural stability contributed to by higher organic carbon. Compared with the traditional form of hand hoeing, minimum tillage increased available soil water content drastically and crop performance was improved. Grain yields were greatest in manure and lowest in bare treatments. There were significant differences in grain yield in all treatments.

Patrick G, Charles G, Joseph M, Edward M. "Effects of soil management practices and tillage systems on surface soil water conservation and crusty formation on a sandy loam in semi-arid Kenya.". 2001. Abstract

The effect of different soil management practices on crust strength and thickness, soil water conservation and crop performance was investigated on a ferric lixisol in a semi-arid environment of eastem Kenya. The studv proved that manure and mulching with minimum tillage have a greater effect on the water balance of crusted soils and maize emergence. There was increase in steady infiltration rates, amount of soil water stored in the soil and better drainage. The physical effect of mulch was less important in the rehabilitation of crusted soils in the study site when it was incorporated into the soil. Manure and surface mulch with minimum tillage should therefore be taken into account in land management and water conservation in the semi-arid areas of Kenya. The response of crops to the improved water availability due to manure with minimum and with conventional tillage and surface mulch was very clear. These management practices should be recommended when considering the effectiveness of soil and water management techniques in the study area. Keywords: Crust strength and thickness; Soil management: Tillage methods: Steady infiltration rates and available soil moisture

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Effects of soil management practices and tillage systems on surface soil water conservation on a sandy loam in semi-arid Kenya. Soil & Tillage Research 75, 173-184.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2004. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
I.O. JUMBA1, Wandiga SO, N.F SUTTLE, E.A HUNTER. "Effects of soil origin and mineral composition and herbage species on the mineral composition of forages in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya. 2. Trace elements." Tropical Grasslands (1995), . 1995; Volume 29:47-52 . Abstract

Samples of topsoil and herbage from 135 sites in the Mt Elgon region of Kenya were classified according to farm, site altitude, underlying soil bedrock (6 types) and botanical composition (6 classes). Effects of altitude, bedrock and species on pasture concentrations of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn were determined using a mixed model for unbalanced data sets and the Wald statistic (W) to assess statistical significance. Extractable concentrations of each element in the soil were measured at each site except for Se where total Se was used.
Cu values were particularly low in forages associated with tertiary volcanic bedrock (3.8 ± 0.34 mg/kg DM), but even the maximal values (5.4 ± 0.34 mg/kgDM on metamorphosed sedi¬mentary material) were marginal for ruminants. Se and Cu concentrations were usually low at low altitudes but no other significant effects of alti¬tude or geology on herbage trace element concen¬trations were found. For Cu and Se alone, geological and topographical maps may help to delineate areas where risks of deficiency are high or low. Herbage composition was poorly corre¬lated with total (Se) or extractable (other trace elements) concentrations in the soil.
Species differences were important for all Clements except Se, with kikuyu grass (Pennis-etum clandestinum) the richest in all but Mn. For Cu and Zn, deficiencies were most likely to occur with rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) with 3.5 mg Cu and 19.5 mgZn/kg DM and setaria (Setaria sphacelata) with 3.9 mg Cu and 17.7 mg Zn/kg DM. Species differences in Mo were within a low range of values (derived means < 1.6 mg/kgDM) but may, in combination with S, influence Cu availability. The lowest mean Se value (0.047 mg/ kgDM in setaria) was inadequate for ruminants. Species variation in Co, Fe and Mn was signifi¬cant but values were consistently above animal requirements and for Co and Fe were probably influenced by soil contamination.

I.O JUMBA, N.F SUTTLE, S.O W, E.A HUNTER. "Effects of soil origin and mineral composition of herbage species on the mineral composition of forages in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya I. Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sulphur.". In: Tropical Grasslands (Journal of Australian Grassland Society) 29, 40-46. Association of Africa Universities; 1995. Abstract

Samples of topsoil (0-30 cm) and dry season herbage from 135 sites in the Mt Elgon region of Kenya were classified according to farm (n = 84), site altitude, underlying soil bedrock (6 types) and botanical composition (6 classes). Effects on pasture concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and S were determined using a mixed model for unbalanced data sets and the Wald (W) statistic to assess the significance of fixed effects. Associated effects on pH, plus extractable Ca and P concentrations in the topsoils were also evaluated.
Soil bedrock influenced herbage concen-trations of S (P < 0.001) but not those of Ca, P or Mg. Mean herbage S concentrations were lowest on volcanic and metamorphic gneiss associations (1.2 g/kg DM) but only extreme values would be inadequate for grazing livestock. Altitude appeared to affect the concentration of P (P < 0.01) and not those of Ca, Mg and S in herbage but the effect on P was dependent on soil P. Geological and topographical maps cannot be used to predict macro-mineral disorders in live¬stock in the Mt Elgon region.
Herbage species differed markedly in their concentrations of S (P < 0.001), Ca (P < 0.001) and Mg (P < 0.05) but not P. Ca deficiency may arise on setaria, S deficiency on some napier grass pastures and P deficiency on some dry season pastures irrespective of botanical compo¬sition.
Low herbage P concentrations may reflect advanced maturity rather than low soil P status (mean value 20 mgP/kg DM). The correlation between soil P and herbage P was significant (r = 0.595), and similar in slope and intercept for all herbage classes but not strong enough to predict deficient Ijerbages. Herbage Ca was not corre¬lated with soil Ca.

ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Effects of soil origin and mineral composition of herbage species on the mineral composition of forages in the Mount Elgon region of Kenya I. Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sulphur.". In: Tropical Grasslands (Journal of Australian Grassland Society) 29, 40-46. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1995. Abstract
n/a
Karuku GN. "Effects of soil, vegetation and land use on infiltration in two semi-arid sub-locations (Sibilo and Loruk) in Baringo District. National Capacity Building for Child Survival and Development Workshop (funded by UNICEF).". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1992. Abstract

This study uses CROPWAT model to predict water use in rainfed agriculture and simulate irrigation requirement for tomato production in Kabete Field Station. The model predicted increased irrigation requirement for tomato crop of 33.1, 28.1 and 36.6 mm water, in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd 10-day periods of development stage, respectively. The crop evapotranspiration (ETc) requirements by tomato crop were predicted at 456.5 mm for the short rainy season while actual evapotranspiration (ETa) was 232.1 mm for the short rains giving a yield response factor of 0.49. The model suggested an addition of 253.7 mm of irrigation water in order to realize optimal tomato yields as the crop experienced an irrigation deficiency of 48.8%. The moisture deficit at harvest was 63.6 mm of water which resulted in total yield reduction of 51.3%. In relation to actual yields calculated, the mean potential optimal tomato yields in the study area were 23.3 Mg/ha with proper soil management and adequate water supply. The suggested supply system was at 10 days irrigation interval/stage where the soils were irrigated just below or above field capacity. Rainfall losses and irrigation requirements would be reduced to 41.9 and 267.7 mm, with minimum water deficit at harvest of 15.5 mm and an irrigation efficiency of 100%. At this point, ETa would equal ETm and optimal tomato yield would be obtained with yield losses predicted at 0.1%. Yield gap analysis revealed that radiation, sunshine and temperature are favourable for crop production, but the heavy dependence on rainfall makes the area very vulnerable to drought.

Ilnicki RD, Justin JR, Michieka RW. "The effects of some dinitroaniline herbicide on kenaf.". 1977.
Olang' POR. Effects of Spinal Anesthesia during Elective Caesarean Section on Neonatal outcome at the Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

Utero-placental circulation and hence fetal well-being depends on maternal blood pressure.
Spinal anesthesia for cesarean section causes sudden and severe drops in blood pressure thus
threatening fetal and neonatal acid-base balance. Several protocols have been formulated to
prevent maternal hypotension but none has been shown to totally eliminate this risk.

This was a prospective non-randomized descriptive study that adopted a consecutive sampling
method. All eligible ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) I and ASA II mothers slated
for elective cesarean section at the Labour Ward of The Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi
were visited in the ante-natal ward the day or night before surgery and an informed consent
obtained for inclusion in the study. Any pre-selected mother who ended up needing emergency
surgery or changed her mind about inclusion in the study was excluded. Similarly, any willing
mother who did not qualify for spinal anesthesia was excluded from the study.
A sample size of 172 cases was taken and this required approximately 15 weeks of data
collection. Maternal blood pressures were recorded every minute until delivery. Immediately
after delivery, a section of the umbilical cord was clumped with 2 clumps. Umbilical arterial and
venous blood samples were collected in heparinized syringes and taken to the laboratory within
one hour of collection and analyzed for blood gases and pH as a measure of foetal! neonatal
compromise. Apgar scores were also noted at birth and after 5 minutes and later correlated with
the cord blood gas analyses and maternal blood pressures.
The anesthesia provider was requested to complete a data sheet which was then collected by the
principal investigator on the same day the surgery was performed.
Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16.0 and presented in the form of tables,
graphs and charts.

A total of 172 patients were successfully recruited into the study and the total number of
umbilical cord blood samples analyzed (both arterial and venous) was 316. 28 blood samples
clotted and were not available for analysis.
43 babies (27.2%) were born with neonatal acidemia defined as umbilical arterial blood pHS 7.2.
There was, however, no significant relationship between neonatal acidemia and low Apgar
scores; neither was there a significant relationship between low Apgar scores and maternal
hypotension. 104 patients (65.8%) had a wedge inserted under the right hip as recommended for
prevention of aorto-caval compression. There was, however, no significant difference in the
incidence of maternal hypotension among those with a wedge and those without. Vasopressors
were used in 84 patients (53.2%). These included the use of ephedrine alone or epinephrine
alone or a combination of the two in the process of treating or preventing maternal hypotension.
The use of Va sopressors resulted in significantly fewer incidences of hypotension (p=0.018). The
use of preload with crystalloids before induction of spinal anaesthesia was noted to be
significantly related to the use of Vasopressors whenever the volume of preload was less than
500mls (p=0.027). Similarly, maximum levels of spinal block above T6 resulted in significant
incidences of maternal hypotension (p=O.OO1). Maternal height < 155cm did not have any
significant effect on the incidence of maternal hypotension.

Maternal hypotension can lead to poor neonatal outcome due to its effects on placental perfusion
and hence foetal oxygenation. This study has shown that vasopressor use during spinal
anaesthesia effectively minimizes the incidence of maternal hypotension. Crystalloid preload of
over 500mls is effective in preventing or moderating maternal hypotension.
A well conducted spinal anaesthetic for caesarean section with meticulous control/management
of adverse effects results in healthy neonates and mothers

Mwaniki SW;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo F, Kimenju JW;. "Effects of Steinernema kari and Heterohabditis indica against the sweet potato weevil (Cylas puncticollis).". In: 9th Triennial Symposium for International Society for Tropical Root and Tuber crops- Africa Branch, 31st October.; 2004.
Kariuki PW. "Effects of Stigmatization on Obese Children in Primary Schools in Nairobi." Journal of Counselling Psychology. 2012;15(3):27-36.
Baraka, B, Mudenye, Josiah M, Kinama, J.M., Florence M, Olubayo, F., Benjamin, M.Kivuva, muthomi. James W. "Effects of storage methods on carbohydrate and moisture of cassava planting materials. Journal of Agricultural Science.". 2016.
OBIMBO DRLAMUKAPETER. "Effects of Streptococcus thermophilus Whey Fermented and Low Dose Irradiation on Microbiological Quality and Shelf Life of Chicken Carcasses. M.Sc thesis, Alabama A & M University, normal, Alabama 35762, U.S.A.". In: Eur J. Biochem. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1990. Abstract
Thymidine kinase is an enzyme involved in DNA precursor metabolism and DNA replication. The synthesis of this enzyme is highly regulated during the cell cycle and the activity of the enzyme is also regulated by feedback inhibition. Genes encoding thymidine kinase have been extremely useful as selectable markers for introducing DNA into a number of cells. In order to study cell cycle regulation of thymidine kinase, the gene which encodes this enzyme, as well as aspects of DNA replication in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila, we have purified thymidine kinase from Tetrahymena. Two forms of thymidine kinase with native molecular masses of 59 kDa and 80 kDa have been identified and purified 6800- and 4600-fold, respectively. The 59-kDa enzyme, a homodimer of 30-kDa subunits, has been purified to near homogeneity and polyclonal antibodies have been raised against the 30-kDa subunit. Serological studies indicate that the two enzymes are antigenically distinct. The antibody against the Tetrahymena protein cross-reacts with a polypeptide in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell extracts of 26 kDa which corresponds to the reported size of Chinese hamster thymidine kinase protein.
Osiro OA, Hill RG, Bushby A. "Effects of strontium for calcium substitution on properties of GICs." Journal of Dental Research. 2014;93(Special Issue B):188446.
Maina J, Wandiga S, Gyampoh B, Gachene C. "Effects of Supplemental Irrigation on Crop Yields: Case Study Kales (Brassica Oleracea) Crop." Journal of Ecological Engineering. 2020;(21):209-213. AbstractEcological Engineering

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects that supplemental irrigation (SI) has on Kale (Brassica Oleracea) crop yields as compared to wholly rain-fed crop. The experiments were conducted in Kieni, Central Kenya where the rainfall pattern was bimodal. The planting for rain-fed crops was done in three blocks each measuring 10m x1m with a spacing of 30cm between plants and 45cm between rows of plants and the procedure repeated for the crops receiving SI. The average weekly yields were computed for both crops for each season comprised of 14 weeks. The average weekly yields were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine whether the average yields from rain-fed and supplemental irrigated crops were statistically different. This was done by MS Excel 2016 spread sheets by setting a statistical level of significance of 5%. F value was 17.94 higher than the critical value of 4.01 while the P-value of 9x10-5 was lower than the 5% level of confidence meaning that there was a significant difference in the yield means of rain-fed and SI crops. The total rain-fed crop yields for the period was 147.0 Kgs and that of the one under SI was 238Kgs, an increase of about 62%. Therefore, supplemental irrigation can be adopted in areas where rainfall trends are declining to increase crop yields when all other factors remain constant for farmers to increase resilience.

o. K K, R.N K, G WR, W. E. "Effects of supplementing mesquit ( Prosopis juliflora) seedpod meal on the performance of weaner Galla goats in the drylands of Keny.". In: Second RUFORUM Biennial Meetin. Entebbe, Uganda; 2010. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner
Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4 (400g /goat /day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4%
dry matter (DM), 18.5% crude protein (CP), 83.2% organic matter (OM), 51.8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg), followed by T4
(2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Koech OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Ekaya W. "Effects of supplementing mesquit (Prosopis juliflora) seedpod meal on the performance of weaner Galla goats in the drylands of Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4 (400g /goat /day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% dry matter (DM), 18.5% crude protein (CP), 83.2% organic matter (OM), 51.8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg), followed by T4 (2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Koech OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Ekaya W. "Effects of supplementing mesquit (Prosopis juliflora) seedpod meal on the performance of weaner Galla goats in the drylands of Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4 (400g /goat /day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% dry matter (DM), 18.5% crude protein (CP), 83.2% organic matter (OM), 51.8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg), followed by T4 (2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Koech OK;, Kinuthia RN;, Wahome RG;, Ekaya W. "Effects of supplementing mesquit (Prosopis juliflora) seedpod meal on the performance of weaner Galla goats in the drylands of Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4 (400g /goat /day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% dry matter (DM), 18.5% crude protein (CP), 83.2% organic matter (OM), 51.8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg), followed by T4 (2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

et.al. GOO. "Effects of Supplementing Mesquit (Prosopis Juliflora) Seedpod Meal on the Performance of Weaner Galla Goats in the Drylands of Kenya." Second RUFORUM Biennial Regional Conference on" Building capacity for food security in Africa", Entebbe, Uganda, 20-24 September 2010. 2010:1161-1167. Abstract CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International)

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing amounts of Prosopis juliflora seedpod meal on the growth rate of weaner Galla goats. The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of incorporating Prosopis seedpods into a typical dryland livestock production system. Twenty weaner Galla goats of similar age (6 months) and weights (11-14 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments of five weaners each. The treatments were T1 No Prosopis (control treatment), T2 (100 g /goat /day Prosopis), T3 (200 g /goat /day Prosopis), and T4 (400g /goat /day Prosopis). Prosopis contained 88.4% dry matter (DM), 18.5% crude protein (CP), 83.2% organic matter (OM), 51.8% neutral detergent fibre (NDF), 29.8% acid detergent fibre and 5.2% Ash. The experiment lasted for 70 days. Overall, all the treatment groups exhibited higher average weekly weight gains than T1 (control) throughout the experimental period. However, for the first 3 weeks, these differences were not statistically significant (P<0.05). From the fifth week on wards, however, the differences in growth rates were statistically significant (P<0.05). Treatment T3 exhibited highest total weight gain (3.96 kg), followed by T4 (2.70kg). Group T1 lost weight by the end of the experiment. This study demonstrated that Prosopis could be used as goats feed up to 200g/goat/day giving good weight gains and no negative effects on feed intakes and digestibility.

Key words: Supplementation, feed conversion efficiency, Prosopis juliflora, weight gains

GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, M CHARLES. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJ EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, KEMEI BRIGID, AMITO RICHARD, OMBOK MAURICE, WANJOYA ANTONY, Mbogo CM, MATHENGE EVAN. "Effects of target-site insecticide resistance on major malaria vectors’ biting patterns and entomological inoculation rates in Teso sub counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
Akala J, Maithya PM. "Effects of Teacher Recruitment and Utilization Policy on Quality of Secondary School Education in Kenya." IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME) . 2014;Vol.4(No.1 Ver.III):10-17.
Kingi, P. M. "Effects of Teachers’ Participation in School Community Partnership and Motivation." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS. 2018;7(4):48-55.
Gakunga DK. "Effects of Technical Education on Socio-Economic Development in Kenya: Students’ Perceptions." Right to Education and Development. Focus on Africa. 2014:45. Abstract
n/a
Munyoki JM. "The effects of technology transfer on organizational performannce:A case of medium and large manufacturing firms in kenya." University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstract

Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Finding a simple and easily reproducible formula for assessing fitness and growth for human body has been one constant search over the ages. It was the aim of this project to try and add to this search. Most formulae in this field have complex calculations. Most of them have been derived using single system measurements. To delineate our factor, multisystem measurements were used; metric and imperial. This yielded a factor for describing the relationship between weight and height over the ages. The height is in inches and weight in kilograms. This produced factors (D) and (G) which have childhood, adolescent, adult and old age values. A total of 368 black Kenyans were studied. The age range was 3-85 years.

Kimilu RK, Nyang’aya JA, Onyari JM. "The effects of Temperature and Blending on the Specific Gravity and Viscosity of Jatropha Methyl Ester.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

The specific gravity and viscosity of biodiesel fuels are key properties in determining the suitability for use of such fuels in diesel engines. Though generally higher than those of #2 diesel fuel (DF2), they have been mostly reduced by blending with DF2 and preheating to achieve comparable values as DF2. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of temperature and blending on specific gravity and viscosity of Jatropha methyl ester, and also investigate the effect of modifying Clements blending equation by substituting volume fraction for mass fraction. Correlation models were developed to predict the variation of specific gravity and viscosity with both temperature and % biodiesel in a blend. Blends of Jatropha methyl ester (JME) and DF2 on volume basis were prepared and investigated in the temperature range 15-60°C together with the pure fuels. Blends B20, B35, B50 and B75 were made. Specific gravity was determined using specific gravity method whereas viscosity was evaluated was determined using the Ostwald viscometer. Specific gravity of JME was found to be generally 4.83% higher than that of DF2. Blending with DF2 lowered the specific gravity significantly, and a correlation model was developed for use to approximate the specific gravity of any JME-DF2 fuel blend. Preheating the fuels lowered the specific gravity as temperature increased. Correlation models were developed to predict the specific gravity of the test fuels as function of both temperature and amount of JME in the blend. Calculating specific gravity using the Specific gravity blending equation proposed by Clements was found to give results within ± 0.5% of the measured values with mass fraction replaced by volume fraction. The viscosity of JME was found to be 42.09% higher than that of DF2. Blending with DF2 resulted in significant viscosity reduction, which varied linearly with the amount of DF2 in the blend. Correlation models were proposed to approximate the viscosity of any blend as a function temperature in the range from 15°C to 60°C, and as a function of % biodiesel. Results showed that blends with up to 50% JME conformed to both specific gravity and viscosity without the need of preheating.

W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Effects of temperature on appressorium formation and pathogenicity of Colletrotrichum coffeanum. Journal of Plant Protection in the tropics 8(3) : 181-188 (1991).". In: African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, Kampala 14-18 June 1993. PP 260-262. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1991. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
Shibairo SI, Nyabundi JO, Otieno W. "Effects of Temperature on Germination of Seeds of Three Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajant Genotypes.". 1993. Abstract

Two sets of incubator experiments to determine the effects of temperature on germination of three pigeonpea genotype seeds were carried out in the Crop Science Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nairobi. The pigeonpea genotypes were NPP 670, Katheka and Kioko. In the first set of experiments, the pigeonpea seeds were germinated at 15, 20,25,30,35 and 40°C in darkness. In the second set of experiments the seeds were germinated at different 12 hour day and 12 hour night temperature combinations of 15/15, 20/15, 25/15, 30/15, 20/20°C, 25/20, 30/20 and 35/20°C for day and night, respectively. A broad temperature range (20-35°C and 20/15°C to 30/20°C day/night) maximum 13-day germination was obtained for all genotypes. Overall genotype NPP 670 had the highest per cent germination while Kioko had the lowest. However, Kioko had the highest per cent germination at 15°e. Initial germination was delayed at 15°C and 40°C for all genotypes. Time to 50 per cent germination was only Significantly (P = 0.05) increased at 15°C. Maximum per cent germination was observed at 25°C. At 40°C, genotypes Kioko and Katheka seeds imbibed water at a faster rate and exuded brownish substances that started smelling after 36 hours. A bacterial ooze from the seeds was observed for genotype Ka theka at 30°C, 20/15 and 25/ 20°e. NPP 670 showed low amounts of the bacterial ooze at all temperatures. The bacteria fluoresced under ultraviolet light suggesting that they belonged to the Pseudomonadaceae family. The results showed that per cent germination of pigeonpea seeds is decreased by both low and high temperatures. Other factors which include presence of seed borne micro-organisms may also affect the germination of seeds

S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of temperature on germination of three pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) genotypes. Discovery and Innovation, 7: 283-287.". In: Paper submitted in the 3rd International Weed Science Congress in June 2000 at Foz du Iguasu, Brazil. Taylor & Francis; 1995. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Kanui T, Mwendia C, Aulie A;, Wanyoike M. "Effects of temperature on growth, food uptake and retention time of juvenile nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).". 1991. Abstract

1. The body growth, food uptake and gastro-intestinal passage time were studied in juvenile Nile crocodiles kept at different temperature regimes. Group A was kept at 30°C, group B at 30 and 25°C for 12 hr each and group C at 25°C. 2. After 14 weeks, the weight of group A increased by 18%, while both group B and C lost weight (13 and 66%, respectively). During the same period, group A and B increased their body length (6.5 and 6.6%, respectively), while group C decreased in length (5.4%). 3. Group A fed at the same interval as group B, but group A ate more than the other groups. 4. The gastro-intestinal passage time was shorter in group A (35 hr) than in group B (42 hr) and C (44 hr).

N PROFGUANTAIA. "EFFECTS OF THE ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS OF CATHA EDULIS ON THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION.". In: Pergarnon Journals Ltd. A. N. GUANTAI, J. W. MWANG1, G1CHURU MURIUKI and K. A. M. KURIA; 1987.
N PROFGUANTAIA. "Effects of the active constituents of Catha edulis on the neuromuscular junction.Guantai AN, Mwangi JW, Muriuki G, Kuria KA. Neuropharmacology. 1987 May;26(5):401-5.". In: Neuropharmacology. 1987 May;26(5):401-5. Ivan Addae-Mensah,t Rahab Munenge and Anastasia N. Guantai; 1987. Abstract
(-)-Cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine (DNE) in the dose range 0.2-1.2 mg/ml produced a reduction in contractions of skeletal muscle, evoked by direct and indirect electrical stimulation and antagonised the facilitatory action of physostigmine on the neuromuscular junction; but failed to antagonise a partial blockade induced by d-tubocurarine (dTb) as occurs with norepinephrine or epinephrine. The local anaesthetic actions of (-)-cathinone and DNE were found to be almost equivalent to that of lignocaine. These results indicate that (-)-cathinone and DNE may have a direct blocking action on the neuromuscular junction, which is independent of cholinergic and adrenergic transmission.
TOM DONDICHO. "The effects of the global economic crisis on Kenyan migration.". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Just Change 16:8-9; 2009.
TOM DONDICHO. "The effects of the global economic crisis on Kenyan migration.". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Just Change 16:8-9; 2009. Abstract
This study examined issues of power and politics associated with Masaai community involvement in conservation-orientated tourism development in Amboseli, Kenya. Using two case studies of communities involved in community-based wildlife and cultural tourism, the study analyzed how and on what terms the Maasai were involved in tourism development, the nature of their engagement with external tourism stakeholders, the initiatives they have undertaken to gain closer control over the organization and economics of tourism, and the opportunities and constraints associated with this development process. The study found that competition and political rifts between clans, age-sets and political allegiances in the communities involved had prevented them from capitalizing on the tourism potential in the area which was instead exploited by foreign tourism investors and tour operators, the government and a few local elites. The research provides valuable insights into the vulnerability of indigenous communities in the face of global tourism.
W MRMAINAFRANCIS, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Effects of the triphasic oral contraceptive on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1991;9(1):23-9. PMID: 12316812 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1991;9(1):23-9. uon press; 1991. Abstract

PIP: The effects of the triphasic oral contraceptive (OC) ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism were evaluated in 97 black Kenyan women. Subjects were recruited from the Family Planning Clinic and were followed for 12 months. There was an increase in fasting levels of total cholesterol. These changes were not statistically significant. However, the triglyceride increase was statistically significant at 9 months and 12 months (p0.05). The high density cholesterol remained unchanged. Thus, this triphasic OC was found to have minimal effect on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. author's modified

W MRMAINAFRANCIS, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Effects of the triphasic oral contraceptive on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1991;9(1):23-9. PMID: 12316812 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1991;9(1):23-9. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

PIP: The effects of the triphasic oral contraceptive (OC) ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism were evaluated in 97 black Kenyan women. Subjects were recruited from the Family Planning Clinic and were followed for 12 months. There was an increase in fasting levels of total cholesterol. These changes were not statistically significant. However, the triglyceride increase was statistically significant at 9 months and 12 months (p0.05). The high density cholesterol remained unchanged. Thus, this triphasic OC was found to have minimal effect on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. author's modified

Marete GN, Kanja LW, Mbaria JM, Okumu MO, Ateku PA, Korhonen H, Joutsjoki V. "Effects of the Use of Good Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxin Levels in Maize Grown in Nandi County, Kenya." SCi. 2019;1(28)(MDPI):1-19.
Marete GN, Kanja LW, Mbaria JM, Okumu MO, Ateku PA, Korhonen H, Joutsjoki V. "Effects of the Use of Good Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxin Levels in Maize Grown in Nandi County, Kenya." Sci. 2020;2, 26.
Marete GN, Kanja LW, Mbaria JM, Okumu MO, Ateku PA, Korhonen H, Joutsjoki V. "Effects of the Use of Good Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxin Levels in Maize Grown in Nandi County, Kenya." Sci. 2020;2, 85.
K'Obonyo PP, Bolo AZ, Lorika J. "Effects of the value Chain Strategy in Selected Producer-owned Dairy Groups in Kenya." Business Administration and Management. 2011;Volume 1(Issue 3):pp. 93-100. Abstract

Dairy is a major component of many rural households at least in the High and Medium Potential Lands (HMPL) in Kenya. The Kenyan dairy industry is based mostly on smallholder milk production. The history of cooperative development in Kenya is tied closely to the aims of the Government’s rural development policy. Soon after Independence in 1963, Government was given wide-ranging powers in organizing farmer cooperatives to deliver the necessary services. The government’s aim was to use cooperatives as a tool to facilitate commercialization of Kenya’s smallholder farm sector. Currently, most of the running cooperatives are characterized by weak management capacities, inadequate capital base, and low economies of scale. This exploratory research reveals the effectiveness of the value chain strategy as a planning tool, on the performance of the selected producer-owned dairy groups. The paper identifies the value activities within the milk value chain and the cost drivers within the chain that contribute to competitive advantage. An in-depth analysis of how the value chain strategy has been used in the selected dairy groups, the impact on their performance, challenges faced and the specific areas that supporting partners are able to focus on within the dairy value chain are discussed. As a result of this research, a positive change in the livelihoods of the farmers was realized, as a result of maximizing the core value activities within the dairy chain. The core activities were the activities within the ‘’inbound stage’’ of the dairy value chain and which include; Provision of farm inputs, selection of good cattle breeds, provision of animal feeds and drugs and proper milk handling practices, this means training the dairy farmers on clean milk production, at the farm level. The study established the lack of knowledge by the farmers on how to handle milk especially at the milking stage, and poor hygiene of the milk jars used during the milking process. This affected the quality of milk as a result of bacteria that contaminates the milk, causing rejects at the collection points. With such improved business services to small farmers, it was established that small farmers’ transaction costs that are usually large relative to the size of their output, was greatly reduced, resulting to improved quality of milk and efficiency of the producer-owned groups. It was also established that in order for Michael Porter’s value chain model to be effective in the producer-owned dairy groups, there is need to include external support activities that are outside the milk value chain. The study indicates that managers performing value-chain analysis need to take into account newly important business drivers. Expanding the value chain ensures that no potential strategic activity is forgotten and no opportunity for enhancing value are over-looked. The added-value chain proposes adding an expanded set of activities to the original value-chain concept; specifically activities that can help improve the livelihoods of the dairy farmers. The study reveals the following set of external activities that help improve the livelihoods of the farmers; Credit Facilities, provision of basic necessities like soap, sugar, bonuses/advances and school fees loans.

Wasunna A. "Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities on protective head turning response in preterm infants." East Afr Med J. 2003;80(4):204-6. Abstract

To determine effects of theophylline therapy for recurrent apnoea of prematurity and abnormal early (within the first 24 hours) cranial ultrasound abnormalities on protective neck turning response in preterm infants.

Maingi N, Otieno RO, Weda EH, Gichohi VM. "Effects of three anthelmintic treatment regimes against Fasciola and nematodes on the performance of ewes and lambs on pasture in the highlands of Kenya." Veterinary Research Communications. 2002;26(7):543-552.
Gatongi PM, Scott ME, Gathuma JM, Munyua WK, Cheruiyot H, Prichard RK. "Effects of three nematode anthelmintic treatment regimes on flock performance of sheep and goats under extensive management in semi-arid Kenya.". 1997. Abstract

A study was undertaken in a semi-arid area of Kenya between August 1991 and June 1993 to evaluate the effects of anthelmintic treatment using ivermectin before or during the rains, on performance of mixed sheep and goat flocks, in comparison with an untreated flock. Performance parameters measured included age and weight of dams at first parturition, parturition intervals, body weights of dams and offspring, and birth weights, growth rates, and mortality rates of offspring. Among these parameters, birth weights and growth rates of offspring were found to be significantly improved by the treatment administered before the rains compared with the other two treatments. Mortality was lower in lambs and kids with high birth weights. Treatment, either before or during the rains, significantly reduced the faecal egg output and improved body weight, packed cell volume and flock fertility. Liveweight was confirmed to be a better measure of sexual maturity than age. It was further shown that lambs and kids, born of dams at their first lambing or kidding, experienced higher mortality rates than lambs and kids born of dams in their second and subsequent parturitions. Overall, treatment with ivermectin before the onset of rains was equal to or better, in terms of the performance parameters measured, than treatment during the rains, whilst treatment compared with no treatment increased performance in almost all of the parameters measured.

Karuma, A.N., Gachene CK, Gicheru PT, Mtakwa PW, Amuri N. "Effects of tillage and cropping systems on maize and beans yield and selected yield components in a semi-arid area of Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems,. 2016;19(2).
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Effects of tillage and mulching on soil moisture conservation and crop production. Applied Plant Sciences, 12 (1), pp 5-9.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Mwabora JM, Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Muthoka B, Nyakiti LO. "Effects of TiO2 Film Thickness and Electrolyte Concentration on Photo-voltaic Performance of dye Sensitized Solar Cell." Surface Review and Letters. 2016.
Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Nyakiti LO, Muthoka B, Mwabora JM. "Effects of TiO2 Film Thickness and Electrolyte Concentration on Photovoltaic Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell." Surface Review and Letters. 2017;24:1750065. Abstract
n/a
Irungu DM, Michael M. "EFFECTS OF TOP MANAGEMENT TEAM DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE.". In: ORSEA CONFERENCE. KAMPALA; 2010.
KAAYA GP, ODUOR-OKELLO D. "The Effects of Trypanosoma congolense infection on the testis and epididymis of the goat." . Bulletin of animal Health and production in Africa. 1980;28:1-5.
Ebrahim YH. The effects of urban built form on micro-temperature change: A case study of Komarock Infill B Estate Nairobi. Rukwaro RW, King’oriah GK, eds. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2017.
"Effects of Valacyclovir on Markers of Disease Progression in Postpartum Women Co-Infected with HIV-1 and Herpes Simplex Virus-2.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Objective: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression has been shown to reduce HIV-1 disease progression in non-
pregnant women and men, but effects on pregnant and postpartum women have not been described.
Methods: We analyzed data from a cohort of Kenyan women participating in a randomized clinical trial of HSV-2
suppression. Pregnant HIV-1-seropositive, HSV-2-seropositive women who were not eligible for antiretroviral therapy (WHO
stage 1–2, CD4.250 cells/ml) were randomized to either 500 mg valacyclovir or placebo twice daily from 34 weeks gestation
through 12 months postpartum. Women received zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine for prevention of mother-to-child
HIV-1 transmission. HIV-1 progression markers, including CD4 count and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, were measured serially.
Multivariate linear regression was used to compare progression markers between study arms.
Results: Of 148 women randomized, 136 (92%) completed 12 months of postpartum follow-up. While adjusted mean CD4
count at 12 months (565 cells/ml placebo arm, 638 cells/ml valacyclovir arm) increased from antenatal levels in both arms, the
mean CD4 count increase was 73 cells/ml higher in the valacyclovir arm than placebo arm (p = 0.03). Mean increase in CD4
count was 154 cells/ml in the valacyclovir arm, almost double the increase of 78 cells/ml in the placebo arm. At 12 months,
adjusted HIV-1 RNA levels in the placebo arm increased by 0.66 log10 copies/ml from baseline, and increased by only 0.21
log10 copies/ml in the valacyclovir arm (0.40 log10 copies/ml difference, p = 0.001).
Conclusion: Women randomized to valacyclovir suppressive therapy during pregnancy and postpartum had greater
increases in CD4 counts and smaller increases in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels than women in the placebo arm. Valacyclovir
suppression during pregnancy and breastfeeding may improve outcomes and delay antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1/HSV-
2 co-infected women.

Alison C. Roxby1*, Alison L. Drake2 FO-O10 JK7 BR2 DM7 JN 4 N. "Effects of Valacyclovir on Markers of Disease Progression in Postpartum Women Co-Infected with HIV-1 and Herpes Simplex Virus-2.". 2012. Abstractplosone

Objective: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression has been shown to reduce HIV-1 disease progression in non-
pregnant women and men, but effects on pregnant and postpartum women have not been described.
Methods: We analyzed data from a cohort of Kenyan women participating in a randomized clinical trial of HSV-2
suppression. Pregnant HIV-1-seropositive, HSV-2-seropositive women who were not eligible for antiretroviral therapy (WHO
stage 1–2, CD4.250 cells/ml) were randomized to either 500 mg valacyclovir or placebo twice daily from 34 weeks gestation
through 12 months postpartum. Women received zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine for prevention of mother-to-child
HIV-1 transmission. HIV-1 progression markers, including CD4 count and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, were measured serially.
Multivariate linear regression was used to compare progression markers between study arms.
Results: Of 148 women randomized, 136 (92%) completed 12 months of postpartum follow-up. While adjusted mean CD4
count at 12 months (565 cells/ml placebo arm, 638 cells/ml valacyclovir arm) increased from antenatal levels in both arms, the
mean CD4 count increase was 73 cells/ml higher in the valacyclovir arm than placebo arm (p = 0.03). Mean increase in CD4
count was 154 cells/ml in the valacyclovir arm, almost double the increase of 78 cells/ml in the placebo arm. At 12 months,
adjusted HIV-1 RNA levels in the placebo arm increased by 0.66 log10 copies/ml from baseline, and increased by only 0.21
log10 copies/ml in the valacyclovir arm (0.40 log10 copies/ml difference, p = 0.001).
Conclusion: Women randomized to valacyclovir suppressive therapy during pregnancy and postpartum had greater
increases in CD4 counts and smaller increases in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels than women in the placebo arm. Valacyclovir
suppression during pregnancy and breastfeeding may improve outcomes and delay antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1/HSV-
2 co-infected women.

Roxby AC, Drake AL, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Matemo DN, Overbaugh J, Emery S, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, Farquhar C. "Effects of valacyclovir on markers of disease progression in postpartum women co-infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus-2." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(6):e38622. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression has been shown to reduce HIV-1 disease progression in non-pregnant women and men, but effects on pregnant and postpartum women have not been described.

Roxby AC, Drake AL, Ongecha-Owuor F, Kiarie JN, Richardson B, Matemo DN, Overbaugh J, Emery S, John-Stewart GC, Wald A, Farquhar C. "Effects of valacyclovir on markers of disease progression in postpartum women co-infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus-2." PLoS ONE. 2012;7(6):e38622. Abstract

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression has been shown to reduce HIV-1 disease progression in non-pregnant women and men, but effects on pregnant and postpartum women have not been described.

Oyang WA, P.A K, J.I. K. "Effects of Varied Nitrogen Levels and Plant Density on Growth and Yield of Nerica 1 Rice Variety ." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS) . 2019;12(3):72-77.
Osano SN, Mwea SK. "The Effects of Vegetation Roots on Stability of Slopes.". In: 2nd International Civil Engineering Conference on Civil Engineering and Sustainable Development. Mombasa, Kenya; 2008.
Noppeney U. "The effects of visual deprivation on functional and structural organization of the human brain." Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2007;31:1169-1180. AbstractWebsite

Early onset blindness allows one to investigate how the human brain adapts to sensory experience in infancy and early childhood. Over the past decade, lesion, functional and structural imaging studies have accumulated evidence that severe perturbations to visual experience alter the functional and structural organization of the human brain. Visual deprivation can induce plastic changes not only in the visual system, but also in the remaining intact sensory–motor system, secondary to altered experience using these spared modalities. In particular, occipital, usually visual, areas are reorganized and recruited by the remaining senses and higher cognitive tasks primarily through cortico-cortical connectivity. Importantly, these plastic changes vary as a function of timing and are most pronounced in early onset blindness. Thus, sensory experience shapes functional and structural brain organization during sensitive periods in neurodevelopment.

Lau KC, So W-F, Tay D. "Effects of visual or light deprivation on the morphology, and the elimination of the transient features during development, of type {I} retinal ganglion cells in hamsters." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1990;300:583-592. AbstractWebsite

Intracellular injection of Lucifer Yellow (LY) was used to study the detailed morphology of the normal, visually deprived, and light-deprived superior colliculus projecting Type I retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in hamsters. The soma size of the normal Type I cells ranged from 337 to 583 pm2 with a mean of 436 pm2. Two to six primary dendrites were observed in these cells. The mean dendritic field diameter was 495 km and ranged from 309 to 702 pm. The dendritic field diameter of this population of cells exhibited an eccentricity dependence. Quantitative comparisons between the normal and visually deprived or light-deprived Type I RGCs indicated that the morphology of these three groups of cells were similar to each other in terms of the soma size, dendritic field diameter, branching pattern, and total length of the dendrites. During the normal development of cats and hamsters, several transient features, such as exuberant dendritic spines and intraretinal axonal branches, have been observed in the developing RGCs. The complete elimination of these transient features occurs at about 3 and 2 weeks after the opening of the eyes in cats and hamsters, respectively. In the present study, the hypothesis whether visual experience or light stimulation is required for the elimination of these transient features during development was examined. After studying a total of 115 mature Type I RGCs, which included cells from the normal, visually deprived, and light deprived animals, no transient feature was observed. We conclude that visual or light deprivation has no effect on the morphological develop- ment of superior colliculus projecting Type I RGCs in hamsters, and the elimination of the transient features on the Type I RGCs during development does not depend on visual experience or light stimulation.

Njoroge BNK, N. GA, O. OJP. "Effects of Water Application Levels on Growth Characteristics and Soil Water Balance of Tomatoes in Greenhouse." International Journal of Engineering Innovation & Research . 2014;Volume 3(Issue3):ISSN: 2277-5668.

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