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P. Ajuoga, A. Ogacho MAJMBO. Effects of concentration of dopant states on photactivity in niobium-doped TiO2. 24th July-4th August 2006, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2006.
Ajuoga, P. O, A., Mwabora JM, Aduda BO. "Effects of concentration of dopant states on photoactivity in niobium-doped TiO2.". In: 7th College on Thin Film Technology. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2006. Abstract

Various studies have revealed that incorporation of cations of valence higher than that of the parent cations e.g., W6+, Ta5+, Nb5+ into the crystal matrix of TiO2 enhances its rate of photoactivity. In the present study, we propose incorporation of Nb5+, pentavalent dopant into TiO2 matrix in order to attempt to establish its optimal concentration for maximum photoactivity. The niobium-doped TiO2 was prepared by high temperature diffusion of the doping cations into the crystal matrix of the parent oxide. The doped samples were found to change from white to light yellow/brown. XRD analysis for anatase-rutile content of the doped samples was performed. At low mol% Nb (0.1197 – 0.2360) in TiO2, the crystalline structure was predominantly rutile at calcinations temperature of 650 oC, but at high mol% Nb (> 1.0000), a relatively higher anatase content was observed at the same calcinations temperature for a period of 2.5 hours.

and Digolo, P.O.O. MOMGMJOS. "Effects of Constructivist And Conventional Methods of Instruction on Learning Biology Amongst Secondary School Students in Kenya." Journal of International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE).. 2014.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "The effects of Corticosteroids on Neurotransmitter metabolism on the rat CNS.MSc thesis University of Nairobi.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):88-90. Springerlink; 1986. Abstract

In a bid to determine the HIV-1 subtype variants in transmission in Nairobi and its possible association with clinical status, we screened 207 confirmed HIV-1 positive patients visiting HIV/AIDS laboratory at the Virus Research Centre in Nairobi between January and March 1994. We used a selfmade ELISA obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides (ANRS, France) and derived from seven isolates: MN, HXB2, SC, Z6, Z2, ELI and CDC4. Test samples were obtained from 95 blood donors and medical examination attendees, 57 patients with chronic diarrhoea, 31 confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis, 16 with pneumonia and 12 herpes zoster. Out of the total, 21.5% had antibodies against the MN strain, 19.1% had against the Z2 strain while reaction against the HXB2 strain was observed in 17.2%. SC, CDC4, Z6 and ELI had prevalences of 11.5%, 6.2%, 5.3% and 3.8% respectively. Fifteen per cent of the tested sera showed no reaction to any of the used peptides. Strong and significant associations were observed between the total number of strains a sample react to and the clinical state. We infer that both the North American consensus strains (MN and HXB2) and the African isolates (Z2 and Z6) are predominant in Nairobi. The correlation between antibody reactivity and clinical state is an interesting observation that necessitates an expanded study and, the use of strain specific peptides maybe a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes. PIP: During January-March 1994, in Nairobi, Kenya, the sera of pre-university students, suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases, and blood donors were screened for HIV-1 antibodies at the Virus Research Centre. All confirmed HIV-1 positive samples were categorized according to the patient's clinical status. A self-made ELISA was obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides and derived from seven isolates (MN and HXB2 [North American strains], SC, CDC4, Z2 and Z6 [African strains], and ELI). The sera of the 22 confirmed HIV-1 negative students were used as negative controls. There were 207 confirmed HIV-1 cases (95 blood donors and 112 suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases). 64 (31%) and 112 (54%) samples reacted to at least 3 strains and no more than 2 strains, respectively. The remaining 31 (15%) samples did not react to any of the 7 peptide strains. Samples with CD4 cell counts greater than 500 x 1 million reacted significantly to more peptide strains than those with CD4 counts below 200 x 1 million (88% vs. 7%). Reactivity to specific strains were 21.5% for MN, 19.1% for Z2, 17.2% for HXB2, 11.5% for SC, 6.2% for CDC 4, 5.5% for Z6, and 3.8% for ELI. Anti-HXB2 antibodies were more common in blood donors than suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases (22% vs. 13%). AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases were more likely to have no antibodies than blood donors (21% vs. 7%). A significant association existed between the number of peptide strains a patient could react to and the clinical state (p 0.01). Specifically, 77% of samples with no V3 antibodies to the seven strains had AIDS or advanced HIV infection while 55% of those which had cross reactivity with three or more strains were asymptomatic. Further research is needed to better understand this correlation. These findings suggest that use of strain specific peptides may be a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes.

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "The effects of Cortisone on GABA metabolism on the rat hypothalamus and hippocampus. MSc Thesis Donestsk State University.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Feb;73(2):88-90. Springerlink; 1983. Abstract

In a bid to determine the HIV-1 subtype variants in transmission in Nairobi and its possible association with clinical status, we screened 207 confirmed HIV-1 positive patients visiting HIV/AIDS laboratory at the Virus Research Centre in Nairobi between January and March 1994. We used a selfmade ELISA obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides (ANRS, France) and derived from seven isolates: MN, HXB2, SC, Z6, Z2, ELI and CDC4. Test samples were obtained from 95 blood donors and medical examination attendees, 57 patients with chronic diarrhoea, 31 confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis, 16 with pneumonia and 12 herpes zoster. Out of the total, 21.5% had antibodies against the MN strain, 19.1% had against the Z2 strain while reaction against the HXB2 strain was observed in 17.2%. SC, CDC4, Z6 and ELI had prevalences of 11.5%, 6.2%, 5.3% and 3.8% respectively. Fifteen per cent of the tested sera showed no reaction to any of the used peptides. Strong and significant associations were observed between the total number of strains a sample react to and the clinical state. We infer that both the North American consensus strains (MN and HXB2) and the African isolates (Z2 and Z6) are predominant in Nairobi. The correlation between antibody reactivity and clinical state is an interesting observation that necessitates an expanded study and, the use of strain specific peptides maybe a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes. PIP: During January-March 1994, in Nairobi, Kenya, the sera of pre-university students, suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases, and blood donors were screened for HIV-1 antibodies at the Virus Research Centre. All confirmed HIV-1 positive samples were categorized according to the patient's clinical status. A self-made ELISA was obtained from an established panel of HIV-1 V3 loop peptides and derived from seven isolates (MN and HXB2 [North American strains], SC, CDC4, Z2 and Z6 [African strains], and ELI). The sera of the 22 confirmed HIV-1 negative students were used as negative controls. There were 207 confirmed HIV-1 cases (95 blood donors and 112 suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases). 64 (31%) and 112 (54%) samples reacted to at least 3 strains and no more than 2 strains, respectively. The remaining 31 (15%) samples did not react to any of the 7 peptide strains. Samples with CD4 cell counts greater than 500 x 1 million reacted significantly to more peptide strains than those with CD4 counts below 200 x 1 million (88% vs. 7%). Reactivity to specific strains were 21.5% for MN, 19.1% for Z2, 17.2% for HXB2, 11.5% for SC, 6.2% for CDC 4, 5.5% for Z6, and 3.8% for ELI. Anti-HXB2 antibodies were more common in blood donors than suspected AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases (22% vs. 13%). AIDS/advanced HIV-infection cases were more likely to have no antibodies than blood donors (21% vs. 7%). A significant association existed between the number of peptide strains a patient could react to and the clinical state (p 0.01). Specifically, 77% of samples with no V3 antibodies to the seven strains had AIDS or advanced HIV infection while 55% of those which had cross reactivity with three or more strains were asymptomatic. Further research is needed to better understand this correlation. These findings suggest that use of strain specific peptides may be a sensitive and easier method for use for molecular epidemiological purposes.

R PROFLESANWILFRED. "The effects of crown margin location on the aesthetics and periodontal status of fluorosed teeth treated with jacket crowns. Afr Dent J. 1987 Oct;1(2):79-82.". In: Afr Dent J. 1987 Oct;1(2):79-82. International Journal of Climatology; 1987. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
Magutu PO, Ondimu GM. "Effects of Cybercrime on State Security:Types, Impact and Mitigations with the Fiber Optic Deployment In Kenya.". In: Journal of Information Assurance & Cybersecurity. IBIMA Publishing; 2011. Abstract

The identification of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as an essential tool for sustainable development has proved to be worth every investment. As a result of this, Internet usage in Kenya has grown rapidly resulting in the explosion of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and Internet access points. The general objective of this study was to model the impact of Cybercrime on security in Kenya, Nairobi as the case study. This was a census study on modeling the effects of Cybercrime on the security in Nairobi. Thirty one (31) out of the 3ifty one (51) responded giving a response rate of 60.78% percent. It was found that the Cybercrime is prevalent in Nairobi although largely unreported. To a great extent, it was discovered that
Internet Service Providers had established basic measures in order to curb the growing cyberspace crimes; as spamming activities remain prevalent in Kenya. Also, to a great extent the Criminal Investigation department (CID) and Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) have recognized that cybercrime is a growing threat to security in Nairobi and have collaborated with ISP’s to implement measures.
Keywords: State Security, Cybercrime, Types, Impact & Mitigations

Fitch W, MacKenzie ET, Harper AM. "Effects of decreasing arterial blood pressure on cerebral blood flow in the baboon. Influence of the sympathetic nervous system." Circ. Res.. 1975;37(5):550-7. Abstract

The influence of the sympathetic nervous system on the cerebral circulatory response to graded reductions in mean arterial blood pressure was studied in anesthetized baboons. Cerebral blood flow was measured by the 133Xe clearance method, and arterial blood pressure was decreased by controlled hemorrhage. In normal baboons, the constancy of cerebral blood flow was maintained until mean arterial blood pressure was approximately 65% of the base-line value; thereafter, cerebral blood flow decreased when arterial blood pressure was reduced. Superior cervical sympathectomy of 2-3 weeks duration did not affect the normal response. In contrast, both acute surgical sympathectomy (cervical trunk division) and alpha-receptor blockade (1.5 mg/kg of phenoxybenzamine) enhanced the maintenance of cerebral blood flow in the face of hemorrhagic hypotension in that cerebral blood flow did not decrease until mean arterial blood pressure was approximately 35% of the base-line value. The results indicate that the sympathetic nervous system is not involved in the maintenance of cerebral blood flow in the face of a fall in arterial blood pressure. Indeed, the implication is that the sympathicoadrenal discharge accompanying hemorrhagic hypotension is detrimental to, rather than responsible for, cerebral autoregulation.

Maloiy GMO;, Kanui TI;, Towett PK;, Wambugu SN;, Miaron JO;, Wanyoike MM. Effects of dehydration and heat stress on food intake and dry matter digestibility in East African ruminants.; 2008. Abstract

Comparative investigations were made between wild and domestic ruminants from arid and semi-arid regions and those species from non-arid areas in an attempt to evaluate the adaptations of these ruminants in terms of the effects of heat stress and dehydration on food intake and digestibility. The effect of (a) an intermittent heat load (a daily light cycle of 12 hat 22 "C and 12 hat 40 'C) compared to 22 'C throughout the day and (b) dehydration level of 15% weight loss, with and without the heat load, on the intake and digestibility of a poor quality hay was investigated in the Grant's gazelle, Oryx, the domestic Turkana goats, fat-tailed sheep, zebu cattle, Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest The intermittent heat load with water available ad libitum depressed the food intake of zebu cattle and Turkana goats by more than 40%. It had no significant effect on the food intake of the other species. The Thomson's and Grants gazelle, oryx, wildebeest and fat-tailed sheep appear well adapted to withstanding a periodic heat load. Dehydration at 22 'C caused a marked depression on food intake of all the species investigated. Dehydration together with a heat load caused no further reduction in the food intake by the Grants's gazelle, oryx, and goats but it did cause a further reduction in the intake in the other species. The small non-domestic ruminants (i.e. Grant's and Thomson's gazelle) appear much more digestive efficient than any of their domestic counterpart.

Maloiy⁎ GMO, Kanui TI, Towett PK, Wambugu SN, Miaron JO, Wanyoike MM. "Effects of dehydration and heat stress on food intake and dry matter digestibility inEast African ruminants." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A . 2008;151(2):185-190.abstract-maloiy_et_al..docx
Nasio NA, Saidi H. "Effects of delayed treatment on perforated peptic ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital." Annals of African Surgery. 2012;9:37-41 .
Elly D, Kaijage ES. "Effects of Demand Side Factors on Access to External Finance by Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises in Nairobi, Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):44-6. Abstract

Abstract Purpose - This paper investigates how demand-side factors affect access to external finance by small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMMEs) in Nairobi, Kenya. The demand-side factors considered in the study are firm characteristics, financial management practices and entrepreneur characteristics. Methodology - The study employs an exploratory survey design utilizing quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Data is analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Logistic regression is used to test the relationship between demand-side factors and access to external finance because of the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable. Findings – The study establishes that some of the demand-side factors significantly influence access to external finance. These factors include variations in entrepreneur’s networks, firm growth and earnings volatility which explain variations in odds of access to external finance by 39.9 percent for networks and 45.8 percent for earnings volatility and firm growth. Implications – To minimize SMMEs financial constraints, social networking amongst entrepreneurs, firm growth and stabilized earning should be prioritized by management and policy makers. Though ethnic orientation influences the odds of access to external finance, policy efforts should be put in place to ensure efficiency in external financing markets so that entrepreneurs are not disenfranchised on this basis. Value - The study recommends establishment and support of sustainable social networks that guarantee enterprise growth given that firm growth also influence odds of access to external finance. Further studies should probe the significance of good financial management practices on odds of access to external finance in diverse settings and industries.

Waruiru RM;, Ngotho JW;, Weda EH, Mbuthia PG, Kogi JK. "Effects Of Development Of Resistance To Levamisole And Benzimidazole Anthelmintics On The Pathogenicity And Survival Of H. Contortus." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1998;46:133-138.Website
Kavoi BM, Gakuya DW, Mbugua PN, Kiama SG. "Effects of dietary Moringa oleifera leaf meal supplementation on chicken intestinal structure and growth performance." J. Morphol. Sci.. 2016;33:186-192.
Mwangi FM, Wanderi PM, Wamukoya EK, Onywera VO, Gitonga ER. "Effects of different arm kinematics on performance in long distance running." International journal of current research. 2011;3(6):185-190.
Bwana MO, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Wahome MW, Mutinda WU, Kitala PM. "Effects of different infectious Bursal disease vaccination regimes on biochemical and haematological parameters of indigenous chicken in Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2017;29(5).
Bwana MO, Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Mbuthia PG, Bebora LC, Wahome MW, Mutinda WU, Kitala PM. "Effects of different infectious Bursal disease vaccination regimes on biochemical and haematological parameters of indigenous chicken in Kenya. ." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2017;29(5).
C KJ, O AN. "Effects of Distributed Generation penetration on system power losses and voltage profiles." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2013;3(12):1-8. Abstractijsrp-p24585.pdf

In present times, the use of DG systems in large amounts in different power distribution systems has become very popular and is growing on with fast speed. Although it is considered that DG reduces losses and improves system voltage profile, this paper shows that this is not always true. The paper presents a GA-IPSO based approach which utilizes combined sensitivity factor analogy to optimally locate and size a multi-type DG in IEEE 57-bus test system with the aim of reducing power losses and improving the voltage profile. The multi-type DG can operate as; type 1 DG (DG generating real power only), type 2 DG (DG generating both real and active power) and type 3 DG (DG generating real power and absorbing reactive power). It further shows that though the system losses are reduced and the voltage profile improved with the location of the first DG, as the number of DGs increases this is not the case. It reaches a point where any further increase in number of DGs in the network results to an increase in power losses and a distortion in voltage profile.

Hussein AA. Effects of Disturbance on Small Mammals and vegetation Diversity in Oloolua Forest, Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya.: University of Nairobi.; 2009.
Waithaka SM, Ngugi JK, Kirago P. "Effects of dividend policy on share prices: A case of companies in Nairobi Securities Exchange." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2012;2(8):642-648. Abstracteffects_of_dividend_policy_on_share_prices-__a_case_of_companies_listed_on_nse.pdf

Dividend policy refers to management’s long-term decision on how to deploy cash flows from business activities-that is, how much to invest in the business, and how much to return to shareholders. The determination of the amount of dividends payable is an important decision that companies undertake since the objective of the firm is to maximize the shareholders’ wealth as measured by the price of the company’s common stock. The study concluded that higher pre-tax risk adjusted returns associated with higher dividend yield stocks to compensate investors for the tax
disadvantages of returns affected tax incentives and that investors whose portfolios had low systematic risk
preferred high-pay-out stocks. This was consistent with Brennan’s model (Brennan, 1970).The study also found out
that an increase in firms’ stocks trading volume affected the share price and investors who wanted current
investment income owned shares in high dividend payout firms and this was consistent with the findings of Botha (1985). The study further concludes that free cash flow caused conflict between management and shareholders which in turn affected the share price and that the executive option plan persuaded management to reduce corporate dividends by an amount that was equal to the option plan. This was consistence with the findings of Lambert, Lanen and Larker (1989). The study recommends that companies consider all pertinent issues before issuing dividends.Since the share market is positively responsive to the dividend announcement, companies should always strive to pay divided consistently for their shares to perform well at the stock exchange. Dividend policy have an effect on the share prices of the firms quoted at NSE thus, companies (firms) should pay dividends to maintain high share prices.

Abakiri D, Rose O, Anthony M. "Effects of Domestic Gender Roles on Pupils’ Performance in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in Public Primary Schools in Garba Tula District, Kenya ." Journal of Education and Practice . 2014;5( 2222-1735 (Paper) 2222-288X (Online)).
Ngecu W, MATHU ELIUDM, Onyancha C, Mwea S. "Effects of drilling deep tube wells in the urban areas of Nairobi city, Kenya." ARPN Journal of Earth Sciences. 2014;3(1). AbstractFull Text

The number of boreholes for abstracting water from aquifers beneath Nairobi City increased from 2 in the year 1927 to about 2500 in the year According to the Republic of Kenya Population and Housing Census, the urban population of Nairobi City increased from 29,864 in 1928 to 3,138,295 in Substantial groundwater drawdown has been noted in individual boreholes that supply the growing population in some localities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in water rest levels across Nairobi City during the 80 year period and estimate the surface settlement that can result from groundwater exploitation. The groundwater static level variations in space and time were analysed on Surfer 9 software and the average rest levels in boreholes between 1927 and 2009 were calculated. Using the hydrogeological data obtained from drilling, an estimate of ground settlement that could result from continuous drawdown was made from formulae obtained from past studies done elsewhere. The results indicate that that the groundwater rest levels have dropped with an average of 79 m in the last 80 years and a probable settlement of m to 5.9 m could result from groundwater depletion from aquifers and clay aquitards over a long period of time. Between the ground surface and the clay aquitards are the dense Nairobi Phonolite and/or Nairobi Trachyte. The probable settlement of 5.9 m should serve as a wakeup call to put up measures that can mitigate subsidence and the related consequences in Nairobi City. Indeed, 67% of the drop in rest levels has occurred in the last two decades during which more than 1000 additional wells have been drilled. Keywords: tube wells, groundwater, abstraction, static level, settlement

Odundo PA, Ngaruiya B, Lilian GK, Nancy IA, Akondo JO. "Effects of Early and forced Girl Child marriage on Girls Education: A case study in Nyatike district migori county, kenya." World Journal of Education. 2015.
E K, J M. "Effects of East African Community integration on trade volume in the region." International Journal of Science, Arts and Commerce. 2017;2(9):23-37.
WAMBUI JANE. "The effects of Economic Liberalization measures on Women in Nairobi." Project paper for Winrock International; 1995. Abstract
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Wambugu A. "The effects of educational attainment on employment outcomes in Kenya." International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies. 2011;3(7):94-102.
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Effects of Effluent Contaminated River Water on Testicular Histology of Mice." . Sch J Agric Vet Sci. 2016;3(6):411-415.
MWANGI MRMUREITHISTEPHEN. "The effects of enclosures for rehabilitating degraded semi-arid land in Lake Baringo Basin, Kenya. Mureithi, S.M., Verdoodt, A. and Van Ranst, E. In: Zdruli, P. and Constantini, E. (Eds). 2008. .". In: 5th International Conference on Land Degradation. Valenzano, Bari, Italy 18-22 September 2008. Pp 135-141 ISBN 2-85352-399-3. 5ILCD Proceedings; 2008. Abstract
Cities around the world are currently facing considerable pressure to cope with infrastructure provision amidst rapid urban development and economic growth. Kenya is also facing an increasing growth of informal settlements in her urban centres. As rapid urbanization takes its toll, so has the development and growth of slums. More than 34% of Kenya‟s total population lives in urban areas and of this, more than 71% is confined in informal settlements (UN-Habitat, 2009). This paper presents the result of study to assess the effects of the change in land use in two sub-catchments, in an urban area close to the Nairobi Central Business District (NCBD). The paper compares the change in land use of two regions in Nairobi, Kenya that are slowly changing due to the fast growing population and economy, on urban runoff.
and D.K. KIBOR NYAIMWANJERIOEK. "EFFECTS OF ENTERAL GLUTAMINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON REDUCTION OF INFECTION IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH SEVERE BURNS." East African Medical Journal . 2014;91(No.1). Abstract

EFFECTS OF ENTERAL GLUTAMINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON REDUCTION OF INFECTION IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH SEVERE BURNS
D.K. KIBOR, O.E. NYAIM and K. WANJERI
ABSTRACT
Objective: To determine the effect of enteral glutamine in reducing the incidence of post burn infections in patients with severe burns.
Design: A double blind randomised clinical trial.
Setting: Burns unit and ward 4D of Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya
Subjects: Sixty patients with severe burns who were randomised to two arms of treatment: (1) the glutamine group and (2) isonitrogenous arm acting as the control.
Results: Patients’ demographic and baseline clinical characteristics were similar in both arms of treatment. For the entire four-week treatment period, the odds ratio of a positive blood culture was almost three-fold higher among patients in the control group compared to those in the Glutamine group (p = 0.04). There was also a higher incidence of positive swab cultures from the non glutamine group.
Conclusion: Enteral glutamine supplementation in severely burnt adult patients reduces blood infection by a factor of three. It also significantly reduces the incidence of burn wound infections.

K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of environment on Growth and Phenological Development of Pigeonpea (Cajanus Cajan) in Kenya.". In: Paper presented in the 6th Conference of the African Crop Science Society held in Nairobi, Kenya 12th to 17th October. University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of environment on Growth and Phenological Development of Pigeonpea (Cajanus Cajan) in Kenya.". In: Paper presented in the 6th Conference of the African Crop Science Society held in Nairobi, Kenya 12th to 17th October. Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
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Wamichwe Joel Mwangi, Loise Gichuhi NMMM. "THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL BASED SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON ENROLLMENT OF MALE STUDENT IN SECONDARY SCHOOL IN KIRINYAGA COUNTY CENTRAL REGION OF KENYA." International Academic Journal of Social Sciences and Education. 2017;1(5).
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and Mwangi W E, Mogoa E M N-MMJCM. "Effects of epidural Ketamine, Xylazine and their combination on body temperature in acepromazine-sedated dogs. ." International Journal of Advanced Research. 2014;2(4):336-340.
Mwangi W E, Mogoa E M N-MJ, CM M. "Effects of epidural Ketamine, Xylazine and their combination on body temperature in acepromazine-sedated dogs." International Journal of Advanced Research. 2014;2:336-340. Abstract
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Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Nguhiu-Mwangi J. "Effects of epidural xylazine, lidocaine and their combination on body temperature in acepromazine-sedated dogs." Tanzania Veterinary Journal. 2018;33:73-81. Abstract
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Urinayo, V., D. K. Kariuki, Opere A. "Effects of Erratic Rainfall on Water quality of Yanze River in Kigali, Rwanda." J. sustain. environ. peace . 2020;3 (2) :49-57.
Mwangi, J.W., Mbatia, O.L.E., Nzuma, M.J. "The Effects of Exchange Rate Liberalization in Kenya on French Beans Exports." International Journal of Business, Economics and Management. 2014;1(4):39-56.
Mwangi, J.W., Mbatia, O.L.E., Nzuma, M.J. "Effects of Exchange Rate Volatility on French Beans Exports in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development. 2014;1(1):1-12.
HM M, Kipyegon AN TVT. "Effects of Exposure to Effluent Contaminated River Water on Boar Reproduction." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2017;6(1):49-52.mutembei_and_kipyegon_2017.pdf
AN K, Mutembei HM, Tsuma VT, Oduma JA. "Effects of exposure to effluent contaminated river water on boar reproduction." Inter J Vet Sci. 2017;6(1):49-52.
Kaoga J, Ouma GO, Abuom P. "The Effects of Farm Pesticides on Water Bird Numbers in Lake Naivasha, Kenya." Journal of Environmental Science and Water Resources. 2013;2(7):203-209. AbstractUniversity of Nairobi

Lake Naivasha and its environs usually experience increased levels of pesticide application due to the rapid increase in acreage under flower production in the catchment. Previous studies have shown detectable levels of organo-chlorines residues; which is an indication of contamination. Organochlorines persist in the environment and bio accumulates in the body tissue of living organisms while, the organophosphates which have been adopted as an alternatives are highly toxic. Such occurrences are linked to the declining trends in water bird numbers witnessed earlier. The objectives of the present study were to determine pesticide residue concentrations of organophosphates and organo-chlorines and determine their effects on water bird numbers. The Lake was subjected to a cross-sectional study between the months of February to July, 2011. The sampling sites were selected on the basis of their uniqueness in the nature of discharge released into the Lake. There was no mathematical formula applied to calculate sample size, due to the discrete nature of variables. The water bird counts were recorded on Microsoft excel spread sheet and subjected to analysis while applying statistical package of social science (SPPS) using one way ANOVA at p<0.05. The study showed an upward trend in the
water bird numbers while Gas Liquid Chromatography technique showed non detectable limits for the targeted analytes. These results were good signs indicative of the Lake being on its pathway to restoration to the previous state of non-contamination. The study further, recommends that the government through its enforcement agencies should continue to carry out regular inspections on the ongoing human activities in the Lake and its environs to prevent sporadic contamination and discourage any further discharge of contaminants into the Lake. Moreover, this will enable the government to generate useful information for decision making purpose as they formulate policy framework for the protection, conservation and sustainable utilization of natural resources.
Key words: Organophosphates, organo-chlorines, Gas Liquid Chromatography, contamination.

Tsuma VT, Einarsson S, Madej A, Kindahl H. "Effects of fasting sows during early pregnancy on hormone patterns and embryonic survival." J. Reprod. Fertil. Abstract series. 1994;(14):27.
15. Ngaboyisonga, Njoroge K, Kirubi D, Githiri SM. "Effects of field conditions, low nitrogen and drought on genetic parameters of protein and tryptophan concentrations in grain of quality protein maize." International Journal of Plant Production. 2008;2:137-151.
Domtau DL, Simiyu J, Ayieta EO, Muthoka B, Nyakiti LO, Mwabora JM. "Effects of Film Thickness and Electrolyte Concentration on the Photovoltaic Performance of TiO2 Thin Films." Surface Reviews and Letters. 2016;24. Abstract

Effects of film thickness and electrolyte concentration on the photovoltaic performance of TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cell were studied. Nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 thin films with varying thicknesses (3.2-18.9 µm) have been deposited on FTO/glass substrates by screen printing method as work electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The prepared samples were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy/scanning tunneling microscopy (AFM/STM) and x-ray diffraction. The optimal thickness of the TiO2 photoanode is 13.5 µm. Short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) increases with film thickness due to enlargement of surface area whereas open-circuit voltage decreases with increase in thickness due to increase in electron diffusion length to the electrode. However, the Jsc and Voc of DSSC with a film thickness of 18.9 µm (7.5 mA/cm2 and 0.687 V) are smaller than those of DSSC with a TiO2 film thickness of 13.5 µm (8.2 mA/cm2 and 0.711 V). This is because the increased thickness of TiO2 thin film resulted in the decrease in the transmittance of TiO2 thin films hence reducing the incident light intensity on the N719 dye. Photovoltaic performance also depends greatly on the redox couple concentration in iodide\triiodide. Jsc decreases as the redox concentration increases as a result of increased viscosity of the solution which lowers ion mobility.
Similarly, Voc decreases as the electrolyte concentration increases due to enhanced back electron transfer reaction. An optimum power conversion efficiency of 3.5 % was obtained in a DSSC with the TiO2 film thickness of 13.5 µm and redox concentrarion of 0.03 mol dm-3 under AM 1.5G illumination at 100 mW/cm2

NJERI WANGARIFAITH, Githaiga JM, MWALA AGGREYK. "The effects of fires on plants and wildlife species diversity and soil physical and chemical properties at Aberdare Ranges, Kenya." Asian Journal of Forestry. 2018;2(1).
Njogu RNE, Kariuki DK, D.M. K, F.N. W. "Effects of Foliar Fertilizer (NPK) Uptake in Tea Camellia sinensis on Tea Quality and Nutrient Residue Levels in Kenyan Highlands." American Journal of Plant Sciences. 2014;5(18):2707-2715.
S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of four biopesticides on the spider mite Tetranychus evansi. In press. Phytophaga, XIV: 1-8.". In: Paper presented in the International Edible Legume (IELC)/4th World Cowpea Congress held on 17 . Taylor & Francis; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Wang’ombe DN, Mose BR, Maranga SM, MBUYA TM. "Effects of friction stir welding on microstructure and mechanical properties of extruded secondary aluminum 6061 alloy." Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik. 2021;52(3):270-278 . Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1002/mawe.202000094

Experiments were carried out to determine the effects of friction stir welding on microstructure and properties of recycled Aluminum 6061 alloy, whose alloy content varied from that of primary alloy. The alloy was processed at tool speed and feed ranges of 530 rev/min–1320 rev/min and 40 mm/min–100 mm/min respectively. Microstructure examination; tensile test and Vickers microhardness evaluation were carried out. Microstructure of the alloy was in four zones including: base metal, heat affected zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone and stirred zone. Average grain size of unprocessed material was 93 μm. Processing the alloy at 530 rev/min and 100 mm/min resulted in grains of average size 93 μm, 183 μm and 7 μm; in base metal, heat affected zone and stirred zone respectively. Tensile failure occurred in heat affected zone; that was exposed to high heat. The alloy hardness decreased to a minimum in heat affected zone, followed by a brief rise in thermo-mechanically affected zone, to another maximum in stirred zone. Processed zone hardness was inversely proportional to tool speed and directly proportional to feed rate. Increase in the speed and decrease in feed, increased heat which deteriorated the properties.

Ondiaka SN, Masinde EW, Koenraadt CJM, Takken W, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "Effects of fungal infection on feeding and survival of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) on plant sugars." Parasites & vectors. 2015;8(1):35.
NYAGAH GRACE, MBURU DAVIDNP. "EFFECTS OF GENDER ROLE PORTRAYAL IN TEXT BOOKS IN KENYAN PRIMARY SCHOOLS, ON PUPILS ACADEMIC ASPIRATIONS. ." PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY. 2012;47,2012(ISSN 1822-7864):100.
Nyagah DG, DNP Mburu. "Effects of gender role portrayal in textbooks in Kenyan primary schools, on pupils academic aspirations." Problems of Education in the 21st Century 47 journal. 2012.
Nyamongo GB. "Effects of Gender-Based |Violence: A Situation Analysis of the 2007 Post Election Ethnic Violence in Kenya .". In: Gender Violence: Mechanisms, Anti-Mechanisms, Interventions, and Evaluations. Linkoping: Linkoping University, Sweden, Swedish Research Council; 2011.
S S, P D, J.M K,.P G, E G, R.O MMN, Chemining’wa GN, Narla RD. "Effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) on sprouting and quality of potato seed tubers in diffused light and pit storage conditions." Biological Sciences . 2006;6(4):723-733.
S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "The effects of gibberellic acid (GA3) on sprouting and quality of potato seed tubers in diffused light and pit storage conditions. Journal of Biological Sciences, 6 (4): 723-733.". In: Journal of Plant Nutrition. Taylor & Francis; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Effects of growth regulators and genotypes on pyrethrum in vitro. In Vitro Cell. Development Biology-Plant 41: 162-166.". In: Africa Journal of Science and Technology, Series A, 5(1), 6-14. EAMJ; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Karori CW, Mulewa AK, Ombuki C, Migosi JA. "Effects of head teachers’ leadership styles on the performance of examinations in public primary schools in Kikuyu District, Kenya." International Journal of Educational Research and Reviews. 2013;1(4):53-65.
Onyango DW;, Wango EO;, Odongo H;, Mugweru J;, Okindo E. "Effects Of Heptachlor On Rat Plasma LH, Testosterone And Cortisol Levels, And Testicular Structure.".; 1998.
Onyango DW;, Wango EO;, Odongo H;, Mugweru J;, Okindo E. "Effects Of Heptachlor On Rat Plasma LH, Testosterone And Cortisol Levels, And Testicular Structure.".; 1998.
Barasa B, Kakembo V, Mwololo Waema T, Laban M. "Effects of heterogeneous land use/cover types on river channel morphology in the Solo River catchment, Eastern Uganda." Geocarto International Journal. 2015.
Hutchinson MJ, Ouko JR, Ambuko J, Owino WO, Subramanian J. "Effects of hexanal dip on the post-harvest shelf life and quality of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit." Tropical Agriculture . 2018;95(1):43-70.abstract.pdf
Hutchinson MJ, Ouko JR, Ambuko J, Owino WO, Subramanian J. "Effects of hexanal dip on the post-harvest shelf life and quality of papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit." Tropical Agriculture. 2018;95. Abstract
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P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "The Effects of Higher Energy Costs on the Balance of Payments Employment Technology Choice and Real Incomes in Kenya with particular Emphasis on Machakos District a Report to the Ford Foundation with W. M Mwangi and H. Fieldstein.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1983. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
T-S F, M. DRGUANTAIERIC, M. N, et al. "Effects of highly active novel artemisinin–chloroquinoline hybrid compounds on β-hematin formation, parasite morphology and endocytosis in Plasmodium falciparum. ." Biochem. Pharmacol. . 2011;82 :236-247. Abstract

4-Aminoquinolines were hybridized with artemisinin and 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives via the Ugi four-component condensation reaction, and their biological activities investigated. The artemisinin-containing compounds 6a–c and its salt 6c-citrate were the most active target compounds in the antiplasmodial assays. However, despite the potent in vitro activities, they also displayed cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell-line, and had lower therapeutic indices than chloroquine. Morphological changes in parasites treated with these artemisinin-containing hybrid compounds were similar to those observed after addition of artemisinin. These hybrid compounds appeared to share mechanism(s) of action with both chloroquine and artemisinin: they exhibited potent b-hematin inhibitory activities; they caused an increase in accumulation of hemoglobin within the parasites that was intermediate between the increase observed with artesunate and chloroquine; and they also appeared to inhibit endocytosis as suggested by the decrease in the number of transport vesicles in the parasites. No cross-resistance with chloroquine was observed for these hybrid compounds, despite the fact that they contained the chloroquinoline moiety. The hybridization strategy therefore appeared to be borrowing the best from both classes of antimalarials.

Erick Kipkoech Rutto, Joshua Nyagol, Julius Oyugi, Samson Ndege, Noel Onyango, Obala A, Chrispinus J Simiyu, Gye Boor, Winfrida Chelangat Cheriro, Otsyula B, Estambale B. "Effects of HIV-1 infection on malaria parasitemia in milo sub-location, western Kenya." BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:303. Abstract

Malaria and HIV infections are both highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, with HIV-infected patients being at higher risk of acquiring malaria. HIV-1 infection is known to impair the immune response and may increase the incidence of clinical malaria. However, a positive association between HIV-1 and malaria parasitaemia is still evolving. Equally, the effect of malaria on HIV-1 disease stage has not been well established, but when fever and parasitemia are high, malaria may be associated with transient increases in HIV-1 viral load, and progression of HIV-1 asymptomatic disease phase to AIDS.

Nyagol J, Leucci E ODFTSTAGCF, Palummo N, Pacenti L SSGMLPLGRDPL. "The effects of HIV-1 Tat protein on cell cycle during cervical carcinogenesis." Cancer Biol Ther. . 2006;5(6):684-90.
Nyagol J, Leucci E, Onnis A, De Falco G, Tigli C, Sanseverino F, Torriccelli M, Palummo N, Pacenti L, Santopietro R, Spina D, Gichangi P, Muchiri L, Lazzi S, Petraglia F, Leoncini L, Giordano A. "The effects of HIV-1 Tat protein on cell cycle during cervical carcinogenesis." Cancer Biol. Ther.. 2006;5(6):684-90. Abstract

The role of HPV in the carcinogenesis of intraepithelial and invasive anogenital lesions is currently well established. E6 and E7 oncoproteins of high-risk HPV genotypes are known to inactivate p53 and pRb pathways. Several studies have described an increased prevalence and recurrence of both cervical HPV infection and invasive cervical cancer among HIV-1 positive women compared to HIV-1 negative cases. For these reasons, cervical cancer is considered an AIDS-defining neoplasm. Unlike other AIDS-associated neoplasms, the occurrence of cervical cancer is independent of immune suppression. HIV-1 infection in patients with high grade precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancers results in a therapy refractory and more aggressive disease phenotype, which is not yet well understood at the molecular level. An upregulation of HPV E6 and E7 gene expressions by HIV-1 proteins such as Tat has been documented by some authors. However, the role of HIV-1 in cervical carcinomas is still unclear. It is already known that HIV-1 Tat protein is able to influence cell cycle progression. Altogether, these facts led us to investigate the effects of Tat on the expression of cell cycle regulator genes. After transfection of HeLa cells with Tat, we analyzed the expression of cell cycle regulators from these cells by IHC and Real-time PCR. A significant reduction in the expression of cell cycle inhibitors of transcription and an increase in the levels of proliferation markers were observed. These results suggest that HIV-1 may enhance cervical carcinogenesis by promoting cell cycle progression. We also found that this HIV-1 Tat-induced cell proliferation was not dependent on the E2F family of transcription factors, and therefore postulate that Sp factors may be involved.

Kibui AW, Mwaniki B, Kahiga R, Gichuhi L. "Effects of HIV/AIDS on Academic Performance of Pre-school Children in Kijabe Location, Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2015;Vol. 2. No. 3:17-25.
Ms Pauline Wangui Gicharu, Agnes Wanja Kibui MBMRKLG. "Effects of HIV/AIDS on Academic Performance of Pre-school Children in Kijabe Location, Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2015;2.
Bett MC, Muchai M, Waweru C. "Effects of human activities on birds and their habitats as reported by forest user groups in and around North Nandi Forest, Kenya." Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. 2017;37:24-31. Abstract
n/a
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Effects of human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection on microbial origina of pelvic inflammatory disease and on efficacy of ambulatory oral therapy Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Stevens CE, Sinei S, Reilly M, Grieco V, Eschenbach DA, Holmes KK, Bwayo JJ, Ndinya-ach.". In: Am J Obstet gynecol. 1999 Dec; 181(6): 1374-81. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1999. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Otieno MM, Keinan HM. "Effects of Human-Wildlife Conflict on Food Security: A case of Kwale County, Kenya." international journal of research in computer application & management. 2013.
Otuoma J, Kinyamario J, Ekaya W, Kshatriya M, Nyabenge M. Effects of human–livestock–wildlife interactions on habitat in an eastern Kenya rangeland.; 2009.
Kahiga RW, Oyier CR, Odundo PA, Ganira KL. "Effects of ICT integration in management of private secondary schools in Nairobi County, Kenya: Policy options and practices." World Journal of Education. 2015;5(6):14-22.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "The Effects of Increased Energy Costs on Balance of Payments and Real Incomes in Kenya.". In: ILO Proejct paper. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1982. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of inorganic nutrient P and N application on Azolla biomass growth and nutrient uptake." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (02):1-9.
J.J Muturi, J.P Mbugi MLMNGJMJJ. "Effects of integrated soil fertility management interventions on the abundance and diversity of soil collembola in Embu and Taita Districts, Kenya." Tropical & Sub-tropical Agroecosystems. 2011;Vol. 13:pp 11 to 27.
J.J Muturi, J.P Mbugi, J.M Mueke, Lagerlof J, J.K Mungatu, Nyamasyo G, Gikungu M. "Effects of integrated soil fertility management interventions on the abundance and diversity of soil collembola in Embu and Taita Districts, Kenya." Tropical & Sub-tropical Agroecosystems. 2011;13(1):37-42.
Nyagari E, Onyango CM, Onwong’a RN. "EFFECTS OF INTERCROPPING ARRANGEMENTS AND FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF AFRICAN NIGHTSHADE (Solanum nigrum L.) IN KISII COUNTY, KENYA." International Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Research. 2016;2(5):1069-1083.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Effects of interfering ions on hexamethyldisiloxane microdiffusion method'.". In: Talanta 44 1729-1733. UoN; 1997. Abstract

ABSTRACT

Acid diffusion in the presence of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) enables complete recovery of ionic fluoride fromstandards containing varying concentrations of aluminium as one of the main interfering ions. Acid diffusion withoutHMDS shows a decrease in fluoride recovery as aluminium ion concentration increases. The fluoride concentrationin the trapping solution is determined directly on the diffusion cover with a combination fluoride electrode afterneutralising and buffering. The same procedure was used for the analysis of fluoride in soil and plant materialscontaining high concentrations of aluminium ions. For the same samples, the concentrations of aluminium, iron andsilicon were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). © 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

Keywords: HMDS microdiffusion; Interfering ions; GLC

OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "The effects of Intermolecular Interaction in Line Broadening Phenomena.". In: J. Molecular Physics. University of Nairobi Press; 2017. Abstract

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Huang RF, Kimilu RK, Hsu CM. "Effects of jet pulsation intensity on a wake-stabilized non-premixed jet flame in crossflow." Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science. 2016;78:153-166.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, MACHANI MAXWEL. "Effects of kdr gene frequencies on major malaria vectors’ resting behaviour in Teso sub-counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
GITHINJI EDWARD, IRUNGU LUCY, Ndegwa P, ATIELI FRANCIS, MACHANI MAXWEL. "Effects of kdr gene frequencies on major malaria vectors’ resting behaviour in Teso sub-counties, western Kenya." THE KASH 7 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION. 2017.
Kimani S.T, Patel N.B KPG. "Effects of Khat (Catha edulis) extract on acquisition and reversal learning and memory in CBA mice.". In: European Science Foundation Research Conferences. Linkoping, Sweden; 2009.
undefined. Effects of lactoperoxidase system in camel milk for preservation and fermentation purposes. Wangoh J, Lamuka PO, eds. University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstract

Summary
This study was conducted to investigate preservative effect of the LPsystem
on both raw and pasteurized camel milk. The effect of the LPsystem
on selected starter cultures in the raw and pasteurized camel
milk was also investigated. Experiments were therefore conducted to:
 evaluate the effect of LP-system activation on shelf-life of raw
camel milk with the underlying activities being to:
o determine the duration of antibacterial effect in camel milk
stored at different temperatures after activation of its LPsystem
and
o monitor effect on keeping quality of increasing
concentrations of sodium thiocyanate and hydrogen
peroxide within physiological limits.
 determine the effect of the LP-system on keeping quality in
pasteurised camel milk
 determine the effect of the LP-system on starter culture activity in
camel heat treated and raw camel milk.
The concentration of thiocyanate occurring naturally in the milk used in
the present investigations ranged from 9.7 to 36.4 mg/l. No addition of
thiocyanate was therefore necessary to activate the LP-system. The
average thiocyanate values of camel milk from different sites were
2
15.8, 32.9 and 9.74 mg/l and were significantly different (p<0.001)
across the three sampling sites in this study.
Changes in total viable counts between LP-activated and LPinactivated
camel milk were determined during storage at 10, 20 and
30°C. Viable counts increased with storage temperature. Microbial
growth was halted for 15, 17 and 76 hours at 30, 20 and 10°C
respectively by activation of the LP-system in raw camel milk. At 30°C
the effect was mainly bacteriostatic and at 20°C, there was an initial
bactericidal effect in the first 15 hours. At 10°C, the bactericidal effect
was noted throughout the period of 76 hours.
The titratable acidity between LP-activated and LP-inactivated camel
milk was determined during storage at 10, 20 and 30°C. There lag in
acid production of 14, 23, and 10 hours at 10, 20 and 30°C
respectively as compared to the controls and was significantly different
(p>0.05) across the three incubation temperatures. Shelf life difference
between LP-system activated samples and their respective controls
was 19 hours at both 10 and 20°C and 4 hours at 30°C.
The differences in mean acid produced between the control samples
and the activated samples, however, were 0.12, 0.61 and 0.49 for 10,
20 and 30°C respectively. Inhibition of acid production by the LPsystem
increased from significant (p<0.05) during storage at 10°C to
highly significant (p<0.01) during storage at 20 and 30°C. The present
investigation therefore shows that by activating the LP-system it is
3
possible to extend the storage period of raw camel milk and that the
effect of the LP-system on the microbes present varies with
temperature of storage.
The effect of increasing levels of thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide
on antibacterial activity of LP-system in raw camel milk at 30ºC was
investigated. Changes in total viable counts and lactic acid
development in raw camel milk at concentrations of 0, 10:10, 20:20,
30:30 and 40:40ppms, NaSCN
-
:H2O2 were monitored. The delay in
multiplication of bacteria increased significantly with an increase in the
LP-system components from no lag phase in the control to 4, 6, 11.5
and 9.5 hours in the 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40 ppm levels of
NaSCN/H2O2 respectively.. The lag in acid production was 0, 4.8, 6, 12
and 8 hours for 0, 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40 ppm dose of
NaSCN:H2O2, respectively. The shelf life of the camel milk was 4, 6,
12, 16 and 16 hours, respectively, for 0, 10:10, 20:20, 30:30 and 40:40
ppm dose of NaSCN:H2O2.
Lactoperoxidase system (LPS) was activated in camel milk followed by
pasteurization after 0, 4, and 8 hours after of storage.
This resulted in a shelf life of 15, 32, 17 and 17 days for the nonactivated
control and those activated after 0, 4, and 8 hours of storage
respectively during storage of samples at 10ºC. At 20°C, the shelf life
was 6, 13, 9 and 7 days for non-activated control and those activated
after 0, 4, and 8 hours of storage respectively. These results showed
4
a significant effect of storage time prior to pasteurisation on the effect
of the LP-system on the surviving microflora between the control and
activated samples at all the 3 times of storage prior to pasteurisation
(p<0.001). The number of viable bacteria in untreated sample reached
108 after 45 days compared to 105-107 in treated samples during
storage at 10ºC and 108 after 15 days in untreated compared to 107-
106 in treated samples under storage at 20ºC. The mean specific
growth rates at 10ºC storage temperature were 0.51, 0.2, 0.41 and 0.5
for the inactivated control, activated and pasteurized after 0, 4, and 8
hours respectively and were significantly lower in the LP-treated camel
milk samples than in the control (p<0.001). At 20ºC storage
temperature, the mean specific growth rates were 1,46, 0.27, 0.69 and
1 for the inactivated control, activated and pasteurized after 0, 4, and 8
hours respectively. These were also significantly lower in the LPtreated
camel milk samples than in the control (p<0.001)
Sensitivity of lactic starter cultures to LP-system was investigated by
monitoring acid production by mesophillic, thermophillic and Suusac
starter cultures in both LP-system treated and untreated camel milk.
Inoculation with starter was done after zero, 4 and 8 hours of storage
of LP-activated samples.
In all the three starters, LP-system activation resulted in a significant
slow down in acid development in raw camel milk activated and
inoculated immediately. For the thermophillic starter mean lactic acid
5
was 0.41, 0.32, 0.35 and 0.36 for the inactivated control sample and
those activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4, and 8 hours
respectively. The differences in means between the control and the
activated samples were very highly significant (p<0.001), highly
significant (p<0.01) and not significant (p>0.05) at the inoculation times
o, 4 and 8 respectively. For the Suusac starter, mean lactic acid was
0.67, 0.62, 0.67 and 0.52 for the inactivated control sample and those
activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4, and 8 hours
respectively. The differences in means between the control and
activated samples were highly significant (p<0.01) at all the inoculation
times after activation. However, for mesophillic starter culture the mean
values of lactic acid produced were 0.53, 0.48, 0.42 and 0.54 for the
inactivated control and activated then inoculated with starter after 0, 4,
and 8 hours respectively. The differences in means between the
control and activated samples were significant (p<0.01) at 0 and 4
hours and non-significant (p>0.05) at 8 hours. This implied that camel
milk preserved using this method could support satisfactory mesophillic
and thermophillic starter culture activity if the milk is held prior to
processing.
The investigation on the effect of the LP-system on starter activity in
camel milk heat-treated prior to inoculation showed that heat treatment
reduced starter inhibition by the LP-system for the mesophillic and
thermophillic starter cultures for samples LP-system activated, heat
6
treated and inoculated at immediately. For the mesophillic starter mean
lactic acid values for the inactivated control sample, activated and then
inoculated after 0, 4 and 8 hours were 0.52, 0.52, 0.54 and 0.40
respectively. The differences in mean lactic acid values between the
control and activated samples showed that a non-significant effect of
inoculation time at time 0 (p>0.05), a significant effect after 4 hours
(p<0.05), and a very highly significant effect (p<0.001) after 8 hours.
Mean lactic acid values for the thermophillic starter for the inactivated
control sample and those activated and then inoculated after 0, 4 and 8
hours were 0.52, 0.52, 0.54 and 0.40 respectively. The inhibition
changed from insignificant (p>0.05) on inoculation at time 0 and 4
hours (p<0.05) and was highly significant (p<0.01) on inoculation after
8 hours. Thus the inhibitory effect of the LP-system on mesophillic
and thermophillic starter culture activity in heat treated camel milk
apparently is reactivated and increases with time of preservation of raw
milk by LP-system. However with suusac starter, the mean lactic acid
values inactivated control sample and those activated and then
inoculated after 0, 4 and 8 hours respectively were 0.69, 0.58, 0.64
and 0.71. At zero and four hours after activation inhibition was
significant (p<0.05) compared to a non-significantly different inhibition
(p>0.05) on inoculation after 8 hours of storage.
The use of the LP-system might therefore have a significant influence
on the time taken to reach the desired pH in the vat, which is a critical
7
factor for the manufacturer of fermented camel milk and this influence
is dependent on the time of preservation of raw camel milk prior to
processing of fermented products.

Josyline K, Philip N, Lucy I, Paul N, Johnstone I, Reuben R, Osero B, Chritopher A. "Effects of Lambdacyhalothrin incorporated into 1,4-Dichlorobenzene on sand fly and mosquito vectors in endemic areas of Kenya. ." Journal of Zoological Research . 2018;2(1):1-6.
Kimigo J, Mbuvi JP, Kironchi G, Gicheru PT. "Effects Of Land Use Change On Soil Qualities In The Sasumua Catchment Of Tana River Drainage System In Nyandarua District, Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

Effects of land use conversion from forest (F) to annual crop cultivation (AC) and grazing land (LG) on soil qualities were investigated in Sasumua catchment with the aim of (a) determining the changes in selected physical and chemical qualities (b) establishing how various soil [1]quality indicators varied with different land management practices and (c) developing the minimum data set for determination of soil health. Random soil samples were collected from 40 farms (12 under LG and 28 under AC) and 11 forest sites together with 7 water samples from rivers and streams leading to Sasumua Dam. A further 36 core ring soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth, from three land uses, 12 from each land use type for analysis of bulk density and hydraulic conductivity. Measurement of CEC, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K and Na, pH, EC, base saturation, total N, soil carbon and texture, bulk density and hydraulic conductivity was done on soil samples while water samples were analysed for quality. Effects of land management practices were determined using structured questionnaire. Data obtained from laboratory was subjected to analysis of variance using Genstat while that from questionnaire was analysed using SPSS. To determine the minimum data set, results obtained were subjected to factor analysis using principal component analysis. The results showed a significant change of soil pH and silt content when land is converted from forest to grazing land and annual crops cultivation. In grazing land ; CEC , exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ , base saturation and SOC decreased by 8%, 42%, 52%, 32% and 8% respectively while Total N increased by 6 % . In annual crop cultivated land; exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ , base saturation and SOC decreased by 31%, 40%, 32% and 8% respectively, while CEC, Total N, and bulk density increased by 14%, 23% and 10% ,respectively. Land management practices such as intensive cultivation of horticultural crops, overgrazing of pastureland and farming on steep areas were contributing to soil chemical and physical degradation while addition of farmyard manure and agro-forestry were contributing to sustainability of soil organic carbon and bulk density. Tillage in cultivated fields influenced increase in CEC. Water quality results indicated that land use management affected quality as it flows from forest to areas with human settlements. Soil pH, texture, SOC and CEC were found to be the minimum data set for determination of soil health in the catchment as they cumulatively accounted for 83% of the variation in component loadings.

kITHIIA SM, Musingi JK. "Effects of Land Use Systems on the Water Quality within the Nairobi River Sub-catchment." Eastern and Southern Africa Geographical Journal. 1995;Vol. 6 No. 1, 1995 (1995):17-36 . AbstractWebsite

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

Okoth S. "Effects of land-use intensification on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species in Machakos County, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2015;7(4):48. Abstract41855-159169-1-pb.pdfWebsite

Land-use intensification has a significant influence on occurrence of soil microorganisms. The effect of this phenomenon on Fusarium species is poorly characterized. One hundred soil samples were obtained from 3 replicated land- use types (LUT) in Mwala and Kauti irrigation regions in Machakos County. These included two intensive land-uses under irrigation and rain-fed agriculture and undisturbed lands. Mwala irrigated lands were divided into four blocks based on history of cultivation. Using soil dilution plate technique, 1,546 isolates of Fusarium were recovered and identified into twelve species namely; F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. nygamai, F. equiseti, F. chlamydosporum, F. beomiforme, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. acuminatum, F. compactum, F. semitectum, and F. merismoides. Fusarium oxysporum was the most abundant and diverse Fusarium species. Fusarium semitectum, F. compactum and F .merismoides had the least distribution being isolated from only one LUT. Fusarium beomiforme and F. acuminatum were recovered from irrigated farmlands only while F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and F. acuminatum were restricted to disturbed lands only. The difference in abundance of Fusarium between the three LUTs was significant (P = 0.047) with irrigated lands having the highest abundance. Mwala block A had the highest abundance, richness and diversity of Fusarium. Lands with a higher intensity of disturbance had a higher abundance and richness of Fusarium than the less undisturbed lands. This may have severe implication on crop production as most species of Fusarium isolated are pathogenic. Sustainable ways of controlling these potential crop pathogens should be sought.

J.K MUSINGI. Effects of Large Dams on Public Health in a Semi-Arid Environment: A case Study of Masinga Dam. Hekima Journal, Special Edition, faculty of Arts, University of Nairobi; 2009. Abstract

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

Karuma A, Gachene CKK, Gicheru PT, Mwang'ombe AW, Mwangi HW, Clavel D, Verhagen J, Kaufmann VR, Francis J, Ekaya W. "Effects of legume cover crop and sub-soiling on soil properties and maize (zea mays l) growth in semi arid area of Machakos District, Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

Low crop yields in the semi arid areas of Kenya have been attributed to, among other factors, low soilfertility, low farm inputs, labour constraints and inappropriate tillage practices that lead to pulverized soils. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of legume cover crops (LCC) on soil propertiesand maize growth in the semi arid area of MachakosmDistrict, Kenya. The study was undertaken in farmers’ fields. The field experiments were carried out in a randomized complete block design with four treatments each replicated four times during the 2008/2009 long (LR) and short rain (SR) seasons. The treatments were T1 = maize + dolichos (Lablab purpureus) + subsoiling; T2 = maize + dolichos + nosubsoiling; T3 = maize alone + no subsoiling; T4 =maize alone with subsoiling). Results from the field experiments showed that rainfall amount and its distribution affected the growth and yield of dolichos and maize. There were significant differences in ground cover between the treatments at P ≤ 0.05 in all the different weeks after planting when measurements were taken. The penetration resistance in all the plots ranged from 3.83 - 4.18 kg cm-2 with treatment T4 having the highest and treatment T1 lowest penetration resistance. There were also siginificant changes in soil N in plots which were under dolichos compared to plots without dolichos. The results obtained in this study also indicated that subsoiling in combination with dolichos had the greatest potential of improving soil properties and crop yields in semi arid environments of Kenya.

Dennis AU, Gichuki NN. "Effects of legume-based rotational cropping on rhizobia assemblage in an irrigated rangeland in southern Kenya ." Evironment and Sustainable Development. 2012;4(13):147-158.
S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of levels and timing of application of gibberelic acid (GA3) on growth and yield components of common beans. The African Crop Science Journal, 12 (2): 123- 131.". In: In press. African Crop Science Proceedings 7: -. Taylor & Francis; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Biwott KJ;, Kaitho R;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Tanner J. "Effects of levels of concentrate supplementation on milk production and body weights of lactating dairy cows."; 1998. Abstract

Nineteen dairy cows were used over a 7-month period to evaluate the effect of allocating different levels of concentrate during early lactation. The animals were fed on grass hay basal diet and supplemented with either 2 Kg (LLC), 4 Kg (MLC) or 8 Kg (HLC) per day. Milk yields were measured daily, body weight and body condition scores were monitored weekly. Milk yields during the first 12 weeks of lactation were 11.6, 12.6 and 16.9 Kg/day for LLC, MLC and HLC respectively. The HLC had significantly higher (P<0.001) milk yield than both MLC and LLC. The body weights and condition scores of animals in different treatment groups remained relatively constant during the study period. The HLC were significantly heavier than the other two groups.

Biwott KJ;, Kaitho R;, Gachuiri CK;, Wahome RG;, Tanner J. "Effects of levels of concentrate supplementation on milk production and body weights of lactating dairy cows."; 1998. Abstract

Nineteen dairy cows were used over a 7-month period to evaluate the effect of allocating different levels of concentrate during early lactation. The animals were fed on grass hay basal diet and supplemented with either 2 Kg (LLC), 4 Kg (MLC) or 8 Kg (HLC) per day. Milk yields were measured daily, body weight and body condition scores were monitored weekly. Milk yields during the first 12 weeks of lactation were 11.6, 12.6 and 16.9 Kg/day for LLC, MLC and HLC respectively. The HLC had significantly higher (P<0.001) milk yield than both MLC and LLC. The body weights and condition scores of animals in different treatment groups remained relatively constant during the study period. The HLC were significantly heavier than the other two groups.

Osborne DMP, Monaghan P. "Effects of light and dark upon photoreceptor synapses in the retina of {Xenopus} laevis." Cell and Tissue Research. 1976;173:211-220. AbstractWebsite

Photoreceptor synapses in Xenopus retina were studied after exposure to day/night cycles and continuous light or dark. In the rods, dense-core vesicles appear alongside the synaptic ribbons in animals exposed to light. In dark-adapted rods, electron-dense material is present in the synaptic clefts, but no dense-core vesicles are found associated with the synaptic ribbons. Cone photoreceptors do not show these ultrastructural changes in response to light and dark. Prolonged exposure to light (21 days) causes flattening of the synaptic vesicles associated with the synaptic ribbons in both rods and cones. The results are discussed in the light of what is known about transmitter release from photoreceptors.

Gachango E, Shibairo SI, Kabira J, Chemining'wa GN, Demo P. "Effects of light intensity on quality of potato seed tubers.". 2008. Abstract

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes (Tigoni, Asante and Dutch Robyjn) were evaluated for quality under three light intensities, 612.2 kW (diffused), 1376 kW (direct) and 8 kW (dark) for 12 weeks. Tuber stored in dark conditions had a lower weight loss than tubers stored in direct light conditions. Dutch Robyjn lost the lowest weight (4.49%) while Asante lost the highest (13.90%) mean weight. Tigoni in the dark had the highest number (9.25) of sprouts. Tubers in the dark developed long (46.25mm) etiolated sprouts as opposed to the short (10.50mm) firm sprouts observed in tubers subjected to the diffused light. High sprout vigor score (2.42) was observed in Asante while Dutch Robyjn had the lowest (1.00) score. Nevertheless, all the tubers in the three light intensities had 100% sprouted tubers after the 12 weeks of storage. Potato tuber moth incidence was higher in percentage in the direct and diffused light than in the dark storage. No incidence of rotting was reported for the 12 weeks of storage. It is therefore suggested that farmers should adopt storage of potato seed tubers in diffused light (612.2 – 1000 kW) store to allow formation of short firm sprouts and reduce weight loss.

E. G, S. S, J. K, Demo P. "Effects of light intensity on quality of potato seed tubers." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2009;3(10):732-739.effects_of_light_intensity_on_quality_of_potato_seed_tubers.pdf
Ngaboyisonga, Njoroge K, Kirubi D, Githiri SM. "Effects of low nitrogen and drought on genetic parameters of grain yield and endosperm hardness of Quality Protein Maize." Asian Journal of Agricultural Research. 2009;3:1-10.
Ngaboyisonga C, Njoroge K, Kirubi D, Githiri SM. "Effects of low nitrogen and drought on grain yield and endosperm hardness of quality protein maize single cross hybrids. In: Sustainable agricultural productivity for improved food security and livelihoods.". In: Proceedings of the National Conference on Agricultural Research Outputs of Rwanda. Serena Hotel, Kigali, Rwanda; 2007.
OBIMBO DRLAMUKAPETER. "Effects of Lyophilized Thermophilus whey and Irradiation on Bacteriological quality of mechanically Deboned Chiken Meat. Abstract IFT Annual Meeting. Dallas Texas. June 1 .". In: Eur J. Biochem. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991. Abstract
Thymidine kinase is an enzyme involved in DNA precursor metabolism and DNA replication. The synthesis of this enzyme is highly regulated during the cell cycle and the activity of the enzyme is also regulated by feedback inhibition. Genes encoding thymidine kinase have been extremely useful as selectable markers for introducing DNA into a number of cells. In order to study cell cycle regulation of thymidine kinase, the gene which encodes this enzyme, as well as aspects of DNA replication in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila, we have purified thymidine kinase from Tetrahymena. Two forms of thymidine kinase with native molecular masses of 59 kDa and 80 kDa have been identified and purified 6800- and 4600-fold, respectively. The 59-kDa enzyme, a homodimer of 30-kDa subunits, has been purified to near homogeneity and polyclonal antibodies have been raised against the 30-kDa subunit. Serological studies indicate that the two enzymes are antigenically distinct. The antibody against the Tetrahymena protein cross-reacts with a polypeptide in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell extracts of 26 kDa which corresponds to the reported size of Chinese hamster thymidine kinase protein.
Maina JG;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngugi JN;, Karuri EG;, Owiti GO;, Omolo B;, Orina P;, Wangia SM. "Effects Of Management‟s Practices And Economic Stimulus Program On Fish Production In Mwea Division Of Kirinyaga County.".; 2012.
Maina JG;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngugi JN;, Karuri EG;, Owiti GO;, Omolo B;, Orina P;, Wangia SM. "Effects Of Management‟s Practices And Economic Stimulus Program On Fish Production In Mwea Division Of Kirinyaga County.".; 2012.
Maina JG;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngugi JN;, Karuri EG;, Owiti GO;, Omolo B;, Orina P;, Wangia SM. "Effects Of Management‟s Practices And Economic Stimulus Program On Fish Production In Mwea Division Of Kirinyaga County.".; 2012.
Maina JG;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngugi JN;, Karuri EG;, Owiti GO;, Omolo B;, Orina P;, Wangia SM. "Effects Of Management‟s Practices And Economic Stimulus Program On Fish Production In Mwea Division Of Kirinyaga County.".; 2012.
Mwangi SC, Mbatia OLE, Nzuma JM. "Effects of Market Reforms on Irish Potato Price Volatility in Nyandarua District, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

This paper evaluates the effects of market reform policies on the volatility of Irish potato prices in Kenya through an analysis of a 20 year monthly time series data set from Nyandarua district using an autoregressive econometric approach. The empirical results show that there has been a rise in Irish potato prices and lowering of price volatility after the implementation of market reform policies. The real prices exhibit seasonal variations around an upward trend with the prices being depressed during the harvesting period. The price risk premia is found to be negative revealing that the cost of carrying out Irish potato business declined, and farmers were better off with the implementation of the reforms. The collection and distribution of price information, storage of Irish potatoes during periods of glut, improvement in productivity and use of commodity exchange markets can help to reduce price volatility.

• Paul Odundo, Origa J, Nyandega I, Ngaruiya B. "Effects of Mass University Enrolment on Non-Academic Activities.The Case of the University of Nairobi, Kenya." Education Journal. 2015;4(2).
Odundo P. "Effects of Mass University Enrolment on Non-Academic Activities: The Case of university of Nairobi, Kenya,." Kenya Journal of Education Planning Economics & Management. 2011.
Odundo P., Digolo P.O., Magoha G.O., Nyandega I. OJ. "The Effects of Massification on Higher Education in Africa." Association of African Universities, Accra, Ghana. 2008.
Digolo P.O., Magoha G.O., Origa J, Odundo P, Nyandega I. The Effects of Massification on Higher Education in Africa. Accra, Ghana: Association of African Universities; 2008.
Odundo P, Magoha, P. O, Origa J, Nyandega I. The Effects of Massification on Higher Education in Africa. .; 2008.
Waruiru RM, Munyua WK, Mavuti SK, Otieno RO, Mutune MN, Maina VM. "Effects of medicated urea-molasses block supplementation on productivity and gastrointestinal nematode infestation of sheep in central Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. . 2017;29(161).
Okoth S. "Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennell)." International journal of microbiology. 2017:1-9. Abstract5273893.pdfWebsite

This study was undertaken with an aim of exploring the effectiveness of medicinal plant extracts in the control of aflatoxin
production. Antifungal properties, photosensitization, and phytochemical composition of aqueous and organic extracts of fruits
fromSolanumaculeastrum, bark fromSyzygium cordatum, and leaves from Prunus africana, Ocimum lamiifolium, Lippia kituiensis,
and Spinacia oleracea were tested. Spores from four-day-old cultures of previously identified toxigenic fungi, UONV017 and
UONV003, were used. Disc diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to test the antifungal activity. The spores were
suspended in 2ml of each extract separately and treated with visible light (420 nm) for varying periods. Organic extracts displayed
species and concentration dependent antifungal activity. Solanum aculeastrum had the highest zones of inhibition diameters in
both strains: UONV017 (mean = 18.50 ± 0.71 mm) and UONV003 (mean = 11.92 ± 0.94 mm) at 600mg/ml. Aqueous extracts
had no antifungal activity because all diameters were below 8 mm. Solanum aculeastrum had the lowest minimum inhibitory
concentration at 25mg/ml against A. flavusUONV017.All the plant extracts in combinationwith light reduced the viability of fungal
conidia compared with the controls without light, without extracts, and without both extracts and light. Six bioactive compounds
were analyzed in the plant extracts. Medicinal plant extracts in this study can control conidia viability and hence with further
development can control toxigenic fungal spread.

Njoki LM, Okoth SA, Wachira PM. "Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin Producing Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennell)." International Journal of Microbiology. 2017:Pages 9 doi:10.1155/2017/5273893.
Kasili S, Ngure PK, Anjili CO, Karanja RM, Kaburi J, Muthoni M, Kinuthia G, MarthKiarie, Nzau A, Kepha S, Maniania NK, IRUNGU LUCYW, Ngumbi PM. "Effects of Metarhizium anisopliae on sand fly populations in their natural habitats in Marigat sub-County, Baringo County, Kenya.". 2015.
E.N. PN. "Effects of micro-enterprise services on HIV risk behaviour among female sex workers in Kenya urban slums.". 2009. Abstract

AIDS Behav. 2009 Jun;13(3):449-61. doi: 10.1007/s10461-008-9485-y. Epub 2008 Nov 8.
Effects of micro-enterprise services on HIV risk behaviour among female sex workers in Kenya's urban slums.
Odek WO, Busza J, Morris CN, Cleland J, Ngugi EN, Ferguson AG.
Source
Department of Community Health, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1086, City Square 00200, Nairobi, Kenya. odekw@yahoo.co.uk
Abstract
This study assessed individual-level effects of adding micro-enterprise services to a peer-mediated HIV/AIDS intervention among 227 female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya. Survey data were collected in May-July 2003 and July-August 2005. Two-thirds of participants had operational businesses by end-line survey. Nearly half reported to have stopped sex work. Self-reported weekly mean number of all sexual partners changed from 3.26 (SD 2.45) at baseline to 1.84 (SD 2.15) at end-line survey (P < 0.001). Weekly mean number of casual partners did not change significantly. Weekly mean number of regular partners changed from 1.96 (SD 1.86) to 0.73 (SD 0.98) over the follow-up period (P < 0.001). Consistent condom use with regular partners increased by 18.5% and remained above 90% with casual partners. Micro-enterprise services may empower FSWs by giving them an alternative livelihood when they wish to exit or reduce reliance on sex work. Determinants of successful business operation by FSWs deserve further research.
PMID:
18998204
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Bitange NM, Chemining’wa GN, Ambuko JL, WO O, Bitange NM. "EFFECTS OF MODE AND TIMING OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE APPLICATION ON TISSUE CALCIUM CONCENTRATION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF MANGO FRUITS." African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 2021;21:18552-18574. Abstract
n/a
Wachege PN, Rugendo FG. "Effects of Modernization on Youths' Morality: A Case of Karuri Catholic Parish, Kenya." International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2017;7(12):691-711.wachege_rugendo_article_1.pdf
Shibairo SI, Upadhyaya MK, Toivonen PMA. "Effects of Moisture Loss on Water Potential Components and Tissue Deterioration in Carrots during Short-term Storage.". 1995. Abstract

Studies were carried out to understand the effects of moisture loss on water potential and root deterioration in carrot (Daucus carota L. `Eagle') roots during short-term storage. The roots were stored at various temperatures and relative humidities (RH) to provide 0.7 (low), 3 (medium), and 9 mbars (high) of water vapor pressure deficit (WVPD). Carrots at high WVPD lost the most weight, followed by those at medium and lowest WVPD. Water potential and osmotic potential of the carrot tissue at high WVPD did not change significantly up to 6 days, but decreased thereafter. There was no change in water potential and osmotic potential for carrots at medium and low WVPD. A significant quadratic relationship (P = 0.05, r = –0.764) between water potential and carrot root weight loss was observed. Relative electrolyte leakage increased over time in carrots at the high WVPD. At medium WVPD, relative electrolyte leakage did not change up to 6 days, but increased significantly thereafter. Carrots at the low WVPD did not change in relative electrolyte leakage. Relative electrolyte leakage and weight loss correlated positively (P = 0.05, r = 0.789). The results suggest that water stress during short-term storage causes tissue deterioration that may further increase rate of moisture loss and hence reduce the shelf life of carrots.

Mwachaka P, Saidi H, Odula P, Mandela P. "Effects of monocular deprivation on dendritic features of retinal ganglion cells." Int. J. Morphol. 2014;32(4):1144-1151.mwachaka_retina_dendritic.pdf
Tieman SB. "Effects of monocular deprivation on geniculocortical synapses in the cat." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1984;222:166-176. Abstract

In monocularly deprived (MD) cats, many cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) but few cells in the visual cortex respond to input from the deprived eye, suggesting that the connections to visual cortex from the deprived geniculate laminae may have been disrupted. I have examined these connections in MD cats by using electron microscopic autoradiography of visual cortex after injections of tritiated lysine into single laminae of LGN. After injections into either deprived or experienced laminae, there was label over terminals that contained mitochondria and round synaptic vesicles and that made asymmetric contacts with dendritic profiles. However, the terminals of deprived afferents differed from those of experienced afferents. They were 25% smaller, contained 33% fewer mitochondria, were more likely to make synapses that were presynaptically convex (and thus, perhaps, immature), and synapsed onto smaller spines. These morphological changes were greater for afferents to upper layer IV than for afferents to lower layer IV. The geniculocortical synapses from deprived laminae were also reduced in number. To correct for variations in injection size and for a probable reduction in protein synthesis by cells in the deprived laminae, I computed the ratio of labeled synaptic terminals to labeled myelinated axons. Injections into the deprived laminae labeled 43% fewer synaptic terminals per labeled myelinated axon than did injections into the experienced lamina. The finding that the synaptic terminals of deprived afferents are both abnormal morphologically and fewer in number can help to explain the reduced effectiveness of the deprived eye in driving cortical cells.

Mwachaka PM, Saidi H, Odula P, Mandela P. "Effects of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural cell densities." J. Ophthalmic & vision research . 2015;4(2):555-562.mwachaka_neural_cell_densities.pdf
Mwachaka P, Saidi H, Odula P, Mandela P. "Effects of monocular deprivation on the dendritic features of retinal ganglion cells." Int. J. Morphol.. 2015;32(4):1144-1151. AbstractInternational Journal of Morphology

SUMMARY: Monocular deprivation results in anatomical changes in the visual cortex in favor of the non-deprived eye. Although the retina forms part of the visual pathway, there is scarcity of data on the effect of monocular deprivation on its structure. The objective of this study was to describe the effects of monocular deprivation on the retinal ganglion cell dendritic features. The study design was quasi-experimental. 30 rabbits (18 experimental, 12 controls) were examined. Monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suture in the experimental animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. Each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retina harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of the retina were taken using a digital camera then entered into FIJI software for analysis. The number of primary branches, terminal branches and dendritic field area among the non-deprived eyes increased by 66.7%(p=0.385), 400%(p=0.002), and 88.4%(p=0.523) respectively. Non-deprived eyes had 114.3% more terminal dendrites (p=0.002) compared to controls. Among deprived eyes, all variables measured had a gradual rise in the first two weeks followed by decline with further deprivation. There were no statistically significant differences noted between the deprived and control eyes. Monocular deprivation results in increase in synaptic contacts in the non-deprived eye, with reciprocal changes occurring in the deprived eye.
KEY WORDS: Monocular deprivation; Retina; Retinal Ganglion Cells; Dendritic features; Eye.

Lachica EA, Crooks MW, Casagrande VA. "Effects of monocular deprivation on the morphology of retinogeniculate axon arbors in a primate." The Journal of comparative neurology. 1990;296:303-323. Abstract

Previous studies of the monocularly deprived (lid-sutured) primate (Galago crassicaudatus) have shown that magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) cells that receive input from the deprived eye are smaller than counterparts that receive input from the nondeprived eye; deprived koniocellular (K) cells show wide variability in size, but they do not differ from their nondeprived counterparts (Casagrande and Joseph, '80). Although deprivation results in cell-size changes, the physiological properties of deprived LGN cells do not change from normal (that is, P cells have normal X-like properties, M cells have normal Y-like properties, and K cells have normal W-like properties). Because of these findings, we were interested in determining how the morphology of retinogeniculate axon arbors is affected by deprivation. To this end, 104 horseradish-peroxidase-filled retinogeniculate arbors from galagos deprived from birth to maturity were completely reconstructed within the binocular segment of the LGN. These arbors were qualitatively and quantitatively compared with 56 arbors reconstructed from normal galagos as part of another study (Lachica and Casagrande, '88). Our main findings are as follows. Deprived M and P arbors are affected by deprivation in the same general manner: compared with normal arbors, they are altered in shape (rather than being round or columnar, respectively, both groups have terminals that are elongated parallel to laminar borders); they are smaller in area, and they have fewer boutons but innervate the LGN with a greater density of boutons. K arbors are affected by deprivation in the same manner, but less severely. Finally, our results show that nondeprived arbors are also affected by eyelid suture. Specifically, all nondeprived arbor groups are smaller in area than normal and possess more boutons/mm3. We interpret these changes in the morphology of deprived retinogeniculate axons to suggest that abnormal competitive interactions begin by affecting primarily immature LGN cells and their axons and that the retinogeniculate axons presynaptic to these cells experience secondary degenerative effects. Our results also show that similar manipulations of visual experience can result in changes that are not necessarily comparable across species such as cats and primates.

Nakadate K, Imamura K, Watanabe Y. "Effects of monocular deprivation on the spatial pattern of visually induced expression of c-{Fos} protein." Neuroscience. 2012;202:17-28. Abstract

We studied the pattern of expression of a protein product (c-Fos) of immediate-early gene (IEG) in the visual cortex of rats and mice. The basal expression of c-Fos was very low and visual exposure revealed a large number of c-Fos immunopositive cells in the visual cortex. We found that monocular deprivation during the sensitive period of ocular dominance (OD) plasticity significantly changed both the amount and pattern of c-Fos expression upon monocular stimulation of either eye. The number of immunopositive cells in layer IV of binocular subfields of the primary visual cortex (Oc1B) ipsilateral to the stimulated eye was found to be the most sensitive index of the effects of monocular deprivation during the sensitive period, that is, opened eye stimulation induced significantly larger numbers of c-Fos immunopositive cells, whereas closed eye stimulation induced significantly smaller numbers compared with those induced by monocular stimulation in control animals. In the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus, the pattern of expression of c-Fos following monocular stimulation was not affected by preceding monocular deprivation. Monocular deprivation imposed after the sensitive period did not affect the pattern of induction of c-Fos. Notably, in age-matched old animals that had been raised in total darkness and then experienced monocular deprivation, the distribution and numbers of c-Fos-expressing cells in visual cortex exhibited the same alterations as found in young animals during the sensitive period. These findings suggest that the present activity mapping method using c-Fos as a molecular marker is useful for examining the activity-dependent regulation of cortical plasticity, and provides an alternative method to conventional electrophysiological recording. This method is particularly powerful when applied to knockout or transgenic mice in which sampling biases in electrophysiological recording have been considered inevitable. Furthermore, these findings suggest that c-Fos is involved in OD plasticity as an IEG that transfers neuronal activity to late gene expression.

K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of Mucuna Planting Density and Time on Water and Light Use in Maize .". In: Paper presented in the 6th Conference of the African Crop Science Society held in Nairobi, Kenya 12th to 17th October. University of Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of Mucuna Planting Density and Time on Water and Light Use in Maize .". In: African Crop Science Proceedings 6: 536-540. Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Obonyo N, Cheroigin K, Kariuki M, Sumuni K, Lang’at O, Njogu B, Masika M, Patel N. "The Effects of MÛGÛKA (Catha edulis vahl) on the Behaviour of Rats." Nairobi Journal of Medicine. 2006. Abstractabstract_-_the_effects_of_muguka_on_rats.pdfeffects_of_muguka_catha_edulis_vahl_on_the_behavior_of_rats-_nairobi_journal_of_medicine_jun_2006.pdf

The Effects of MÛGÛKA (Catha edulis vahl) on the Behaviour of Rats

N.G Obonyo, K.S Cheroigin, M.M Kariuki, K.M Sumuni, O Lang’at, Njogu, M.M Masika, N.B Patel

INTRODUCTION: Mûgûka (Catha edulis vahl) are ‘residue’ leaves, which are chewed to elicit a stimulant effect. It is grown in Eastern province (mostly in Mbeere and Embu districts) of Kenya and is very popular with the local residents in this part of the country. It is closely related to miraa (Catha edulis forsk), which is reported to be one of the most recklessly abused drugs in Kenya by NACADA (National Agency for the Campaign Against Drug Abuse). Whereas lots of research has been done on miraa, little, if any, research has been done on mûgûka.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of mûgûka on the behaviour of Sprague Dawley rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five Sprague Dawley rats were used. The experiment was divided into three phases: Baseline, Normal saline and Mûgûka. Baseline phase established the normal behaviour of the rats before injection of mûgûka plant extract (mûgûka phase). Normal saline was used as a control. We conducted an Open field Test. The behaviours exhibited during a 30-minute trial were recorded for each of the experimental phases. The four behavioural parameters recorded for each experimental phase were line crossings, rearing counts, grooming time and defecation pellets count.

RESULTS: The behavioural changes noted after injection of mûgûka plant extract were; the line crossing counts increased but the grooming time, rearing counts and defecation pellet counts decreased. However, none of these changes was statistically significant. Sniffing behaviour was also markedly increased when the mûgûka was administered.

DISCUSSION: The results obtained above suggest that there are changes in the behavioural parameters although they are not statistically significant. The sample size probably needs to be increased and serial dose-response measurements for the injected mûgûka plant extract need to be done.

Keywords: Mûgûka (Catha edulis vahl), miraa (Catha edulis forsk), NACADA (National Agency for the Campaign Against Drug Abuse) in Kenya

Published in the Nairobi Journal of Medicine, June 2006

and 1. J. K. Kibugu, J.N. Makumi KNGMMMJMJJN. Effects of mycotoxins on the pathogenesis of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in mice. . Panafric Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya ; 2013.

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