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Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. The effect of varying rates of compost and diammonium phosphate on soil physical properties and crop performance..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Long-term use of compost (4, 8, 12 or 125 kg/ha for maize and 10, 20, 30 or 200 kg/ha for beans) on improving crop yields and soil physical characteristics was studied at the steep-land research site, Kabete campus, Kenya. Preliminary results showed that maize yields under compost were lower than under diammonium phosphate (DAP). Compost increased the maize yield by 15% compared to an increase of 50% caused by DAP. Bean yield did not show any response to any rates of compost or DAP. The use of compost improved soil physical conditions, mainly bulk density and infiltration rates.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. The effect of varying rates of compost and diammonium phosphate on soil physical properties and crop performance..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Long-term use of compost (4, 8, 12 or 125 kg/ha for maize and 10, 20, 30 or 200 kg/ha for beans) on improving crop yields and soil physical characteristics was studied at the steep-land research site, Kabete campus, Kenya. Preliminary results showed that maize yields under compost were lower than under diammonium phosphate (DAP). Compost increased the maize yield by 15% compared to an increase of 50% caused by DAP. Bean yield did not show any response to any rates of compost or DAP. The use of compost improved soil physical conditions, mainly bulk density and infiltration rates

Misoi, G.K., Gichaga FJ, Carson RN. "Effect of Vehicle Speeds on Corrugation Formation." African Journal of Science and Technology.. 1986;5 (1):47-58.
Gichaga FJ, Misoi GK, Carson RN. Effect Of Vehicle Speeds On Corrugation Formation.; 1986.
Catherine K, Fidahusein DS, Wanjiru LC, Maina WJ, Carla K, Hahn D, Serge F, Paul G, Thomas S. "Effect of Vernodalol, a Sesquiterpene Lactone, on Economically Important Agricultural Fungi." International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology. 2019;4(3):685-694. Abstract

The status of food insecurity in the world is devastating and fungal based diseases are a major cause that result in approximately 40-60% crop yield loss. Although synthetic chemical fungicides have been the preferred immediate method for management of fungal diseases, they have undesirable effects on human and animal health; causes environmental hazards, and are expensive. This study investigated whether the natural products from Vernonia glabra (Asteraceae) could be used as alternative biofungicide against disease causing agricultural fungi. Fractions were separated from V. glabra methanolic flower crude extract, using bioassay-guided fractionation. The single pure fraction yielded was selected for bioassay tests, and was isolated and characterized using chromatographic and spectrometric methods. In vitro bioassay test was performed against spore germination of Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides, Zymoseptoria tritici, Ustilago maydis, and Pyricularia oryzae. A known sesquiterpene lactone, Vernodalol was identified using high resolution mass spectrometry. In vitro bioassay results revealed that spores of Z. tritici were the most susceptible to Vernodalol, (42% spore inhibition) at 33 μg/100 μL compared to Azoxystrobin, a standard fungicide, (100% inhibition) against the fungus at 0.005 μg/100 μL. Vernodalol sprayed on 7 days old wheat seedlings that were inoculated with spores of Zymosepteria tritici, Puccinia triticina, and Helminthosporium sativum, at 50 and 200 ppm did not exhibit any disease control under greenhouse conditions. Azoxystrobin exhibited 90-100% disease control. V. glabra extracts have sesquiterpene lactones which are antifungal, however Vernodalol needs further research on its structural modification to increase efficacy against fungal pathogens.
Keywords:- Plant Fungal Diseases; Alternative Biofungicides; Sesquiterpene Lactones; Food Security.

Fifková E. "Effect of visual deprivation and light on synapses of the inner plexiform layer." Experimental Neurology. 1972;35:458-469. AbstractWebsite

The effect of unilateral lid closure on synaptic contacts of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) has been studied. The operation was carried out on 14-day-old albino rats which survived for 8 weeks and were kept in a room illuminated 8 hr a day. The open eye as well as the deprived one are affected by unilateral lid closure. The presence of two processes caused by unilateral deprivation was postulated: the effect of deprivation itself, which stimulates the formation of new amacrine contacts in the IPL of the closed eye; the effect of an assumed excess of light to the open eye with the consequent damage to receptors. Because of direct connection between receptors and bipolar elements the damage of the receptors seems to induce changes in the bipolar terminals that decreases the density of bipolar contacts in the IPL of the open eye.

Gyllensten L, Malmfors T, Norrlin M-L. "Effect of visual deprivation on the optic centers of growing and adult mice." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1965;124:149-160. AbstractWebsite

The thickness of the visual cortex, the diameter of cell nuclei and the mean volume of internuclear material per nucleus in the visual cortex, geniculate bodies and superior colliculi were determined in growing and adult mice. The influence of prolonged stay in complete darkness was investigated.In the visual cortex of normal mice, a peak in nuclear size occurred 20–30 days after birth, followed by a peak in relative volume of internuclear material.In growing mice, reared in darkness from birth, a highly significant decrease in relative volume of internuclear material occurred in all visual centers. The decrease was greatest in the geniculate bodies and greater in the granular and supragranular layers of the cortex than in the infragranular. In the cortex, the decrease was most pronounced after two months and became less pronounced during prolonged stay in darkness. No similar normalization was observed in subcortical visual centers. In the same mice, visual deprivation caused a highly significant decrease in the thickness of the visual cortex and in the diameter of its cell nuclei. The decrease in nuclear diameter was greater in the granular and supragranular than in the infragranular layers of the cortex and exhibited a similar normalization during prolonged stay in darkness as the decrease in relative volume of internuclear material.In adult mice, visual deprivation caused decrease in internuclear material.

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Effect of voids on hardening of asphaltic concrete on flexible road and airport pavements .". In: East African Journal of Engineering. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
M.Mwangi, J.K.Mwiti. "The Effect of Voluntary Disclosure on Stock Market Returns of Companies Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2015;6(1):99-105. Abstract

Voluntary disclosure is aimed at providing a clear view to stakeholders about the business’s long-termsustainability and reducing information asymmetry and agency conflicts between managers and investors. Theobjective of this study was to determine the effects of voluntary disclosures on stock market returns of companieslisted at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. The study sampled twenty firms for the period 2009 to 2013. Itemployed multiple linear regression of market performance of the firms in the five year period against voluntarydisclosure, exchange rate, interest rate and rate of inflation.The results were that each of the factors waspositively related to market performance for firms listed at the NSE. The study recommends companies to havevoluntary disclosure above the statutory requirements set by the regulatory agencies as it can result in increasedstock returns.

D S, O OR, O OW, N MJ. "Effect of Waste Clay Brick Powder on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste." Open Civil Engineering Journal. 2021;Vol 15.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Karuku G, Kironchi G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda ." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Karuku G, Kironchi, G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana, D., Mureithi, S.M., and Karuku G, Kironchi G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Mosenda E, Chemining'wa G, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Effect of Water Stress on Growth and Yield Components of Selected Spider Plant Accessions." Journal of Medicinally Active Plants. 2020;9:81-97. Abstract
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Kabira, WM; Gachukia EW; MFO. "The effect of women's role on health: The paradox .". 1997.Website
Kariuki MI. "Effect of Working Capital Liquidity on the Financial Performance of Hire Purchase Companies in Kenya." Journal of Economics and Finance. 2017; 8(1):50-9.
Richard K, Faith O, Margaret O, Anne N, Wallace B. "Effect of {ABCB}1 C3435T Polymorphism on Clinical Outcomes in Kenyan {HIV} Patients on Lopinavir-Based Regimens." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2017;5. AbstractWebsite
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Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. Abstract

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. AbstractEnergy Procedia

Description

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations …

OCHILO.P. "Effective Communication for Health as "The Missing Link".". In: Ministry of Health Seminar on Effective Communication within Global Theme of Health for All by the Year 2000. NAIROBI; 1987.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effective communication methods of dental health education.". In: The 1st joint congress of the East & Southern Africa and Kuwait divisions: West African and Jordanian sections, Hilton hotel Nairobi, 26th . Ngugi MN, Mutara LN, Gathece LW.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Oriaso SO. "Effective Communication to help poor women in Kenya escape the HIV and AIDs trap. ." Africa Journal of Communication. 2013;1, 2(Dec):1-20.
Okudan GE, Ogot MM, Mohammed S, Wu X. "Effective Design Project Management with a Spreadsheet Based Approach.". 2005. Abstract

The use of team projects as a way to teach engineering design is pervasive across all
engineering disciplines and throughout the curriculum. The success of any design team--
both in learning design concepts and performing well--requires that students have a good
grasp of technical and management aspects of the design process. Accordingly, poor
management or lack of communication within a team and between teams and their faculty
advisor/instructor will typically result in a mediocre project, no matter how technically …

Ayiemba EHO, J.O. Oucho. E, et al. "Effective Family Planning Programmes for Africa: Lessons from Kenya’s Experience.". In: Population and Development in Kenya. Nairobi: School of Journalism Press, University of Nairobi; 2000.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Effective Graphics for New Readers in Third World.". In: Journal of the African Association for Literacy and Adult Education (AALAE). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Sivapalasingam S, McClelland RS RACCMGMMJAP, Shafi J, Masese L FAMEJKAEMW &. "An Effective Intervention to reduce intravaginal practices among HIV-1 uninfected Kenyan women." AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses . 2014;30(11)::1046-57.
Syomiti M, Kuria J, Wahome R. Effective Microorganisms as an Additive for Improving Feed Value of Maize stovers. LAMBERT academic Publishers, Germany; 2017.
Ogot M, ALAG SATNAM. "An effective Mixed Annealing/Heuristic Algorithm for problems in kinematic mechanical design.". In: 34th Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference.; 1993:. Abstract
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HM M. "Effective monitoring and Evaluation of progress in postgraduate training." Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture postgraduate induction workshop, Nakuru; 2019.
MBUYA TO, ODERA BO, Ng'ang'a SP, Oduori FM. "Effective Recycling of Cast Aluminium Alloys for Small Foundries.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

A method of effective recycling of aluminium castings suitable for small foundries was investigated. Automotive cast aluminium scrap obtained from various scrap vendors was sorted into groups of similar components, namely; pistons, cylinder heads and housings (gearbox and rear-axle housings). This sorting method was adopted with the hypothesis that the resulting alloys could be closely equivalent to the commercial alloys that were originally used to make the components. The remainder of the scrap was grouped as miscellaneous scrap and contained various parts such as alternator covers, exhaust manifolds, oil sumps and other assorted scrap. As hypothesised, the chemistry of the resulting alloys were found to be consistently equivalent to the commercial alloys commonly used to cast the various components that were melted. For example, the alloy chemistry of secondary alloys from piston scrap was consistently equivalent to commercial piston alloys such as AC8B and LM26. Furthermore, alloys from cylinder head scrap were equivalent to commercial alloys such as 319, LM27 and AC2B. On the other hand, the alloy chemistry from unsorted scrap was not found to be consistent nor equivalent to a specific group of commercial alloys except for the 319 and 380.0 workhorse alloys. These results are discussed against the possibility of reusing the alloys in casting components similar to those that they were recycled from, in addition to other possible applications.

O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Effective Seminar Presentation: Notes for Managers.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management.; 1989.
Keya E;, Karuri EG;, Okoth MW. "Effective teaching of food science and technology courses."; 1990.
OTIENO DRJOWI. "The effective Utilization of Instructional Resources in University Staff Development.". In: Part Two of the Papers presented in the workshop in Mombasa Kenya august 1991. (University Staff Development, Part two). The Kenya Medical Association; 1991. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Effective ways of communicating the dangers of HIV infection among rural women in Kenya.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Effectively Increasing Employment an Agenda for Business. I.D.S Working Paper No. 152 Also privately circulated by S.G Hawkins and Associates.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1974. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
MINYAFU DRAYOTROBERT. "Effectiveness and process of Adult Literacy Education in Kenya, Ph.D Thesis.". In: Unpublished PhD Thesis. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
This analysis attempted to capture the key economic and financial trends in the budget in the 1995/6 year and to provide the rationale for them. These trends were linked to fundamental requisites for development and sustainable growth.
M. Otim, Kasina M, Nderitu J, Katafiire M, Mcharo M, Kaburu M, Bwire G, Bwire J, Ol F. "Effectiveness and profitability of insecticide formulations used for managing snap bean pests." Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2016; 17 (1): 111-124.Effectiveness and profitability of insecticide formulations used for managing snap bean pests1.pdf
Okova, Dulo, Odira. "Effectiveness of Aerobic Microbials in Breaking Down of Hydrocarbons in Effluent Discharges from Petroleum Service Stations." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2016;Vol. 9(No. 2):95-109.
P G, H S, D M, L L, E B, T MD, L O, V W, C W, Z Q, E O, A G, R M. "Effectiveness of an Electronic Partogram: A Mixed-Method, Quasi- experimental Study." Global Health: Science and Practice. 2019;7(4):521-539. AbstractWebsite

Background: Timely identification and management of intrapartum complications could significantly reduce maternal deaths, intrapartum stillbirths, and newborn deaths due to hypoxia. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies monitoring of labor using the paper partograph as a high-priority intervention for identifying abnormities in labor and fetal well-being. This article describes a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of an Android tablet-based electronic, labor clinical decision-support application (ePartogram) in limited-resource settings.

Methods: The study, conducted in Kenya from October 2016 to May 2017, allocated 12 hospitals and health centers to an intervention (ePartogram) or comparison (paper partograph) group. Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in both groups received a 2-day refresher training in labor management and partograph use. The intervention group received an additional 1-day orientation on use and care of the Android-based ePartogram app. All outcomes except one compare post-ePartogram intervention versus paper partograph controls. The exception is outcome of early perinatal mortality pre- and post-ePartogram introduction in intervention sites compared to control sites. We used log binomial regression to analyze the primary outcome of the study, suboptimal fetal outcomes. We also analyzed for secondary outcomes (SBAs performing recommended actions), and conducted in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and SBAs to ascertain acceptability and adoptability of the ePartogram.

Results: We compared data from 842 clients in active labor using ePartograms with data from 1,042 clients monitored using a paper partograph. SBAs using ePartograms were more likely than those using paper partographs to take action to maintain normal labor, such as ambulation, feeding, and fluid intake, and to address abnormal measurements of fetal well-being (14.7% versus 5.3%, adjusted relative risk=4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95–8.19). Use of the ePartogram was associated with a 56% (95% CI=27%–73%) lower likelihood of suboptimal fetal outcomes than the paper partograph. Users of the ePartogram were more likely to be compliant with routine labor observations. SBAs stated that the technology was easy to use but raised concerns about its use at high-volume sites. Further research is needed to evaluate costs and benefit and to incorporate recent WHO guidance on labor management.

Conclusion: ePartogram use was associated with improvements in adherence to recommendations for routine labor care and a reduction in adverse fetal outcomes, with providers reporting adoptability without undue effort. Continued development of the ePartogram, including incorporating new clinical rules from the 2018 WHO recommendations on intrapartum care, will improve labor monitoring and quality care at all health system levels.

P G, H S, D M, L L, E B, T MD, L O, V W, C W, Z Q, E O, A G, R M. "Effectiveness of an Electronic Partogram: A Mixed-Method, Quasi- experimental Study." Global Health: Science and Practice. 2019;7(4):521-539. AbstractWebsite

Background: Timely identification and management of intrapartum complications could significantly reduce maternal deaths, intrapartum stillbirths, and newborn deaths due to hypoxia. The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies monitoring of labor using the paper partograph as a high-priority intervention for identifying abnormities in labor and fetal well-being. This article describes a mixed-method, quasi-experimental study to assess the effectiveness of an Android tablet-based electronic, labor clinical decision-support application (ePartogram) in limited-resource settings.

Methods: The study, conducted in Kenya from October 2016 to May 2017, allocated 12 hospitals and health centers to an intervention (ePartogram) or comparison (paper partograph) group. Skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in both groups received a 2-day refresher training in labor management and partograph use. The intervention group received an additional 1-day orientation on use and care of the Android-based ePartogram app. All outcomes except one compare post-ePartogram intervention versus paper partograph controls. The exception is outcome of early perinatal mortality pre- and post-ePartogram introduction in intervention sites compared to control sites. We used log binomial regression to analyze the primary outcome of the study, suboptimal fetal outcomes. We also analyzed for secondary outcomes (SBAs performing recommended actions), and conducted in-depth interviews with facility in-charges and SBAs to ascertain acceptability and adoptability of the ePartogram.

Results: We compared data from 842 clients in active labor using ePartograms with data from 1,042 clients monitored using a paper partograph. SBAs using ePartograms were more likely than those using paper partographs to take action to maintain normal labor, such as ambulation, feeding, and fluid intake, and to address abnormal measurements of fetal well-being (14.7% versus 5.3%, adjusted relative risk=4.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95–8.19). Use of the ePartogram was associated with a 56% (95% CI=27%–73%) lower likelihood of suboptimal fetal outcomes than the paper partograph. Users of the ePartogram were more likely to be compliant with routine labor observations. SBAs stated that the technology was easy to use but raised concerns about its use at high-volume sites. Further research is needed to evaluate costs and benefit and to incorporate recent WHO guidance on labor management.

Conclusion: ePartogram use was associated with improvements in adherence to recommendations for routine labor care and a reduction in adverse fetal outcomes, with providers reporting adoptability without undue effort. Continued development of the ePartogram, including incorporating new clinical rules from the 2018 WHO recommendations on intrapartum care, will improve labor monitoring and quality care at all health system levels.

MARTINON MUMMA-CA. "The Effectiveness Of Au In Promoting Peace And Security:.". In: The Case Of Eastern African Standby Force (Easbrig). Leipzig Germany; 2009.20.effectiveness_of_au.pdf
Ndiritu GM. Effectiveness of cash budgeting in public institutions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstractndiritu_george_muriuki_-_effectiveness_of_cash_budgeting_in_public_institutions.pdf

This study involved understanding the cash budget process and its effectiveness in Telkom Kenya Limited. The firm understudy is wholly owned by the government and has been in existence for over six years. Cash budget is an indispensable tool which assists organizations to manage their cash flows over a given period of time. The study therefore attempted to evaluate how the firm has employed a cash budget as a management tool. It involved understanding the cash budgeting process and its effectiveness in improving the management of cash. It also involved appreciating the role of liquidity management in the firm by ensuring sustenance of enough cash for operations while investing excess cash profitably. The study also assessed the weaknesses the firm faces in management of cash and how this management tool can be implemented as a strategy to alleviate the same. The study was done through interviewing the relevant staff using an interview guide to understand how the cash budget is prepared and used in decision making in the organization. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and historical information used as benchmark. Information relating to how the cash budget helped in forecasting cash flows and its flexibility in accommodating un-budgeted transactions assisted to evaluate cash budget effectiveness. The relevant literature was used as the benchmark to evaluate effectiveness. The study revealed that the firm ends up loosing huge cash amounts due to lack of established and operationalised mechanisms and strategies to harmonize cash collection and expenditure. There were many pitfalls with loose controls which ensured that the cash budget does not capture the total cash movement in the organization. There was also cash planning mismatch due to poor coordination between the various operationally related departments vested with management of cash. For example actualization of projects by engineers took longer than foreseen but is usually cash budgeted for. Operational expenditure also took the larger chunk of the cash generated instead of capital expenditure thus leading to dwindling cash sources in the future. To ensure the cash budget is. valuable and effective, the firm needs to strive and achieve set standards. As a prerequisite also, the firm's operations when managing cash need to be coordinated and harmonized to ensure that the cash budget objectives are achievable.

Nyakundi A, Mberia H, Ndeti N. "The Effectiveness of Communication Campaigns in Enhancing Knowledge of Mental Health in Kenya.". In: School of Human Resource Development Annual Research Conference. JKUAT Main Campus; 2013.
Headmond P, Wangia S, Magomere T. "Effectiveness of community radio in disseminating market information among small holder maize farmers: Experience from Suba Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research. 2017;6(3)(ISSN):2278-0211.
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Manyozo FN, Ambuko J, Hutchinson MJ, Kamanula JF. "Effectiveness of evaporative cooling technologies to preserve the postharvest quality of tomato." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2018;13:114-127. Abstract
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Githigia S, S. T, M L. "Effectiveness of grazing management in controlling GI nematodes in weaner lambs on pasture in Denmark." International Conference of the World Asociation for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. 2001;(18):118-119. Abstract

The problem of anthelmintic resistance calls for alternative control methods, including grazing management. Dose- and – move and move- only strategies of control methods were compared in this study.

In early May, 1999, 16 ewes with twin lambs (2-3 weeks old) were turned out on infected pasture. On 1st July, the lambs were allocated to 4 groups of 8 lambs and weaned to clean pasture. Two groups (dose – and –move) were treated with anthelmintics while the other two (move- only) were not treated. Each group was allocated to a separate paddock sampled every two weeks and set stocked until slaughter.

Nyatuka DM, Ralwala AO. "Effectiveness of Health and Safety Policy and Audit on Kenya Power Last Mile Connectivity Project performance in Nakuru County, Kenya.". In: Scarcity and Creativity: Addressing Critical Spatial Needs. Sub-theme: Learning for Resource Efficiency and Resourcefulness. School of Architecture and Building Sciences (SABS) online conference, JKUAT; 2020.
Chemining’wa N, Ngeno J, Muthomi JW, Shibairo SI. "Effectiveness of indigenous pea rhizobia (Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae) in cultivated soils of central Kenya." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2012;57:4177-4185.effectiveness_of_indigenous_pea_rhizobia.pdf
Bill Okemwa, Nathan Gichuki, Munir Virani, James Kanya, Jenesio Kinyamario AS. "Effectiveness of LED lights on bomas in protecting livestock from predation in southern Kenya." Conservation Evidence. 2018.
JJ C, G O, W M. "Effectiveness of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminder on Birth Preparedness in a Rural Community in Kenya." Obstetrics and Gynaecology International Journal. 2018.
"Effectiveness of Non-nucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy in Women Previously Exposed to a Single Intrapartum Dose of Nevirapine: A Multi-country, Prospective Cohort Study."; 2010. Abstract

Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine (NVP) reduces the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission
but also induces viral resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. This drug resistance largely
fades over time. We hypothesized that women with a prior single-dose NVP exposure would have no more than a 10%
higher cumulative prevalence of failure of their NNRTI-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the first 48 wk of therapy
than would women without a prior exposure.
Methods and Findings: We enrolled 355 NVP-exposed and 523 NVP-unexposed women at two sites in Zambia, one site in
Kenya, and two sites in Thailand into a prospective, non-inferiority cohort study and followed them for 48 wk on ART. Those
who died, discontinued NNRTI-containing ART, or had a plasma viral load $400 copies/ml at either the 24 wk or 48 wk
study visits and confirmed on repeat testing were characterized as having failed therapy. Overall, 114 of 355 NVP-exposed
women (32.1%) and 132 of 523 NVP-unexposed women (25.2%) met criteria for treatment failure. The difference in failure
rates between the exposure groups was 6.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8%–13.0%). The failure rates of women
stratified by our predefined exposure interval categories were as follows: 47 of 116 women in whom less than 6 mo elapsed
between exposure and starting ART failed therapy (40%; p,0.001 compared to unexposed women); 25 of 67 women in
whom 7–12 mo elapsed between exposure and starting ART failed therapy (37%; p = 0.04 compared to unexposed women);
and 42 of 172 women in whom more than 12 mo elapsed between exposure and starting ART failed therapy (24%; p = 0.82
compared to unexposed women). Locally weighted regression analysis also indicated a clear inverse relationship between
virologic failure and the exposure interval.
Conclusions: Prior exposure to single-dose NVP was associated with an increased risk of treatment failure; however, this risk
seems largely confined to women with a more recent exposure. Women requiring ART within 12 mo of NVP exposure
should not be prescribed an NNRTI-containing regimen as first-line therapy.
Please see later in the article for the Editors’ Summary.

Stringer JSA, McConnell MS, Kiarie J, Bolu O, Anekthananon T, Jariyasethpong T, Potter D, Mutsotso W, Borkowf CB, Mbori-Ngacha D, Muiruri P, Ong'ech JO, Zulu I, Njobvu L, Jetsawang B, Pathak S, Bulterys M, Shaffer N, Weidle PJ. "Effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy in women previously exposed to a single intrapartum dose of nevirapine: a multi-country, prospective cohort study." PLoS Med.. 2010;7(2):e1000233. Abstract

Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine (NVP) reduces the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission but also induces viral resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. This drug resistance largely fades over time. We hypothesized that women with a prior single-dose NVP exposure would have no more than a 10% higher cumulative prevalence of failure of their NNRTI-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the first 48 wk of therapy than would women without a prior exposure.

Mwangi N, Ng'ang'a M, Gakuo E, Gichuhi S, Macleod D, Moorman C, Muthami L, Tum P, Jalango A, Githeko K, Gichangi M, Kibachio J, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Effectiveness of peer support to increase uptake of retinal examination for diabetic retinopathy: study protocol for the DURE pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial in Kirinyaga, Kenya." BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):871. Abstract

All patients with diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy (DR), a progressive and potentially blinding condition. Early treatment of DR prevents visual impairment and blindness. The natural history of DR is that it is asymptomatic until the advanced stages, thus annual retinal examination is recommended for early detection. Previous studies show that the uptake of regular retinal examination among people living with diabetes (PLWD) is low. In the Uptake of Retinal Examination in Diabetes (DURE) study, we will investigate the effectiveness of a complex intervention delivered within diabetes support groups to increase uptake of retinal examination.

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Nyavanga EJ, Chebet IM, Barasa M, Ndetei DM. "Effectiveness of Psychoeducation on Improving Opinions About Mental Illness Among Primary School Teacher Trainees in Kenya." Science Journal of Public Health . 2016;4(6):422-429. AbstractWebsite

Opinions about mental illness have been found to be negative among college students and the general population. Studies have indicated that improving literacy levels would improve opinions and lead to individuals to seek help and family to provide the needed support. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of psycho-education on the opinions about mental illness among public primary teacher trainees in Kenya. Convenience sampling was used to identify four public teacher colleges out of the twenty. Self-administered demographic questionnaire and opinions about mental illness scale were presented to the participants to collect data in four evaluations for the experimental group and three for the control group. The ethical protocol was followed from getting authority to informed consent from the participants. Out of the 2925 questionnaires presented, 2775 were returned fully filled, a return rate of 94.34%. Summative scores improved among the experimental group in the second, and third assessments, but this reduced to almost the original measure in the fourth assessment. This study found that psycho-education of mental illness is effective in improving negative opinions about mental illness among these participants and this study recommended mental health studies is included in the teachers’ curriculum.

Amwoka EM, Ambuko JL, Jesang HM, Owino WO. "Effectiveness of Selected Cold Chain Management Practices to Extend Shelf Life of Mango Fruit." Advances in Agriculture. 2021;2021. Abstract
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H W, H O, B G. "Effectiveness of Street Youth Integration in East Africa." Postmodern Openings. 2011;6:57-75.
Khatete I, D A. "Effectiveness of the board of Governors in the Recruitment of Secondary School Teachers in Gucha District ." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;Vol 4, No 28 (2013).
Otieno AO, Karuku GN, Raude JM, Koech OK. "Effectiveness of the Horizontal, Vertical and Hybrid Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Systems in Polishing Municipal Wastewater." Environmental Management and Sustainable Development. 2017;6(2):158-173.
Ndono PW, Nzioka JM, Muigua K. "Effectiveness of the Nyumba Kumi community policing initiative in Kenya." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(2):63-67.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Effectiveness of the predacious mite, Amblyseius gossipi as a predator of three tetranychid miets (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Z. Angew. Ent., 62: 189 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Badry, E. A., Afifi, A. M., Issa, G. I. and El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1968. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Maingi, N., Thamsborg, S.M., Gichohi, C.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., Nansen P. "Effectiveness of the strategic use of closantel and albendazole in controlling gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Kenya.". In: 15th International Conference of the WAAVP. Yokohama, Japan; 1995.
Maingi N;, Thamsborg SM;, Gichohi CM;, Munyua W k;, Gathuma JM;, Nansen P. "Effectiveness Of The Strategic Use Of Closantel And Albendazole In Controlling Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep In Kenya."; 1995.
Maingi N;, Thamsborg SM;, Gichohi CM;, Munyua W k;, Gathuma JM;, Nansen P. "Effectiveness Of The Strategic Use Of Closantel And Albendazole In Controlling Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep In Kenya."; 1995.
Maingi N;, Thamsborg SM;, Gichohi CM;, Munyua W k;, Gathuma JM;, Nansen P. "Effectiveness Of The Strategic Use Of Closantel And Albendazole In Controlling Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep In Kenya."; 1995.
Wanjala G. "The Effectiveness of the Teachers' Service Commission in maintaining a Balanced Teaching Force at the Secondary School Level." The Fountain , Journal of the Faculty of Education.. 2009;3(1):1-11. Abstract

This paper discusses the research study that was carried out in an effort to assess the effectiveness of the Teachers' Service Commission in maintaining a balanced teaching force in all secondary schools in Kenya. The research had two main hypotheses : Ho1 : Teachers are equitably distributed in all provinces in Kenya ; and Ho2 : Teacher related factors have an impact on the role of the Commission in teacher distribution. The analysis of the data revealed that there are disparities in teacher distribution between subject areas and regions. These disparities can be viewed as indicators of potential ineffectiveness in the Teachers' Service Commission's role in maintaining a balanced teaching force at the secondary school level.

Awino ZB, Lorika J, K'Obonyo P. "Effectiveness of the Value Chain Strategy in the Selected Producer-owned Dairy Groups in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;1(3):93-100.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Effectiveness of three grass species as filter strips for soil conservation on cropland..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effectiveness of different grass spp. in reducing runoff and soil loss was studied at Kabete campus, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Half metre wide strips of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), Nandi setaria (Setaria anceps) and tall Signal grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis) were established on 11m x 2m runoff plots, and runoff and soil loss were monitored for each rainfall event during the long and short rains of 1990. In terms of runoff control, there was no significant difference between treatments during early establishment; however, runoff form plot with filter strips was always lower than controls. B. ruziziensis was most effective at runoff and soil loss reduction and this was attributed to growth habit and slow rate of establishment. The capability of the strips to impede runoff improved with time.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Effectiveness of three grass species as filter strips for soil conservation on cropland..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effectiveness of different grass spp. in reducing runoff and soil loss was studied at Kabete campus, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Half metre wide strips of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), Nandi setaria (Setaria anceps) and tall Signal grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis) were established on 11m x 2m runoff plots, and runoff and soil loss were monitored for each rainfall event during the long and short rains of 1990. In terms of runoff control, there was no significant difference between treatments during early establishment; however, runoff form plot with filter strips was always lower than controls. B. ruziziensis was most effective at runoff and soil loss reduction and this was attributed to growth habit and slow rate of establishment. The capability of the strips to impede runoff improved with time.

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Muindi F. "THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRADE UNION LEADERSHIP AND THE FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA) . Nairobi; 2010. Abstractthe_effectiveness_of_trade_union_leadership_and_the_factors_influencing_the_leadership_effectiveness.pdf

Without effective leadership, the process of creating an environment that is positive for fostering Relationships and conducive to effective production would falter and the organization would suffer loss, either monetary, personnel, or production. This study on the leadership effectiveness in the Kenya union of sugar plantation and allied workers (KUSPAW) aimed at determining the effectiveness of Trade Union leadership and determining the factors influencing the leadership effectiveness. A descriptive survey research design was used. Stratified sampling using the proportionate allocation method was used to determine the size of each stratum (national board members, branch officials and shop stewards). A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. The data was analyzed descriptively using the distribution (frequency), central tendency (Mean and mode) and dispersion (range, variance and standard deviation).The results revealed that the KUSPAW leadership’s ‘laissez-faire’ and ‘Management by exception: passive’ had acceptable scores of 0.5 and 0.6 respectively against a benchmark of 0-1. The leadership also has an acceptable score in contingent reward (2.9) measured against a 2-3 validated benchmark. The two leadership styles that did not meet the expectations are ‘Management by exception: active’ and
transformational leadership with scores of 2.4 and 2.9 measured against benchmarks of 1-2 and 3.0-3.75
respectively. The outcomes ratings (3.0) also failed to attain the benchmark in excess of 3.5. The study concludes that the KUSPAW leadership is relatively ineffective and recommends that the whole leadership is taken through a leadership course, albeit refresher for those with the training.
Keywords: leadership, leadership effectiveness, trade unions

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Maingi, N., Otieno, R.O, Weda, E.H., Gichohi VM. "Effectiveness of wet season deworming in controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep in the highlands of Kenya.". In: I0th International Conference of Associations of Institutions of Tropical Veterinary Medicine . Copenhagen, Denmark; 2001.
Maingi, N., Weda, E.H., Otieno RO, Gichohi VM. "Effectiveness of wet season deworming in controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep in the highlands of Kenya.". In: 10th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA-funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. Na1robi, Kenya; 2001.
O. J. Olwendo, P. Baki, Mito C, and Doherty P. "Effects of TEC disturbances on Satellite Tracking Using GPS-SCINDA receiver over the Kenyan Space." Nigerian Journal of Space Research. 2010;7:73-85.Website
Maloiy GMO, Kanui TI, P.K. T, Wambugu SN, J.O. M, M.M. W. "Effects dehydration and heat stress on food intake and dry matter digestibility in east African ruminants." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A.. 2008;151(2):185-190. Abstractpubmed

Comparative investigations were made between wild and domestic ruminants from arid and semi-arid regions and those species from non-arid areas in an attempt to evaluate the adaptations of these ruminants in terms of the effects of heat stress and dehydration on food intake and digestibility. The effect of (a) an intermittent heat load (a daily light cycle of 12 hat 22 "C and 12 hat 40 'C) compared to 22 'C throughout the day and (b) dehydration level of 15% weight loss, with and without the heat load, on the intake and digestibility of a poor quality hay was investigated in the Grant's gazelle, Oryx, the domestic Turkana goats, fat-tailed sheep, zebu cattle, Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest The intermittent heat load with water available ad libitum depressed the food intake of zebu cattle and Turkana goats by more than 40%. It had no significant effect on the food intake of the other species. The Thomson's and Grants gazelle, oryx, wildebeest and fat-tailed sheep appear well adapted to withstanding a periodic heat load. Dehydration at 22 'C caused a marked depression on food intake of all the species investigated. Dehydration together with a heat load caused no further reduction in the food intake by the Grants's gazelle, oryx, and goats but it did cause a further reduction in the intake in the other species. The small non-domestic ruminants (i.e. Grant's and Thomson's gazelle) appear much more digestive efficient than any of their domestic counterpart.

Kisuthi GG,.;Knapp M;, Shibario JK,; Nderitu JH;, Kiarie N. "Effects if four biopesticides on the spider mite tetranychanus evansi Baker and Pritchard in the laboratory.". In: European Association of Acarologists (EURAAC). Berlin germany; 2004.
Kithusi 12. GG, Knapp SK, Shibairo SI, Nderitu JH, Njoroge K. "Effects of biopestcides on spider-mites (Tranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard) in the laboratory." Phytophaga. 2004;14:1-8.
MUSEMBI NICODEMUSNDAWA, Hutchinson MJ, Waithaka K. "The Effects of 6-Benzylaminopurine and Gibberellic acid on Postharvest Physiology of Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) Flowers: I. Novel Synergism Improves Water Balance and Vase Life.". In: 1st International Symposium on Ornamentals in Africa (Organized by The ISHS). Morendat Conference Centre - Naivasha; 2013.
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Irungu LW, Mwangi RW. "Effects of a biologically active fraction from Melia volkensii on Culex quinquefasciatus." International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 1995;16(2):159-162. AbstractWebsite

A chromatographically enriched fraction designated Fraction B from dry fruits of the plant Melia volkensii (family Meliaceae) was evaluated with the objective of determining its toxic and growth inhibiting effects on the larvae and adults of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The fraction was purified from a crude methanolic extract by cold precipitation and elution of the precipitate dissolved in a hexane-ethyl acetate solvent system through a silica gel column. Larval treatments involved rearing the larval stages in water containing the fraction at concentrations of between 5 and 200 ppm. The LC50 for this fraction was found to be 34.72 μg/ml in 48 h. Second instar larvae were found to be more susceptible to fraction B when compared to fourth instar larvae. All fourth instar larvae that survived the treatment moulted into larval-pupal intermediates that were short-lived. The extract was also found to be an oviposition deterrent at a concentration of 20 ppm and above. It is concluded that M. volkensii extract has potential in the control of Culex quinquefasciatus.

R PROFLESANWILFRED. "The effects of a commercial beverage on the enamel surface of human tooth: a scanning electron microscopy study. East Afr Med J. 1987 May;64(5):345-51.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 May;64(5):345-51. International Journal of Climatology; 1987. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
R PROFLESANWILFRED. "The effects of a commercial beverage on the enamel surface of human tooth: a scanning electron microscopy study. East Afr Med J. 1987 May;64(5):345-51.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 May;64(5):345-51. International Journal of Climatology; 1987. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
E.N. PN. "Effects of a mobile phone short message service on antiretroviral treatment adherence in Kenya (WelTel Kenya1) a randomised trial.". 2010. Abstract

Lancet. 2010 Nov 27;376(9755):1838-45. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61997-6. Epub 2010 Nov 9.
Effects of a mobile phone short message service on antiretroviral treatment adherence in Kenya (WelTel Kenya1): a randomised trial.
Lester RT, Ritvo P, Mills EJ, Kariri A, Karanja S, Chung MH, Jack W, Habyarimana J, Sadatsafavi M, Najafzadeh M, Marra CA, Estambale B, Ngugi E, Ball TB, Thabane L, Gelmon LJ, Kimani J, Ackers M, Plummer FA.
Source
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. rlester.id@gmail.com
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Mobile (cell) phone communication has been suggested as a method to improve delivery of health services. However, data on the effects of mobile health technology on patient outcomes in resource-limited settings are limited. We aimed to assess whether mobile phone communication between health-care workers and patients starting antiretroviral therapy in Kenya improved drug adherence and suppression of plasma HIV-1 RNA load.
METHODS:
WelTel Kenya1 was a multisite randomised clinical trial of HIV-infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in three clinics in Kenya. Patients were randomised (1:1) by simple randomisation with a random number generating program to a mobile phone short message service (SMS) intervention or standard care. Patients in the intervention group received weekly SMS messages from a clinic nurse and were required to respond within 48 h. Randomisation, laboratory assays, and analyses were done by investigators masked to treatment allocation; however, study participants and clinic staff were not masked to treatment. Primary outcomes were self-reported ART adherence (>95% of prescribed doses in the past 30 days at both 6 and 12 month follow-up visits) and plasma HIV-1 viral RNA load suppression (<400 copies per mL) at 12 months. The primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00830622.
FINDINGS:
Between May, 2007, and October, 2008, we randomly assigned 538 participants to the SMS intervention (n=273) or to standard care (n=265). Adherence to ART was reported in 168 of 273 patients receiving the SMS intervention compared with 132 of 265 in the control group (relative risk [RR] for non-adherence 0·81, 95% CI 0·69-0·94; p=0·006). Suppressed viral loads were reported in 156 of 273 patients in the SMS group and 128 of 265 in the control group, (RR for virologic failure 0·84, 95% CI 0·71-0·99; p=0·04). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve greater than 95% adherence was nine (95% CI 5·0-29·5) and the NNT to achieve viral load suppression was 11 (5·8-227·3).
INTERPRETATION:
Patients who received SMS support had significantly improved ART adherence and rates of viral suppression compared with the control individuals. Mobile phones might be effective tools to improve patient outcome in resource-limited settings.
FUNDING:
US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Omwami EM, Neumann C, Bwibo NO. "Effects of a school feeding intervention on school attendance rates among elementary schoolchildren in rural Kenya." Nutrition. 2011;27(2):188-93. Abstracteffects_of_a_school_feeding_intervention.pdf

A randomized controlled school feeding intervention offered an opportunity to determine whether school feeding resulted in improved school attendance among elementary schoolchildren in a rural district of Kenya.

S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effects of accel (Gibberellins (GA4+7) + Benzyladenine) on postharvest shelf life of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).". In: African Crop Science Proceedings 6: 536-540. Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Mitchell JH, Wildenthal K, Johnson RL. "The effects of acid-base disturbances on cardiovascular and pulmonary function." Kidney International. 1972;1:375-389. Abstract
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Githanga D. "The effects of aflatoxin exposure on Hepatitis B-induced immunity in Kenyan children." Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2019. 2019:1-14. Abstractresearchgate

Background: Globally, approximately three million children die each year from vaccine preventable infectious diseases mainly in developing countries. Despite the success of the expanded immunization program, not all infants and children around the world develop the same protective immune response to the same vaccine. A vaccine must induce a response over the basal immune response that may be driven by population-specific, environmental or socio-economic factors. Mycotoxins like aflatoxins are immune suppressants that are confirmed to interfere with both cell-mediated and acquired immunity. The mechanism of aflatoxin toxicity is through the binding of the bio-activated AFB1-8, 9-epoxide to cellular macromolecules. Methods: We studied Hepatitis B surface antibodies [anti-HBs] levels to explore the immune modulation effects of dietary exposure to aflatoxins in children aged between one and fourteen years in Kenya. Hepatitis B vaccine was introduced for routine administration for Kenyan infants in November 2001. To assess the effects of aflatoxin on immunogenicity of childhood vaccines Aflatoxin B1-lysine in blood serum samples were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence detection while anti-HBs were measured using Bio-ELISA anti-HBs kit. Results: The mean § SD of AFB1-lysine adducts in our study population was 45.38 § 87.03 pg/mg of albumin while the geometric mean was 20.40 pg/mg. The distribution of AFB1-lysine adducts was skewed to the right. Only 98/205 (47.8%) of the study population tested positive for Hepatitis B surface antibodies. From regression analysis, we noted that for every unit rise in serum aflatoxin level, anti-HBs dropped by 0.91 mIU/ml (¡0.9110038; 95% C.I ¡1.604948,¡0.21706). Conclusion: Despite high coverage of routine immunization, less than half of the study population had developed immunity to HepB. Exposure to aflatoxin was high and weakly associated with low anti-HBs antibodies. These findings highlight a potentially significant role for environmental factors that may contribute to vaccine effectiveness warranting further research.

PROF.OMWANDHOCHARLESO, TUMBO-OERI AG, OKELLO GBA. "Effects of Albendazole therapy on serum proteins in Hydatid Patients.". 1991.
Waruiru RM, Weda EH, Thamsborg SM, Munyua WK, Gathuma JM, Bogh HO, Nansen P. "The effects of anthelmintic treatment on nematode parasite and live weight gains dairy calves under field conditions in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production. 1996;44:125-133.
Omondi SF, Odee DW, Ongamo GO, Kanya JI, Khasa DP. "Effects of Anthropogenic Disturbances on Natural Regeneration and Population Structure of Gum Arabic Tree (Acacia senegal) in the Woodland of Lake Baringo Ecosystem, Kenya." JOURNAL OF FORESTRY RESEARCH. 2016:DOI: 10.1007/s11676-016-0349-4.
Kavoi BM, Plendl J, Makanya AN, Ochieng’ S, Kiama SG. "Effects of Anticancer Drug Docetaxel on the Structure and Function of the Rabbit Olfactory Mucosa." Tissue & Cell. 2014;46:213-224. Abstracteffects_of_anticancer_drug_docetaxel_on_the_structure_and_function_of_the_rabbit_olfactory_mucosa.docxeffects_of_anticancer_drug_docetaxel_on_the_structure_and_function_of_the_rabbit_olfactory_mucosa.pdf

Docetaxel (DCT) is an anticancer drug which acts by disrupting microtubule dynamics in the highly mitotic cancer cells. Thus, this drug has a potential to affect function and organization of tissues exhibiting high cellular turnover. We investigated, in the rabbit, the effects of a single human equivalent dose (6.26 mg/kg, i.v.) of DCT on the olfactory mucosa (OM) through light and electron microscopy, morphometry, Ki-67 immunostaining, TUNEL assay and the buried food test for olfactory sensitivity. On post-exposure days (PED) 5 and 10, there was disarrangement of the normal cell layering in the olfactory epithelium (OE), apoptotic death of cells of the OE, Bowman’s glands and axon bundles, and the presence (including on PED 3) of blood vessels in the bundle cores. A decrease in bundle diameters, olfactory cell densities and cilia numbers, which was most significant on PED 10 (49.3%, 63.4% and 50%, respectively), was also evident. Surprisingly by PED 15, the OM regained normal morphology. Furthermore, olfactory sensitivity decreased progressively until PED 10 when olfaction was markedly impaired, and with recovery from the impairment by PED 15. These observations show that DCT transiently alters the structure and function of the OM suggesting a high regenerative potential for this tissue

Kavoi BM, Plendl J, Makanya AN, Ochieng’ S, Kiama SG. "Effects of anticancer drug docetaxel on the structure and functionof the rabbit olfactory mucosa." Tissue and Cell. 2014. Abstract

Docetaxel (DCT) is an anticancer drug which acts by disrupting microtubule dynamics in the highly mitoticcancer cells. Thus, this drug has a potential to affect function and organization of tissues exhibiting highcellular turnover. We investigated, in the rabbit, the effects of a single human equivalent dose (6.26 mg/kg,i.v.) of DCT on the olfactory mucosa (OM) through light and electron microscopy, morphometry, Ki-67immunostaining, TUNEL assay and the buried food test for olfactory sensitivity. On post-exposure days(PED) 5 and 10, there was disarrangement of the normal cell layering in the olfactory epithelium (OE),apoptotic death of cells of the OE, Bowman’s glands and axon bundles, and the presence (including onPED 3) of blood vessels in the bundle cores. A decrease in bundle diameters, olfactory cell densitiesand cilia numbers, which was most significant on PED 10 (49.3%, 63.4% and 50%, respectively), was alsoevident. Surprisingly by PED 15, the OM regained normal morphology. Furthermore, olfactory sensitivitydecreased progressively until PED 10 when olfaction was markedly impaired, and with recovery from theimpairment by PED 15. These observations show that DCT transiently alters the structure and functionof the OM suggesting a high regenerative potential for this tissue.
© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ogolla KO, Okumu PO, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru. RM. "Effects of Anticoccidial Drugs on Gross and Histopathological Lesions Caused by Experimental Rabbit Coccidiosis." SOJ Veterinary Sciences. 2018;4(3): 1-10.symbiosis.pdf
Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Ogolla KO. "Effects of anticoccidial drugs on gross and histopathological lesions caused by experimental rabbit coccidiosis." SOJ Veterinary Sciences . 2018;4(3):1-9.
W.O.Osawa, Sahoo PK, J.M.Onyari, F.J.Mulaa. "Effects of antioxidants on oxidation and storage stability of Croton megalocarpus biodiesel." International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering. 2015. Abstractart3a10.10072fs40095-015-0191-z.pdf

The effects of antioxidants and storage on
oxidation stability of croton biodiesel and its blends with
petro-diesel were determined using PetroOxy equipment.
The biodiesel and blends were kept in Pyrex reagent bottles
and stored in a metallic locker at room temperature for
8 weeks, a condition that imitated ordinary storage environment
in tanks before use. The oxidation stability indices
of the biodiesel and blends were determined by measuring
Rancimat induction periods for 8 weeks at intervals of
2 weeks. Although the Rancimat induction period for
freshly prepared biodiesel of 4 h was higher than the
commonly used American standard (ASTM D6751) limit
of 3 h, it was lower than the European standard (EN 14214)
of 6 h. The induction periods of B50 and lower blends
were, however, equal to or greater than 6 h. The Rancimat
induction periods for biodiesel with 100 ppm antioxidants
were 5.6, 6.8 and 7.8 h for Butylated hydroxyanisol
(BHA), Propyl gallate (PRG) and Pyrogallol (PYG),
respectively, while the Rancimat induction periods for
biodiesel with 1000 ppm antioxidants were 6.8, 8.2 and
10 h for BHA, PRG and PYG, respectively. The oxidation
stability index for neat biodiesel decreased by 45 % while
that for biodiesel with 1000 ppm antioxidants depreciated
by 16, 12.2 and 20.59 % for PYG, PRG and BHA,
respectively, during the 8-week storage period. A more
rapid decline in oxidation stability was observed in the
biodiesel and blends without antioxidants than those with
antioxidants. The results from this study showed that the
use of appropriate concentrations of suitable antioxidants
can greatly improve the oxidation stability of biodiesel and
blends which can therefore be stored over longer periods of
time before use without undergoing extensive and deleterious
oxidative deterioration.
Keywords Croton biodiesel Oxidation stability
Antioxidants Storage stability
A

A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "The Effects of Aorta-Iliac Operations on Sexual Function in the Male Re- emphasis on possible Preventive Measures.". In: East African Medical Journal 56 (10): 490 - 497. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1979. Abstract
A retrospective study of 42 patients with perforations of the oesophagus during the period 1981-1987 indicated that 57.1% of the perforations were iatrogenic. Diseases of the oesophagus and in contiguous structures and foreign bodies in the oesophagus caused perforations in 31% of the cases. Perforations in 35.7% of the patients were located in the middle third of the oesophagus. The lower and upper thirds were affected in 31% of the patients in each site. The presenting physical signs included tachycardia (78.6%), fever (76.2%) and dyspnoea (59.5%). The main accompanying symptoms were chest pain and coughs in 100% and in 50% of the patients respectively. Radiographic findings showed hydropneumothorax in 40.5% of the cases and consolidation in 38.1% of the patients. Oesophagoscopy was positive in 78% of cases tested while thoracocentesis was positive in all cases that were tested.
Odundo P, Gunga S. "EFFECTS OF APPLICATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS ON LEARNER ACHIEVEMENT IN BUSINESS STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KENYA." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATION AND RESEARCH. 2013;Vol. 1 No. 5.
Gunga S, Odundo P. "Effects Of Application Of Instructional Methods On Learner Achievement In Business Studies In Secondary Schools In Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;1(5).
Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, Ohkura N, Fujimura M, Nakai S, Honda Y, Saijoh K, Hayakawa K, Kobayashi F, Michigami Y, EO A. "Effects of Asian dust on daily cough occurrence in patients with chronic cough: A panel study." Atmospheric Environment. 2014;92:506-513.
W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of Azolla and inorganic nitrogen application on growth and yield of rice in Mwea Irrigation Scheme." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (3):1-8.
KAAYA, G.P., DARJI N, OTIENO LH. "Effects of bacteria, antibacterial compounds and trypanosomes on tsetse reproduction and longevity." Insect Science and Its Application . 1987;8:217-220.
Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua SW. "Effects of Butorphanol, Meloxicam and Butorphanol- Meloxicam combination on would healing after ovariohysterectomy in dogs." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2018;2018.
Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua SW, others. "Effects of butorphanol, meloxicam and butorphanol-meloxicam combination on wound healing after ovariohysterectomy in dogs." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2019;8:300-307. Abstract
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Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua SW. "Effects of butorphanol, meloxicam and butorphanol-meloxicam combination on wound healing after ovariohysterectomy in dogs." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2019;8(4):300-307.
Tum PK, Oduor FDO. "Effects of Calcination Temperature on Titanium dioxide Photocatalyst Morphology." The Journal of Kenya Chemical Society . 2014;8(1):28. AbstractThe Journal of Kenya Chemical Society

Description
Organic compounds can be degraded photo catalytically using titanium dioxide (TiO2). In this study, the effect of calcination temperature on the morphology of TiO2 catalyst prepared from an aqueous suspension of ‘anatase paste’of concentration 10g/l. TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared and characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area determination techniques to determine its morphological properties which include crystalline size, particle size and specific surface areas vis-à-vis temperature. For TiO2 produced from ‘anatase paste’, an increase in calcination temperature from 300 C to 900 C resulted in an increase in particle size and decrease in surface area. Higher calcination temperature favoured formation of larger particles. Data obtained from XRD measurements show that particle crystal size calculated using Scherer’s formula increased with an increase in calcination temperature.

W DRGACUNOONESMUS, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Jan;83(1):4-9. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
Waweru G, Ochieng’ DDE. "EFFECTS OF CAPITAL FLOWS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN KENYA ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):1-17. Abstracteffects_of_capital_flows_on_economic_growth_in_kenya.pdf

Purpose -This study investigated the immediate and lagged effects of the various forms of capital flows - FDI flows, portfolio flows and “Other investments capital flows” (which mainly represents corporate, financial institutions and general government borrowings as well as remittances from the diaspora) - on economic growth in Kenya over a 30 year period from 1984 to 2014.
Methodology – The study adopted a quantitative research design in the form of an econometric model known as Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDLM). Findings -FDI and portfolio investments flows have a negative impact on the GDP growth rate and that their impact is not statistically significant.However, other investments flows, which mainly represent corporate, financial institutions, general government borrowings and remittances from the diaspora, have a positive impact on GDP growth rate and the impact is statistically significant.Based on the study findings, it can be inferred that a significant slowdown or a reversal in capital flows in form of “Other investments capital flows” into Kenya result into significant slowdown in economic growth in the country. Implications -Policy makers may lay much emphasis on attracting portfolio investment flows and “Other investments capital flows”, while investors and firms should consider the upside opportunities that may be created by increase in other investments capital flows and the downside risks that could results from a significant slowdown or a reversal in these forms of capital flows into the country.

Keywords: Capital flows, Economic growth, FDI flows, portfolio investment flows, Private equity, Diaspora remittances, Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Model.

OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Effects of Chemical Events on Environment in Africa.". In: Pontifical Academy of Science's Study Week on "Chemical Events in the Atmosphere and Their Impact", November 1983, P.649-673. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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Mwangi TJ, Kibui AW. "Effects of Chemistry practicals on students' performance in secondary school chemistry." International Journal of Science and Research. 2017;(ISSN (Online)).
Gohil TR, Mutave RJ, Dimba EAO. "Effects of chemotherapy on oral health in paediatric oncology patients at the Kenyatta National Hospital." Kenya Dental Association. 2011;2:184-189.
MUTAYOBA, B.M., GOMBE, S., KAAYA GP, Waindi EN. "Effects of chronic experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection on the ovaries, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands in female goats." Research in veterinary science . 1988;44:140-146.
Weiss JM, Glazer HI, Pohorecky LA, Brick J, Miller NE. "Effects of chronic exposure to stressors on avoidance-escape behavior and on brain norepinephrine." Psychosom Med. 1975;37(6):522-34. Abstract

A single exposure to a severe stressor (either cold swim or inescapable shock) impairs subsequent performance in a shuttle avoidance-escape task (1), a deficit attributed to reduction in brain noradrenergic activity produced by these stressors. In the present paper, two experiments are described which examine how repeated exposure to such stressors affects (a) shuttle avoidance-escape performance (Experiment 1), and (b) aspects of brain norepinephrine metabolism (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that, whereas subjects receiving the single exposure to cold swim or shock showed a large avoidance-escape deficit, subjects that received repeated exposure to these stressors for 14 days performed similarly to the control group that received no stressor. Experiment 2 showed that, whereas subjects that received one session of the inescapable shock stressor showed a lower level of norepinephrine in hypothalamus and cortex than did subjects that received no shock, subjects that received repeated exposure to inescapable shock or cold swim showed neurochemical "habituation." Subjects that received repeated shock showed elevated tyrosine hydroxylase activity and no depletion of norepinephrine level, and both repeated shock and cold swim caused a decrease in uptake of 3H-norepinephrine by slices of cortex in vitro. Thus, it is concluded that the behavioral and neurochemical changes that were observed after the stressful conditions studied are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in avoidance-escape responding following exposure to these stressful events are due to changes in brain noradrenergic activity.

Ang’u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Kong’ani LNS. "Effects of civil conflicts on global oil prices and their impact on the energy sector." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):12-18.
Ang'u C, Muthama NJ, Oludhe C, Kong'ani LNS. "Effects of civil conflicts on global oil prices and their impact on the energy sector." Journal of Sustainability, Environment and Peace. 2019;1(1):12-18.
O PROFNYAMBOKISAAC. "Effects of clay minerals on the stabilization of black cotton and lateritic soils.". In: Kenya Journal of Science and Technology, Series A. Vol. 7. 5-23. Wiley Interscience; 1986. Abstract
Nyambok, I.O.
Mogikoyo MN, Pokhariyal GP, O AJ. "Effects of computer and interne t access and skills on attitudes towards video - based distance learning in institutions higher education in Kenya." Prime Journal of Social Science (PJSS) . 2014;3(11):926-931. Abstractmogikoyo.pdf

This paper explores the possibility of using Videoteleconferencing (VTC) Technology to enhance distance learning mode of education for Institutions of Higher Learning in Kenya. It looks at the readiness with regard to the level of Infrastructure development in terms of availability of computers and the Internet. The competence of resource persons and students in use of computers and the Internet are also explored in this study. The study further tests the effects of Computer and Internet access on the attitude towards use of Videoteleconferencing or Video-based distance learning. Videoteleconferencing or Videoconferencing is a form of E-learning that falls in the category of Synchronous learning that involves distance learning students having a live instructor teaching via the Internet (Obringer, 2001). Implementation of Videoconferencing in Institutions of Higher Learning in Kenya would facilitate access of higher education to all Kenyans in the various towns as well as make Institutions of Higher Learning to sustain themselves due to additional revenue generated. The services of experts working in industry could be made available to the various Institutions thus saving on overhead expenses like office space, healthcare, pension plan, sabbaticals, secretarial help and infrastructure while at the same time the experts will disseminate a wealth of knowledge and experience to students. This research was a case study of the University of Nairobi, School of Business and School of Education. The findings indicated that 74.2% of the respondents had a positive attitude towards Videoconferencing. This implies that Videoconferencing is a form of learning that can be accepted by staff and students.

Key words: Video-based distance learning, videoconferencing, synchronous learning, electronic learning.

Mogikoyo MN, Pokhariyal GP, O AJ. "Effects of computer and internet access and skills on attitudes towards video-based distance learning in institutions higher education in Kenya." Prime Journal of Social Sciences. 2014;3(11):926-931. Abstract

This paper explores the possibility of using Videoteleconferencing (VTC) Technology to enhance distance learning mode of education for Institutions of Higher Learning in Kenya. It looks at the readiness with regard to the level of Infrastructure development in terms of availability of computers and the Internet. The competence of resource persons and students in use of computers and the Internet are also explored in this study. The study further tests the effects of Computer and Internet access on the attitude towards use of Videoteleconferencing or Video-based distance learning. Videoteleconferencing or Videoconferencing is a form of E-learning that falls in the category of Synchronous learning that involves distance learning students having a live instructor teaching via the Internet (Obringer, 2001). Implementation of Videoconferencing in Institutions of Higher Learning in Kenya would facilitate access of higher education to all Kenyans in the various towns as well as make Institutions of Higher Learning to sustain themselves due to additional revenue generated. The services of experts working in industry could be made available to the various Institutions thus saving on overhead expenses like office space, healthcare, pension plan, sabbaticals, secretarial help and infrastructure while at the same time the experts will disseminate a wealth of knowledge and experience to students. This research was a case study of the University of Nairobi, School of Business and School of Education. The findings indicated that 74.2% of the respondents had a positive attitude towards Videoconferencing. This implies that Videoconferencing is a form of learning that can be accepted by staff and students.

Key words: Video-based distance learning, videoconferencing, synchronous learning, electronic learning.

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