Publications

Found 3727 results

Sort by: Author [ Title  (Asc)] Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Title is E  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D [E] F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
E
Mutuli GP, Mbuge DO, Gitau AN. "Effect of humidity on Aflatoxin contamination on selected African leafy vegetables. ." Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2021.
Bratusch-Marrain PR, Komajati M, Waldhausal W. "The effect of hyperosmolarity on glucose metabolism." Pract Cardiol.. 1985;11:153. Abstract
n/a
Kobia EN, Ochanda H, Yole DS. "The effect of immunizing Swiss white mice with snail soluble proteins and challenging them with Schistosoma mansoni." The Internet Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2012;8(1):DOI: 10.5580/2b3f.
Njagi LW, Nyaga PN, Bebora LC. "Effect of immunosuppression on Newcastle disease virus persistence in ducks with different immune status." ISRN Veterinary Science. 2012. Abstract

International Scholarly Research Network
ISRN Veterinary Science
Volume 2012, Article ID 253809, 6 pages
doi:10.5402/2012/253809
Research Article
Effect of Immunosuppression on Newcastle Disease Virus Persistence in Ducks with Different Immune Status
LucyW. Njagi,1 Phillip N. Nyaga,1 Lilly C. Bebora,1 Paul G. Mbuthia,1 and UswegeM.Minga2
1Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 29053-00625, Kangemi, Kenya
2Department of Life Sciences, FSTES, African Council for Distance Education—Technical Committee on Collaboration (ACDE-TCC),
Open University of Tanzania, P.O. Box 23409, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Correspondence should be addressed to LucyW. Njagi, njagiluc@uonbi.ac.ke
Received 30 November 2011; Accepted 4 January 2012
Academic Editors: A. Mankertz and I. Nsahlai
Copyright © 2012 LucyW. Njagi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This study was carried out to verify the possibility that ducks are sources of Newcastle disease (ND) virus infection for chickens in mixed flocks. Immunosuppressed (IS) and non immunosuppressed (NIS) birds, at three different antibody levels (medium, low and absent) were used; the titres having been induced through vaccination, and Immunosuppression done using dexamethazone. Each of the 3 respective groups was further divided into 2 groups of about 12 ducks each: one challenged with velogenic NDvirus; the other not challenged. Selected ducks fromall groups had their antibody titresmonitored serially using hemagglutination inhibition test, while two birds from each of the challenged groups were killed and respective tissues processed for ND viral recovery, using chicken embryo fibroblasts. In general, antibody titres of IS and NIS challenged ducks were significantly higher
than their unchallenged counterparts (P < 0.05). Non-challenged pre-immunised ducks had a progressive decrease in antibody levels; non-immunised ducks did not seroconvert. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from livers and kidneys of the challenged ducks throughout the experimental period; indicating a possibility of viral excretion, especially when the birds are stressed. It, therefore, provides another possible model of viral circulation within mixed flocks.

Njagi L.W., Nyaga P.N. BMPGand MLCUM. "Effect of immunosuppression on Newcastle disease virus persistence in ducks with different immune status." International Scholarly Research Network in Veterinary Science. 2012;(253809).
Njagi. LW, L.C. B, P.G. M, Minga. "Effect of immunosuppression on Newcastle disease virus persistence in ducks with different immune status. ." International Scholarly Research Network in Veterinary Science (ISRN). 2013;Volume 2012:6 pages.
MASIBO PROFWAFULAEZEKIEL. "Effect of improved stoves on prevalence of acute respiration infection and conjunctivitis among children and women in a rural community in Kenya. Wafula EM, Kinyanjui MM, Nyabola L, Tenambergen ED.". In: East Afr Med J. 2000 Jan;77(1):37-41. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To compare the pattern of use of skin care products between children with eczematous skin lesions and those without. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Two well baby clinics at the Kenyatta National Hospital and the Mbagathi District Hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Eighty nine infants with eczematous skin lesions and 89 age and sex matched controls without skin lesions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence and severity of skin lesions related to the type of skin care products used by the child. RESULTS: Exposure to various products was not significantly different between infants with skin lesions and those without. However, more mothers whose children had a skin rash had made a change in the type of soap and or skin cream used for their child (p<0.0001). The principal reason for changing products was skin rash in the baby and most mothers made changes away from scented baby soap products. CONCLUSION: The study found no significant difference between the cases and controls regarding the type of skin care products used.
Mutiso PM, Kinama JM, O C. "Effect of in situ moisture conservation techniques on yield and water use efficiency of pearl millet in Makueni, Kenya ." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR) . 2018;12(6):186-196.
Muthomi JW, Mugambi IK, Ojiem J, Chemining’wa GN, Nderitu JH. "Effect of incorporating lablab biomass in soils on root rot disease complex and yield of beans intercropped with maize." International Journal of AgriScience . 2014;4(12):515-524.
P.S O, R.D N, P.O A, J.O N. "Effect of infection level of sesame (sesamum indicum l). seed by Alternaria sesami on severity of Alternaria leaf spot." Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension. 1998;1(2):125-130.
Mungai VW, Moturi CA. "Effect of Information Technology Outsourcing on the Performance of Banks in Kenya: Application of the Balanced Scorecard." IOSR Journal of Business and Management . 2015;17(3):83-89. Abstract

Purpose: The study sought to look at Information Technology Outsourcing (ITO) practices in the Kenyan
banking sector and the effect it had on performance. Balance Scorecard was used to measure performance as it
considers both financial and non-financial aspects.
Design/methodology/approach: The study took the form of a descriptive survey design with a target
population of 14 commercial banks operating in Kenya. Primary data was collected from structured
questionnaires and secondary data was collected from the banks past financial records.
Findings: Thestudy revealed that Connectivity and Help desk support were the most outsourced IT functions in
the commercial banks. The study also revealed the two main drivers for ITO were strategic focus and cost
reduction. The main challenge the commercial banks faced during the ITO process was lack of a proper cost
benefit analysis and loss of control. The study further revealed that ITO has a positive and significant effect on
financial performance, learning and growth, customer satisfaction and internal processes.
Research limitations/implications: This study uses three financial firm-level performance measures ROA,
ROE, NIM. The study also didn’t t explore if different types of IT outsourcing categories have different influence
on banks’ performance.
Originality/value: The findings of the study will provide insight for managers in banking industries when
confronted with the decision of whether or not to outsource IT services in their banks. The study will also be of
importance to researchers and future scholars as it will act as a source of reference besides suggesting areas
for further studies that future scholars can research further.
Keywords: Commercial Banks,Balanced Scorecard, IT outsourcing

Nyankanga RO, Onwonga RN, Wekesa FS, Nakimbugwe D, Masinde D, Mugisha J. "Effect of Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers on the Performance and Profitability of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) in Western Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Science." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2012;4(1):223-232.
Mbogo NW, Kinama JM, Onyango CM, JN K. "Effect of inorganic fertilizer and cattle manure on growth and yield of two Kenyan potato varieties." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR). 2017;10(1):65-72.
K NJ, Munyoki JM, N KF, Kinoti M. "Effect of Integrated Marketing Practices and Organizational Structure on Efficiency and Effectiveness of NGOs in Nairobi City County, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention . 2017;Vol.6(No 8):41-49.munyoki_and_john_njau_1.pdf
T
E
Odhiambo GD, Ariga ES. "Effect of intercropping maize and beans on Striga hermonthica incidence and grain yield.". In: Seventh Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference. Nairobi Kenya; 2001.striga_intercropping_with_maize.pdf
Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Wanderi SW, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize and Promiscuous Soybean on Growth and Yield. ." Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018;12(2):1-21.
JA Odhiambo KZ, Vanlauwe B, Tabu IM, Kanampiu F. "Effect of intercropping maize and soybeans on Striga hermonthica parasitism and yield of maize." Archives of phytopathology and plant protection. 2011;44(2):158-167.
Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize-Soybean on Grain Quality Traits in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(2):341-351.
R.W. Kahama KNDN & LW. "Effect of interfering ions on hexamethyldisiloxane microdiffusion method." Talanta. 1997;44(10):1729-33. Abstract

Acid diffusion in the presence of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) enables complete recovery of ionic fluoride from standards containing varying concentrations of aluminium as one of the main interfering ions. Acid diffusion without HMDS shows a decrease in fluoride recovery as aluminium ion concentration increases. The fluoride concentration in the trapping solution is determined directly on the diffusion cover with a combination fluoride electrode after neutralising and buffering. The same procedure was used for the analysis of fluoride in soil and plant materials containing high concentrations of aluminium ions. For the same samples, the concentrations of aluminium, iron and silicon were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).

MBUYA TO, Gu Y, Thomson RC, Reed PAS. "Effect of intermetallic particles and grain boundaries on short fatigue crack growth behaviour in a cast Al–4Cu–3Ni–0.7Si piston alloy." , Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures. 2017;40(9):1428-1442. Abstracthttps://doi.org/10.1111/ffe.12586

The short fatigue crack growth behaviour in a model cast aluminium piston alloy has been investigated. This has been achieved using a combination of fatigue crack replication methods at various intervals during fatigue testing and post-mortem analysis of crack profiles. Crack–microstructure interactions have been clearly delineated using a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. Results show that intermetallic particles play a significant role in determining the crack path and growth rate of short fatigue cracks. It is observed that the growth of short cracks is often retarded or even arrested at intermetallic particles and grain boundaries. Crack deflection at intermetallics and grain boundaries is also frequently observed. These results have been compared with the long crack growth behaviour of the alloy.

M. DROTIDOJULIUS. "Effect of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria on health and education in schoolchildren: a cluster-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Clarke SE, Jukes MC, Njagi JK, Khasakhala L, Cundill B, Otido J, Crudder C, Estambale BB, Brooke.". In: Lancet. 2008 Jul 12;372(9633):127-38. The Kenya Medical Association; 2008. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in early childhood, yet its consequences for health and education during the school-age years remain poorly understood. We examined the effect of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in reducing anaemia and improving classroom attention and educational achievement in semi-immune schoolchildren in an area of high perennial transmission. METHODS: A stratified, cluster-randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of IPT was done in 30 primary schools in western Kenya. Schools were randomly assigned to treatment (sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in combination with amodiaquine or dual placebo) by use of a computer-generated list. Children aged 5-18 years received three treatments at 4-month intervals (IPT n=3535, placebo n=3223). The primary endpoint was the prevalence of anaemia, defined as a haemoglobin concentration below 110 g/L. This outcome was assessed through cross-sectional surveys 12 months post-intervention. Analysis was by both intention to treat, excluding children with missing data, and per protocol. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00142246. FINDINGS: 2604 children in the IPT group and 2302 in the placebo group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis of the primary outcome; the main reason for exclusion was loss to follow-up. Prevalence of anaemia at 12 months averaged 6.3% in the IPT group and 12.6% in the placebo group (adjusted risk ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.93; p=0.028). Significant improvements were also seen in two of the class-based tests of sustained attention, with a mean increase in code transmission test score of 6.05 (95% CI 2.83-9.27; p=0.0007) and counting sounds test score of 1.80 (0.19-3.41; p=0.03), compared with controls. No effect was shown for inattentive or hyperactive-compulsive behaviours or on educational achievement. The per-protocol analysis yielded similar results. 23 serious adverse events were reported within 28 days of any treatment (19 in the IPT group and four in the placebo group); the main side-effects were problems of balance, dizziness, feeling faint, nausea, and/or vomiting shortly after treatment. INTERPRETATION: IPT of malaria improves the health and cognitive ability of semi-immune schoolchildren. Effective malaria interventions could be a valuable addition to school health programmes.
Macharia PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG. "The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

Macharia PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG. "The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

Macharia PN;, Gachene CKK;, Mureithi JG;, Kinyamario JI;, Ekaya WN;, Thuranira EG. "The effect of introduced forage legumes on improvement of soil fertility in natural pastures of semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya."; 2011. Abstract

A two phase study was carried out from 2002 to 2005 in the semi-arid rangelands of Kajiado District, Kenya to determine the effect of introduced forage legumes on soil fertility improvement of natural pastures. During legume evaluation phase, Neonotonia wightii (Glycine), Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro), Lablab purpureus cv. Rongai (Dolichos), Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) and Stylosanthes scabra var. Seca (Stylo) were screened for adaptability and growth performance under the semi-arid conditions for two years. Results of soil analysis showed there were significant increases in soil pH (4.92 to 5.36), organic carbon (1.17 to 2.57%) , nitrogen (0.17 to 0.22%) and potassium (1.23 to 1.68 me%) probably due to the large amounts of organic residues produced by the legumes (particularly Glycine, Siratro and Stylo which are perennials). The calcium content decreased significantly from 7.97 to 4.50 me% (which was attributed to plant uptake) while the decrease of phosphorus was not significant. During the second phase of study for 1½ years Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were integrated into natural pastures. The results showed that only the soil pH significantly increased from 5.23 to 5.31 while all the other nutrients decreased results, which were attributed to production of less organic residues by the legumes compared to the residues produced during the legume evaluation phase. The study concluded that Glycine, Siratro and Stylo were capable of improving the soil fertility of semi-arid natural pastures only if the respective dry matter production was 10.31, 7.81 and 3.52 tha-1, amounts which were able to produce large amounts of organic residues.

Nyamute W, Lishenga J, Oloko M. "The Effect of Investment Style on Portfolio Performance: Evidence from the Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development. 2015;2(5):552-554. Abstractthe_effect_of_investment_style_on_portfolio_performance_evidence_from_the_nse.pdf

The investors must trade to make a return and the choice of where to invest and how many times to trade
lies with the investor. This study sought to determine whether the investment styles adopted by the
investors on the Nairobi Securities Exchange have an effect on their portfolio performance. The
relationship was tested using multiple regression analysis on a sample of 385 individual retail investors.
The overall model was statistically significant indicating that investment style influences portfolio performance. Passive investment style and Growth oriented investment style have a significant
relationship with portfolio performance with growth having a negative effect while passive style has a
positive effect. The implication here is that investors who actively trade should cautiously evaluate the
implication on their portfolio to avoid the negative effects.
Keywords: Investment style, passive, active, value, growth, portfolio performance

Nyamute W, Lishenga J. "The Effect of Investment Style on Portfolio Performance: Evidence from the Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development. 2015;2(5):552-554. Abstract

The investors must trade to make a return and the choice of where to invest and how many times to trade
lies with the investor. This study sought to determine whether the investment styles adopted by the
investors on the Nairobi Securities Exchange have an effect on their portfolio performance. The
relationship was tested using multiple regression analysis on a sample of 385 individual retail investors.
The overall model was statistically significant indicating that investment style influences portfolio performance. Passive investment style and Growth oriented investment style have a significant
relationship with portfolio performance with growth having a negative effect while passive style has a
positive effect. The implication here is that investors who actively trade should cautiously evaluate the
implication on their portfolio to avoid the negative effects.
Keywords: Investment style, passive, active, value, growth, portfolio performance

Teng W, Shan Z, Teng X, Guan H, Li Y, Teng D, Jin Y, Yu X, Fan C, Chong W, others. "Effect of iodine intake on thyroid diseases in {China}." New England Journal of Medicine. 2006;354:2783-2793. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Haidar, J; Umeta M;, Kogi-makau W. "Effect of iron supplementation on serum zinc status of lactating women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.".; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of daily and weekly iron supplementation on serum zinc status among anaemic lactating mothers. DESIGN: A randomised iron intervention controlled trial. SETTING: Seven urban slum communities of Addis Ababa. SUBJECTS: Phase one of the study involved 207 anaemic lactating women assigned into two intervention groups; the daily (N=71) and weekly (N=71) Iron supplemented and the control group (N=68). Supplementation with 60 mg tablet containing 300 microg ferrous sulphate and 400 microg folic acid was done for three months while the control group was n otsupplemented. Phase two involved 53 participants systematically drawn from phase one. Main outcome measures: Haemoglobin from all subjects and serum zinc and ferittin levels following three months supplementation. Zinc status based on serum zinc value of less than 10.7% micromole/L. RESULTS: The mean baseline characteristics and serum zinc of the women at baseline were similar, overall marginal zinc deficiency prevalence was 11.3% and no zinc deficiency was detected. Following supplementation, zinc deficiency was detected in the supplemented groups but not in the control group. The mean serum zinc significantly changed in both supplemented groups while no change was observed in the control group. The reduction in the mean serum zinc was significantly higher in the daily than in the weekly supplemented group. CONCLUSION: Iron supplementation impacts negatively on serum zinc status (exacerbates zinc deficiency) and hence, its contribution to zinc deficiency deserves further investigation especially in the context of the on-going promotion of double fortification strategies that involve iron.

A.M H, Ongeri BO. "Effect of Islamic banking development on economic growth –A case of the Kenyan Economy." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology . 2020;7(2).
Gitobu CM, Gichangi PB, Mwanda WO. "The effect of Kenya's free maternal health care policy on the utilization of health facility delivery services and maternal and neonatal mortality in public health facilities." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):77. Abstract

Kenya abolished delivery fees in all public health facilities through a presidential directive effective on June 1, 2013 with an aim of promoting health facility delivery service utilization and reducing pregnancy-related mortality in the country. This paper aims to provide a brief overview of this policy's effect on health facility delivery service utilization and maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate in Kenyan public health facilities.

Okumu OO, Muthomi J, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu J. "Effect of lablab green manure on population of soil microorganisms and establishment of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)." American Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;5(3):44-54.
Mwangi HW, Kihurani AW, Wesonga JM, Ariga ES, Kanampiu F. "Effect of Lablab purpureus L. cover crop and imidazolinone resistant (IR) maize on weeds in drought prone areas, Kenya." Crop Protection . 2015;Vol 72:36-40.
PMN K, PO L, Wangoh J. "Effect of Lactoperoxidase-Thiocyanate-Hydrogen Peroxide System and Storage Temperature on Keeping Quality of Raw Camel Milk." . African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Agriculture Online. 2010;10(10).
KIMPEI DRMUNEI. "The effect of land tenure changes on the pastoral economy in Kajiado.". In: Proceeding of a conference held in Kajiado, August1991. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1991. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
Wachira PM, and J. W. Kimenju, Okoth SA, Wangu JW, Ng’ang’a TM. "Effect of land use on abundance and diversity of nematode destroying fungi and soil nematodes in Embu County, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2014;6(5):132-141.
Okoth S. "Effect of Land Use on Abundance and Diversity of Nematode Destroying Fungi and Soil Nematodes in Embu County, Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2014;6(5):132. Abstract33586-122272-2-pb.pdfWebsite

Belowground biodiversity is one of the key indicators of the sustainability of a land use. This study sought to document the occurrence and diversity of nematode destroying fungi in an area characterized by small scale agriculture in Embu County, Kenya. The study area was divided into six main land use types namely; coffee, fallow, forest, maize/bean intercrop, napier and tea. Nematode destroying fungi were extracted from five soil samples from each of the land uses. A total of 161 isolates of nematode destroying fungi belonging to nine genera and 19 species were isolated and identified. The genera represented were Arthrobotrys, Dactyllela, Dactylaria, Harposporium, Monacrosporium, Myzocytium, Nematoctonous, Paecilomyces and Stylophage. The occurrence of nematode destroying fungi was significantly (P=0.02519) affected by the land use types in the study area. With the exception of Arthrobotrys superb, Dactyllela haptospora, Dactyllela reticulate, Harposporium anguillulae and Monacrosporium ellipsoporum all the other 19 isolated species were not affected by land use types. The highest total mean occurrence of nematode destroying fungi was recorded in maize/bean, followed by nappier, coffee, forest, fallow and tea , in that order. The respective frequency of detection of the fungal species was 7.6, 7.2, 5.0, 4.0 and 3.6. The Shannon index of diversity was highest and lowest at 1.971and 1.177 in the land under maize/bean intercrop and tea, respectively. The species richness was higher in napier, followed by maize bean, coffee, forest and least in tea. Out of the fungi that were isolated, the highest proportion of 23% was from the maize/bean intercrop, while the least 11% was from land under ea. Arthrobotrys oligospora was the most frequently isolated species with a frequency of 24% while Nematoctonus pachysporus had the least frequency of occurrence of 1%. It can be concluded that land use influences the diversity of nematode destroying fungi and nematodes in the soil. More work is needed to determine the efficacy of these indigenous isolates on plant parasitic nematodes.

Wachira PM, Kimenju JW, Okoth S, Mibey RK. "Effect of land use on occurrence and diversity of nematode destroying fungi in Taita Taveta, Kenya. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences." Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 2008;7(5):447-453.
Muchane MN, Muchane M, Mugoya C, Clet Wandui Masiga, others. "Effect of land use system on Arbuscular Mycorrhiza fungi in Maasai Mara ecosystem, Kenya." Afr J Microbiol Res. 2012;6:3904-3916. Abstract
n/a
 Kathumo VM, Gachene CKK, P.T G, P.C K. "Effect of land-use and climate changes on hydrological processes in the River Gucha Catchment, Kenya." E. Afr. Agric. For. J. 2012;78(1):23-31.
Okumu OO, Muthomi JW, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu JH. "Effect of Legume Extracts on Germination, Seedling Health of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Soil Microorganisms." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2019;28(1):1-13.
Von Noorden GK, Crawford MLJ, Middleditch PR. "Effect of lid suture on retinal ganglion cells {inMacaca} mulatta." Brain Research. 1977;122:437-444. AbstractWebsite

Previous work has established the pronounced effect of unilateral lid suture during visual immaturity on cell growth in the lateral geniculate nucleus of cats, dogs and monkeys. Most investigators have reported the retinas to be grossly normal but only a few quantitative studies are available and the results are contradictory. We have compared cell section diameters and cell density of parafoveal retinal ganglion cells in the deprived and non-deprived eye ofMacaca mulatta after the lids of one eye were sutured between the ages of 1–9 weeks for varying periods of time. The results show a decrease in the size and density of parafoveal retinal ganglion cells after long-term (24 months) visual deprivation. Lid suture of lesser duration (2–56 weeks) had no effect on the size of retinal ganglion cells.

Fifková E. "Effect of light and visual deprivation on the retina." Experimental Neurology. 1972;35:450-457. AbstractWebsite

The effect of light and unilateral visual deprivation (achieved by lid-suturing) on the retina of albino rats has been studied. Lid-sutured and unoperated animals were illuminated daily for 8, 11, or 16 hrs. With increasing time of illumination a progressive decrease in thickness of the outer retinal layers was observed in undeprived animals and in the open eye of the monocularly deprived rats. The shrinkage was greater in the outer plexiform than in the outer nuclear layer. In the lid-sutured eye considerably less change was found in the outer nuclear layer. The difference in thickness of the outer retinal layers of the sutured and companion open eye was 2.5 times greater after 16 than after after 8 hr of light exposure. The loss of receptors seems to be a function of the length of illumination. The decrease in thickness of the outer retinal layers in the open eye of the deprived animals was greater than in the undeprived ones suggesting that more light enters the former eye. It was assumed that an animal which has only one eye available keeps it open for longer periods of time than when both eyes are used.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effect of light intensity on the light cure characteristics of photo-polymerised dental composites.". In: 1st International Scientific Conference; College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. June 15th to 17th 2011. Kassim BA, Kisumbi BK, Lesan WR, Gathece LW.; 2011.
Lelei JJ, Mochoge BO, Onwonga RN. "Effect of lime, urea and triple super phosphate on nitrogen and phosphorus mineralisation in an acid soil during incubation." African Crop Science Journal. 2000;8(3):327-336).
Kironchi G;, Gicheru PT;, Gachene CKK;, Macharia PN;, Mburu M;, Mureithi JG;, Maina F. "Effect of liming and triple superphosphate fertilizer application on growth and root nodulation of common bean (phaseolus vulgaris) in soils of old tea lands."; 2005. Abstract

Effect of liming and application of phosphatic fertilizer on growth and root nodulation of common bean in an old tea land was investigated. A field trial was conducted where tea had been uprooted after 70 years of monoculture under high inorganic fertilizer input. Lime was applied at 0, 4, 8 and 12 tonnes ha-1 and triple superphosphate at 0, 5, 10 and 15 g per planting hole. The treatments were combined in a factorial design and investigated for effects on the soil pH, nodule formation, and some plant growth parameters. Lime application raised the soil pH and also significantly (P= 0.05) increased dry matter production and nodule quantity. Phosphorus also increased dry matter production and nodule quantity significantly (P = 0.05). These observations are discussed in regard to ways of enabling bean crop grow on old tea lands.

Otieno NE, Muchane M, Karimi S. "Effect of logging on the Abbott's Starling (Pholia femoralis) population in Kikuyu escarpment forest, Kenya." Ostrich-Journal of African Ornithology. 2007;78:299-304. Abstract
n/a
Magutu PO, Chirchir MK, Mulama OA. "The Effect of Logistics Outsourcing Practices on the Performance of Large Manufacturing Firms in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: ORSEA.; 2013. Abstractthe_effect_of_logistics_outsourcing_practices_on_the_perform.pdf

Abstract. Outsourcing of services has become a common practice among large manufacturing firms worldwide and this is due to the various benefits that accrue to a firm as a result of outsourcing. Contracting out production of goods and services to a firm with competitive advantages in terms of reliability, quality and cost was found out to be the main driver of outsourcing. However the various studies covered have not extensively delved into logistics outsourcing practices in relation to the performance of large scale manufacturing firms. As a result, this study explored outsourcing practices viz a viz the performance of large manufacturing firms Nairobi, Kenya. The population of the study in this research was all the large scale manufacturing companies that are based in Nairobi. Stratified random sampling method was applied to come up with the sample size, since the population in different large manufacturing firms is considered heterogeneous, implying that a simple random sample would have been unrepresentative. The response rate was 83%. The results established that the firms were outsourcing transportation management, warehouse management and material handling management. The firms opted to outsource their services due to its advantages and its possible influence on organizational performance, as it enables the firms to focus on its core competencies. The outsourcing practices adopted by the large manufacturing firms will in the long run determine their survival as they would seek to reduce operating costs, improved customer satisfaction and timely delivery of services to clients which in turn increase productivity and reduce lead time and improved profits. The study confined itself to large manufacturing firms in Nairobi and the findings may not be applicable in other sectors as a result of uniqueness of the manufacturing firms. It is therefore recommended that the study is replicated in other service sectors to establish the logistics outsourcing services and performance.

Magutu PO, Chirchir MK, Mulama OA. "The Effect of Logistics Outsourcing Practices on the Performance of Large Manufacturing Firms in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: ORSEA. Uganda; 2013. Abstractthe_effect_of_logistics_outsourcing_practices_on_the_perform.pdf

Abstract. Outsourcing of services has become a common practice among large manufacturing firms worldwide and this is due to the various benefits that accrue to a firm as a result of outsourcing. Contracting out production of goods and services to a firm with competitive advantages in terms of reliability, quality and cost was found out to be the main driver of outsourcing. However the various studies covered have not extensively delved into logistics outsourcing practices in relation to the performance of large scale manufacturing firms. As a result, this study explored outsourcing practices viz a viz the performance of large manufacturing firms Nairobi, Kenya. The population of the study in this research was all the large scale manufacturing companies that are based in Nairobi. Stratified random sampling method was applied to come up with the sample size, since the population in different large manufacturing firms is considered heterogeneous, implying that a simple random sample would have been unrepresentative. The response rate was 83%. The results established that the firms were outsourcing transportation management, warehouse management and material handling management. The firms opted to outsource their services due to its advantages and its possible influence on organizational performance, as it enables the firms to focus on its core competencies. The outsourcing practices adopted by the large manufacturing firms will in the long run determine their survival as they would seek to reduce operating costs, improved customer satisfaction and timely delivery of services to clients which in turn increase productivity and reduce lead time and improved profits. The study confined itself to large manufacturing firms in Nairobi and the findings may not be applicable in other sectors as a result of uniqueness of the manufacturing firms. It is therefore recommended that the study is replicated in other service sectors to establish the logistics outsourcing services and performance.

Lulalire FR, Karimi PN, Mwagangi EM, Wandolo G. "Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Mothers suffering from Toxemia of Pregnancy and their Neonates." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2016;5(2): 59-64. Abstract

Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Mothers suffering from Toxemia of Pregnancy and their Neonates
Faith R. Lulalire a,b, Peter N. Karimi a,*, Evans M. Mwagangi a, and George Wandolo c
a Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy. University of Nairobi, Kenya
b Ministry of Health, Kenya
c Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
_____________
* Corresponding author: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of
Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya; Tel: +254-72-2604216; Email: ndirang@yahoo.com
Background: Severe pre-eclampsia is one of the major causes of high maternal mortality rate in both developed and developing countries. The goals of management are to prevent progression to eclampsia thus preventing convulsions, to control the blood pressure and to prevent untoward effects in the foetus. The first-line option for the treatment and prevention of eclamptic seizures is magnesium sulphate.
Objective: To determine the serum magnesium, urea and electrolyte levels in neonates of mothers treated with magnesium sulphate and compare the findings with the levels in non-exposed neonates.
Methodology: A quasi experimental design was adopted where test subjects were neonates of mothers suffering from preeclampsia and severe eclampsia and were being treated with magnesium sulphate just before delivery at Pumwani Maternity hospital. The control group comprised neonates of hypertensive mothers without preeclampsia being treated using other drugs. Blood samples were obtained from the mother at onset of labor and from the neonates at birth and analyzed in the clinical chemistry laboratory of the University of Nairobi.
Results: A total of 54 mothers and their neonates were enrolled with 27 in each arm of the study. The mean maternal serum magnesium in the test group was significantly higher than in the control group (p = 0.008). The mean neonatal serum magnesium in the test group was also significantly higher compared to the control group (p = 0.008). There were statistically significant differences in serum sodium (p = 0.015), urea (p = 0.043) and creatinine (p = 0.008) levels between the maternal test and control groups. There were significant differences in serum urea (p = 0.007) and
chloride (p = 0.017) between the neonatal test and control groups. The calcium and potassium levels were elevated in the test group but not to significant levels. There was a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal serum magnesium levels in both groups stronger in the test group (r = 0.56, p = 0.003) as compared to the control group (r = 0.35, p = 0.087).
Conclusion: Maternally administered magnesium sulphate raises urea and creatinine levels to significant levels in mothers. Calcium levels are also raised while in mothers not receiving magnesium sulphate they were slightly lower.
In neonates the urea and chloride levels are elevated to significant levels while the calcium and potassium levels are not significantly elevated. We suggest monitoring of both in the immediate post-partum period.
Keywords: Preeclampsia, eclampsia, magnesium sulphate, neonate, serum urea and electrolytes.
Received: November, 2015
Published: May, 2016

Muthomi JW;, Kinyungu TN;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira J. "Effect of maize border crop placement distance on aphid population and aphid-transmitted virus diseases in potato.". In: 12th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI,. Nairobi; 2010.
Macharia CM, Nderitu JH. "The effect of maize stem borers infestation on yield of maize." E. Afr. Agri. For. J.. 1997;4(4).
Nambafu GN, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN, Ariga ES, Vanlauwe B, de Nowina RK. "Effect of maize variety and Nitrogen levels in the control of striga weed in western Kenya.". In: The 27th Soil Science Society of East Africa and 6th Africa Soil Science Society Conference. Hotel Cathy, Nakuru, Kenya; 2013.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effect of malocclusion on the oral health related quality of life of 12-14 year-olds in Viwandani slums, Nairobi.". In: . 1st International Scientific Conference; College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. June 15th to 17th 2011. Opondo IA, Kemoli A, Ngesa JL, Gathece LW.; 2011.
Ngesa JL. "Effect of malocclusion on the oral health-related quality of life of 12-14 year-olds in.". In: 1st CHS International Scientific Conference. CHS - University of Nairobi; 2011.
Awuor OB, Zipporah O, Ooko J. "The Effect of Managerial Ownership on Stock Performance of Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017;4:279-290. Abstract
n/a
T
ODHIAMBO ODONGOSETH. THE EFFECT OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHIES ON STUDENT SATISFACTION IN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES AND THE NON-EVANGELICAL PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

The study addressed the effect of marketing management philosophies on student satisfaction in Public Universities and the non-evangelical private universities in Kenya and was motivated by the observed phenomenal disparities that seemed to characterize the two sets of universities.

Whereas the private Universities seemed to remain relatively calm, devoid of student unrests and the ability to complete programmes in time, Public Universities stood on the opposite end with frequent institutional shut down due to unrests resulting into failure to complete programmes as scheduled.

In spite of this observed phenomenal challenge, the researched was not aware of any study that had been conducted in this area that seemed to point to the significant of the marketing management philosophy in practice and the resultant effect on student satisfaction, and therefore saw the need to conduct the research to generate information that would fill the then prevailing information gap.

The study was an exploratory census survey of 11 accredited Universities in which 173 respondents were interviewed from the ranks of the senior administrative staff corroborated with the participation of significant number of students. The primary data was collected using questionnaires consisting of six sections, each pertaining to the major dimension of the respective marketing management philosophies.

Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics which entailed means, percentages and standard deviation .T-statistics and chi-squares were also used in the analysis and from the findings, it emerged that there were indeed significant differences in the marketing management philosophies practiced by the two sets of universities. Private universities were found to practice with marketing and societal marketing concepts as opposed to public universities whose practices seemed to point the direction of production and product concepts.

The study concluded that there is a direct relationship between the level of student satisfaction and the marketing management philosophy practiced and consequently recommended to the public universities to consider using the modern and more robust marketing management philosophies which identifies and take into consideration the interests and desires of students as it designs its academic and operational programmes.

E
Tobias Homan, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins K Mweresa, Masiga D, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Prisca Oria, Nicolas Maire, Pasquale AD, Mariabeth Silkey, Jane Alaii, Teun Bousema, Cees Leeuwis, Smith TA, Takken W. "The effect of mass mosquito trapping on malaria transmission and disease burden (SolarMal): a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial." The Lancet. 2016;388(10050):1193-1201.
Khasakhala" "AA. "Effect of Maternal Education on infant and child survival in rural Kenya ." Demography India. 2003;32(1):93-108.
Ambuko J, Githiga RW, Hutchnison MJ, Gemma H, Owino WO. "Effect of maturity stage and cultivar on the efficacy of 1-MCP treatments in mango fruits.". In: II All Africa Horticulture Congress 1007.; 2012:. Abstract
n/a
Owino WO, Gemma H, Hutchnison MJ, Githiga RW, Ambuko J. "Effect of maturity stage and variety on the efficacy of 1-mcp treatments in mango fruits.". 2012. Abstract
n/a
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "The effect of media and light regimes on cultural and morphological characteristics and sporulation of Phaeoisariopsis griseola. East Africa Agricultural and Forestry journal (1994) 59 (3): 241-251.". In: Proceedings of the International Workshop under European Commission contract N. ERB IC18 CT97 0139: pp 95-104 (1998). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1994. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
Zhang J, Pazoki M, Simiyu J, Johansson MB, Cheung O, Häggman L, Johansson EMJ, Vlachopoulos N, Hagfeldt A, Boschloo G. "The effect of mesoporous TiO2 pore size on the performance of solid-state dye sensitized solar cells based on photoelectrochemically polymerized Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hole conductor." Electrochimica Acta. 2016;210:23-31.
Mnene WN;, Ekaya WN;, Kinyamario JI;, Hanson J. "Effect of method of harvesting, storage container type and duration on seed germination of four rangeland grasses."; 2006. Abstract

The study tested 2 techniques of harvesting pasture grass seed (hand stripping and cutting with stalks), 4 storage containers (Aluminium tins, Polythene, Cotton cloth and brown paper bags), and 10 post harvest periods of storage (0-72 weeks) of four species seed lots harvested in two different seasons during 2001-2002 at Kiboko, Kenya. The species were C. roxburghiana, C. ciliaris, E. superba and E. macrostachyus and seeds were stored from 0 to 72 weeks post harvest. The Germination (percentage) test using caryopses extracted with sandpaper and placed in covered Petri dishes lined with moist filter paper was used for duration of 14 days. The overall mean daily germination (percentage) was 3.61+ 0.060, ranging from 2.5percentage for C. ciliaris to 6.4percentage for E. macrostachyus. Harvesting by cutting with stalks resulted in superior seeds than by stripping them. Seeds stored in aluminium tins germinated better than those in plastic, cloth or brown paper bags. Seeds stored for less than eight weeks had lower germination percentage which then increased with storage.

Mnene WN;, Ekaya WN;, Kinyamario JI;, Hanson J. "Effect of method of harvesting, storage container type and duration on seed germination of four rangeland grasses."; 2006. Abstract

The study tested 2 techniques of harvesting pasture grass seed (hand stripping and cutting with stalks), 4 storage containers (Aluminium tins, Polythene, Cotton cloth and brown paper bags), and 10 post harvest periods of storage (0-72 weeks) of four species seed lots harvested in two different seasons during 2001-2002 at Kiboko, Kenya. The species were C. roxburghiana, C. ciliaris, E. superba and E. macrostachyus and seeds were stored from 0 to 72 weeks post harvest. The Germination (percentage) test using caryopses extracted with sandpaper and placed in covered Petri dishes lined with moist filter paper was used for duration of 14 days. The overall mean daily germination (percentage) was 3.61+ 0.060, ranging from 2.5percentage for C. ciliaris to 6.4percentage for E. macrostachyus. Harvesting by cutting with stalks resulted in superior seeds than by stripping them. Seeds stored in aluminium tins germinated better than those in plastic, cloth or brown paper bags. Seeds stored for less than eight weeks had lower germination percentage which then increased with storage.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Effect of micro-catchment size on survival and growth of two semiarid tree species..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effects of three different micro-catchment sizes on survival and growth of plant species was assessed and success in establishment and growth of Croton megalocarpus and Cassia spectabilis was compared in a semi-arid region of Kitui District, Kenya. Both species were planted in 25 x 25 cm, 45 x 45 cm, and 65 x 65 cm spherical micro-catchments. Height and diameter were measured and a survival count was taken. Results show that then micro-catchment size influenced (P>0.05) lateral growth of both species. Lateral growth of C. spectabilis in the smaller two micro-catchments (3.66 and 4.60 cm, resp.) was not significantly different (P>0.05), but was less than in the largest micro-catchment(5,31 cm). These results indicate that the two species are suitable for afforestation in these areas and that their survival is not limited by provision of a catchment in the area.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Effect of micro-catchment size on survival and growth of two semiarid tree species..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effects of three different micro-catchment sizes on survival and growth of plant species was assessed and success in establishment and growth of Croton megalocarpus and Cassia spectabilis was compared in a semi-arid region of Kitui District, Kenya. Both species were planted in 25 x 25 cm, 45 x 45 cm, and 65 x 65 cm spherical micro-catchments. Height and diameter were measured and a survival count was taken. Results show that then micro-catchment size influenced (P>0.05) lateral growth of both species. Lateral growth of C. spectabilis in the smaller two micro-catchments (3.66 and 4.60 cm, resp.) was not significantly different (P>0.05), but was less than in the largest micro-catchment(5,31 cm). These results indicate that the two species are suitable for afforestation in these areas and that their survival is not limited by provision of a catchment in the area.

Onyango EB, Khasakhala A, Agwanda AT, Kimani M, Oyugi BK. "The effect of Migration on Under 2 mortality in Kenya." African Population studies. 2011;25(2):543-555.
Onyango" "EB, Khasakhala" "A, Agwanda" "AT, Kimani" "M, Koyugi" "B. "The effect of Migration on under 2 mortality in Kenya." African Population Studies. 2011;25(2):543-555.
Mose BR, Maranga SM, MBUYA TO. "Effect of Minor Elements on the Fluidity of Secondary LM25 and LM27-Type Cast Alloys.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

In this study, the effect of individual and combined additions of Fe, Mn, Cr, Sr and Al-5Ti-1B grain refiner on the fluidity of secondary LM25 and LM27-type cast alloys was investigated. No change in fluidity was observed when the Fe level was increased from 0.14 to 0.4% in LM25, but it increased by 21% when Fe was raised to the critical content of 0.48%. Furthermore, a decrease of 32% resulted when the Fe level was increased to 0.6%. A combination of 0.3%Mn or 0.6%Cr with 0.6%Fe in LM25, resulted in a fluidity increase of 13 and 8%, respectively compared to the base alloy, but a combination of 0.6%Fe, 0.3%Mn and 0.2%Cr decreased the fluidity by 9%. A 34% increase in fluidity was observed when the Fe content in LM27 was raised from 0.41% to the critical level of 0.6%Fe with further increase when Mn was raised to 0.3%Mn. Increasing the Fe content to 1% in LM27 led to a drop in fluidity of 9%. Addition of 0.015%Sr and 0.02%Sr increased the fluidity of LM25 and LM27 by 9% and 21% respectively. Furthermore, a 0.28% Al-5Ti-1B grain refiner addition decreased the fluidity of LM 25 and LM27 by 2% and 19% respectively while a combined addition of 0.02%Sr and 0.28%Al-5Ti-1B decreased the fluidity of LM27 by 8%. Possible reasons for these observations are discussed.

N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Effect of moisture availability on nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by plants under semi-arid soil conditions. Journal of Human Ecology, 13:357-361.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
Njiru FAK, Elly D. "Effect of Monetary Policy on Credit Supply in Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):28-43. Abstract

Purpose- This paper sought to establish the effect of monetary policy on credit supply in Kenya.
Methodology- This study adopted a descriptive research design. Descriptive statistics such as mean, median, minimum, maximum and standard deviation were used to describe the trend of the variables. Breusch Godfrey serial correlation LM test was used to test correlation of the study variables. Stationarity tests on time series data was conducted using augmented dickey fuller test statistic. Regression analysis was used to establish the influence of monetary policy on credit supply.
Findings- The study concluded that CRR, OMO and Inflation are significant and have a negative effect on credit supply. The model was also fit to explain the relationship as 76% (R2= 0.761160) variation of the dependent variable (Credit supply) was explained by the independent variables (OMO, CRR, CBR and Inflation) in the long run. Adjusted R- square which provides adjustment to the R Square was73% (Adjusted R2= 0.736664) indicating 73% variation in credit supply was explained by independent variables (OMO, CRR, CBR and Inflation). F- Statistic 31.07233 was significant at 1% level P=0.0000.
Implications – The study recommends that the Central Bank of Kenya should come up with monitoring and evaluation programmes of monitoring how credit supply is influenced by various monetary policy instruments and should streamline the economic environment in which banks operate by ensuring CRR, OMO and Inflation are maintained at a constant.
Value –The study narrowed in scope to commercial banks and excluded the non-banking organizations. Additionally a study should be done on the impact of monetary policy on money supply to capture both banking and non-banking institutions. The research had a presumption that the relationship of the variables was linear therefore more studies should be carried out explore nonlinear relationship on the variables of study,
Key Words: Credit Supply, Monetary policy

Mwachaka PM, Saidi H, Odula PO, Mandela PI. "Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities." Journal of ophthalmic & vision research. 2015;10:144. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Mwachaka PM, Saidi H, Odula PO, Mandela PI. "Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities." Journal of ophthalmic & vision research. 2015;10:144. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Mwachaka PM, Saidi H, Odula PO, Mandela PI. "Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities." J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2015;10(2):144-150.
Fifková E. "The effect of monocular deprivation on the synaptic contacts of the visual cortex." Journal of Neurobiology. 1969;1:285-294. AbstractWebsite

The effect of visual deprivation on synaptic contacts in the visual cortex was studied with the electron microscope. The deprivation was achieved by unilateral lid suture in 14-day old white rats before eye opening after which the animals were kept for 8 weeks. The density and the size of synaptic contacts in the upper part of the visual cortex (from the surface of layer II up to V) were estimated. The mean density of synapses of the visual cortex supplied by the deprived eye was 20% less than on the control side, the upper levels of the cortex being more affected. The mean size of synaptic contacts was larger (+7.5%) in the upper levels of the deprived cortex. No right left difference in density and size were found in control animals.

Aduda BO, Ravirajan P, Choy KL, Nelson J. "Effect of morphology on electron drift mobility in porous TiO2.". 2004.Website
Onyango EBO, Khasakhala A, Agwanda AT, KIMANI M, K'Oyugi B. "Effect of mother's migration on under-two mortality in Kenya." African Population Studies. 2011;25(2):543-555.effect_of_mothers_migration_on_under-two_mortality_in_kenya.pdf
Murungaru K, Khasakhala A, Agwanda AO, K'Oyugi BO, Onyango E. "Effect of Mother’s Migration on Under-two Mortality in Kenya." African Population Studies. 2011;25(2):543-555.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on inflammatory markers in Nepalese women. Hindle LJ, Gitau R, Filteau SM, Newens KJ, Osrin D, Costello AM, Tomkins AM, Vaidya A, Mahato RK, Yadav B, Manandhar DS. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Nov;.". In: Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Nov;84(5):1086-92. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Multiple micronutrient supplementation of Nepalese women during pregnancy is associated with a significant increase in birth weight. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that improved birth weight in infants of mothers supplemented with micronutrients is associated with a decrease in inflammatory responses and an increase in the production of T helper 1 cells and T helper 2 cells. DESIGN: The study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of 15 micronutrients, compared with iron-folate supplementation (control), given during pregnancy with the aim of increasing birth weight. Blood samples were collected at 32 wk of gestation, 12-20 wk after supplementation began, for the measurement of inflammatory markers. Breast-milk samples were collected 1 mo after delivery for the measurement of the ratio of milk sodium to potassium (milk Na:K). In an opportunistically selected subgroup of 70 women, mitogen-stimulated cytokine production was measured ex vivo in whole blood. RESULTS: Blood eosinophils; plasma concentrations of the acute phase reactants C-reactive protein, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP), neopterin, and ferritin; milk Na:K; and the production of interleukin (IL) 10, IL-4, interferon gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in whole blood did not differ significantly between the supplemented and control groups. Plasma C-reactive protein and AGP were higher in women who had a preterm delivery, and AGP was higher in women who delivered a low-birth-weight term infant than in women who delivered a normal-birth-weight term infant. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate an association between systemic inflammation in late pregnancy and compromised delivery outcome in Nepalese women but do not support the hypothesis that multiple micronutrient supplementation changes cytokine production or inflammatory markers.
Zhao Z, Jiang C. "Effect of myopia on ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer measurements: a {Fourier}-domain optical coherence tomography study of young {Chinese} persons." Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology. 2013;41:561-566. AbstractWebsite

Background To investigate the change of the ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer under different refractive conditions, as measured by optical coherence tomography. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Participants A total of 107 eyes from 107 subjects were studied. Methods Ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fibre layer were studied by a spectral-domain system. Their relationship against spherical equivalents and axial length was studied. Main Outcome Measures The thickness of ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fibre layer at different area and under different refractive conditions as measurements by optical coherence tomography. Results The average, superior and inferior macular ganglion cell complex thickness was significantly associated with both spherical equivalents (all P {\textless} 0.05) and axial length (all P {\textless} 0.05). Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thicknesses from the superior, inferior and temporal quadrants were associated with both spherical equivalents (all P {\textless} 0.01), axial length (all P {\textless} 0.05) and ganglion cell complex thickness (all P {\textless} 0.001), except for the nasal part. However, if the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness was studied in sections, then some parts of the upper and lower temporal part showed no correlation with either spherical equivalents or axial length (all P {\textless} 0.05). Conclusions The thicknesses of the ganglion cell complex and most of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer were correlated with refraction and axial length. Therefore, when using these for clinical purposes, attention must be paid to the refractive state of the patient.

Njenga HN, Oyake L, Kamau GN. "Effect of Nairobi Industrial Area's Effluents on Levels of Ngong Pollution." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2009;Vol 17(No 1).helenvol17_nairobi_river.pdf
D. E. "EFFECT OF NATIONAL ANNUAL BUDGET READING ON EQUITY RETURNS AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." DBA Africa Management Review. 2016;6(1):107-118. AbstractEffect_of_national_annual_budget_reading_on_equity_returns_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange1.pdf

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of budget reading on equity returns at
Nairobi Securities Exchange. The study adopts descripting staristics design using event model
methodology to establish the correlation between the variables. Secondary data on stock
performance around the 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 budget reading dates was collected
from the NSE database. Data analysis was done using SPSS program to generate the descriptive
statistics, and the study finds that the reading of national budget has significant effect on the
stock returns at NSE during the event period, depending on information content. Analysis of the
AAR, CAR and SCAR of the companies in the NSE-20 share index, during the 5 day event
period before and after the annual national budget reading finds that other than year 2010 that
records no statistical significance of SCAR, the SCAR p value for 2009, 2011, 2012 and 2013
are all less than p = 0.05, suggesting that the market returns for four years deviated significantly
from their means during the event period of budget readings. Therefore, the study recommends
that investors, investment banks, listed companies and the capital markets authority to consider
the effect of national budget reading on stock returns, to formulate policies that can cussion
investors against the effects of budget reading.

and Yalla GPPO. "Effect of National Strategy Implemetation on Competitiveness: A case of Kenya's Trade, International Marketing and Investment Strategies." International Journal of Business and Public Management. 2011;Vol 1, No. 1: (April, 2011):60-68.
Opiyo N, Were F, Govedi F, Fegan G, Wasunna A, English M. "Effect of Newborn Resuscitation Training on Health Worker Practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya.". 2008;3(2):1-7. Abstract

Background: Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya.

Methods/Principal Findings: We conducted a randomised, controlled trial with health workers receiving early training with NRT (n = 28) or late training (the control group, n = 55). The training was adapted locally from the approach of the UK Resuscitation Council. The primary outcome was the proportion of appropriate initial resuscitation steps with the frequency of inappropriate practices as a secondary outcome. Data were collected on 97 and 115 resuscitation episodes over 7 weeks after early training in the intervention and control groups respectively. Trained providers demonstrated a higher proportion of adequate initial resuscitation steps compared to the control group (trained 66% vs control 27%; risk ratio 2.45, [95% CI 1.75–3.42], p,0.001, adjusted for clustering). In addition, there was a statistically significant reduction in the frequency of inappropriate and potentially harmful practices per resuscitation in the trained group (trained 0.53 vs control 0.92; mean difference 0.40, [95% CI 0.13–0.66], p = 0.004).

Conclusions/Significance: Implementation of a simple, one day newborn resuscitation training can be followed immediately by significant improvement in health workers’ practices. However, evidence of the effects on long term performance or clinical outcomes can only be established by larger cluster randomised trials.

Opiyo N, Were F, Govedi F, Fegan G, Wasunna A, English M. "Effect of newborn resuscitation training on health worker practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2008;3(2):e1599. Abstract

Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Effect of newborn resuscitation training on health worker practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya. Opiyo N, Were F, Govedi F, Fegan G, Wasunna A, English M.PLoS ONE. 2008 Feb 13;3(2):e1599.". In: PLoS ONE. 2008 Feb 13;3(2):e1599. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a randomised, controlled trial with health workers receiving early training with NRT (n = 28) or late training (the control group
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Effect of newborn resuscitation training on health worker practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya. Opiyo N, Were F, Govedi F, Fegan G, Wasunna A, English M.PLoS ONE. 2008 Feb 13;3(2):e1599.". In: PLoS ONE. 2008 Feb 13;3(2):e1599. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2008. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a randomised, controlled trial with health workers receiving early training with NRT (n = 28) or late training (the control group
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Effect of nitration on pressed TiO2 photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells." African Journal of Science and Technology,Vol. 8 No. 2, pp 63-71. 2007. AbstractWebsite

800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}

B WH, J S, M WS, B.O A, M MJ. "Effect of nitration on pressed TiO2 photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2007;8(2):63-71.wafula_hb_aduda_bo_et_al.pdf
Wafula HB, Simiyu J, Waita S, Aduda BO, Mwabora JM. "EFFECT OF NITRATION ON PRESSED TIO2 PHOTOELECTRODES FOR DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS.". 2013.Website
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorous on the Essential Oil Yield and Quality of Chamomile (Matricaria Chamomilla L.) Flowers; E. Afr. Agric. For. J., 55 (4)., 261-264.". In: Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract
   
Sharma BD, Jalota SK, Kar S, Singh CB. "Effect of nitrogen and water uptake on yield of wheat.". 1992.Website
Onyango CM, Imungi JK, Onwonga RN. "Effect of Nitrogen Source, Crop Maturity Stage and Storage Conditions on Phenolics and Oxalate Contents in Vegetable Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus).". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2012.
MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA, K PROFIMUNGIJASPER, ONWONGA DRRICHARDNDEMO. "Effect of Nitrogen Source, Crop Maturity Stage and Storage Conditions on Phenolics and Oxalate Contents in Vegetable Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus).". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2012. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This article gives practical guide on methods of handling data in qualitative research paradigm. It briefly states the characteristics of qualitative research and gives short description of some of the commonly used designs. The article also discusses the stages to be followed when carrying out qualitative research. It is the authors hope that this article will offer useful tips on how to successfully use qualitative approach to collect and analyze data quickly and effectively.
MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA, K PROFIMUNGIJASPER, ONWONGA DRRICHARDNDEMO. "Effect of Nitrogen Source, Crop Maturity Stage and Storage Conditions on Phenolics and Oxalate Contents in Vegetable Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus).". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2012. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
W DRBARJALINON. "Effect of Noise and Inertia on Modulation Induced Negative Differential Resistance.". In: Physical Review B, vol. 47, p 14200, June 1993. ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract

This research examines the relationship between commercial banks (CBs) and the small enterprise sector (SES) and identifies constraints' which impede the flow of financial assistance from the commercial banks to the latter in Kenya. The variables that were examined included; requirements for successful loan application, lending levels, degree of risk attached to small enterprise lending, levels of economic impact and stages in business development at which banks become willing to support. For the small enterprises, the study sought to profile the business and its owner and, to examine its financing. The sampling units were drawn from CBs and SES within Nairobi. In data collection, questionnaires, interview and document review was employed. The study found that high interest rates and long processing procedures kept small businesses away from banks. The study established that, on the part of the banks, the entrepreneurs lacked business management skills and did not keep proper records. Moreover, the banks experienced general reproach from the small business owners, based upon conventional beliefs.

EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "The effect of non-prey food, mainly pollen, on the development, survival and fecundity of Ambylseius gossipi (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Ent. Exp. & Appl., 11: 269 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1968. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
El-Banhawy EM, El-Sawaf BM, El-Borolossy MA, Afia SI. "Effect of organic and chemical fertilization on the distribution of soil predacious mites and nematodes in a citrus orchard." Egyptian. J.Bio.Pest Control. 1997;(8):89-96.
Onyango CM;, Harbinson J;, Shibairo SI;, Imungi JK. "Effect of organic and in organic fertilisers on yield and quality of amaranth in sub-Saharan Africa."; 2011. Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of manure and mineral fertilization on yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (as protein equivalents), Vitamin C and nitrate accumulation in Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The vegetables were produced in field trials, set up in the University of Nairobi, Kenya, during the long rains period between March and May in 2007 and 2008 using diammonium phosphate (DAP; 20, 40 and 60 kg N ha-1) and manure; 40 kg N kg ha-1,) and the yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (K-N; a proxy for protein content), vitamin C and nitrate levels were measured. The manure treatment produced little increase in productivity though it increased K-N levels. The DAP treatments produced increases in yield, but these saturated at 40 kg N ha -1. The K-N content of the leaves was high, ranging from 2.5 % to just over 4 %, and, broadly, increased with fertiliser application though the variation between the treatments was lower than that for yields. Nitrate levels, however, also increased with DAP fertilisation, resulting in an increase in the nitrate:K-N at high DAP applications, especially in younger plants. There were no clear correlations between ascorbic acid content and K-N. Nonetheless, the plants grown under different fertilisation regimes can be placed into three broad groups; those characterised with low to moderate K-N contents and low to high ascorbic acid contents, moderate to high K-N and low to high ascorbic acid content, and lastly high K-N and low ascorbic contents. Therefore, the growth environment of amaranth, can have a major impact not only on the productivity of the crop but its nutritional value. In this respect the mineral nutrient supply to the crop is of particular importance.

Onyango CM;, Harbinson J;, Shibairo SI;, Imungi JK. "Effect of organic and in organic fertilisers on yield and quality of amaranth in sub-Saharan Africa."; 2011. Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of manure and mineral fertilization on yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (as protein equivalents), Vitamin C and nitrate accumulation in Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The vegetables were produced in field trials, set up in the University of Nairobi, Kenya, during the long rains period between March and May in 2007 and 2008 using diammonium phosphate (DAP; 20, 40 and 60 kg N ha-1) and manure; 40 kg N kg ha-1,) and the yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (K-N; a proxy for protein content), vitamin C and nitrate levels were measured. The manure treatment produced little increase in productivity though it increased K-N levels. The DAP treatments produced increases in yield, but these saturated at 40 kg N ha -1. The K-N content of the leaves was high, ranging from 2.5 % to just over 4 %, and, broadly, increased with fertiliser application though the variation between the treatments was lower than that for yields. Nitrate levels, however, also increased with DAP fertilisation, resulting in an increase in the nitrate:K-N at high DAP applications, especially in younger plants. There were no clear correlations between ascorbic acid content and K-N. Nonetheless, the plants grown under different fertilisation regimes can be placed into three broad groups; those characterised with low to moderate K-N contents and low to high ascorbic acid contents, moderate to high K-N and low to high ascorbic acid content, and lastly high K-N and low ascorbic contents. Therefore, the growth environment of amaranth, can have a major impact not only on the productivity of the crop but its nutritional value. In this respect the mineral nutrient supply to the crop is of particular importance.

Onyango CM;, Harbinson J;, Shibairo SI;, Imungi JK. "Effect of organic and in organic fertilisers on yield and quality of amaranth in sub-Saharan Africa."; 2011. Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of manure and mineral fertilization on yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (as protein equivalents), Vitamin C and nitrate accumulation in Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The vegetables were produced in field trials, set up in the University of Nairobi, Kenya, during the long rains period between March and May in 2007 and 2008 using diammonium phosphate (DAP; 20, 40 and 60 kg N ha-1) and manure; 40 kg N kg ha-1,) and the yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (K-N; a proxy for protein content), vitamin C and nitrate levels were measured. The manure treatment produced little increase in productivity though it increased K-N levels. The DAP treatments produced increases in yield, but these saturated at 40 kg N ha -1. The K-N content of the leaves was high, ranging from 2.5 % to just over 4 %, and, broadly, increased with fertiliser application though the variation between the treatments was lower than that for yields. Nitrate levels, however, also increased with DAP fertilisation, resulting in an increase in the nitrate:K-N at high DAP applications, especially in younger plants. There were no clear correlations between ascorbic acid content and K-N. Nonetheless, the plants grown under different fertilisation regimes can be placed into three broad groups; those characterised with low to moderate K-N contents and low to high ascorbic acid contents, moderate to high K-N and low to high ascorbic acid content, and lastly high K-N and low ascorbic contents. Therefore, the growth environment of amaranth, can have a major impact not only on the productivity of the crop but its nutritional value. In this respect the mineral nutrient supply to the crop is of particular importance.

MOKAYA BITANGEN, Chemining’wa GN, Ambuko JL, Nyankanga RO. "Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on growth, yield and nutrient use efficiency of clonal tea (Camellia sinensis)." Cell Biology and Development. 2018;2. Abstract
n/a
Ayuke FO, Opondo-Mbai ML, Rao MR, Swift MJ. "Effect of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on soil mineral nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate N) and maize yields in western Kenya.". In: proceedings of the 8th Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility and Programme African Network meeting. Arusha, Tanzania; 2001. Abstract

The effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil mineral N and maize yields were evaluated in a Kandiudalfic Eutrodox soil of western Kenya. Leaf biomass of tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia [Hemseley] A. Grey) and senna (Senna spectabilis D.C. & H.S. Irwin) at 5 t ha-1 dry weight were incorporated into the soil and compared with the response obtained from control without any input and fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha-1 from urea and triple super phosphate (TSP). Soil mineral (inorganic), N, was measured at the beginning of the trial and subsequently at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after applying the treatments. Maize grain and stover yields were estimated at harvest. Total inorganic nitrogen in the soil at the beginning of the season was at a similar level in all treatments. It increased rapidly after applying the materials and at the onset of rains for all treatments probably because of rapid nitrogen mineralisation in all treatments. After four weeks, inorganic nitrogen decreased progressively until end of the experiment in all the treatments. The highest contribution of mineral N to the soil by the organic residues was noted at four weeks stage and this was significantly higher with tithonia than senna. This could be due to rapid N mineralization by these residues. Senna treatment that had the lowest mineral N during the first weeks of the trial, showed that N mineralization was slow with the mineral N reaching highest level at four-week stage. However, it is interesting to note that while soil N under tithonia was statistically higher than in senna at four weeks, it was higher under senna at later stage observations. Thus tithonia decomposed completely in about four weeks, while senna was still mineralizing at 8 weeks. Fertilizer use increased maize grain yield by 63% over the control. Although tithonia biomass increased maize grain yield by 38% over the control and did not differ significantly from fertilizer treatment, senna increased maize yield by only 6% over the no input control. Higher yield with tithonia than senna was partly because of higher nutrient concentration and hence greater amounts of nutrients added for the same quantity of material applied. The study indicates that high quality residues such as tithonia can be used as sources of nutrients to improve crop yields.

Keywords: Biomass transfer, Tithonia diversifolia, Senna spectabilis, mineral nitrogen, maize yield.

Kariuki J., Nyomboi T. MSW. "Effect of Orientation and Arrangement of Bamboo Strips on Structural Strength of Laminated Bamboo Beam." International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Emerging Technologie. 2014;7(2):555-567.
Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, Kabira JN. "Effect of packaging and storage temperature on the shelf life of crisps from four Kenyan potato cultivars." American Journal of Food Technology. 2011;6(10):882-892.2011_-_crisps_and_shelf_life.pdf
S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effect of packaging materials on weight loss and nutrient quality changes of recharged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batats Poir) during short-term storage. Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology.6: 29-47.". In: In press. African Crop Science Proceedings 7: -. Taylor & Francis; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Kemboi DC, Chege HW, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW, Maingi N. "Effect of parasite control on immune response to Newcastle Disease vaccination in village chicken, Mbeere sub county." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2014;26(2).kemboi_et_al.2014-_effect_of_parasite_on_immune26.pdf
Kemboi. DC, Chegeh. HW, Bebora. LC, Nyaga. PN, Njagi. LW, Maingi. N, Mbuthia PG, Githinji. JM. "Effect of parasite control on immune response to Newcastle Disease vaccination in village chicken, Mbeere sub county." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2014;Vol 26 (2).
Kemboi. DC, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Chegeh. HW, Bebora. LC, Njagi. LW, Maingi. N, Githinji. JM. "Effect of parasite control on immune response to Newcastle Disease vaccination in village chicken, Mbeere sub county." Livestock Research for Rural Development.. 2014;26.(2).
DC K, HW C, C BL, Maingi N, Nyaga P N, Njagi L W. "Effect of parasite control on Newcastle disease vaccination response in free-ranged family chicken in Eastern province, Kenya.". In: 47th Kenya Veterinary Association (KVA) annual Scientific conference. Mombasa; 2013.abstract_-_kemboi_et_al.pdf
Pulei A, Gichangi P, Makanya A, Ogeng’o J. "Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2014;3(1):268-274.
Osore CK, Mwero JN. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Cement with Ground and Unground Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." International Journal of Scientific Research Publications. 2019;Vol 9(1):349-365.
Mwero(9) JN, Abuodha SO, Mumenya SW, Rading GO, Kavishe FPL. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Portland Cement with Sugar Cane Waste Fiber Ash (SWFA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." ICASTOR J. of Eng. 6 (3). 2013:97-114.
J.N.Mwero, S.O.Abuodha, S.W.Mumenya, G.O.Rading, F.P.L.Kavihe. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Portland Cement with Sugarcane Waste Fibre Ash (SWFA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2013;6(3):97-114.
J.N.Mwero, S.O.Abuodha, S.W.Mumenya, G.O.Rading, F.P.L.Kavihe. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Portland Cement with Sugarcane Waste Fibre Ash (SWFA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2013;Vol 6(3):97-114.mwero_1.docx
J.N.Mwero, S.O.Abuodha, S.W.Mumenya, G.O.Rading, F.P.L.Kavihe. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Portland with Sugarcane Waste Fibre Ash (SWFA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2013;6(3):97-114.
Eyvazi J, Irannejad H, Kianmehr MH, Esmaeili M, Akbari QA, Onwonga RN. "The effect of Pellet fertilizer application on Wheat Yield and its Components." International Research Journal of Plant Science. 2010;1(6):163-171.eyvazi_et_al2010_the_effect_of_pellet_fertilizer_application_on_wheat_yield.pdf
Mathenge EM, JE G, M K, M O, LW I, WA H. "Effect of permethrin-impregnated nets on exiting behavior, blood feeding success, and time of feeding of malaria mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya." Journal of medical entomology. 2001;38(4):531-536. AbstractPubMed link

The impact of permethrin-treated bednets on the feeding and house entering/exiting behavior of malaria vectors was assessed in two studies in western Kenya. In one study, matched pairs of houses were allocated randomly to receive bednets or no bednets. Exiting mosquitoes were collected in Colombian curtains hung around half of each house; indoor resting mosquitoes were collected by pyrethrum spray catches. The number of Anopheles gambiae Giles and An. arabiensis Patton estimated to have entered the houses was unaffected by the presence of bednets; Anopheles funestus Giles was less likely to enter a house if bednets were present. Anopheles gambiae and An. funestus were less likely to obtain a blood meal and significantly more likely to exit houses when bednets were present. No difference was detected in An. arabiensis rates of blood feeding and exiting. In a second experiment, hourly night biting collections were done on 13 nights during the rainy season to assess whether village-wide use of permethrin-treated bednets caused a shift in the time of biting of malaria vectors. A statistically significant shift was detected in the biting times of An. gambiae s.l., although the observed differences were small. No change was observed in the hourly distribution of An. funestus biting. Our study demonstrated that, at least in the short-term, bednets reduced human-vector contact and blood feeding success but did not lead to changes in the biting times of the malaria vectors in western Kenya.

Wafula CN, Wamalwa CM, Elamenya L, Ambetsa M, Osano B, Bosire KO, Wamalwa D, Okalebo FA, Wandolo, G. K. "Effect of pesticide exposure on serum cholinesterase levels among asthmatic children in Naivasha sub county, Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2015;4(1).
N. WC, Wamalwa CM, Ambetsa M, Elamenya L, Osano B, Okalebo FA, Bosire KO, Wandolo G, Karimi PN. "Effect of Pesticide Exposure on SerumCholinesterase Levels among Asthmatic Children in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya. Afr. J.Pharmacol. Ther.2015. 4(1):." Afr. J.Pharmacol.. 2015;4(1):7-15. Abstractwafula_c.pdf

Effect of Pesticide Exposure on Serum Cholinesterase Levels among Asthmatic Children in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya
Caroline N. Wafula a,b,*, Cecilia M. Wamalwa a,b, Margaret Ambetsa b,c, Linet Elamenya a,b, Boniface Osano d, Dalton Wamalwa d, Faith A. Okalebo c, Kefa O. Bosire c, George Wandolo e, and Peter N. Karimi a

a Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, Kenya b Ministry of Health, Kenya

c Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, Kenya d Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
e Department of Human Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
_____________

* Corresponding author: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: +254-72-3245127; Email: wafulacaroline@yahoo.com

Background: Pesticide exposure is a risk factor for asthma exacerbations in flower farm regions in the world. Data on levels of serum cholinesterase among asthmatic children exposed to pesticides in Kenya is scanty.

Objectives: To compare and identify variables which affect the concentration of serum cholinesterases in children who are exposed and unexposed to pesticides.

Methodology: The design was a comparative cross-sectional study that involved exposed and unexposed children. The study was conducted between May and July, 2014 in Naivasha, Kenya. Patients were interviewed and serum samples were analysed for cholinesterase levels. Multi-linear regression was done to identify variables that affected cholinesterase activity.

Results: Children who were exposed to pesticides had a lower median ChE activity of 5828 [IQR 4863, 6443] compared to the unexposed arm whose median was 7133 [IQR 6063, 8179]. Five predictor variables were found to be significantly associated with depression of serum cholinesterase levels. The most important predictor variable for the levels of ChE in children, was not using protective clothing by the parent [adjusted β -1457.0 (95% CI - 2594, 1319.8)]. Others were not using household pesticides [adjusted β 96.3, (95% CI 22.6, 170.0)], female sex [adjusted β - 695.7 (95% CI -1296.2, - 95.3)], non school attendance [adjusted β -1676.8 (95% CI -3371.6, 18.1)] and not taking a break after spraying [adjusted β 1105.5 (95% CI (315.0, 1895.2)].

Conclusion: Children who were exposed to pesticides had low cholinesterase levels. Parents should therefore be encouraged to wear protective gear as this conferred protection of children from the effects of pesticide exposure.

Key words: asthma, exposure, children, pesticides, cholinesterase.

Received: November, 2014

Published: March, 2015

Shisia KS, Ngure V, Nyambaka H, Oduor FDO. "Effect of pH and forage species on mineral concentrations in cattle breeds in major grazing areas of Uasin Gishu County, Kenya." Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 2013;2(12):247-254. AbstractInt J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci

Description
The nutrition of grazing animals is a complicated interaction of soils, plants, and animals (Rocky, 2013). The performance and health of grazing livestock is dependent on the adequacy and availability of essential mineral elements from pastures. Grazing livestock requires an understanding of the dynamics of a broad range of forage nutrients (Provenza, 2003). This means that adequate intake of forages by grazing animals is essential in meeting mineral requirements. The ability of forage minerals to meet grazing livestock mineral requirements depends upon quantity (the concentration of minerals in the plant) and the bioavailability of those minerals (amount livestock can absorb from the digestive tract). Although mineral concentrations in the forage might be adequate, the percent that is available to the livestock might be much lower (Khan et al., 2006).

Rashid K;, Waithaka K. "The effect of phosphorous fertilization on growth and tuberization of sweet potato, ipomoea Batatas L.".; 1985. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer levels on the growth and tuberization of two sweet potato cultivars. P did not cause any significant influence on growth or yield of vines and tubers in either cultivar. Cv. I (Musinya) produced significantly longer and a higher yield of vines than cv. II (Gikanda), but the latter produced a significantly higher yield and number of tubers than the former. There was no significant difference in dry matter accumulation in the tubers of both cultivars at all P levels and the control. However, cv. I accumulated significantly higher dry matter in the vines than cv. II, whereas cv. II accumulated significantly higher dry matter in tubers than cv. I during both seasons but P fertilization did not influence the accumulation.

EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Effect of photoperiod, light intensity and temperature on the development and reproduction of the predacious mite, Amblyseius brazilli (Mesostigmata : Phytoseiidae). Rev. Brasil. Biol., 37: 579 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1977. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Muruga BN, Wagacha JM, Kabaru JM, Amugune N, Duboise SM. "Effect of physicochemical conditions on growth rates of cyanobacteria species isolated from Lake Magadi, a soda lake in Kenya." WebPub J Sci Res. 2014;2:41-50.
Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, Mbau JS. "Effect of piospheres on physio-chemical soil properties in the Southern Rangelands of Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017;6:14.
Ojiambo PS, P.O A, Narla RD, Nyabundi JO. "Effect of plant age on sesame infection by Alternaria leaf spot." African Crop Science . 1999;7:91-96.
Nguthi FN;, Chweya JA;, Kimani PM. "Effect of plant density on growth, yield and quality of bulb onions."; 1984.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Njogu SM. "Effect of Plant Derived Organic Binders on The Mechanical Properties of Kaolin - Based Refractories." Journal of Material Science., 43, 4107 - 4111.. 2008;43:4107-4111. AbstractWebsite

Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}
Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. 
Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.
 
The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively.
The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.
 KEY WORDS
Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial

M.N M, R.D N, R.K M, F.W M. "Effect of plant extracts on growth of Alernaria porri (Ellis) Cif and other fungal pathogens of onion." Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2007;3(1):7-11.
Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Mbega ER. "Effect of plant extracts on important fungal pathogens and germination of tomato seed." International Journal of Biosciences (IJB). 2021;18(4):77-92.
Njogu S, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "Effect of plant-derived organic binders on fracture toughness and fatigue of kaolin-based refractories”,." Journal of Materials Science. 2008;43:107-4111. Abstract

The fracture properties of kaolin – based refractories prepared using plant derived binders from okra and
“mrenda” have been investigated. It was observed that okra binder improved the MOR of fired samples from 194.0± 0.1 MPa to 384 ± 0.1 MPa, while the fracture toughness increased from 3.9 ± 0.1 MPa (for binder free samples) to 5.6 ± 0.1 MPa and 5.7 ± 0.1 MPa for okra and ‘mrenda’ plasticized samples respectively. It is concluded that the use of organic binders enhances the reliability and service life of kaolin refractories used in thermally fluctuating environments.

El-Badry EA, El-Banhawy EM. "The effect of pollen feeding on the predatory efficiency of Amblyseius gossipi (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) Ent. Exp. & Appl., 7: 273.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1968. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Mbogo PK, Aduda J, Mwangi M. "The Effect of Portfolio Size on the Financial Performance of Portfolios of Investment Firms in Kenya." American Journal of Finance. 2017;1(2):1-15.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Effect of Post Basic Psychiatric Nursing Training on Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills of Nurses in the Management of Substance Dependent Patients at Mathari Hospital, Nairobi- Nov.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal KNJ 36:.(2):21-26:2007. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2007. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Effect of post treatment temperature on insecticidal activity of Melia Volkensii fruit extract against Locusta migratoria.". In: African Journal of Science & Technology: 3,20-23. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "The effect of post-harvest crop cover on soil erosion in a maize-legume based cropping system in Gatanga, Kenya. Journal of Agriculture in the Tropics and Subtropics, Vol 103, pp 17-28.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
DR. KABARU JACQUESM. "EFFECT OF POST-TREATMENT TEMPERATURE ON THE INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF MELIA VOLKENSII GURKE) FRUIT EXTRACT AGAINST THE AFRICAN MIGRATORY LOCUST LOCUSTA MIGRATORIA (REICHE & FAIRMAIRE).". In: Massachusetts. CABI. Pp 209. African Meteorological Society; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The influence of post- treatment temperature on the insecticidal activity of Melia volkensii (Gurke) fruit extract against the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Reiche & Fairmaire) is reported. In laboratory tests conducted Oil adult locusts, the toxicity of crude 80% methanol extracts of M. volkensii fruit increased by more than 20-fold when the post-treatment temperature was raised from 1S"C to 40"C. This temperature-dependent toxicity was observed in insects treated either topically or via injection. This phenomenon could partly explain the wide variability in efficacy of M. volkensii fruit extracts reported by different investigators.  
Kabaru JM, Mwangi RW. "Effect of post-treatment temperature on the insecticidal activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts." Insect Science and its Application. 2000;20(1):77-79.
Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Zanol G, Gemma H. "Effect of postharvest hot air treatments on ripening and soluble sugars in banana fruits, Musa spp.'Williams'.". In: XXVIII International Horticultural Congress on Science and Horticulture for People (IHC2010): International Symposium on 934.; 2010:. Abstract
n/a
Onyango SO, Abong GO, Okoth MW, Kilalo DC, Mwang’ombe AW. "Effect of Pre-treatment and Processing on Nutritional Composition of Cassava Roots, Millet, and Cowpea Leaves Flours." Nutrition and Sustainable Diets, a section of the journal Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems. 2021;5(625735):1-8.

UoN Websites Search