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Nduati R, Richardson BA, John G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Mwatha A, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Onyango FE, Kreiss J. "Effect of breastfeeding on mortality among HIV-1 infected women: a randomised trial." Lancet. 2001;357(9269):1651-5. Abstract

We have completed a randomised clinical trial of breastfeeding and formula feeding to identify the frequency of breastmilk transmission of HIV-1 to infants. However, we also analysed data from this trial to examine the effect of breastfeeding on maternal death rates during 2 years after delivery. We report our findings from this secondary analysis.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Effect of breastfeeding on mortality among HIV-1 infected women: a randomised trial. Lancet . 2001 May 26; 357 ( 9269 ): 1651-5 . PMID: 11425369 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Nduati R, Richardson BA, John G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Mwatha A, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwa.". In: Lancet . 2001 May 26; 357 ( 9269 ): 1651-5 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2001. Abstract

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Departments of Paediatrics and Medical Microbiology, PO Box 19676, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. nduati@iconnect.co.ke

BACKGROUND: We have completed a randomised clinical trial of breastfeeding and formula feeding to identify the frequency of breastmilk transmission of HIV-1 to infants. However, we also analysed data from this trial to examine the effect of breastfeeding on maternal death rates during 2 years after delivery. We report our findings from this secondary analysis. METHODS: Pregnant women attending four Nairobi city council clinics were offered HIVtests. At about 32 weeks' gestation, 425 HIV-1 seropositive women were randomly allocated to either breastfeed or formula feed their infants. After delivery, mother-infant pairs were followed up monthly during the first year and quarterly during the second year until death, or 2 years after delivery, or end of study. FINDINGS: Mortality among mothers was higher in the breastfeeding group than in the formula group (18 vs 6 deaths, log rank test

Karuri H, Amata R, Amugune N, Waturu C. "Effect of Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 protein on soil nematode community assemblages in Mwea, Kenya." Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 2013;19(1):2864-2879.
K'Obonyo P, Okeyo W, Gathungu J. "The Effect of Business Development Services on Performance of Small and Medium Manufacturing Enterprises in Kenya." Internal Journal of Business and Social Research and. 2014;Volume 4(Issue No. 6). Abstract

Small and Medium Enterprises have been regarded to play significant roles of job creation, poverty alleviation and economic development of many countries worldwide. These enterprises are however affected by many different factors. How these factors manifest singly or jointly is therefore a key concern for these organizations. Vital among these factors are business development services that affect how organizations produce and sell their finished goods. There is however a dearth of studies focusing on effects of aspects of business development services on organizational performance in Kenya. This study aimed at establishing how market access, procurement services and infrastructure facilities affect performance of small and medium manufacturing enterprises in Kenya. The study adopted a cross sectional survey design and examined primary data collected from 150 enterprises in Nairobi. Inferential statistics were used to interrogate relationships between independent variables and performance while descriptive statistics were used to determine distribution, central tendency and dispersion and hence establish conformity to linear regression requirements. Contrary to expectation, market access did not show any relationship but procurement services and infrastructure facilities each had a positive and significant influence on performance of the enterprises. The study also determined that the joint effect of the three variables on performance is greater than their individual effect. This study therefore concludes that since procurement services and infrastructure facilities showed a positive influence on performance of small and medium manufacturing enterprises in Kenya, the enterprise studied should adopt strategies that enhance procurement and improve infrastructure facilities to experience better performance.

Okeyo W.O. GK’OJ & P. "The effect of business development services on performance of small and medium manufacturing enterprises in Kenya." International journal of Business & social research. 2014;4(6):12-26.
Chogii R, ADUDA JO, Murayi MT. "The Effect of Capital Market Deepening on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Applied Finance & Banking. 2014;4(1):141-159. Abstractthe_effect_of_capital_market_deepening_on_economic_growth_in_kenya.pdf

The capital market is important since it connects the financial sector with other non-financial sectors of the economy. This study examines the effect of Capital Market Deepening on economic growth in Kenya. Controversy exists among researchers on the role of deep capital markets in growth. The finance growth nexus forms the basis of the research with the capital markets assumed to have a supply leading effect on economic growth. This study aimed at addressing the issue by incorporating a measure of bond market turnover. The research objective was to determine the effect of capital market deepening on economic growth in Kenya. The study used data from the Nairobi Securities Exchange from 1992-2011 and GDP data from The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. The study therefore concludes that Capital Market Deepening has a positive effect on GDP growth in Kenya and therefore lends support to the finance growth nexus. The Capital market plays an important role in economic growth and therefore the study recommends the government should take policy initiatives to foster growth of the capital market and especially so the bond market which is instrumental in providing finance for development of the Vision 2030 socio economic blue print. JEL classification numbers: F43, O16.
Key words: Capital Market Deepening, Economic Growth and Kenya.

Aduda J, Chogii R, Murayi MT. "The Effect of Capital Market Deepening on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Applied Finance & Banking. 2014;4(1):141-159. Abstractthe_effect_of_capital_market_deepening_on_economic_growth_in_kenya.pdf

The capital market is important since it connects the financial sector with other non-financial sectors of the economy. This study examines the effect of Capital Market Deepening on economic growth in Kenya. Controversy exists among researchers on the role of deep capital markets in growth. The finance growth nexus forms the basis of the research with the capital markets assumed to have a supply leading effect on economic growth. This study aimed at addressing the issue by incorporating a measure of bond market turnover. The research objective was to determine the effect of capital market deepening on economic growth in Kenya. The study used data from the Nairobi Securities Exchange from 1992-2011 and GDP data from The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. The study therefore concludes that Capital Market Deepening has a positive effect on GDP growth in Kenya and therefore lends support to the finance growth nexus. The Capital market plays an important role in economic growth and therefore the study recommends the government should take policy initiatives to foster growth of the capital market and especially so the bond market which is instrumental in providing finance for development of the Vision 2030 socio economic blue print.

M.Mwangi, E.M.Birundu. "The Effect of Capital Structure on the Financial Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Thika Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2015;5(1):151-156. Abstract

Whether the capital structure of a firm should have some effect on the financial performance of small and mediumenterprises is a matter for empirical determination. The objective of this study was to determine the effect ofcapital structure on the financial performance of SMEs in Thika sub-county, Kenya. The study was conducted on40 SMEs which were in operation for the five years 2009 to 2013, using multiple linear regression. The findingswere that there was no significant effect of capital structure,asset turnover and asset tangibilityon the financial
performance of SMEs in Thika sub-county, Kenya. Therefore it is recommended that additional research beconducted in order to determine the major factors that influence financial performance of SMEs. This wouldenable these firms control these factors in order to ensure that profitability is maximised.

Munyua M M, W MS, N MJ. "Effect of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Strengthening on the Axial Capacity and Ductility of Non-Slender Square Concrete Columns.". In: UoN Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi Kenya; 2020.
Muthomi M, Mumenya S, Mwero J. "Effect of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Strengthening on the Axial Capacity and Ductility of Non-slender Square Concrete Columns.". In: Architecture & Engineering Conference. Nairobi; 2020.
Mahmmoda YS, Mweu MM, Nielsen SS, Katholm J, Klaasa IC. "Effect of carryover and presampling procedures on the results of real-time PCR used for diagnosis of bovine intramammary infections with Streptococcus agalactiae at routine milk recordings." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2014;113:512-521. Abstractcarryover_paper.pdf

The use of PCR tests as diagnostics for intramammary infections (IMI) based on compositemilk samples collected in a non-sterile manner at milk recordings is increasing. Carryoverof sample material between cows and non-aseptic PCR sampling may be incriminated formisclassification of IMI with Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in dairy herds with con-ventional milking parlours. Misclassification may result in unnecessary costs for treatmentand culling. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the effect of carryover onPCR-positivity for S. agalactiae at different PCR cycle threshold (Ct) cut-offs by estimatingthe between-cow correlation while accounting for the milking order, and (2) evaluate theeffect of aseptic presampling procedures (PSP) on PCR-positivity at the different Ct-valuecut-offs.The study was conducted in four herds with conventional milking parlours at routinemilk recordings. Following the farmers’ routine pre-milking preparation, 411 of 794 cowswere randomly selected for the PSP treatment. These procedures included removing thefirst streams of milk and 70% alcohol teat disinfection. Composite milk samples were thencollected from all cows and tested using PCR. Data on milking order were used to estimatethe correlation between consecutively milked cows in each milking unit. Factors associatedwith the PCR-positivity for S. agalactiae were analyzed using generalized estimating equa-tions assuming a binomially-distributed outcome with a logit link function. Presamplingprocedures were only significant using cut-off 37. A first-order autoregressive correlationstructure provided the best correlation between consecutively milked cows. The correla-tion was 13%, 11%, 9% at cut-offs <40, 37, and 34, respectively. PSP did not reduce the oddsof cows being PCR-positive for S. agalactiae. In conclusion, carryover and non-aseptic sampling affected the PCR results and shouldtherefore be considered when samples from routine milk recordings are used. In relativeterms, higher cut-offs resulted in higher between-cow correlation, but the absolute amountof carryover may not be affected although this was not tested.

O OD, N MJ, K KC. "The Effect of Cassava Starch on the Durability Characteristic of Concrete." The Open Civil Engineering Journal. 2020;Vol 14:289-301.
B PROFPATELNILESH, G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Effect of Catha edulis (khat) on behaviour and its potential to induce seizures in Sprague Dawley rats.East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):219-25.PMID: 17892196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 May;84(5):219-25.PMID: 17892196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2007. Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, Moi University, P.O. Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Khat is a plant whose young shoots and leaves are habitually used in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula as a drug of recreation. Although it is used without any control in these regions, it contains two controlled substances, cathinone (schedule I) which is present in fresh khat and cathine (schedule VI) which is a degradation product of cathinone abundant in old khat. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of khat on locomotor behaviour and seizures in rats. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: University of Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Adult male rats in groups of six were given fresh khat, old khat, methylphenidate and saline at varying doses and observed over three hours. RESULTS: Fresh khat at low doses and old khat at high doses stimulated locomotor activity. High doses of fresh and old khat induced stereotype behaviour and seizures. CONCLUSION: The results show that khat stimulates locomotor and stereotypic behavioural activity and can induce seizures; results similar to those observed with amphetamine analogs. PMID: 17892196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Patel, N. B KKSTPG. "Effect of Catha edulis (khat) on learning and memory on CBA mice.". In: International Brain Research Organization (IBRO) World Congress. Melbourne, Australia.; 2008.
Hutchinson MJ, Muniu FK, Ambuko J, Mwakangalu M, Mwang’ombe AW, Okello JJ, Olubayo F. "Effect of cattle manure and calcium ammonium nitrogen on growth and leaf yield of local cowpea accessions in Coastal Kenya." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2016:1-12. Abstract
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MJ H, FK M, J A, M M, AW M'ombe, JJ A, F O. "Effect of cattle manure and calcium ammonium nitrogen on grwoth and leaf yield of local cowpea accessions in coastal Kenya.". In: KAPAP CGS COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH STAKEHOLDERS CONFERENCE. KALRO Headquaters ; 2015.
MS. OGONY DOROTHYA. "Effect of change from live to dry feed on survival and growth of larval and postlarval stages of Labeo cylindricus Petrs (Pisces: Cyprinidae).". In: Submitted for publication. October 2005 as part of proceedings of the First National Biological Sciences Postgraduate Students Conference, and is under review. Kenyan Veterinarian; 2005. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
Muthomi JW;, Otieno PE;, Chemining'wa GN;, Nderitu JH. "Effect of chemical pesticide spray on insect pests and yield of food grain legumes."; 2007.
Muthomi JW;, Otieno PE;, Chemining'wa GN;, Nderitu JH. "Effect of chemical pesticide spray on insect pests and yield of food grain legumes."; 2007.
Muthomi JW, Otieno PE, Cheminingw’a GN, Nderitu JH, Wagacha JM. "Effect of chemical spray on insect pests and yield quality of food grain legumes." Journal of Entomology. 2008;5:156-163.
Mwangi JT, Kibui AW. "Effect of Chemistry Practicals on Students’ Performance in Chemistry in Public Secondary Schools of Machakos and Nairobi Counties in Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2017;Volume 6(Issue 8):586-588.
Mwangi ST, Gitau AN, Muchiri G. "Effect of Chisel Ploughing on Physical and Mechanical Soil Properties on a Maize Cropped Field. ." International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering. 2018;Volume 8(ISSN 2250-2459 Issue 11).
Wiesmann UN, DiDonato S, Herschkowitz NN. "Effect of chloroquine on cultured fibroblasts: release of lysosomal hydrolases and inhibition of their uptake." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1338-43.
Wiesmann UN, DiDonato S, Herschkowitz NN. "Effect of chloroquine on cultured fibroblasts: release of lysosomal hydrolases and inhibition of their uptake." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.. 1975;66(4):1338-43.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "The effect of chronic childhood malnutrition on pubertal growth and development. Am J Clin Nutr . 1982 Sep; 36 ( 3 ): 527-36 . PMID: 7113957 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kulin HE, Bwibo N, Mutie D, Santner SJ.". In: Am J Clin Nutr . 1982 Sep; 36 ( 3 ): 527-36. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1982. Abstract

Pubertal growth and development were compared in 342 privileged, urban children and 347 impoverished rural adolescents from Kenya. Measurements of height, weight, upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfolds revealed marked differences between the two study groups just before the onset of sexual maturation. These differences were also found in the early stages of puberty but notable catch-up was evident throughout the later period of the maturational process. Early stages of sexual maturity were delayed by 3 yr in malnourished boys with a 2.1-yr lag in the age of onset of menarche in rural girls. Derived estimates of body fat as well as direct anthropometry revealed that the onset of puberty is not size related under the circumstances of chronic childhood malnutrition.

PMID: 7113957 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Machio P. "The Effect of Chronic Illness on Labor Market Outcomes in Kenya.". In: Center for the Study of Africa Economies. Oxford, UK; 2012.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Effect of circumcision on incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other sexually transmitted diseases: a prospective cohort study of trucking company employees in Kenya. Lavreys L, Rakwar JP, thompson ML, Jackson DJ, Mandaliya K, Chohan B, Bw.". In: J Infect Dis,. 1999 Jul; 180(2): 330-6. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1999. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Musau LM, Migosi JA. "Effect of class size on girls’ academic performance in science mathematics and technology subjects.". In: First Annual Conference in Education. Riara University, Nairobi, Kenya.; 2013.
"Effect of class size on girls’ academic performance in Science, Mathematics and Technology subjects." Int. J. Education Economics and Development. 2013;4(3):278-288.
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Effect of Coagulation aspects and colour removal from textile wastes", J. Biochemiphysics, 3 (1994) 41.". In: Proceedings, Biochemical Society, Nairobi, Sept. 1996. Survey Review; 1994. Abstract
n/a
S W, A K, S K, I M. "Effect of Combining Clinical Teaching Tools on Clinical Judgment Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students in Kenya." South Asian Research Journal of Nursing and Healthcare . 2020;2(1):117-123.
and Digolo, P.O.O. KNMWGBNS. "Effect of Computer Based Instruction on Learner Performance in art and Design in Public secondary Schools in Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies, . 2017;5(6):99-103.
Wanjiru KG, Digolo Patrick Ochieng Obonyo, Boniface N, Owino MS. "Effect of Computer Based Instruction on Learners’ Performance in Art and Design in public secondary schools in Kenya. ." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies.. 2017;5(6).
Hubacher D, Liku J, Kiarie J, Rakwar J, Muiruri P, Omwenga J, Chen P-L. "Effect of concurrent use of anti-retroviral therapy and levonorgestrel sub-dermal implant for contraception on CD4 counts: a prospective cohort study in Kenya." J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16:18448. Abstract

Simultaneous use of contraceptive hormones and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) may theoretically lessen the effectiveness of both. Women on ART need assurance that hormonal contraception is safe and effective. The sub-dermal implant is an ideal product to study: low and steady progestin release and no adherence uncertainties. We sought to determine if the medications' effectiveness is compromised.

Hubacher D, Liku J, Kiarie J, Rakwar J, Muiruri P, Omwenga J, Chen P-L. "Effect of concurrent use of anti-retroviral therapy and levonorgestrel sub-dermal implant for contraception on CD4 counts: a prospective cohort study in Kenya." J Int AIDS Soc. 2013;16:18448. Abstract

Simultaneous use of contraceptive hormones and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) may theoretically lessen the effectiveness of both. Women on ART need assurance that hormonal contraception is safe and effective. The sub-dermal implant is an ideal product to study: low and steady progestin release and no adherence uncertainties. We sought to determine if the medications' effectiveness is compromised.

Origa JO, Mwanda GM, Digolo PO, Mwanda SO. "Effect of Constructivist and Conventional Methods of Instruction on Learning Biology among Secondary School Students in Kenya. ." The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education . 2014.
Magambo MJS;, Waithaka K. "The Effect Of Conventional Methods Of Growing Tea On Yields."; 1985. Abstract

Tea bushes are manipulated so as to form strong woody frames with the largest possible plucking surface area. Studies on dry matter production and partitioning of tea bushes have shown that the harvest index is low in old bushes and high in young bushes. The low indexes in old bushes are partly due to large amounts of wood in the primary frame which provide a large cambial sink for photosynthates. Reducing the plant size by maintaining bushes at low heights greatly increased yields per unit area of plucking surface. Thus, maintaining large bushes does not necessarily mean high yields. The impression from dry matter production and partitioning studies is the need for a thorough reinvestigation and revision of the conventional methods of growing tea which encourage the development of unnecessary large amounts of woody tissues.

Kaijage ES, Elly D. "EFFECT OF CORPORATE CHARACTERISTICS ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE DECISIONS OF SMES: A CASE OF DTMs IN KENYA.". In: THE 14TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN BUSINESS AND SMALL BUSINESS (ICAESB). THE UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM BUSINESS SCHOOL (UDBS); 2014. Abstracteffect_of_corporate_characteristics_on_capital_structure_decisions_of_smes.pdf

The choice between debt and equity for a business firm has implications on the value of a firm as well as strategic importance for corporate managers. Previous studies have addressed the issue of capital structure decisions from the point of view of large firms. The capital structure of Small and Medium - sized Enterprises (SMEs) has become a research topic only recently despite the fact that SMEs play a very crucial role in fostering growth and employment in many countries. Some research studies have investigated the relationship between capital structure mix as an independent variable and specific corporate characteristics as dependent variables. This paper reverses this order by investigating the influence of various corporate characteristics on the capital structure of deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs) in Kenya. DTMs are a special group of SMEs in Kenya, which create money through deposit mobilization and lending and are regulated by the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK). Using secondary data from financial reports of 7 out of 9 Licensed DTMs in Kenya for the period 2008 to 2012, this study has applied ordinary least squares (OLS) fixed - effect regression models to estimate the influence of firm corporate characteristics on capital structure measure of debt equity ratio. The corporate characteristics considered are: size, profitability, liquidity, growth, tangibility of assets and volatility of earnings. The study findings suggest that size and growth positively influence, in a significant way, the capital structure of DTMs in Kenya. Furthermore, liquidity, profitability, and tangibility of assets have been found to be negatively influencing the capital structure of the DTMs. These findings generally concur with the predictions of the pecking order theory and the signaling effects of capital structure decisions of firms.

Key Words: Deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs), Microfinance institutions (MFIs), Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Capital Structure and Corporate characteristics.

Kaijage ES, Elly D. "EFFECT OF CORPORATE CHARACTERISTICS ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE DECISIONS OF SMES: A CASE OF DTMs IN KENYA.". In: THE 14TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN BUSINESS AND SMALL BUSINESS (ICAESB). THE UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM BUSINESS SCHOOL (UDBS); 2014. Abstracteffect_of_corporate_characteristics_on_capital_structure_decisions_of_smes.pdf

The choice between debt and equity for a business firm has implications on the value of a firm as well as strategic importance for corporate managers. Previous studies have addressed the issue of capital structure decisions from the point of view of large firms. The capital structure of Small and Medium - sized Enterprises (SMEs) has become a research topic only recently despite the fact that SMEs play a very crucial role in fostering growth and employment in many countries. Some research studies have investigated the relationship between capital structure mix as an independent variable and specific corporate characteristics as dependent variables. This paper reverses this order by investigating the influence of various corporate characteristics on the capital structure of deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs) in Kenya. DTMs are a special group of SMEs in Kenya, which create money through deposit mobilization and lending and are regulated by the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK). Using secondary data from financial reports of 7 out of 9 Licensed DTMs in Kenya for the period 2008 to 2012, this study has applied ordinary least squares (OLS) fixed - effect regression models to estimate the influence of firm corporate characteristics on capital structure measure of debt equity ratio. The corporate characteristics considered are: size, profitability, liquidity, growth, tangibility of assets and volatility of earnings. The study findings suggest that size and growth positively influence, in a significant way, the capital structure of DTMs in Kenya. Furthermore, liquidity, profitability, and tangibility of assets have been found to be negatively influencing the capital structure of the DTMs. These findings generally concur with the predictions of the pecking order theory and the signaling effects of capital structure decisions of firms.

Key Words: Deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs), Microfinance institutions (MFIs), Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Capital Structure and Corporate characteristics.

T
Okiro K, Aduda J, Omoro N. "THE EFFECT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE ON PERFORMANCE OF FIRMS LISTED AT THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY SECURITIES EXCHANGE." European Scientific Journal. 2015;11(7):517-546. Abstractcorporate_governance_capital_structure_and_firm_perfromance_eacse.pdf

The purpose of the study was to establish the effect of corporate governance and capital structure on performance of firms listed at the East African community securities exchange. Specifically the study sought to establish the effect of capital structure on the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance of listed companies in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi. Based on the agency theory this study builds a comprehensive framework to answer the research question on whether good
corporate governance affects firms performance by integrating capital structure into the governance model. A census survey was carried out on all the 98 listed companies between 2009 and 2013 in Nairobi Securities Exchange, Uganda Securities Exchange, Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange and Rwanda Stock Exchange. Out of the 98 firms that were targeted, 56 were analyzed constituting 57%. The findings revealed that the there was a significant positive relationship between corporate governance and firm performance. The study also confirmed that there is a positive significant intervening effect of capital structure (leverage) on the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance. From a theoretical perspective, this study not only explains how corporate governance affects firm performance, but also uncovers the importance of capital structure in a corporate governance system. Keywords: Corporate governance, capital structure and firm performance

Okiro K, Omoro N. "THE EFFECT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE ON PERFORMANCE OF FIRMS LISTED AT THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY SECURITIES EXCHANGE." European Scientific Journal. 2015;11(7):416-546. Abstractcorporate_governance_capital_structure_and_firm_perfromance_eacse.pdf

governance and capital structure on performance of firms listed at the East African community securities exchange. Specifically the study sought to establish the effect of capital structure on the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance of listed companies in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi. Based on the agency theory this study builds a comprehensive framework to answer the research question on whether good corporate governance affects firms performance by integrating capital
structure into the governance model. A census survey was carried out on all the 98 listed companies between 2009 and 2013 in Nairobi Securities Exchange, Uganda Securities Exchange, Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange and Rwanda Stock Exchange. Out of the 98 firms that were targeted, 56 were analyzed constituting 57%. The findings revealed that the there was a significant positive relationship between corporate governance and firm performance. The study also confirmed that there is a positive significant
intervening effect of capital structure (leverage) on the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance. From a theoretical perspective, this study not only explains how corporate governance affects firm performance, but also uncovers the importance of capital structure in a corporate governance system.
Keywords: Corporate governance, capital structure and firm performance

Okiro K, Aduda J, Omoro N. "THE EFFECT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE ON PERFORMANCE OF FIRMS LISTED AT THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY SECURITIES EXCHANGE." European Scientific Journal. 2015;11(7):517-546. Abstractcorporate_governance_capital_structure_and_firm_perfromance_eacse.pdf

The purpose of the study was to establish the effect of corporate governance and capital structure on performance of firms listed at the East African community securities exchange. Specifically the study sought to establish the effect of capital structure on the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance of listed companies in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi. Based on the agency theory this study builds a comprehensive framework to answer the research question on whether good
corporate governance affects firms performance by integrating capital structure into the governance model. A census survey was carried out on all the 98 listed companies between 2009 and 2013 in Nairobi Securities
Exchange, Uganda Securities Exchange, Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange and Rwanda Stock Exchange. Out of the 98 firms that were targeted, 56 were analyzed constituting 57%. The findings revealed that the there was a significant positive relationship between corporate governance and firm performance. The study also confirmed that there is a positive significant intervening effect of capital structure (leverage) on the elationship between corporate governance and firm performance. From a theoretical perspective,
this study not only explains how corporate governance affects firm performance, but also uncovers the importance of capital structure in a corporate governance system. Keywords: Corporate governance, capital structure and firm performance

E
Iraya C, MWANGI MIRIE, Wanjohi G. "The effect of corporate governance practices on earnings management of companies listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." European Scientific Journal. 2015;11(1 (January)):169-178. Abstract

The objective of the study was to establish the effect of corporate governance practices on earnings management of companies listed at the Nairobi Security Exchange (NSE). The target population consisted of the 49 companies that had been continuously and actively trading at the NSE between January 2010 and December 2012. Secondary data was used covering the period 2010 to 2012 and analyzed using linear regression to test the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The study found that earnings management is negatively related to ownership concentration, board size and board independence but positively related to board activity and CEO duality. The study recommended the need for effective corporate governance practices in listed companies in Kenya to contribute to reduced earnings management and avert possible collapse of listed companies in Kenya.

M.Mwangi, C.Iraya, G.W.MUCHOKI. "The Effect of Corporate Governance Practices on Earnings Management of Companies Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." European Scientific Journal. 2015;11(1):169-178. Abstract

The objective of the study was to establish the effect of corporategovernance practices on earnings management of companies listed at theNairobi Security Exchange (NSE). The target population consisted of the 49companies that had been continuously and actively trading at the NSEbetween January 2010 and December 2012. Secondary data was usedcovering the period 2010 to 2012 and analyzed using linear regression to testthe effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The studyfound that earnings management is negatively related to ownershipconcentration, board size and board independence but positively related toboard activity and CEO duality. The study recommended the need foreffective corporate governance practices in listed companies in Kenya tocontribute to reduced earnings management and avert possible collapse oflisted companies in Kenya.

Njeru NK, Muthomi JW, Mutegi CK, Wagacha JM. "Effect of cropping systems on accumulation of Fusarium head blight of wheat inocula in crop residues and soils." Journal of Plant Sciences . 2016;11:12-21.
Mutuma Kiambi, B, Onono, P, Maingi, N. "Effect of Crude Oil Prices on Economic Growth in Kenya in the Period 1981 To 2018." Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal. 2020;7(10):340-349.
NALYANYA KM, Ronald ROPK, ONYUKA A, Birech Z, SASIA A. "Effect of crusting operations on the mechanical properties of leather." Revista de Pielarie Incaltaminte. 2018;18:283. Abstract
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Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. Effect of Crystalline Phases on Strength of Quartz-Kaolin-Feldspar Porcelain. Nairobi, Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Nyamute W, Batta N. "Effect Of CSR On Financial Performance In The Banking Sector Evidence From The NSE." International Journal of Asian Academic Research Associates. 2015;1(26). Abstracteffect_of_csr__on_financial_performance_in_the_banking_sector_evidence_from_the_nse.pdf

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is increasingly being embraced by organizations worldwide. This study aims to investigate the relationship between CSR and financial performance for the banks listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE). The study analyzed ten of the eleven banks listed on the NSE for the period 2008 to 2012 using data obtained from audited annual reports and other publications by the banks including information from their websites. The analysis was done using multiple regression analysis and the correlation coefficient (r) was calculated together with the coefficient of determination (r2) to further determine the relationship between the variables. The research found that there was an insignificant positive relationship between CSR and financial performance in the Kenyan banking industry with CSR having a very minimal effect on financial performance. The model shows that, for every one unit increase in CSR, the firm’s financial performance increases by 0.00002 units. The study further concluded that in the Kenyan banking industry, CSR activities are not undertaken for the purpose of improving the banks financial performance but are undertaken for other reasons such as building brand image and building customer loyalty.
Key Words: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Financial Performance, Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE), Kenyan banking Industry.

Oucho JO. "The Effect of Culture and Religion on Family Formation.". In: Family and Population.; 1984.
Kariuki MI, Muturi WM, Mwangi CI. "Effect of debt capability on the indebtedness of employees in the formal sector in Kenya." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce .. 2016; 1( 8):60-78.
Kariuki MI, Ogilo F, Mwangi CI. "Effect of debt knowledge on the indebtedness of employees in the formal sector in Kenya." Universal Journal of Accounting and Finance. 2016;4(4):121-129.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effect of dental caries on the oral health related quality of life of 12-14 year-olds in Viwandani slums, Nairobi.". In: The 29th Kenya Dental Association Scientific conference. KDA conference, Panafric Hotel Nairobi. October 13th to 15th 2011. Opondo IA, Kemoli A, Ngesa JL, Gathece LW; 2011. Abstract

Background: Traditional methods of measuring oral health mainly use clinical dental indices. In recent years, the use of subjective assessments to gain information about the impact of oral disorders on Oral-Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) has been advocated. By supplementing the clinical assessments with subjective assessments, a comprehensive account of the oral health of populations can be given. Studies on the OHRQoL of children in Kenya are so far largely unexplored. Objective: This study aimed at assessing the effect of dental caries and malocclusion on the OHRQoL of 12-14 year-old children residing in Viwandani slum. Study design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Subjects and methods: A total of four hundred and fifty two children aged 12-14 years attending public and private primary schools in Viwandani slum, Nairobi participated in the study. Their mean age was 12.9 years. The two public schools in the slum were included in the study. The private schools were selected through simple random sampling. The children in each school were selected through stratified random sampling method. Data on OHRQoL was obtained using an interviewer administered Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP) Index. Intra-oral clinical examination was done to assess caries experience using the DMFT index and severity of malocclusion, using the Dental Aesthetic (DAI) Index. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) programme. Spearman's Rank Order Correlation and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to relate caries experience and severity of malocclusion with OHRQoL. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 56.2%. The overall mean DMFT was 1.72 ±2.40, with the mean DMFT for the female and male children being 1.73 ±2.07 and 1.71 ±2.40 respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the males and females (p=O.95) with regard to their mean DMFT. The prevalence of malocclusion was 32%, of which 19.9% had definite malocclusion, 6.7% had severe malocclusion and 5.4% had handicapping malocclusion. More males than females had malocclusion with the difference being statistically significant (p=O.01). A statistically significant correlation was found between caries experience and OHRQoL (~=O.09, p=O.OO). There was no association between the presence of malocclusion and OHRQoL (p=O.20). Conclusion: Dental caries was found to affect many aspects of the children's Oral Health-Related Quality of Life, while malocclusion had no effect on the OHRQoL of these children. Recommendation: There is a need for preventive and curative oral health services for the children in Viwandani slum. More studies are needed to determine the dietary patterns and oral hygiene practices of the children living in the slum in order to aid in future planning of appropriate interventions.

K PROFKAMAUREUBEN. "Effect of diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical cancer on quality of life among women receiving radiotherapy at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jan;84(1):24-30.PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: at Kenyatta National Hospital.East Afr Med J. 2007 Jan;84(1):24-30.PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2007. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Kabuage, L. W.;, Mbugua PN;, Mitaru BN. "Effect Of Diet On Carcass Fat In Broiler Chickens.".; 1988.
Kabuage, L. W.;, Mbugua PN;, Mitaru BN. "Effect Of Diet On Carcass Fat In Broiler Chickens.".; 1988.
Mutwedu VB, Ayagirwe RBB, Bacigale SB, Mwema LM, Butseme S, Kashosi T, Mitima B, Manyawu GJ, Nyongesa AW. "Effect of dietary inclusion of small quantities of Mucuna pruriens seed meal on sexual behavior, semen characteristics, and biochemical parameters in rabbit bucks (Oryctolagus cuniculus)." Trop Anim Health Prod. 2019;51(5):1195-1202. Abstract

The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Mucuna pruriens seed meal (MSM) on sexual behavior, semen, and biochemical parameters in rabbit bucks. Twenty-four 12-week-old rabbit bucks weighing 1002 to 1156 g were randomly allocated to three experimental diets containing 0, 1.5, and 3% of MSM in a 3-month trial. Sexual behavior parameters such as mounting latency, mounting frequency, successful mounting frequency, intromission latency, and post ejaculatory interval were monitored at the end of the experiment by mating with receptive females. Thereafter, rabbits were weighed, stunned, and humanely sacrificed and testes, epididymis, and vas deferens were harvested for evaluation of organ weights and semen characteristics. Results indicate that supplementing rabbit diet with MSM induced a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in mounting latency (69.7%) and intromission latency (19.7%), while it significantly (P < 0.05) increased successful mounting frequency (60%) as well as relative weight of testis (33.3%) and vas deferens (54.5%). There was a dose-dependent increase (P < 0.05) in sperm motility (35.7%) and concentration (65.9%), serum albumin (19.1%) and protein concentration (9.9%), and a decrease in sperm morphological alterations (68.3%), serum cholesterol (13.4%), and urea (11.6%) in treatment groups where MSM was supplemented at 3% compared to controls. From the findings, it appears MSM is a potential enhancer of male reproductive performance that can be recommended to rabbit farmers for improving reproductive performance and quality of semen, hence a boon to reproduction and production in rabbit farming industry.

Karuku GN, Gachene CKK, Karanja N, Cornelis W, Verplacke H. "Effect of different cover crop residue management practices on soil moisture content under a tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum). ." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2014;17:509-523.
Karuku GN, Gachene CKK, Karanja N, Cornelis W. "Effect of different cover crop residues, management practices on soil moisture content under a tomato crop(lycopersicon esculentum)." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems Journal. 2014;17(3):509-523.
El-Badry EA, Afifi AM, Issa GA, El-Banhawy EM. "Effect of different prey species on the development and fecundity of the predacious mite, Amblyseius gossipi (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Z. Angew. Ent., 62: 247." Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March.. 1968. AbstractWebsite

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Mureithi SM, Karuku GN, Wanjogu R. "Effect of Different Soil Water Content and Seed Storage on Quality of Six Range Grasses in the Semi-Arid Ecosystems of Kenya." Environment and Ecology Research. 2014;2(2):261-271.eer1-14002517-seed_quality.pdf
OK K, RN K, SM M, GN K, K WR. "Effect of Different Soil Water Content and Seed Storage on Quality of Six Range Grasses in the Semi-Arid Ecosystems of Kenya." Environment and Ecology Research . 2014;2(2):261-271.
Kipchirchir KO, Ngugi RK, Karuku G, Wanjogu R, Mureithi SM. "Effect of different soil water content and seed storage on quality of six range grasses in the semi-arid ecosystems of Kenya." Environment and Ecology Research . 2014;2(2)(1):261-271.
Koech OK, Ngugi RK MSMKJNWRK. "Effect of Different Soil Water Content and Seed Storage on Quality of Six Range Grasses in the Semi-Arid Ecosystems of Kenya." Environment and Ecology Research. 2014;2(7):261-271.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Effect of direct fetal opioid analgesia on fetal hormonal and hemodynamic stress response to intrauterine needling. Fisk NM, Gitau R, Teixeira JM, Giannakoulopoulos X, Cameron AD, Glover VA.Anesthesiology. 2001 Oct;95(4):828-35.". In: Anesthesiology. 2001 Oct;95(4):828-35. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Whether the fetus can experience pain remains controversial. During the last half of pregnancy, the neuroanatomic connections for nociception are in place, and the human fetus mounts sizable stress responses to physical insults. Analgesia has been recommended for intrauterine procedures or late termination, but without evidence that it works. The authors investigated whether fentanyl ablates the fetal stress response to needling using the model of delayed interval sampling during intrahepatic vein blood sampling and transfusion in alloimmunized fetuses undergoing intravascular transfusion between 20 and 35 weeks. METHODS: Intravenous fentanyl (10 microg/kg estimated fetal weight x 1.25 placental correction) was given once at intrahepatic vein transfusion in 16 fetuses, and changes (posttransfusion - pretransfusion) in beta endorphin, cortisol, and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index were compared with intrahepatic vein transfusions without fentanyl and with control transfusions at the placental cord insertion. RESULTS: Fentanyl reduced the beta endorphin (mean difference in changes, -70.3 pg/ml; 95% confidence interval, -121 to -19.2; P = 0.02) and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index response (mean difference, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-1.04; P = 0.03), but not the cortisol response (mean difference, -10.9 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval, -24.7 to 2.9; P = 0.11) in fetuses who had paired intrahepatic vein transfusions with and without fentanyl. Comparison with control fetuses transfused without fentanyl indicated that the beta endorphin and cerebral Doppler response to intrahepatic vein transfusion with fentanyl approached that of nonstressful placental cord transfusions. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that intravenous fentanyl attenuates the fetal stress response to intrahepatic vein needling.
Charlese JK, Abungu DNO. "Effect of Distributed Generation Penetration on System Power Losses and Voltage Profiles." IInternational Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2013;3(ISSN 2250-3153).j._kilonzi_and_dr._abungu_2.pdf
T
Onsomu ZN, ONCHIRI MO. "THE EFFECT OF DIVIDEND POLICY ON SHARE PRICE VOLATILITY." THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT. 2014;2(7):115-120.relationship_between_dividend__policy_and_share_price_volatility.pdf
Onsomu ZN, ONCHIRI MO. "THE EFFECT OF DIVIDEND POLICY ON SHARE PRICE VOLATILITY." THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT. 2014;2. Abstract
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Onsomu ZN, Onchiri MO. "The Effect of Dividend Policy on Stock Price Volatility: A Kenyan Perspective." The International Journal of Business & Management. 2014;2:115. Abstract
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Njuguna J, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W. "Effect of Dolomitic Lime and Muriate of Potash on Jelly Seed Disorder and Fruit Tissue Mineral Content in Mango (Mangifera indica L.)." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2016:1-8. Abstract
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Mewa, Eunice. A. OMKCRWNMN. "Effect of drying air temperature and slice thickness on the physical and microbiological quality of dried beef." LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2018;92:484-489.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Effect of drying Lactic Fermented Uji (an East African Sour Porridge) on some carboxylic acids. J.Sci.Food Agric. 80: 1854-1858, 2000.". In: 6th International Seminar on Traditional African Fermented Foods, Sponsored by European Union, Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA) and CSIR . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2000. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Mbondo NN, Ambuko J, Sila DN, Owino WO, others. "Effect of drying methods and temperature on the bioactive compounds in African eggplant.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Mbondo NN, Owino WO, Ambuko J, Sila DN. "Effect of drying methods on the retention of bioactive compounds in African eggplant." Food science & nutrition. 2018;6:814-823. Abstract
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Mbuge DO, MM K, E BKM, S M, DA M, J A. "The Effect of Drying Temperature on Nutrient levels in Oyster Mushroom." AJST. Submitted.
Mbuge DO, Kanyara MM, B.K.Mutai E, Murunga S, Mutuli DA, Agullo J. "The Effect of Drying Temperature on Nutrient levels in Oyster Mushroom." AJST. Submitted; ( ). Abstractdocument_2.pdf

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Mbuge DO, Kanyara MM, Mutai BK, Murunga S, Mutuli DA, Agullo J. "The Effect of Drying Temperature on Nutrient levels in Oyster Mushroom.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Mushrooms have been identified as an underutilized crop in Africa, with many nutritive and health benefits. It does not require much land and investment. However, it is highly perishable and there is need to process it to lengthen its shelf life by drying. However, there is need to ensure that the nutrients are not lost in the process. It is for this reason that this project investigated the effect of drying on nutrient levels in mushroom. Vitamin C levels were monitored in the course of drying at 80⁰C, 60⁰C, 50⁰C, 40⁰C and in direct sunlight. It was concluded that the temperature that gave the best drying rate with minimal nutrient loss was 60⁰C. In general, more than half the Vitamin C is lost during the range of drying temperatures investigated.

S.M G, Larsen M, Thamsborf SM, Nansen P. "The effect of duddingtonia Flagrans on naturally acquired ovine nematode infections.". 1998;23:106. Abstract

The ability of the nematode destroying fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (DSM 6703) to control naturally acquired ovine nematode infections was evaluated using four groups of 8 parasite-naïve lambs which were turned out on infected paddocks. Two groups (F1+2) received Duddingtonia flagrans mixed in 100 grams barley while the other two (C1 +2) received barley only. All groups remained set stocked until slaughter.

The faecal egg counts were comparable for the 2 treatments throughout the grazing period. Larval development of Ostertagia/Trichostrongylus spp. in faecal cultures was 1 – 28% in the fungal fed groups capred with 60-80% in the untreated groups(p-0.05). in September, pasture larval counts of Ostertagia spp. were 62% lower in the fungi fed groups compared with the untreated groups (p-0.05). Four parasite free lambs were introduced to each paddock in October o monitor any differences in pasture infectivity and slaughtered for worm counts after 3 weeks of housing. The total worm burden of traces on paddocks previously grazed by fungi-fed lambs was reduced 86% (p-0.05); geometric means) compared with control groups, while significant reductions were also seen in abomasal worm counts (6;8%; p-0.05).

Shakur H, Roberts I, Fawole B, Chaudhri R, El-Sheikh M, desina Akintan, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Kidanto H, Vwalika B, Abdulkadir A, Etuk S, Noor S, Asonganyi E, Alfirevic Z, Beaumont D, Ronsmans C, Arulkumaran S. "Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Summary
Background
Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of
tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration
of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage.
Methods
In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a
clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries.
We randomly assigned women to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual
care. If bleeding continued after 30 min, or stopped and restarted within 24 h of the first dose, a second dose of 1 g of
tranexamic acid or placebo could be given. Patients were assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box
containing eight numbered packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Participants, care givers, and those
assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. We originally planned to enrol 15
000 women with a composite primary
endpoint of death from all-causes or hysterectomy within 42 days of giving birth. However, during the trial it became
apparent that the decision to conduct a hysterectomy was often made at the same time as randomisation. Although
tranexamic acid could influence the risk of death in these cases, it could not affect the risk of hysterectomy. We therefore
increased the sample size from 15
000 to 20
000 women in order to estimate the effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of
death from post-partum haemorrhage. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with
ISRCTN76912190 (Dec 8, 2008); ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00872469; and PACTR201007000192283.
Findings
Between March, 2010, and April, 2016, 20
060
women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive
tranexamic acid (n=10
051) or placebo (n=10
009), of whom 10
036 and 9985, respectively, were included in the analysis.
Death due to bleeding was significantly reduced in women given tranexamic acid (155 [1·5%] of 10
036 patients
vs
191
[1·9%] of 9985 in the placebo group, risk ratio [RR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·65–1·00; p=0·045), especially in women given
treatment within 3 h of giving birth (89 [1·2%] in the tranexamic acid group
vs
127 [1·7%] in the placebo group,
RR 0·69, 95% CI 0·52–0·91; p=0·008). All other causes of death did not differ significantly by group. Hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (358 [3·6%] patients in the tranexamic acid group
vs
351 [3·5%] in the placebo
group, RR 1·02, 95% CI 0·88–1·07; p=0·84). The composite primary endpoint of death from all causes or hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (534 [5·3%] deaths or hysterectomies in the tranexamic acid group
vs
546 [5·5%]
in the placebo group, RR 0·97, 95% CI 0·87-1·09; p=0·65). Adverse events (including thromboembolic events) did
not differ significantly in the tranexamic acid versus placebo group.
Interpretation
Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding in women with post-partum haemorrhage with no
adverse effects. When used as a treatment for postpartum haemorrhage, tranexamic acid should be given as soon as
possible after bleeding onset.
Funding
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Pfizer, UK Department of Health, Wellcome Trust, and
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Wakulele SR, Odock SO, Chepkulei B, Kiswili NE. "Effect of eco-design practices on the performance of manufacturing firms in Mombasa County, Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2016;7(8):86-104. Abstract

Eco-design is a new approach to products design; it has emerged as a key approach for manufacturing firms seeking to become environmentally sustainable and globally competitive. The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of adoption of Eco-design practices on organizational performance of manufacturing firms in Mombasa County, Kenya. A cross sectional survey research design was adopted for this study. It targeted a population a population of manufacturing firms in Mombasa County listed by Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM, 2014). A sample of 65 firms was taken and data was collected using questionnaires. The results obtained indicated that Eco-design practices adoption was at the planning/ implementation stage as most of the manufacturing firms had considered adoption. The study also established that the major challenges of adopting Eco-design practices are Unsuccessful integration of Eco-design, Lack of knowhow in managing changes in design procedures, and Lack of technical knowledge about Eco-design. Lastly the findings show that Eco-design practices have positive influence on organization performance with greatest impact being on environmental impact reduction and financial performance. The study recommends that manufacturing firms should get enough training and empowerment on how to implement Eco-design practices so as to ensure success, reduce fear of failure and encourage environmental sustainability. They should also act fast and implement Ecodesign practices since there are potential benefits after implementation such as improvement in environmental impact reduction and financial performance. Lastly the researcher recommends that since government rules and legislations and organization capabilities are the major drivers of adoption of Eco-design practices they should review their policies and allocate more resources to ensure effective adoption and implementation of Eco-design practices. This is because the bedrock of economic and social development in Kenya is the environment; hence environment sustainability should be given first priority.

Key words: Green supply chain management, Life Cycle Analysis, Design for Disassembly, Design for
Environment, Design for Recycling

Agwanda A, and BP, Kahasakhala A, Owuor S. "The effect of economic crisis on youth precariousness in Nairobi: An analysis of itinerary to adulthood of three generations of men and women in Nairobi .". In: at Union of African Population Studies Conference. Tunis, Tunisia: E Afr Med J; 2003. Abstract

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

Agwanda AO. "The effect of economic crisis on youth precariousness in Nairobi: An analysis of itinerary to adulthood of three generations of men and women.". In: Document De Travail DT/2004/04 Development et insertion Internationale (DIAL) http://www.dial.prd.fr/dial . E Afr Med J; 2004. Abstract

African Population Studies 19 (2): 42-62

Atieno L, Ateka EM, Ambuko J, Owino W, others. "Effect of edible coatings on shelf life and quality of cassava roots.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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IKAMARI LAWRENCEDE. "The effect of education on the timing of marriage in Kenya." Demographic Research. 2005;12:1-28. Abstract
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Ikamari LDE. "The effect of education on timing of marriage in Kenya." Demographic Research Journal. 2005;12:1-20.Website
K.Muriithi M, G.Mutegi R, Mwabu G. "The Effect of Educational Policies on Kenyan Education Profile.". In: NTA Meetings. Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 2011.
Kiriinya LK, Marijnissen JCM, GATARI MJ. "Effect of EHDA in the Simple jet mode with whipping break-up on the Evaporation ratio in Thermal Desalination Systems.". In: European Aerosol Conference (EAC2017). Zurich, Switzerland; 2017.
Menge RN, MWANGI MIRIE, Kimani JG. "Effect of elections on stock market returns at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." Prime Journal of Social Science . 2014;3(6):763-768. Abstract

Country’s politics can exert significant influence on its income distribution and prosperity hence affect the activities in a stock market as voters in democratic states elect parties which best represent their personal beliefs and interests. Election results may affect post-election corporate performance either by influencing a country’s overall economy, like through changes in government spending either through fiscal changes, or company or sector-specific decisions such as changes in the regulatory environment after the new administration has been established. This study sought to examine the effects of the general elections on the stock market return of companies listed in the Nairobi Securities Exchange. The study adopted an event study methodology since the study was concerned with the establishment of the information content of election results announcement on share performance at the NSE. The population of this study was 56 companies listed in the NSE. The study used secondary data to gather information. Data obtained from the NSE covered the period before and after 31st December 2002, 27th December 2007 and 4th March, 2013 elections. The collected secondary data was coded and entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Version 20) for analysis. Study findings from the market model indicated that the market return is a good predictor of actual stock returns. ANOVA results indicated that abnormal returns, actual stock returns, and expected returns before elections were significantly higher than abnormal returns after the elections. It is recommended that investors should factor in elections effect when making investment decisions. Specifically, investors should buy stocks after elections and sell them when their returns are high, that is, before elections. It is recommended that the Government should maintain stability after elections as economy brings about drops in stock returns. The unique contribution of this study is that is reduces the lack of conclusiveness on the studies which attempt to link elections to performance of stock markets in sub-Saharan African economies

Kasaya MA, Munjuri MG. "Effect of Employee Involvement on Job Performance in the Medical Research Industry in Kenya." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(5):826-847.job_involvement_and_job_performance.pdf
xviWekesaand L1, Maaalu J.K.2 GWJ 2 G. "Effect of Entrepreneur Characteristics on Performance of Non- Timber Forest Products Small and Medium Enterprises in Kenya." DBA Africa Management Review . 2016;6(3):16-26.
Flohr H, Breull W. "Effect of etafenone on total and regional myocardial blood flow." Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25(9):1400-3. Abstract

The distribution of blood flow to the subendocardial, medium and subepicardial layers of the left ventricular free wall was studied in anaesthetized dogs under normoxic (A), hypoxic (B) conditions and under pharmacologically induced (etafenone) coronary vasodilation (C). Regional myocardial blood flow was determined by means of the particle distribution method. In normoxia a transmural gradient of flow was observed, with the subendocardial layers receiving a significantly higher flow rate compared with the subepicardial layers. In hypoxia induced vasodilation this transmural gradient of flow was persistent. In contrast a marked redistribution of regional flow was observed under pharmacologically induced vasodilation. The transmural gradient decreased. In contrast to some findings these experiments demonstrate that a considerable vasodilatory capacity exists in all layers of the myocardium and can be utilized by drugs. The differences observed for the intramural distribution pattern of flow under hypoxia and drug induced vasodilation support the hypothesis that this pattern reflects corresponding gradients of regional myocardial metabolism.

S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effect of ethephon on growth, yield and yield components of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology, 5: 22-38.". In: Proceedings. 6th triennial congress of the African Potato Association (APA). 5-10 April, 2004. Agadir, Morocco. Pp.298-299. Taylor & Francis; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
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Elly OD, Ojung’a AS. "THE EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN KENYA." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Vol. 1 September 2013(9). Abstractthe_effect_of_exchange_rate_volatility_on_foreign_direct.pdf

Kenya like most developing countries has had a deficiency of investment capital which can
negatively affect economic activities. Due to the decline in official development assistance (ODA)
in the 1990s, most of the developing countries’ governments have put in efforts to attract foreign
direct investment which not only creates employment opportunities but also contributes to
economic growth and development. This study therefore investigates the effect of exchange rate
volatility on foreign direct investments (FDI) in Kenya by examining the degree of relationship
between the exchange rate volatility and FDI inflows.
Secondary annual data of both FDI inflows and Exchange rate fluctuation variables for the periods
1981 to 2010 were collected and analyzed in the study. This period is sampled since it captures
three exchange rates regime namely fixed rates regimes, pegged rates regimes and finally floating
rates regimes. The data for real effective exchange rates and FDI are obtained from the IMF and
World Bank data bases on their websites and from the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK).
The findings of the study indicate that the correlation between the two variables is 0.318 implying a
positive correlation which is however weak. The study recommends a more controlled
macroeconomic environment in order to control the fluctuations of the macro economic variables
hence attract more foreign investors in order to increase the FDI inflows into the country. It further
considers future investigation on the contributions of other variables that affect FDI.
Key Words: Exchange rate fluctuations, Foreign direct investments (FDI).

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Obala LM, Olima WHA. The effect of existing land tenure systems on urban land development: A case study of Kenya's secondary towns, with emphasis on Kisumu.; 1988. Abstract

The Kenya Government has over a number of years pursued policies geared towards the promotion of secondary towns. Included in this strategy is the achievement of an orderly and coordinated urban land development. However, experience from these towns indicates that, planned land development has encountered a lot of bottlenecks particularly in relation to the institution of private ownership of land. This paper traces the land tenure systems that have existed in the Kenya’s secondary towns. In general, the paper examines the effects of land tenure forms on the provision of housing and the related infrastructure. The effects of existing land tenure identified include influence on housing development, influence on planned land development, cloudiness of titles, hoarding and speculation, insecurity, inflexibility and inequity. The paper concludes by making suggestions based on the observed bottlenecks that should be considered to encourage and promote systematic urban land development in secondary towns.

Obala LM, Olima WHA. The effect of existing land tenure systems on urban land development: A case study of Kenya's secondary towns, with emphasis on Kisumu.; 1988. Abstract

The Kenya Government has over a number of years pursued policies geared towards the promotion of secondary towns. Included in this strategy is the achievement of an orderly and coordinated urban land development. However, experience from these towns indicates that, planned land development has encountered a lot of bottlenecks particularly in relation to the institution of private ownership of land. This paper traces the land tenure systems that have existed in the Kenya’s secondary towns. In general, the paper examines the effects of land tenure forms on the provision of housing and the related infrastructure. The effects of existing land tenure identified include influence on housing development, influence on planned land development, cloudiness of titles, hoarding and speculation, insecurity, inflexibility and inequity. The paper concludes by making suggestions based on the observed bottlenecks that should be considered to encourage and promote systematic urban land development in secondary towns.

Magoha GAO. The effect of exogenous testosterone on the testicular histology in male rats. . EAMJ; 1983. Abstract

Primary malignant lymphomas of the female breast are rare up to date such tumors have been described in the male. Majority of the malignant tumors of the breast are the well known infiltrating duct carcinoma. This is report of a mammary non-Hodgkins malignant lymphoma in a 35 year old Nigerian female. This tumor had a rapid progression terminating in death seven months after histological diagnosis. The clinical presentation, treatment, prognosis and the differential diagnosis with medullary and poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast are discussed.

Maitai CK. "Effect of extract of hairs from the herb Urtica massaica, on smooth muscle." Toxicon.. 1980;18(2):225-229. AbstractWebsite

Cathinone, a potent psychostimulant isolated from young shoots of Catha edulis was given to four human volunteers. Examination of urine collected from the volunteers at predetermined intervals showed the presence of unchanged cathinone, d-norpseudoephedrine, and two unidentified basic substances. The observed biotransformation of cathinone to the less potent psychostimulant, d-norpseudoephedrine involves reduction of a ketone group to alcohol, a common metabolic pathway in humans.

Maitai CK, Talalaj S, Njoroge D, Wamugunda R. "Effect of extract of hairs from the herb Urtica massaica, on smooth muscle." Toxicon. 1980;18(2):225-9.
R. Mogwasi, D.K.Kariuki GMZ. "Effect of Farm Additives on the Potential Bioavailability of some Nutritional Elements from Kenyan Wild Plants." Biological Trace Elements. 2019;DOI.10.1007/s12011-019-01855-8.
Mutundi AN, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM, Leley PK, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Farm Saved Maize (Zea mays L.) Seed on Intensity of Foliage Diseases." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2019;11(8):45-57.
Kipkosgei LK;, Akundabweni LSM;, Hutchinson MJ. "The effect of farmyard manure and nitrogen fertilizer on vegetative growth, leaf yield and quality attributes of Solanum villosum (Black nightshade) in Keiyo district, rift valley."; 2003. Abstract

The African Leafy Vegetables (ALVs) are particularly important as adjunct accompaniment to the staple cereal foods such as the East African corn meal (ugali). In order to increase productivity and utilization of these ALVs, there is needed to develop suitable agronomic practices suited for farmers in specific agro-ecological zones. A study was carried with an objective of determining the effects of various levels of Farmyard manure and Calcium Ammonium nitrate (CAN) on vegetative growth, yield and quality (Vitamins A & C, Nitrates) of Solanum villosum in Keiyo district, between long rains and short rains of Year 2002. Effect of prolonged cooking by the Keiyos on vitamin A and C as well as anti-nutrient (nitrate) content of this vegetable was also determined. The experimental layout was a RCBD with four replicates. The treatments were four levels of organic manure (5, 10, 15, 20 t/ha) and four rates of nitrogen fertilizers (100, 200, 300, 400 kg/ha). The addition of various rates of organic and inorganic fertilizers that were tested significantly improved vegetative growth and increased leaf yields of Solanum villosum (p<0.05). The yields obtained from plants grown with organic manure were generally higher than from those with inorganic fertilizers. The incorporation of either organic or inorganic fertilizer increased Vitamin A content especially in older (14 week) tissues during both seasons. The organic manures at high levels (20t/ha) increased, while application of C.A.N at 200-400 kg/ha decreased Vitamin C content in both young and older tissues. During the first season, application of both organic and inorganic fertilizers decreased the accumulation of nitrates in young tissues. Traditional methods of boiling the ALV’s for long significantly reduced vitamin A and C and nitrates content. In all experiments, the farmer’s crop, though better than the controls, were comparable to low fertilizer levels, in all attributes determined. In conclusion the quality attributes of Solanum villosum was influenced, significantly, by the kind and rate of fertilizer applied, the season of growth, plant age, farmer’s agronomic practices as well as cooking.

Gaudence N, Aimable N, MBUYA TO, Mose BR. "Effect of Fe, Mn and Sr on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Secondary Al-Si-Cu-Mg Cast Alloys." Journal of Engineering Research and Technology. 2019;8(5):284-289. Abstracthttp://dx.doi.org/10.17577/IJERTV8IS050281

This paper presents results on the effect of Sr, Fe and combined additions of Fe and Mn on the microstructure and tensile properties of a secondary Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy. The microstructure features of base alloy consisted mainly of a structure with primary Al-matrix, coarse acicular Si particles and intermetallic phases such as Al2Cu and AlCuNi. When 0.02%Sr was added to the base alloy, coarse acicular Si particles were modified to a fine fibrous form. With addition of 0.38%Fe, results in the formation of large eutectic silicon particles and Fe rich intermetallic. Moreover, when 0.45%Mn was added in combination with 0.9%Fe, the Al2Cu, and -AlFeMnSi with Chinese script morphology were identified. It is noticed that after T6 heat treatment, the Si particles are seen to spheroidize and fragment while the Al2Cu phases dissolve completely. These changes lead to improved mechanical performance of the alloy. The addition of strontium decreases the ultimate Tensile strength and increases percent elongation while addition of low iron and iron with manganese decreases UTS and percent elongation in the as cast condition. T6 heat treatment increases the ultimate tensile strength while ductility decreases due to the fragmentation and spheroidization of eutectic silicon particles.

Syomiti MM, Wanyike MM, Wahome RG, Kuria, J K, Lukuyu B. "Effect of Feed Mixtures and Preservation period on the Nutritive Value and Fermentation characteristics of Ensiled maize stovers." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2009;74 (3 ):227-234.
Abate A;, Wakhungu JW;, Mutiga ER. "Effect of feeding system on animal production and reproduction.".; 1992.
KURIA PROFMBUGUASAMUEL. "Effect of fermentation, malted flour treatment and drum drying on nutritional quality of Uji. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. Vol. 28: 271 .". In: Workshop initiated by UNACC Subcommittee on Nutrition ACC/SCN), UNHCR and WFP with support by GTZ, 5 . The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
Mutembe N, Elly D. "Effect of Financial Literacy on Voluntary Retirement Planning Among Employees of State Corporations Under the Ministry of Health in Nairobi County, Kenya ." African development finance journal . Submitted;1(1):1-27 . Abstracteffect_of_financial_literacy_on_voluntary_retirement_planning_among_employees_of_state_corporations_under_the_ministry_of_health_in_nairobi_county_kenya.pdf

Purpose - The study sought to determine the effect of financial literacy on voluntary retirement planning among employees of state corporations under the Ministry of Health in Nairobi County, Kenya. Methodology – This study adopted a descriptive study design and uses primary data collected using a questionnaire with a five point Likert scale on the parameters of each variable. The study applied simple random sampling technique to select respondents to participate in the study. Data is analysed using means, percentages and frequencies. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the relationship between financial literacy and voluntary retirement planning. Findings – Financial literacy was found to influence the level of voluntary retirement planning among the employees since they are able to make key decisions that involve money in such a way that there is minimal risk to them. The study also established that financial literacy has a positive impact on voluntary retirement planning, however the results indicate that other factors such as income levels, age, marital status and level of education are also strongly related to retirement planning. Implications – To boost the voluntary retirement planning process, the eventuality of retirement should be made obvious for all the employees in the Kenyan economy so as to influence peoples’ attitude and receptiveness to the process. There is therefore need to develop financial education programs that focus particularly on important financial planning aspects for employees that will help them strike a balance between consumption and saving. Value – The findings of this study would also be valuable to the Retirement Benefits Authority and the Government of Kenya in development of policies and regulations

Muia SM, Kariuki MI. "Effect of Financial Management Practices on Performance of Savings and Credit Co-Operative Societies in Mombasa County, Kenya. ." Journal of Economics and Finance (IOSR-JEF). 2019;10(4):47-57.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effect of fodder legume species on germination, infestation and parasitism of Striga hermonthica (DEL) Benth. on maize.". In: Paper submitted in the 3rd International Weed Science Congress in June 2000 at Foz du Iguasu, Brazil. University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI, S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effect of fodder legume species on germination, infestation and parasitism of Striga hermonthica (DEL) Benth. on maize.". In: Paper submitted in the 3rd International Weed Science Congress in June 2000 at Foz du Iguasu, Brazil. Taylor & Francis; 2000. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Ndung’u DK;, Oswald A;, Friesen D;, Ariga ES;, Mburu M. "Effect of fodder legumes on stimulation, attachment and emergence of Striga hermonthica on maize."; 2002.
Mwinami T, Junga JO, Oduma JA, Chesire D, Musina J, Kioko E, Ayiemba W, Harper DM. "EFFECT OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON AVIAN SPECIES COMPOSITION, DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION WITHIN AN UPLAND TROPICAL FOREST ECOSYSTEM:.". 2021.
Ndombi EM, Abudho B, Kittur N, Carter JM, Korir H, Riner DK, Ochanda H, Lee Y‐M, S EW. "Effect of four rounds of annual school‐wide mass praziquantel treatment for schistosoma mansoni control on schistosome‐specific immune responses." Parasite Immunology. 2018:e12530.
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D E, W K, J. K. "THE EFFECT OF GENERAL ELECTIONS ON STOCK RETURNS AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." European Scientific Journal. 2016;11(28):1857-7881. AbstractEffects_of_general_elections_on_stock_returns_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange.pdf

The performance of the financial markets is significantly impacted by
the political environment during eneral ellections. This paper focussed on the
effect of general ellections on the stock retuns at the Nairobi Securities
exchange. Emperical results have given inconsistent results on whether
general election events negatively of positively impact the stock return. The
study adopted event study methodology and analysed secondary data
collected from the NSE around the 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2013 general
election dates in Kenya. The study found that market reaction to elections is
highly negative or positive depending on the volatility of the election
environment. Analysis of the cumulative abnormal returns (CAR) found that
the 2002 and 2013 general elections were insignificant, while the CAR
around the 1997 and 2007 general election events were found to be
significant at 5% level of significance. The study, thus recommends that
stock market, investors and other stakeholders not to overlook electioneering
events, and to implement policies that will cusion the security market against
political risks during general elections to enhance investor confidence

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Maciel S, Okeyo AM, Amimo J, Scholtz MM, Neser FWC, Martins M. "The effect of geographical region of birth on the reproductive performance of the Nguni in southern Mozambique." South African Journal Of Animal Science. 2013;43(5 (1)):59-62.
Otieno PS, Ogutu CA, Mburu J, Nyikal RA. "Effect of Global-GAP Policy on Climate Change Perceptions of Smallholder French Beans Farmers in Central and Eastern Regions, Kenya." Climate . 2017;5(2). AbstractWebsite

The risks posed by climate change to Sub Saharan Africa’s (SSA) smallholder fresh export fruit and vegetables production are amplifying the significance of farmers’ climate change perceptions in enhancing adoption of suitable adaptation strategies. Production of fresh export fruit and vegetables in Kenya has increasingly been done under the Global-GAP standard scheme by smallholder farmers to improve both environmental conservation and market access. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Global-GAP policy on climate change perceptions of smallholder French beans farmers. The analysis was based on data collected from a random sample of 616 households interviewed in the Central and Eastern regions of Kenya. The study used principal component analysis (PCA) to extract farmers’ key prevailing climate change perceptions and logit regression model to examine the effect of Global-GAP policy on climate change perceptions among other socio-economic factors. The PCA analysis extracted three components proxying for ‘droughts’, ‘delay in rainy seasons’, ‘diseases and pests’ and three proxying for ‘hot days’, ‘floods’, and ‘diseases and pests’ as summarizing maximum variance in the perceptions in the Central and Eastern region respectively. The common, study area-wide climate change perception was identified as incidence of diseases and pest. Logit regression analysis found that Global-GAP policy significantly influenced and improved farmers’ probability of perceiving climate change. Other factors found to influence farmers’ probability of having the identified climate change perceptions included regional specificity, access to agricultural extension service, access to credit, plot size, and soil fertility. The policy implication of this study is that the government and service providers should mainstream factors like Global-GAP compliance and regional considerations found to improve probability of perceiving climate change in awareness creation extension strategies, towards enhancing adoption of adaptation measures in the smallholder fruits and vegetables farming sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: Global-GAP certification; climate change perception; principal component analysis; logit regression model; smallholder; French beans farming; Kenya

Otieno PS, Ogutu CA, Mburu J, Nyikal RA. "Effect of Global-GAP policy on smallholder French beans farmers’ climate change adaptation strategies in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2017;12(8):577-587.
Kithinji AM. "The Effect of Government Expenditure on Fiscal Deficits in Kenya." THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLEDGE . 2019;7(2):122-125. Abstract

Abstract:
In many economies world over, accountability and transparency as well as fiscal discipline in public expenditures take
priority as the main catalysts to economic growth. However, large fiscal deficits have been reported in most developing
countries which lead to inflation and currency devaluations. In this case, Kenyan government is no exception as its
expenditures are consistently way above its revenues. This study therefore attempted to assess the relationship between
government expenditure and fiscal deficit in Kenya. This study used a causal research design. Secondary data was
obtained from the financial records of National Bureau of Statistics, The Economic Surveys, Kenya Institute of Policy
Analysis and Research (KIPRA) and the Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR) ranging from year 2004/05 to
2010/11. Regression model was used to estimate the effect of government expenditure on fiscal deficits. The study
established that a unit increase in government expenditure, increases fiscal deficit of GDP. The study recommends that
the government of Kenya should come up with strong working policy to regulate the expenditure of its resources.

Keywords: Government expenditure, fiscal deficits, recurrent expenditures, development expenditures, budget deficits

K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "The effect of grass strips on terrace development and crop yield. Special Issue of E.A.A.F. Journal, Vol. 65 No. 1, 79 .". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Patrick G Mwangi, GACHUIRI CHARLESK, Mbugua PN, Isako T. "EFFECT OF GROWTH STAGE OF DUAL PURPOSE SORGHUM ON SILAGE QUALITY." American Journal of Agricultural Research. 2019;4.
STELLAH NEKESA WANYONYI, EVANS MUNGAI MWANGI NATHANGICHUKI. "Effect of habitat disturbance on distribution and abundance of Papyrus endemic birds in Sio Port Swamp, Western Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2018;8(2):51-62.
Malusi B, L.O O. "Effect of Handedness on Completion Rate of Chemistry Timed Tasks by LeftHanded Learners .". In: The IAFOR International Conference on Education. Dubai; 2018.iicedubai2018_39167.pdf
Muiruri J, Ambuko J, Nyankanga R, Owino WO, others. "The effect of harvest maturity on the quality attributes of solar-dried mango products of selected mango varieties.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
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Shiwani, D.I., Kalai, J.M., Gatumu JC, Akala WJ. "Effect of Head Teachers’ Acquisition of Teaching and Learning Resources on Implementation of Inclusive Education in Public Primary Schools in Nairobi City County. ." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2021;2(1):90-108.
Wang’ombe JK, Ng’ang’a P, WANZALA. "EFFECT OF HEALTH EDUCATION ON ORAL HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG PERSONS LIVING WITH HIV AT TWO COMPREHENSIVE CARE CENTRES IN KENYA." East African Medical Journal. 2016;Vol. 93(No. 9):111-116.abstract.pdf
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effect of health education on oral hygiene and gingival status of persons living with HIV attending two Comprehensive Care Centres in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: African Journal of AIDS Research. 2011;10:481-486. (In Press). Gathece LW, Wang; 2011. Abstract

The study aimed to describe the effect of an oral health education intervention on oral hygiene status and gingival inflammation among persons with HIV attending two comprehensive healthcare centres in Nairobi, Kenya. This was a quasi-experimental study of 195 participants (with 102 in the intervention group, and 93 serving as the control group) who were selected using stratified random sampling. The data were collected at baseline, at three months (review 1), and at six months (review 2) using an interviewer-administered World Health Organization clinical examination form. The prevalence of plaque among the participants in the intervention decreased from 70.6% to 18.6%, with a significant decrease in their mean plaque score, from 0.89 to 0.15. The prevalence of gingival inflammation in the intervention group decreased from 58.2% to 12.7%, with a significant decrease in the mean gingival score, from 0.66 to 0.11. No significant change in degree of oral hygiene and gingival inflammation was observed among the non-intervention group. There was a strong association between the change in the mean gingival score and the change in the mean plaque score between baseline and at six months for the intervention group. The regression analysis yielded a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.76; therefore, 76% of the variation in change in gingival score was explained by the variables in the equation. Only the change in mean plaque score was a significant predictor of the change in gingival score.

Keywords: Africa, dental hygiene, dental plaque, gingival inflammation, oral health education, oral manifestations of HIV infection, periodontal disease

African Journal of AIDS Research 2011, 10(4): 495–500

Odhiambo SA, Wambugu A, Kiriti-Ng’ang’a T. "Effect of Health Expenditure on Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa: Governance Perspective." Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development . 2015;6(8):43-65.
Odhiambo SA, Wambugu A, Kiriti-Ng’ang’a T. "Effect of Health Expenditure on Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa: Governance Perspective." Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development . 2015;6(8):24-65.
and DO Ogoyi, CJ Mwita EKNCOWPMS. Effect of heavy metal pollution on microalgae richness and diversity in Lake Victoria. Bujumbura, Burundi: VICRES; 2009.
Yumbya P, Hutchinson M, Ambuko J, Owino W. "Effect of Hexanal as a Post-harvest Treatment to Extend the Shelf-life of Banana Fruits (Musa acuminata var. Sweet Banana) in Kenya." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2019:1-16. Abstract
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A Obiero, J Kalai OU. "Effect of Home Related Factors on Students Discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Education and Social Science. 2018;5(10):2415-1246 .
SJ S. "Effect of homemade dental powder on population of streptococcus mutans." journal of dentistry and oral care. 2016;2(4):1-7.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "The effect of homogenization stabilizer and amylase on cloudiness of passion fruit juice. Food Control II (2000): 305.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2000. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Sanchez G, Alderete JF. "The effect of host adrenalectomy on the physiology of Trypanosoma rhodesiense." Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1975;52(4):623-6.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Effect of human immunodeficiency virus on local immunity in children with diarrhoea. Kakai R; Bwayo JJ; Wamola IA; Ndinya-Achola JO Plummer FA. East Afr Med J. 1995 Nov;72(11):699-702.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Nov;72(11):699-702. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
The factors responsible for the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be identified and debated. One of the most controversial factors has been male circumcision. This cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the association between circumcision status and infection with HIV-1 among men with genital ulcer disease. Eight hundred and ten men participated in the study, of whom 190 (23%) were HIV-1-positive. A logistic regression model adjusted for behavioral and historical showed that HIV-1 positivity was independently associated with being uncircumcised (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-7.2) and with a history of urethral discharge (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). This association could not be explained by measures of sexual exposure to HIV-1 among this population. Male circumcision should be considered as an intervention strategy for AIDS control.
K. PROFSINEISAMUEL. "Effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection upon acute salpingitis: a laparoscopic study.J Infect Dis. 1998 Nov;178(5):1352-8.PMID: 9780255 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: a laparoscopic study.J Infect Dis. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1998. Abstract
Cohen CR, Sinei S, Reilly M, Bukusi E, Eschenbach D, Holmes KK, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo J, Grieco V, Stamm W, Karanja J, Kreiss J. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA. crohen@u.washington.edu To determine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection upon pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a laparoscopic study of acute PID was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects underwent diagnostic laparoscopy, HIV-1 serology, and testing for sexually transmitted diseases. Of the 133 women with laparoscopically verified salpingitis, 52 (39%) were HIV-1-seropositive. Tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) were found in 33% of HIV-1-infected and 15% of HIV-1-uninfected women (odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-6.5). Among seropositive women, TOA was found in 55% of those with CD4 cell percent <14% vs. 28% with CD4 cell percent>14% (OR 3.1, 95% CI 0.6-15.3). Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected in 37 women (28%) and Chlamydia trachomatis in 12 (9%); neither was significantly related to HIV-1 seropositivity. Length of hospitalization was not affected by HIV-1 serostatus overall but was prolonged among HIV-1-infected women with CD4 cell percent <14%. Among patients with acute salpingitis, likelihood of TOA was related to HIV-1 infection and advanced immunosuppression. In general, HIV-1-seropositive women with acute salpingitis responded well to treatment. PMID: 9780255 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Munjuri MG. "The effect of Human Resource Management practices in enhancing employee performance in catholic institutions of Higher learning in Kenya." International Journal of Business Administration. 2011;Vol 2(No. 4):189-224.
K'Obonyo PO, Lucy OK, Ogutu M. "The Effect of Human Resource Strategic Orientation and Organizational Factors on Employee Job Performance in Tanzania State Corporations.". 2014. Abstract

This study examined the relationship among human resource strategic orientation, organizational factors and employee job performance in Tanzania State Corporations. A total of three hypotherses were established to test for the hypothesized relatinships. A cross sectional survey research design was adopted. Primary data was colleced through a properly disinged questionnaire while secondary data was obtained thrugh published information. Data on human resource strategic orientation and organizational factors variable was obtained from HR managers in 53 State Corporation in Tanzania. Furthermore, a double source ratings data on employee job performance variable was obtained from a sample of 284 employees and 80 supervisors. Correlations and hierarchical regression analysis were performed to examine the relationships. Results of this study provide support for the the central hypothesis of this study that human resource strategic orientatin has a positive and significant effect on employee job performance. Furthermore, culture and politics have a significant influence n the relationship between human resource strategic orientation and employee job performance. This study has contributed significantly to the conceptual and theoretical foundation in the strategic human resource management literature.

O. PK’OP, R. BJ, M. O. "The effect of human resource strategic orientation on performance of large private manufacturing firms in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management. 2013;Volume 3( Issue 1):822-833. Abstract

The study was set to investigate the effect of human resource strategic orientation on performance of large private manufacturing firms in Kenya based on the following general research objective: To establish the relationship between human resource strategic orientation and performance. The specific objectives of the study were as follows: (i) to determine the effect of universalistic perspective human resource strategic orientation on firm performance; (ii) to determine the effect of contingency perspective of human resource strategic orientation on firm performance. The target population was all large private manufacturing firms in Kenya that were registered members of Kenya Association of Manufacturers. Using probability sampling, a sample population of 108 firms was chosen. Out of the sample population, only 68 firms managed to respond giving a response rate of approximately 63%; which was seen by the researcher based on the previous research as appropriate for analysis. The respondents were human resource managers, finance managers, corporate planning managers or any other senior manager. Data was collected using questionnaires developed by Huselid (1995), Becker and Huselid (2006) and Becker and Gerhart (1996) and that these were modified by the researcher. The research adopted descriptive research design which utilized both descriptive and inferential statistics for effective generation of the required output. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version seventeen (17) was used to analyze the data. The results of this study showed that there was high positive correlation between universalistic human resource strategic orientation and firm performance. These results to a greater extent portrays that all forms of universalistic human resource strategic orientation if managed properly, enhances performance of manufacturing firms and most specifically those registered with the Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM). These findings can also be generalized to cover all other manufacturing firms in the country. As of the direction for further study, the researcher recommends that future research in universalistic human resource strategic orientation focus on public manufacturing firms and for the sake of knowledge, consider the use of longitudinal research design as opposed to the survey research designed which was central to this study. Further still, researchers should consider the moderating or intervening variables in this study. The main contribution of this paper lies in highlighting the fact that, proper configuration of universalistic human resource strategic orientation in manufacturing firms, will enable them enhance performance.

Busienei JR, K'Obonyo PPO, Ogutu PM. "The Effect of Human Resource Strategic Orientation on Performance of Large Private Manufacturing Firms in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2013;Vol. 3(1)(ISSN: 2251-1261):pp. 834-857.

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