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MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Edalia GL, Mua BN, Kisumbi BK, Kemoli AM. Oral health knowledge, attitude, practices and caries experience among 10 .". In: The Kenya Accountant, Vol. 1:14; Vol.2. J Kenya Dent Assoc; 2009. Abstract
SUMMARY Hereditary gingival hyperplasia (HGF) is a rare condition characterised by hyperplastic, dense fibrous connective tissue with acanthotic gingival epithelium. A family presented at the School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi with a complaint that some of the children developed swollen gums very early in life and that this got worse with eruption of the permanent teeth. The first born, a 23- year- old male, had had the swellings for over ten years. Other siblings aged 5,9 and 12 years were also affected. The swellings had affected the appearance, speech and the psychosocial wellbeing of the children. The parents were unaffected with apparently negative family histories. Following oral examination and appropriate investigations, conventional gingivectomy was performed of the maxillary and the mandibular gingivae for the siblings: the 23 -12- and the nine- year olds. The fourth affected child, a five- year- old, was still in primary dentition and had just started showing mild signs of gingival hyperplasia. The histopathological examination of the specimens from the present cases confirmed features consistent with those of HGF. This article highlights a familial presentation of HGF.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "EDDY, E.B., BAMFORD, O.S. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1980) Ionic regulation in the African catfish (Clarius mossambicus) in water and air. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 66A, 637-641.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1980. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "EDDY, E.B., BAMFORD, O.S. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1981) Na and Cl effluxes and ionic regulation in Tilapia grahami, a fish living in conditions of extreme alkalinity. Journal of Experimental Biology 91, 349-353.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1981. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "EDDY, F.B. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1983) Sodium balance in the catfish (Clarias mossambicus) exposed to acid water. Hydrobiologia 106, 123-126.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "EDDY, F.B. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1984) Ionic content of body fluids and sodium efflux in Oreochromis alcalicus grahami: a fish living in temperatures above 30.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Gathumbi JK. "Edema Disease Of Swine: A Major Disease Problem In Kenya. .".; 2002.
Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Gathumbi JK. "Edema Disease Of Swine: A Major Disease Problem In Kenya. .".; 2002.
Karanja DN;, Ngatia TA;, Gathumbi JK. "Edema Disease Of Swine: A Major Disease Problem In Kenya. .".; 2002.
Kelder EM, Marijnissen JCM, Karuga WS. "EDHA for energy production, storage and conversion devices." Journal of Aerosol Science. 2018;125(2018):119-147.
.S PROFODINGORICHARD. "Edited book entitled "Primary School Visual Geographies - Africa" by V.P. Aggarwall, 1966.". In: Cambridge University Press. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1966. Abstract
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LITONDO KO. "Edited the report on the proceedings of a follow-up workshop on the"Role of Co-operatives in Development of Kenyan Economy",.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau,. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1986. Abstract

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

LITONDO KO. "Edited the report on the proceedings of the workshop on"Faculty of Commerce" University of Nairobi.". In: Machakos. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2003. Abstract

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

MAKOKHA DRWANGIASABINA. "Editor of an Overview Paper on Household Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa: .". In: Presented at the FAO Workshop Promoting Food Security and Nutrition in E astern and Southern Africa, Safari Park Hotel, Kenya, October 1998. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1998. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.
D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Editor of Curriculum of Clinical Pharmacology at all levels 1989.". In: BOOK. UN-HABITAT; 1989. Abstract
In this study, the investigation of hydralazine acetylator phenotype was undertaken for the first time in African hypertensives at Kenyatta National Hospital. A total of 25 randomly selected patients with moderate to severe hypertension (diastolic pressure 105-130 mmHg), participated in the phenotyping study. The phenotyping was done by administering oral standard hydralazine dose of 150 mg/day in three divided doses. The 24 hour urinary MTP/hydralazine ratio was used to categorize patients into slow and fast acetylators. Of the patients studied 69.9% were slow acetylators while 30.4% were fast acetylators. The mean 24 hour urinary MTP/hydralazine ratio for slow acetylators was 1.01 +/- 0.95. This was significantly different from the fast acetylators where the mean 24 hour urinary MTP/hydralazine ratio was 10.6 +/- 4.4 (P < 0.001). The acetylator phenotyping divided the patients into two distinct populations and no further arbitrary method was required to divide the patients into either group.
P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Editor of the Proceedings of an S.I.D Seminar on alternative Patterns of Development and Lifestyle in Eastern Africa with G.K Rukwaro.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1979. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Editor, Local Social Development Systems in Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya and Zimbabwe (forthcoming 2006) - Chapter on Kenya.". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Editor, Local Social Development Systems in Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya and Zimbabwe (forthcoming) - Chapter on Kenya.". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
JEFWA DRMWERIGEORGE. "Editor- The 3rd East Africa Sign Language Seminar proceedings report(1992).". In: Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa Vol. 1 (2) pp. 160-174. Kenya Society of deaf Children; 1992. Abstract
This textbook does not aim at helpig teachers to acquire Kenyan Sign Language(KSL). It is meant for teachers who already have a good mastery of KSL and whose primary objective is to learn how to teach it. It thus introduces teachers to teaching of KSL as a language focusing on theory and skillsof langauge teaching in general and teaching of sign Language in particular using KSl as base language.
Ogutu O. "Editorial Female genital mutilation situation analysis in Africa." East African Medical Journal . 2011;Vol. 88 (No 4).
MANDELA DRIDENYAPAMELA. "Editorial in "You Are Not Rejected".". In: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing ISBN: 978-8443-9889-2. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2010.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Editorial Introduction, Rethinking Regional Development: African, Asian and Latin American Perspectives, Regional Development Dialogue, 19(2:1998): 2-6, ISSN 0250-6505.". In: From Session al No. 10 to Structural Adjustment: Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate, IPAR, The Regal Press Kenya Ltd. International Union of Crystallography; 1998. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Z. Q. "Editorial Maternal Health." J. Obst. Gynae. East Central. Afr . 2010;22(2):i-iii. Abstract

As we approach 2015 the time for achieving the MDG’s let us take stock of the progress made towards MDG 5 whose targets and indicators are as listed:-
Goal 5: improve maternal health
• Target 5A: reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
o Indicator 5.1: maternal mortality ratio
o Indicator 5.2: proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
• Target 5B: achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health
o Indicator 5.3: contraceptive prevalence rate
o Indicator 5.4: adolescent birth rate
o Indicator 5.5: antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits) one visit
o Indicator 5.6: unmet need for family planning.
Most of the statistics for the above indicators have not changed much between the KDHS of 2003 and 2008/9. The maternal mortality has increased from 414 in 203 to 488 in 2008 and the target of reduction three quarters from 1990 to 2015 seems more of a dream considering we need a figure of 170 by 2015.

DIN DRMUJAHIDFEROZE. "Editorial on .". In: M.Med Thesis 1991. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
ZAHIDA DRQURESHI. "Editorial Safe motherhood in Africa: Achievable Goal or a Dream?" East Afr Med J. . 2005;82(1):1. AbstractWebsite

Safe motherhood refers to a woman's ability to have a safe and healthy pregnancy and delivery. The goal of safe motherhood is to ensure that every woman has access to a full range of high-quality affordable sexual and reproductive health services especially maternal care and treatment of obstetric emergencies to reduce deaths and disabilities

MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Editorial, design and Illustration of the "Youth Forum" Magazine.". In: Family Planning Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1991. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Owiti PO, Kosgei RJ, Kihara BA, Ogutu O, Kizito W, Edwards JK, Tweya H, Takarinda KC, Sitienei JK, Kamau EM. "Editorial: Structured operational research and training in the public health Sector: the Kenyan experience." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(10).
Conway CM. "Editorial: "Old lamps for new"." Br J Anaesth. 1975;47(8):811-2.
Karimurio J, Gichuhi S. "Editorial: It is time for evidence based community interventions in prevention of blindness." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2007;13:2-3.
M.M. G. "Editorial: Ophthalmology As A Leader In Innovation." JOECSA. 2015;19(1):1-3.
Ogendo SWO. "Editorial: Surgical Audit.". 2010.
Karimurio J. "Editorial: Tips on how to write a competitive research proposal." Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. 2014;18(2):47-8.
J K. "Editorial: VISION 2020 "The Right to Sight" global Initiative: update." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2006;12:2. Abstract

VISION 2020: “The Right to Sight” Global Initiative is the WHO adopted 20 -Year global plan
for the elimination of avoidable blindness by the year 2020. It brings together all the partners involved in prevention of blindness. The three essential components (pillars) of VISION 2020 are:
>Cost-effective disease control interventions,
>Human resource development
>Infrastructure development

Jani PG. "Editorial; Helicobector Pylori: ." East African Medical Journal. 2006;(83):469.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "Editors: M.P. Nampala, J.S. Tenywa, A.W. Mwangombe, M.Osiru, R. Kawuki & M. Biruma. The proceedings of the Sixth African Crop Science Conference held 12-17 October 2003, Nairobi, Kenya. The theme of the Conference was Harnessing crop technologies to allev.". In: Journal of Phytopathology 152, 235-242, 2004. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2003. Abstract
Genetic diversity of 50 Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates collected from different agro ecological zones in Kenya were studied using group specific primers and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Group-specific primers differentiated the isolates into Andean and Mesoamerican groups, corresponding to the two common-bean gene pools. Significant polymorphisms were observed with all the AFLP primer combinations used, reflecting a wide genetic diversity in the P. griseola population. A total of 207 finger prints was generated, of which 178 were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of the polymorphic bands also separated the isolates into the two groups defined by group specific primers. All the isolates examined were grouped into three virulence populations; Andean, Afro-Andean and Mesoamerican, and their genetic diversity measured. On average, greater diversity (91%) was detected within populations than between populations (9%). The genetic distance between Andean and Mesoamerican populations was higher (D = 0.0269) than between Andean and Afro-Andean (D = 0.0095). The wide genetic diversity reported here has significant implications in breeding for resistance -to angular leaf spot and should be taken into consideration when screening and deploying resistant bean genotypes.
J.H. Nderitu &, Nyamasyo GHN, Kasina JM. Eds. Agricultural Entomology (Practical Aspects of Agric. Entomology), First Edition (ISBN 9966-05-121-X). Nairobi, Kenya.: Equatops Trading; 2008.
Gunga S. EDU 1103: Philosophy of Education. African Virtual University; 2009.
Ogot M, Okudan Gül E. "Educating for Complex Problem Solving Using Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ).". In: Learning to Solve Complex Scientific Problems. Routledge; 2017:. Abstract

This chapter focuses on a potential remedy for the situation: adoption of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), a systematic problem-solving methodology that provides a structured process during the initial stages of design and supports the problem-solving process by providing design information that novice designers may not possess. It provides steps that allow design teams to explore nontraditional solutions and not restrict themselves to common, comfortable ones. The latter problem can be addressed by introducing a small subset of the TRIZ toolset as part of existing design courses. The case study presents a brief summary of results from a formal ideation assessment of two cohorts of first-year students in the same introductory engineering design course. Although it provides a vast and powerful set of tools, this chapter has presented a reduced toolset that is easy to learn and can be incorporated into …

WAMBUI DRGICHUHILOISEPAMELA. "Education Achievement in the upcoming slum areas; Nairobi Province (Upcoming).". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1992.
Nyamongo IK. "Education and Age at First Marriage among Pastoral Borana Girls of Marsabit District, Kenya.". In: African Anthropology, Vol. 1(1&2): 69-76. Wiley Interscience; 1994. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

N. DRMUSYOKIRACHEL. "Education and Desired Family Size: A Study of Kenyan Youth. A Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State University, 1982 published by University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan, June, 1983.". In: East Afr Med J . 1983 Oct; 60 ( 10 ): 699-703 . Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics; 1983. Abstract
No abstract available.
Mwinzi JM. "Education and Development in Africa.". In: Education and Development in Africa, Catholic University of Eastern Africa.; 2012. Abstract
n/a
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Education and Development in the Riparian Districts of Nyanza Province: The Need for Intervention, Elderkin (editor). Proceedings of Leadership Symposium on HIV/AIDS and Development in Nyanza Province held at Ukweli Pastoral Centre, Kisumu .". In: Proceedings of Leadership Symposium on HIV/AIDS and Development in Nyanza Province held at Ukweli Pastoral Centre, Kisumu . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1998. Abstract
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MINYAFU DRAYOTROBERT. "Education and Development, Hilltop Press Ltd, 2004.". In: Hilltop Press Ltd, 2004. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2004. Abstract
This analysis attempted to capture the key economic and financial trends in the budget in the 1995/6 year and to provide the rationale for them. These trends were linked to fundamental requisites for development and sustainable growth.
Kariuki CN. "Education and income as determinants of fertility.". In: A paper presented in the 1st ORSEA Conference in Nairobi, . African Crop Science Society; 1989. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Education and Self-Employment.". In: Apaper read at the conferenceon Human Development. Models in Action praxis and History in Mogadishu (Somalia) June 17th . Elsevier; 1979. Abstract
n/a
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Education and Self-Employment.". In: Paper read at the conferenceon Human Development. Models in Action praxis and History in Mogadishu (Somalia) June 17 th . Elsevier; 1979. Abstract
n/a
"Education and the Development of Nationhood in Kenya.". In: Re-invigorating the University Mandate in a Globalising Environment: Challenges, Obstacles and Way Forward . Nairobi: DAAD; 2005.education_and_the_development_of_nationhood_in_kenya.pdf
SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "Education and the Development of Nationhood in Kenya.". In: Ruth Bett (ed.), Re-invigorating the University Mandate in a Globalising Environment: Challenges, Obstacles and Way Forward (Nairobi, DAAD, 2005), pp. 326-342. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2005.
Digolo OO(. "Education as a process of democratization in Africa. .". In: Pan-African Colloquium; Educational innovation in Post-Colonial Africa; . University of Cape Town, South Africa.; 2014.
SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "Education as a Process of Growth: An Examination of the Problems of the Theory and it.". In: Hekima:Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. II, No. 1 pp. 57-66. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 2003. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Education as a Strategy for Development in the 21st Century. Adeya Adongo Memorial Lecture. Afrovision Lecture Series, No. 1. Published by Afrovision Initiatives, 2002. Nairobi: Pp. 28.". In: Afrovision Lecture Series, No. 1. Published by Afrovision Initiatives, 2002. Nairobi: Pp. 28. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract
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Kibui AW. "Education as a Vehicle for Socio-Economic Change in Kenya." AMECEA, Gaba Publications. 2010;54(1 & 2 ).
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Education as Strategy for Development in the 21st Century. The Fountain, Journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi Vol. 2, 2005, pp. 1-16.". In: The Fountain, Journal of the Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi Vol. 2, 2005, pp. 1-16. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
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Wanjala G. "Education Curricula and the Development Needs of Africa : Is there a Mismatch?". In: Research conference of the Ghana Chapter of Educational Research Network for West and Central Africa (ERNWACA). At Windy Bay Lodge Hotel in Winneba.Ghana; 2015.
NTHIA PROFNJERUEH, NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. "Education Financing in Kenya: Secondary School Bursary Scheme Implementation and Challenges. Enos H.N. Njeru & John Orodho. 59p. ISBN 9966-948-98-8.". In: Discussion Paper No.035/2003. IPAR Discussion Paper Series. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2003. Abstract

Having accepted the rationality of cost-sharing, the Ministry of Education, Science
and Technology (MoES&T) bursary scheme was introduced as one of the
safety-nets to cushion the poor and the vulnerable groups against the consequent
adverse effects. The bursary scheme, however, remains inefficient and
ineffective. Other characteristics that contribute to bottlenecks in its implementation
at the secondary school education level include limited access and participation
due to poor quality of service, bad governance and management weaknesses.
It is, therefore, arguable that against the background of more than half
of Kenya's population living below the poverty line, and the rising cost of education,
majority of households, especially among the poor and vulnerable groups,
are unable to invest in the development it of quality secondary education.
The objectives of this study included documentation of the patterns and trends in
financing secondary education in the public sector in Kenya; analysis of implementation
of the bursary scheme at the secondary school level in Kenya, with
special focus on disbursement procedures, equity considerations according to
socio-economic groups; and the overall impact on access to secondary school
education with regard to the income-poor and other vulnerable groups.
The study adopted an exploratory approach using a descriptive design. Four
provinces were randomly sampled and one district purposively selected from
each province. Three target populations considered were MoES&T staff; school-based
education staff and opinion leaders. Questionnaires, semi-structured interview
schedules, and focus group discussions were used in data gathering.
Data analysis was carried out using SPSS.
Study results indicated that the patterns and trends of education financing in
Kenya incorporated a partnership between the state, households, and communities
long before the introduction of the cost-sharing policy. The financing of
secondary education has, however, become problematic, ~s parents have to
,houlder an increasingly large proportion of the cost.
The government's financing of secondary education has largely been directed
towards Tecurrent expenditure, mainly to meet teachers' salaries and allowances,
at the expense of development expenditures, which would be essential to
provide and improve the physical and instructional facilities. This has resulted in
poot quality education as O1ost schools are inadequately provided with basic
learning resources.
.Tbe cost-sharing strategy has hada negative impact on the poor and vulnerable
households. The latter either do not enroll their children in secondary schools, or
fail to sustain a continuous participation of those enrolled due to inability to meet
cost requirements. This results in inadequate provision of learning facilities to
the enrolled, poor quality education, and high dropout rates.
The operatrion of the MoES&T bursary scheme is handicapped by inadequate
guidelines with regard to the amounts to be allocated per student; poor criteria
for selection of genuinely needy; inadequate awareness creation about the
scheme's existence and operations; limited funds hence limited coverage; poor
co-ordination and delays in funds' disbursement; and lack of monitoring mechanisms
by the MoES&T at the school and higher levels. This has resulted in lack
of transparency and accountability, nepotism, among other aspects of mismanagement.
A critical issue that requires redress is awarding of the bursaries to
less deserving, and sometimes completely undeserving, but well-connected applicants,
at the expense of the poor and vulnerable groups.
Policy options - the MoES&T should:
• Either abolish fee levies charged to parents or ensure foolproof enforcement
ofthe fee guidelines in order to eradicate loopholes in financial management
practices in schools.
• Consider increasing the current bursary funding from Ksh. 210 million
to Ksh. 1.5 billion. This will enable be~eficiariesto meaningfully meet at least
60% oftheir outstanding fees.
• Put in place clear guidance regarding eligibility and the socio-economic
categories to benefit from the bursary scheme; the amount to be allocated per
student; and a monitoring mechanism to ensure transparency and accountability
in the disbursement ofthe bursary funds. .
• In consultation with other stakeholders in the secondary education subsector,
work out ways to allow individual schools to evolve a 'fees waiver mechanism'
and income generating activities at the school level to raise funds for
various purposes to benefit learning resources, quality improvement, school
projects, and, where possible, supplement student fees requirements. .

O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, M PROFSYAGGAPAUL, MBATHA DRCHRISTOPHER, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Education for a modern integrated survey professional: a model curriculum with special reference to developing countries.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,.; 1995. Abstract
ABSTRACT The family Labiatae, commonly called the mint family, is one of the flowering group of plants that has been found to have great medicinal potential. In this study, at least twenty-eight (28) indigenous species which are popular among Kenyan herbalists have been collected from the Rift Valley and central parts of Kenya. Preliminary chemical analysis of the Ocimum genus has revealed several different components of essential oils. There is evidence that further and more intensive research on the medicinal aspects of the family is called for.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, M PROFSYAGGAPAUL, MBATHA DRCHRISTOPHER, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Education for a modern integrated survey professional: a model curriculum with special reference to developing countries.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1995. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, M PROFSYAGGAPAUL, MBATHA DRCHRISTOPHER, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Education for a modern integrated survey professional: a model curriculum with special reference to developing countries.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. JKUAT; 1995. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW, M PROFSYAGGAPAUL, MBATHA DRCHRISTOPHER, CANNY PROFMULAKUGALCANO. "Education for a modern integrated survey professional: a model curriculum with special reference to developing countries.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. Survey Review; 1995. Abstract
Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.
MUSEMBI MRNUNGUJOSEPH. "Education for All and the Illusion of Educational Achievement in Kenya.". In: Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE) annual conference, Carlton University, Ottawa, 23-26 May 2009. Frontiers, 2011; 2009. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
Mbeche F. "Education for All in Africa; Challenges and Policy Implications.". In: 2nd AFRICE international conference . University of Nairobi, Kenya Science Campus; 2015.
A.B R, M G, G.J W, a.w Wanhohi. "Education for Environmental Awareness’ in Nairobi. Social and Religious Concerns of E. Africa, A ." Education for Environmental Awareness’ in Nairobi. Social and Religious Concerns of E. Africa, A . 2005.
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Education for Executive Jobs - A Study in Occupational Kenyanization." The report of field research conducted here in Kenya on the kind of Education best suited to a would be business executive and the extent of occupational Kenyanization of the manageri.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, 1978. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 2003. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
SAMUEL PROFKIBICHO. "Education for life: A Report of the External Evaluation Committee on the Family Life Education Programme of the National Council of Churches of Kenya, (I was one of the four members of the External Evaluation Committee, The report was published in Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1984. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Mwabu G, Adam C, Collier P, Ndung’u N. "Education for Prosperity: Improving Access and Quality.". In: Kenya: Policies for Prosperity. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2010.
Kariuki PW, Chomba M, Tumuti S, Mukuria G. "Education for Students with Intellectual Disabilities in Kenya: Challenges and Prospects. ." Disabilities Studies Quarterly. 2015;3(2):15-25.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""Education in a globalising world"Paper for the First International Conference on the Right to Education organised by the European Association for Education Law and Policy in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 26-30, November.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 2004. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
Kimalu PK, Nafula NN, Manda DK, Mwabu G, Kimenyi MS. "Education Indicators in Kenya. ” Working Paper No 4." KIPPRA. Nairobi, Kenya. 2001.
Mutegi R.G., Muriithi. M.K., G. W. "Education Policies in Kenya : Does Free Secondary Education Promote Equity in Public Secondary Schools?" In International Journal of Development Research. 2017;7(11):16696-16699 .abstract2.pdf
Mutegi RG, Muriithi MK, Wanjala G. "EDUCATION POLICIES IN KENYA: DOES FREE SECONDARY EDUCATION PROMOTE EQUITY IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS?" International Journal of Development Research. 2017;07(11):16696-16699.policies_in_education.pdf
MUSEMBI MRNUNGUJOSEPH. "Education Policy Knowledge and Citizenship Enactment: A study of Global Agendas, Local Knowledges, and Citizen Actions.". In: X1V World Congress of Comparative Education Societies, Boğazi. Frontiers, 2011; 2010. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Education System and Vision 2030: Critical Analysis of Kenya Education System in Meeting Vision 2030 targets (2nd National Conference by Kenya Ministry of Science and Technology KICC-Nairobi).". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2009. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Education systems in East Africa. Trends and Issues".". In: The KAAD Association of Scholars in East Africa (KASEA) Seminar on the "Impact of Brain Drain of the Economic Situation on Higher Education in East Africa" 17th to 21st Sept 1997 Nairobi. Kenya (co- authored with Prof. J. Shiundu). Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1997. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Education systems in East Africa. Trends and Issues".". In: The KAAD Association of Scholars in East Africa (KASEA) Seminar on the "Impact of Brain Drain of the Economic Situation on Higher Education in East Africa" 17th to 21st Sept 1997 Nairobi. Kenya (co- authored with Prof. J. Shiundu). Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1997. Abstract

 

 

OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Education Through The Third Channel; Basic Education Forum, Vol. 3, April, 1993, pp. 23-30.". In: Basic Education Forum, Vol. 3, April, 1993, pp. 23-30. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract
.
Marenya, Paswel Phiri; Barrett CB, Oluoch-Kosura W;, Place F;, Barrett CB. Education, Nonfarm Income, And Farm Investment In Land-scarce Western Kenya.; 2003.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Education, the individual, and society; Darlite March, 1972.". In: Nairobi School in June, 1975. Elsevier; 1972. Abstract
n/a
OCHIENG PROFDIGOLOPATRICKOBONYO. "Education, Training and Population. Population Studies and Research Institute. Occasional Publicationss Series, Vol. V. Nairobi, Pp. 143 .". In: Occasional Publicationss Series, Vol. V. Nairobi, 1996. Pp. 143 . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1996. Abstract
.
Gakunga DK. "Educational Challenges after Year 2007 Post Election Violence in Kenya." Journal of US-China Public Administration. 2010;7:91-96. Abstract
n/a
Appleton S, Bigsten A, Manda DK. "Educational E xpansion and Economic Decline: Returns to Education in Kenya, 1978 - 95.". In: Centre for the Study of African Economies, Working Paper Series, No. 99/. Oxford University, Britain.; 1999.
Mwangi JT. "Educational Goals, Aims and Objectives in Relation to Children’s Learning in the book.". In: Teaching Children: A Handbook for Preschool Teachers. Nairobi: Vidic Investments Limited; 2014.
J.A O. Educational Management: Theory and Practice. Nairobi: Nairobi University Press; 1998.University of Nairobi Press
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective, in A. Nasimiyu Wasike and D. W. Waruta, Eds., Mission in African Christianity: Critical Essays in Missiology, Nairobi: Uzima Press.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Wanjala G. Educational Planning : Lecture Series. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press-CEES; 2002. Abstract

The module as a whole is designed to provide both the student and the lecturer/professor with a descriptive account of the content of planning and its application to education and national development. it is divided into four sections. Section One comprises of the first six lectures of the unit and is intended to introduce the learner to the study of educational planning. Lecture 1 deals with the general concept of planning ; its characteristics and scope. The concept of planning as applied to education is described in Lecture 2 and Lecture 3 deals with the concept of modelling in educational planning. Lecture 4 discusses the historical background and rationale for educational planning while the social and psychological factors affecting educational planning are dealt with in Lecture 5 and the final lecture in this section discusses the process of educational planning.
Section Two covers three lectures which , taken together intend to introduce the learner to methodologies of educational planning with particular reference to developing countries , that is the Social Demand Approach covered in in Lecture 7 ; the Labour Requirements Approach covered in Lecture 8 and the Cost/benefit Analysis Approach covered in Lecture 9.
Section Three has three broad lectures , which give some highlights on the need to plan for changes in the educational system. They focus on the issues of efficiency and equity as a measure of the success of an educational system.
Section Four has three lectures dealing with population , education and national development. Apart from considering demographic factors and how they affect educational planning , we also examine matters dealing with the location of schools.

F.G M, Anne N. Educational Policy and Planning. NAIROBI: KTTC-VVOB; 2004.
Ndurumo MM. "Educational Psychology (Special Education).". Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1990. Abstract
n/a
MINYAFU DRAYOTROBERT. "Educational Psychology, Philosophy and Priactice,1987.". In: Philosophy and Priactice,1987. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1987. Abstract
This analysis attempted to capture the key economic and financial trends in the budget in the 1995/6 year and to provide the rationale for them. These trends were linked to fundamental requisites for development and sustainable growth.
KICHAMU MRAKIVAGASYMONDS. "Educational reform and Social Change, Aspects of Educational Changes in Kenya, 1963-1991 Unpublished M.Sc. thesis of university of Edinburge, Sept.,(1978).". In: Paper read at the conferenceon Human Development. Models in Action praxis and History in Mogadishu (Somalia) June 17 th . Elsevier; 1978. Abstract
n/a
Wanyoike MW. "Educational Reforms and Value-creating education in post-colonial Kenya: A Historical perspective.". In: International Conference on Value-Creating Education and Sustainable Development. University of Nairobi; 2016.
Kara AM, Tanui EK, Kalai JM. "Educational Service Quality and Students’ Satisfaction in Public Universities in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Social Science . 2016;3:37-48.kara.pdf
NYAGAH GRACE, Opondo PFA, Wamahiu S. "Educational situation of the Kenyan girl child.". 1992.
Nyagah DG, Opondo FA, SP Wamahiu. Educational situation of the Kenyan girl child.; 1992.
Abong GO;, Okoth MW. "Edward G. Karuri1, Jackson N. Kabira2 and Francis M. Mathooko3."; 2009. Abstract

Potato is an important crop in Kenya, with a major role in food and income security, being second only to maize in terms of utilization.• Production occurs mainly in the highlands (1500-3000 m above sea level).• Many potato varieties including Roslin Eburu, Roslin ...

Abong GO;, Okoth MW. "Edward G. Karuri1, Jackson N. Kabira2 and Francis M. Mathooko3."; 2009. Abstract

Potato is an important crop in Kenya, with a major role in food and income security, being second only to maize in terms of utilization.• Production occurs mainly in the highlands (1500-3000 m above sea level).• Many potato varieties including Roslin Eburu, Roslin ...

KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "Edward Norman, Christianity and the World Order, in No. 1, Hekima, Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Nairobi, No. 1,pp. 149-50."; 1980. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

Hashim NO, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, Rathore IVS. EDXRF analysis of lead and other toxic trace elements in soil samples along two major highways of Kenya.; 1998. Abstract

Adjacent lands along most major highways of Kenya are left as open spaces, or used for small scale farming and grazing of cattle and livestock. Some grass and plants are expected to have high levels of lead and other toxic metals. So far, no study has been carried out to determine the concentrations of toxic metals in soil samples along Thika and Mombasa highways of Kenya. This work is important and essential to the study of the impact of pollution on health and the environment.

Hashim NO, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, Rathore IV. EDXRF analysis of lead and other toxic trace elements in soil samples along two major highways of Kenya. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 1998. AbstractWebsite

Adjacent lands along most major highways of Kenya are left as open spaces, or used for small scale farming and grazing of cattle and livestock. Some grass and plants are expected to have high levels of lead and other toxic metals. So far, no study has been carried out to …

J. MRMANGALAMICHAEL. "EDXRF analysis of local and imported pica soil samples.". In: East African Journal of. University of Nairobi.; 2001.
P. PROFSITUMAFRANCISD. "The Effacacy of International Environmental Law-A personal Reflection.2 ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law 61.". In: Law Journal,Issue No.4.; 1995. Abstract

New Directions in water legislation in Kenya?. A Paper presented as the National Workshop on environmental Governance in kenya, held at the UNEP Headquarters Gigiri, Nairobi, March 29-30. 2000

MARANGA, R.O., KAAYA, G.P., MUEKE JM, HASSANALI A. "Effect of combining the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, on the mortality of Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricus, 1794) .". In: 2nd African Acarology Symposium. ICIPE, Nairobi, Kenya; 2001.
R.D N, Muthomi JW, Gachu SM, Nderitu JH, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Intercropping bulb onion and vegetables on purple blotch and downy mildew." Journal of Biological Sciences . 2011;11(1):52-57.effect_of_intercropping_bulb_onion_and_vegetables.pdf
Mwirigi M, Ochanda H, Soi R, Wambugu A, Naessens J. "Effect of a monoclonal antibody on mycoplasma adherence to bovine lung cells." East African Agricultural Forestry Journal. 2010;76(4):217-223.
Opondo C, Ayieko P, Ntoburi S, Wagai J, Opiyo N, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Allen E, Carpenter J, English M. "Effect of a multi-faceted quality improvement intervention on inappropriate antibiotic use in children with non-bloody diarrhoea admitted to district hospitals in Kenya." BMC Pediatr. 2011;11:109. Abstract

There are few reports of interventions to reduce the common but irrational use of antibiotics for acute non-bloody diarrhoea amongst hospitalised children in low-income settings. We undertook a secondary analysis of data from an intervention comprising training of health workers, facilitation, supervision and face-to-face feedback, to assess whether it reduced inappropriate use of antibiotics in children with non-bloody diarrhoea and no co-morbidities requiring antibiotics, compared to a partial intervention comprising didactic training and written feedback only. This outcome was not a pre-specified end-point of the main trial.

Temmerman M, Gichangi P, Fonck K, Apers L, Claeys P, Van Renterghem L, Kiragu D, Karanja G, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J. "Effect of a syphilis control programme on pregnancy outcome in Nairobi, Kenya." Sex Transm Infect. 2000;76(2):117-21. Abstract

To assess the impact of a syphilis control programme of pregnant women on pregnancy outcome in Kenya.

JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Effect of a syphilis control programme on pregnancy outcome in Nairobi, Kenya. Temmerman M, Gichangi P, Fonck K, Apers L, Claeys P, Van Renterghem L, Kiragu D, Karanja G, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ. Sex Transm Infect. 2000 Apr;76(2):117-21.". In: Sex Transm Infect. 2000 Apr;76(2):117-21. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Richard K, Faith O, Margaret O, Anne N, Wallace B. "Effect of ABCB1 C3435T Polymorphism on Clinical Outcomes in Kenyan HIV Patients on Lopinavir-Based Regimens." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2017;7:478-488. Abstract13-jpp2017041704.pdf

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Singh CB, Dervin KE, Gray SJ. "Effect of adrenalectomy on serum and tissue amylase.". 1965.Website
Onsomu ZN. "EFFECT OF AGE ON INVESTOR DECISIONS." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEAECH AND DEVELOPMENT. 2015;4(12):120-123.effect_of_age_on_investor__decisions.pdf
Onsomu ZN. "Effect of Age on Investor Decisions." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development|| ISSN 2278–0211. 2015;4. Abstract
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FREDRICK DROTIENOCF. "The effect of age, sex and education on reception and retention of health information: lessons from a rural area of Kenya. Cah Sociol Demogr Med. 1991 Jan-Mar;31(1):45-56.". In: Cah Sociol Demogr Med. 1991 Jan-Mar;31(1):45-56. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1991. Abstract
Two male patients with diabetes mellitus and alcohol dependence syndrome are presented. Both were married and in middle age. MI stayed alone in the city while his spouse and two children lived in the rural home. He showed no obvious underlying psychiatric morbidity. FWK was living with his family in the city. He was an alcoholic receiving psychiatric care for alcoholism. They both presented separately at different hospitals with decompensated diabetes following heavy alcohol consumption. The history and clinico-laboratory picture of both patients are presented and brief management programme and outcome are also given. Review of literature on alcoholism and its potential impact on the course and management of diabetes is presented.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Effect of Ageing of Bitumen of performance of Asphalt pavements in Tropical Environments,.". In: 6th conf. On Asphalt pavements for Southern Africa , Vol. 1 PP 77-95 Cape Townv. Longhorn; 1994. Abstract

Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports. 
Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful.
Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling.
Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out.
A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse.
The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.

Magoha GAO. "Effect of Ageing on androgen levels in elderly males.". In: East African Medical Journal, 74: 642-644, 1997. EAMJ; 1997. Abstract

The past four decades have brought with it modern medical technology accompanied by better quality and longer life resulting in the increase in number of aged males in this locality. It has now been well established by various investigators that there is a statistically significant decline of the biologically available level of serum testosterone with ageing. This decline in androgen levels is more manifest in the free testosterone levels compared to the total serum testosterone levels which are routinely measured in the laboratory. Not withstanding this statistical decline the serum testosterone levels in the majority of aged men often fall within the normal range (300-1000 ng/dl) of eugonadal young males. This age related decline is usually associated with decline in sexual function in ageing men manifesting as erectile dysfunction. However, it has now been established beyond doubt that age itself rather than the androgen decline is the most influential variable of sexual activity in old men.

Awiti AO, Okoth OS, Aila FO, Okelo S, Odera O, Ogutu M. "Effect of airport expansion on business opportunities in Kisumu." International Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences. 2013;3(2). Abstracteffect_of_airport_expansion_on_business_opportunities_in_kisumu.pdf

The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of airport expansion on business opportunities. The study location was in Kisumu, Kenya and the population was 11,132 businesses comprising of wholesalers, retailers, hoteliers, car hires, bankers and beach management units. Systematic sampling was employed to select 100 wholesalers and retailers while a census was conducted for the 30 hotels, 22 car hires, 25 banks and 8 beach management units respectively. Semi structured survey questionnaires were utilized to
collect primary data. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the results indicate that the airport expansion has led to: increased visitors and tourist visits; increased sales of both wholesale and retail trade and increased number of financial institutions. The study concludes that despite the airport expansion creating relatively meaningful benefits to the business community, the facility has not been fully utilized to create maximum businessopportunities in Kisumu.

Keywords: Business opportunities, airport expansion, Kisumu

Mungai LM, Elly D. "The Effect of Alternative Investments on the Financial Performance of Pension Funds in Kenya." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):160-181. Abstract

Purpose - This research focused on the effects of alternative investments on the
financial performance of pension schemes in Kenya.
Methodology - This research was descriptive and Secondary data covering a period
of 5 years, 2012-2016, and comprised a population of 442 segregated pension
schemes and from which a sample of 90 schemes was selected using stratified
sampling technique. Only data from 385 schemes was available. The remaining 57
schemes did not qualify for sampling due to incomplete data, data received did not
pass sense checks and also responses to queries were not received on time. The data
was obtained from the Retirement Benefit Authority and the Actuaries Survey from
Alexander Forbes Consulting. Diagnostic tests carried out were tests for normality,
multicollinearity and autocorrelation. They were used to test for data fitness before
any further analysis. The study also employed the use of a linear multiple regression
model to analyze the effect of alternative investments on the financial performance of
pension funds in Kenya. The tests of significance used in the study were the t-test, F

MUSEMBI NICODEMUSNDAWA, Hutchinson MJ, Waithaka K. "The Effect of Aluminium Sulphate, Sodium Hypochlorite plus Citric Acid and Silver Thiosulphate on Water Relations and Vase Life of Harvested Eustoma grandiflorum Flowers.". In: 1st International Symposium on Ornamentals in Africa (ISHS). Morendat Conference Centre - Naivasha, Kenya; 2013.
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Wakolo S, Kihiu J, Kihato P, Njoroge K. "Effect of Angular Position on Power Generation from a Pre-Stressed Piezoelectric Element in a Car Tire." Journal of Engineering Technology and Scientific Innovation. 2018;3(6):264.
Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Nyongesa F, Odari B, Njoroge W, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "Effect of Annealing and Surface Passivation on Doped SnO2 Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique." Advances in Materials. 2015;4(3):51-58. AbstractJournal Article Website

In this study doped SnO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using an alcoholic precursor solution consisting of stannic chloride (SnCl4.5H2O), ammonium fluoride (NH4F) and palladium chloride (PdCl2). Optimization on the deposition parameters was done so as to obtain high quality thin films. The effect of varying the Fluorine content on the optoelectronic properties of F: SnO2 thin films was studied. Data for transmittance and reflectance in the wavelength range from 300nm – 2500nm was obtained using the solid spec 3700DUV spectrophotometer. Electrical characterization of the thin films was done using the four point probe method at room temperature. Post deposition treatment of the thin films by annealing in air then passivating in nitrogen gas environment was done in a tube furnace at 4500C. Sheet resistivity for the as prepared F: SnO2 was found to be 0.4599 Ωcm and 0.00075 Ωcm being the highest and lowest sheet resistivity at 22.74 at% F and 16.41 at% F doping in SnO2 respectively. Low sheet resistivity of F: SnO2 thin films is due substitutional incorporation of F ions instead of oxygen ions into the crystal lattice of SnO2 thin films which increases free carrier concentration. The effect of annealing generally was found to improve on the electrical conductivity of the thin films which is due to increase in carrier mobility and density. Passivation on the other hand had a slight opposite effect. Effects of annealing and passivation on doped SnO2 thin films band gap energy and their transparency was insignificant, rendering the doped SnO2 thin films good choice for making a transparent thin film gas sensors.
Keywords: Spray Pyrolysis, Fluorine Doping, Palladium Doping, Annealing and Passivation

Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Nyongesa F, Odari B, Njoroge W, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "Effect of Annealing and Surface Passivation on doped SnO2 thin filmsPrepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique." Elservier. 2015. Abstract

In this study doped SnO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using an alcoholic precursor solution consisting of stannic chloride (SnCl4.5H2O), ammonium fluoride (NH4F) and palladium chloride (PdCl2). Optimization on the deposition parameters was done so as to obtain high quality thin films. The effect of varying the fluorine content on the optoelectronic properties of F: SnO2 thin films was studied. Data for transmittance and reflectance in the wavelength range from 300nm – 2500nm was obtained using the solid spec 3700DUV spectrophotometer. Electrical characterization of the thin films was done using the four point probe method at room temperature. Post-deposition treatment of the thin films by annealing in air then passivating in nitrogen gas environment was done in a tube furnace at 4500C. Sheet resistivity for the as-prepared F: SnO2 was found to be 0.4599 Ωcm and 0.00075 Ωcm being the highest and lowest sheet resistivity respectively (vague. Needs rephrasing for clarity). The low sheet resistivity of F: SnO2 thin films was attributed to substitutional incorporation of F ions instead of oxygen ions into the crystal lattice of SnO2 thin films, a process which increases free carrier concentration. The effect of annealing generally was found to improve the electrical conductivity of the thin films which is due to increase in carrier mobility and density. Passivation on the other hand had a slight opposite effect. Effects of annealing and passivation on the doped SnO2 thin films’ band gap energy and their transparency was insignificant, rendering the doped SnO2 thin films good choice for making a transparent thin film gas sensors.

J Okwako, Musembi R, F Nyongesa, Ogacho A. Effect of Annealing on Structural and Optical Properties of CZTS thin films Deposited by SILAR Technique.. TUNISIA: ANSOLE DAYS; 2017.
Maingi, N., Scott ME, Prichard RK. "Effect of anthelmintic resistance on fitness characteristics in Haemonchus contortus.". In: 13th. Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP). Berlin,Germany; 1989.
Sinei KA. The effect of Antidepressant Drugs on the Circadian Rhythm of 5-Hydroxytrptamine Synthesis in The Central Nervous System. Redfern. S:PH, ed. Bath, England: PhD Thesis, University of Bath; 1987.
Macangi J;, Olubayo F;, Nderitu J;, R; N, El-Bedewy R;, Obudho E;. "Effect of aphids and virus diseases on yield of seed potatoes in Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

Experiments were conducted at 2 sites to determine the relationship between aphid populations, virus incidence and yields on 4 potato varieties (Solanum tuberosome). These varieties were planted at Tigoni and Kabete during short rains, October 2001 – January, 2002) and long rains, (March to July, 2002). The experimental design was completly randomised block design with 3 replicates. Sampling was done every 2 weeks from crop emergence to maturity. Aphid populations were assessed based on a random collection of 15 leaf samples per plot and virus incidence was assessed basing on number of plants infested per plot. At harvest, season, yields were measured for each treatment and compared with the average scores of aphids and virus incidence over the season. A regression analysis of this data revealed that there was a significant decrease in yields with increase in virus incidence at both sites (P<0.05). Similarlly, there was a significant decrease in yield with increase in aphid populations at the Kabete site but not at the Tigoni site. Although no significant relationship between the aphid populations and virus incidence was observed at either Tigoni or Kabete, as the populations of aphids increased, the virus incidence also increased. It is therefore, necessary to control aphid populations to reduce virus spread in order to achieve optimal yields of seed and ware potato in Kenya

Macangi J;, Olubayo F;, Nderitu J;, R; N, El-Bedewy R;, Obudho E;. "Effect of aphids and virus diseases on yield of seed potatoes in Kenya."; 2003. Abstract

Experiments were conducted at 2 sites to determine the relationship between aphid populations, virus incidence and yields on 4 potato varieties (Solanum tuberosome). These varieties were planted at Tigoni and Kabete during short rains, October 2001 – January, 2002) and long rains, (March to July, 2002). The experimental design was completly randomised block design with 3 replicates. Sampling was done every 2 weeks from crop emergence to maturity. Aphid populations were assessed based on a random collection of 15 leaf samples per plot and virus incidence was assessed basing on number of plants infested per plot. At harvest, season, yields were measured for each treatment and compared with the average scores of aphids and virus incidence over the season. A regression analysis of this data revealed that there was a significant decrease in yields with increase in virus incidence at both sites (P<0.05). Similarlly, there was a significant decrease in yield with increase in aphid populations at the Kabete site but not at the Tigoni site. Although no significant relationship between the aphid populations and virus incidence was observed at either Tigoni or Kabete, as the populations of aphids increased, the virus incidence also increased. It is therefore, necessary to control aphid populations to reduce virus spread in order to achieve optimal yields of seed and ware potato in Kenya

Kaaria LM, Oduma JA, Kaingu CK, Mutai PC, Wafula DK. "Effect of Asparagus racemosus on selected female reproductive parameters using Wistar rat model.". 2019;6(4):199-204.
M O'onge, Z.B A. "The effect of autonomy on financial performance of the Kenyan owned commercial state corporations ." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2015;5(6):1868-1880.
and Caroline K. Kariuki EMWMWM. "Effect of Bacillus and Trichoderma species in the management of the bacterial wilt of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) in the field." Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control. 2020;30(109):doi.org/10.1186/s41938-020-00310-4 .
Wasonga, V.O. NNKRKDM, 2005 NTJ. "Effect of Balanites glabra canopy cover on grass production, organic matter and soil moisture in a southern Kenya rangeland." African Journal for Range and Forage Science. 2005;20:265-270. Abstract
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Wasonga VO, Ngugi RK, Nyariki DM, Kironchi G, Njoka TJ. "Effect of Balanites glabra canopy cover on grass production, organic matter and soil moisture in a southern Kenyan rangeland." African Journal of Range and Forage Science. 2003;20:259-264. Abstract
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Kithinji AM. "The Effect of Bank Restructuring on Financial Performance Controlled by Customer Deposits: An Empirical Investigation of Commercial Banks in Kenya ." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR INNOVATIVE RESEARCH IN MULTIDISCIPLINARY FIELD. 2019;5(1):13-19. Abstract

Abstract: The ability of commercial banks to provide market knowledge, transaction efficiency and contract
enforcement create demand for its services in the financial markets. Commercial banks operating in Kenya have
undertaken restructuring so as to be more competitive, to restore bank solvency, to increase the banking sector
capacity for financial intermediation and to improve financial performance. Previous researches done on the aspects
of bank restructuring and financial performance found conflicting results and some of them did not include the
intervening effect of deposits on this relationship. The study is informed by the theory of financial intermediation,
agency theory, and the institutional theory. This study sought to investigate the relationship between bank
restructuring, deposits and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The population of the study was
the 44 commercial banks licensed and registered under the banking act to do business in Kenya but data availed
from financial statements of 39 commercial banks which were in operation for the period 2002 to 2014. Descriptive
and inferential data analysis methods were used to analyze the secondary data collected. The empirical findings
conclude that commercial banks use all the four types of bank restructuring which were financial, capital, operational
and asset restructuring. The findings of the first model revealed that capital restructuring, and asset restructuring
were the only variables found to have significant positive and negative influence respectively on the performance of
commercial banks in Kenya. In testing the second hypothesis, deposit were used as an intervening variable on the
relationship between bank restructuring and financial performance, where financial restructuring and capital
restructuring was found to significantly cause an increase in the profit margin of commercial banks while operational
restructuring and deposits were found to have a significant negative effect on bank profits. The composite variable
of financial services was not found to have a significant effect. Therefore, the research disclosed that operational
restructuring, and deposits did not influence banks profitability. The research concludes that the performance of most
commercial banks in Kenya is determined through restructuring banks’ financial and capital ratios The study
recommends that there is need to institute policy reforms geared towards viable restructuring and deposit
mobilization and that to continuously improve bank performance banks should encourage more borrowing and funds
from shareholders and banks need to continuously focus on restructuring rather than ownership.

Key Words: Bank Restructuring, Capital, Financial, Asset, Operational, Deposits.
1. INTRODUCTION:
Bank restructuring is usually undertaken to address the problems in individual banks experiencing

Ogilo F. "EFFECT OF BANKING REGULATIONS ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;Vol. 2 No. 9, November-2017(2(9)):72-78.
"Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on composition and foraging intensity of subterranean termites." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology . 2011;5(8):579-588. Abstract

Elucidating the influence of ecological factors on composition and foraging intensity of subterranean
termites is critical in development of sustainable termite management strategies. Our aim was therefore
to analyze the effect of selected biotic and abiotic factors on composition and foraging intensity of
termites. We used principal component and canonical correspondence analysis to select appropriate
factors and to model relationships respectively. Macrotermes species occurred in sites where the
quantity of litter was generally above the mean. However, Macrotermes herus (Rambur) and
Macrotermes spp.4 occurred in sites where the litter quantity was below the mean. Trinervitermes
oeconomous (Tragardh) and Odontoremes spp.1 were noted to occur in the direction of increasing
quantity of biomass. Generally, most species occurred in sites where soil pH was above or slightly
below the mean (4.8). Majority of the species were also noted to occur in sites where bulk density was
below or slightly above the mean (1.55 g/cm3). Highest bait consumption (95%) occurred within a range
of 55 to 60% basal cover beyond which the amount of bait consumed reduced. Litter and biomass
quantity, pH and bulk density were noted as the most influential environmental variables determining
composition of termites while basal cover was the major determinant of foraging intensity.
Key words: Rangelands, Macrotermes, rangelands, vegetation, litter, biomass, basal-cover

Mandala, N E, Aduda J, Iraya C. "The Effect of Board Structure and CEO Tenure on the Performance of Financial Institutions in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2018;7(1):59-77.jfia_vol_7_1_4.pdfjfia_vol_7_1_4.pdf
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The effect of boiling on the removal of persistent malathion residues from stored grains.". In: J. Stored Products Res. 38,1-10. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2002. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
SEBITOSI EK, KAAYA GP. "Effect of bovine blood fractions on the infectivity of Theileria parva to bovine blood lymphocytes." Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia. 2006;3( 2):287-295.
KAAYA GP, LOSOS GJ, MAXIE MG, VALLI VEO. Effect of bovine trypanosomiasis on hematopoiesis.; 1979.
Nduati R, John G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Richardson B, Overbaugh J, Mwatha A, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Onyango FE, Hughes J, Kreiss J. "Effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial." JAMA. 2000;283(9):1167-74. Abstract

Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to occur through breastfeeding, but the magnitude of risk has not been precisely defined. Whether breast milk HIV-1 transmission risk exceeds the potential risk of formula-associated diarrheal mortality in developing countries is unknown.

MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial. Nduati R, John G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Richardson B, Overbaugh J, Mwatha A, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Onyango FE, Hughes J, Kreiss J.". In: JAMA. 2000 Mar 1;283(9):1167-74. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2000. Abstract
CONTEXT: Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to occur through breastfeeding, but the magnitude of risk has not been precisely defined. Whether breast milk HIV-1 transmission risk exceeds the potential risk of formula-associated diarrheal mortality in developing countries is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of breast milk transmission of HIV-1 and to compare mortality rates and HIV-1-free survival in breastfed and formula-fed infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized clinical trial conducted from November 1992 to July 1998 in antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya, with a median follow-up period of 24 months. PARTICIPANTS: Of 425 HIV-1-seropositive, antiretroviral-naive pregnant women enrolled, 401 mother-infant pairs were included in the analysis of trial end points. INTERVENTIONS: Mother-infant pairs were randomized to breastfeeding (n = 212) vs formula feeding arms (n = 213). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Infant HIV-1 infection and death during the first 2 years of life, compared between the 2 intervention groups. RESULTS: Compliance with the assigned feeding modality was 96% in the breastfeeding arm and 70% in the formula arm (P<.001). Median duration of breastfeeding was 17 months. Of the 401 infants included in the analysis, 94% were followed up to HIV-1 infection or mortality end points: 83% for the HIV-1 infection end point and 93% to the mortality end point. The cumulative probability of HIV-1 infection at 24 months was 36.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29.4%-44.0%) in the breastfeeding arm and 20.5% (95% CI, 14.0%-27.0%) in the formula arm (P = .001). The estimated rate of breast milk transmission was 16.2% (95% CI, 6.5%-25.9%). Forty-four percent of HIV-1 infection in the breastfeeding arm was attributable to breast milk. Most breast milk transmission occurred early, with 75% of the risk difference between the 2 arms occurring by 6 months, although transmission continued throughout the duration of exposure. The 2-year mortality rates in both arms were similar (breastfeeding arm, 24.4% [95% CI, 18.2%-30.7%] vs formula feeding arm, 20.0% [95% CI, 14.4%-25.6%]; P = .30). The rate of HIV-1-free survival at 2 years was significantly lower in the breastfeeding arm than in the formula feeding arm (58.0% vs 70.0%, respectively; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of breast milk transmission of HIV-1 was 16.2% in this randomized clinical trial, and the majority of infections occurred early during breastfeeding. The use of breast milk substitutes prevented 44% of infant infections and was associated with significantly improved HIV-1-free survival.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial. Nduati R, John G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Richardson B, Overbaugh J, Mwatha A, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Onyango FE, Hughes J, Kreiss J. JAMA. 2000 Mar 1;283(9):116.". In: Int J STD AIDS. 2000 Apr;11(4):257-61. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.

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