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KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE. "EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF BESNOITIA caprae IN GOATS.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
Experimental transmission of Besnoitia caprae from naturally infected goats to susceptible ones was achieved by intra-nasal instillation and intra-conjuctival inoculation of cystozoites containing suspensions, subcutaneous implantation of fascia containing cysts and alternate needle pricking between infected and non infected goats. Typical chronic symptoms developed in the fascia infected does.Cystozoites inoculation into the eyes and mouth did not result in infection in utero, suggesting that intra-uterine transmission may not occur. In contrast to does with acute besnoitiosis, which occasionally aborted, the does with chronic besnoitiosis gave birth to healthy kids. Kids below the age of 4 months (pre-weaned period) born both to infected and non infected does were susceptible to besnoitiosis but appeared to be more resistant than adult goats.
Njenga, M J; Kang’ethe BMMMEK; O;. "Experimental transmission of Besnoitia caprae in goats .". 1999. AbstractWebsite

Experimental transmission of Besnoitia caprae from naturally chronically-infected goats to susceptible ones was achieved by intra-nasal instillation and intra-conjunctival inoculation of cystozoite-containing suspensions, subcutaneous implantation of fascia containing cysts and alternate needle pricking between the infected and non-infected goats. Typical chronic symptoms developed in the fascia-infected does. Cystozoite inoculation into the eyes and mouth did not result in infection. Kids born of dams with acute and chronic besnoitiosis did not contract the infection in utero, suggesting that intra-uterine transmission may not occur. In contrast to does with acute besnoitiosis, which occasionally aborted, the does with chronic besnoitiosis gave birth to healthy kids. Kids below the age of 4 months (pre-weaned period) born of both infected and non-infected does were susceptible to besnoitiosis but appeared to be more resistant than adult goats.

Meyer C, Mueller MF, Duncker GIW, Meyer H-J. "Experimental {Animal} {Myopia} {Models} {Are} {Applicable} to {Human} {Juvenile}-{Onset} {Myopia}." Survey of Ophthalmology. 1999;44, Supplement 1:S93-S102. AbstractWebsite

Landmark explorations by Hubel and Wiesel investigating the importance of visual impressions in postnatal development of the visual system demonstrated that neural connections and eye growth can be affected by the absence of a clear retinal image during a critical period of postnatal development. Fundamental theories on neural plasticity and deprivation have recently been established that presume that a reduced quality of the retinal image during infancy and early childhood triggers an elongation of the posterior chamber of the eye, a so-called form deprivation myopia (FDM). In a retrospective multicenter study of 187 patients who suffered from phlyctenular keratitis with corneal opacification since early childhood, we reviewed data on gender, year and age at onset of the disease, refraction, and ultrasound biometry. Compared with the average refraction of +0.5 diopter (D) found in the general population, the mean refraction of −4.43 D that we found in our study demonstrated a marked shift toward myopia of almost 5 D. Patients with an early onset of phlyctenular keratitis had considerably higher myopia (−6.68 D) than those with a late onset (−1.67 D). Additionally, an axial elongation was confirmed by ultrasound biometry. Our average, axial length was 26.53 mm, compared with the epidemiologic mean of 24.00 mm. This myopic shift of 2.53 mm was caused mainly by an enlarged vitreous cavity. These results support the finding that blur can affect eye growth and lead to FDM not only in animal experiments but also in human beings.

Saatchi R, Ayienga E, Travis J, Rippon F. "An Expert System Developed to Assist Digital Electronic Teaching." IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education. 1997;7(2):81-87.
Saatchi MR, Ayienga EM, Travis JR, Rippon F. "An expert system developed to assist digital electronics teaching.". 1998.Website
Muchemi L. "Expert System in Metal Cutting." International Society of Logistic Journal: Published by SOULE Southwest, U.K. . 1998:289-302.
Mwega F. "Explaining Africa's Economic Growth Performance: the Case of Kenya.". In: The Political Economy of Economic Growth in Africa, 1960–2000: Volume 2, Country Case Studies. Cambridge University Press; 2008.
"Explaining Same-Sex Sexual Behavior: The Stagnation of the Genetic and Evolutionary Research Programs ." Journal for General Philosophy of Science. 2014;10.1007/s10838-014-9273(Published online: 20 December 2014-Springer):1-21.
KARORI DRMBUGUA. "Explaining Sexual Orientation: Some Conceptual and Methodological Issues.". In: Mila (N.S), 2008(9): 1-15. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2008.
English M, Nzinga J, Mbindyo P, Ayieko P, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Mbaabu L. "Explaining the effects of a multifaceted intervention to improve inpatient care in rural Kenyan hospitals--interpretation based on retrospective examination of data from participant observation, quantitative and qualitative studies." Implement Sci. 2011;6:124. Abstract

We have reported the results of a cluster randomized trial of rural Kenyan hospitals evaluating the effects of an intervention to introduce care based on best-practice guidelines. In parallel work we described the context of the study, explored the process and perceptions of the intervention, and undertook a discrete study on health worker motivation because this was felt likely to be an important contributor to poor performance in Kenyan public sector hospitals. Here, we use data from these multiple studies and insights gained from being participants in and observers of the intervention process to provide our explanation of how intervention effects were achieved as part of an effort to better understand implementation in low-income hospital settings.

GITURO WAINAINA. "Explanatory Data Analysis of Corn Basis Movement in Selected Locations in Southern United States,.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1997.
DR. WEBER TILO. "Explizit vs. implizit, propositional vs. prozedural, isoliert vs. kontextualisiert, individuell vs. kollektiv .". In: In: Tilo Weber & Gerd Antos (eds.). Arten von Wissen. Frankfurt, M.: Peter Lang. 13. Peter Lang; 2009.
M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. ""Exploitation and Changes in the Fisheries of Lake Victoria", Proceedings of Kenya Assembly of Women and the Environment, WIDEN.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1993. Abstract
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M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. "Exploitation and Changes in the Fisheries of Lake Victoria, Proceedings of Kenya Assembly of Women and the Environement, WIDEN.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1993. Abstract
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M PROFOGUTUGILBERTE. "Exploitation and Changes in the Fishers of Lake Victoria as experienced by the Small Scale fish Systems Project.". In: The African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries Vol. 5 No. 2.; 1994. Abstract
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J.R.Kanoti B. "EXPLOITATION OF MINERALS IN THE TAITA TAVETA RANCHES.". In: Ranchers and Related Stakeholders workshop for Taita Taveta District. Mwatate; 2002. Abstract

Throughout the world, prospecting for gemstone deposits is largely a primitive operation that does not involves scientific or systematic methods. In Taita Taveta district, most gemstones deposits are still found either by luck, or by direct visual inspection of outcrops or of the soil surface. However a wide range of methods are available to the prospector.

Prospecting methods include geological mapping, systematic eluvial test pitting, geophysical and geochemical prospecting. Remote sensing can also be used. It is important to understand perfectly the geological characteristics of gemstone deposits in order to be able to select the most efficient methods. In Taita Taveta, the combination of direct mapping, spectroradiometry, and soil geochemistry enables to delineate lithologies favourable to some gemstone deposits. On a local scale, computerised treatment of data obtained from systematic test pitting can assist in identifying possible secondary deposits, and to locate primary deposits.

M. DRMUTIGAJAYNE. "Exploiting Cliché and Proverbs in Oral Communication." Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2005. Abstract

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M. MRMAINASAMUEL. "An exploration into the creative potentials of glass using various kiln and decorative techniques to produce items for interior and exterior spaces.". In: Kenyatta University. Longhorn; 2006. Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
Elisha EO. "Exploration of Cloud Computing Practices in University Libraries in Kenya." Library Hi Tech News. 2016;33(9):16-22.
Muchanje, P.N., Kalai, J.M., Njuguna FW, Birongo, S. "An Exploration of Factors Influencing Career Progression of Tutors in Public Primary Teachers’ Training Colleges in Kenya." Universal Journal of Educational Research . 2016;4(3):582-588.
Opiyo, P., Mukabana, W.R., Kiche, I.O., Mathenge, E.M., Killeen, G.F., Fillinger, U. "An exploratory study of community factors relevant for participatory malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya. ." Malaria Journal. 2007;6:48.
Muasya, Juliet N. "An Exploratory Study of Students' Perceptions of Heterosexual Culture in the University of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: USHEPIA Crossing Boundaries, Knowledges from the Continent. Cape Town, South Africa: Siber Ink ; 2014.
Gitonga P, Karani A, Kimani S. "Explore Best Practices in Family Nursing in Kenya: Empathy as a Value in Caring." http://www.opastonline.com/journal-of-nursing-healthcare/. 2017;2(2):1/4.
and D.N. Kariuki PMCAMN. Explore Chemistry, Form 2.; 2003.
and D.N. Kariuki PMCAMN. Explore Chemistry, Form 3.; 2004.
D.N. Kariuki PMC. Explore Chemistry, Form 4.; Submitted.
KIOKO MRMUSINGIJOHN. "Explore Geography Book Form I: Teacher.". In: Publishers . Longman Kenya; 2003. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
KIOKO MRMUSINGIJOHN. "Explore Geography Learner.". In: Publishers . Longman Kenya; 2004. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
KIOKO MRMUSINGIJOHN. "Explore Geography Learner.". In: Publishers . Longman Kenya; 2003. Abstract
The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.
JK MUSINGI. "Explore Geography Learners Book: Form 2, Teachers Guide.". In: Publishers . Longman Kenya; 2004. Abstract

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

Musingi JK. Explore Geography Learners Form 3.. Longman Kenya; 2005. AbstractWebsite

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

Musingi JK. "Explore Geography Teacher.". In: Publishers . Longman Kenya; 2005. Abstract

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

Kabue KG, Njogu PM, Mwangi AN. "Exploring different approaches to improve the success of drug discovery and development projects." Futur. J. Pharm. Sci. 2020;6:27.
IRIBEMWANGI PI, Karani R, Wamitila KW. "Exploring Equivalence as Measure of Skopos in Translation of Software Products: The Case of English to Kiswahili." Jarida la Kimataifa la Isimu ya Kibantu (JAKIIKI). Journal of Bantu Linguistics. 2019;(Special):1-16.
Kairu-Wanyoike SW, Kaitibie S, Taylor NM, Gitau GK, Heffernan C, Schnier C, Kiara H, Taracha E, McKeever D. "Exploring farmer preferences for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination: A case study of Narok District of Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013;110(3-4):356-369. Abstractexploring_farmer_preferences_for_contagious_bovine_pleuropneumonia_vaccination.pdf

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important disease in most of sub-Saharan Africa. A conjoint analysis and ordered probit regression models were used to measure the preferences of farmers for CBPP vaccine and vaccination attributes. This was with regard to inclusion or not of an indicator in the vaccine, vaccine safety, vaccine stability as well as frequency of vaccination, vaccine administration and the nature of vaccination. The analysis was carried out in 190 households in Narok District of Kenya between October and December 2006 using structured questionnaires, 16 attribute profiles and a five-point Likert scale. The factors affecting attribute valuation were shown through a two-way location interaction model. The study also demonstrated the relative importance (RI) of attributes and the compensation value of attribute levels. The attribute coefficient estimates showed that farmers prefer a vaccine that has an indicator, is 100% safe and is administered by the government (p < 0.0001). The preferences for the vaccine attributes were consistent with expectations. Preferences for stability, frequency of vaccination and nature of vaccination differed amongst farmers (p > 0.05). While inclusion of an indicator in the vaccine was the most important attribute (RI = 43.6%), price was the least important (RI = 0.5%). Of the 22 household factors considered, 15 affected attribute valuation. The compensation values for a change from non inclusion to inclusion of an indicator, 95–100% safety, 2 h to greater than 2 h stability and from compulsory to elective vaccination were positive while those for a change from annual to biannual vaccination and from government to private administration were negative. The study concluded that the farmers in Narok District had preferences for specific vaccine and vaccination attributes. These preferences were conditioned by various household characteristics and disease risk factors. On average the farmers would need to be compensated or persuaded to accept biannual and private vaccination against CBPP. There is need for consideration of farmer preferences for vaccine attribute levels during vaccine formulations and farmer preferences for vaccination attribute levels when designing delivery of vaccines.

Muasya, Juliet N, Kahiga, Ruth W. "Exploring Men and Women Students Experiences of Sexual Harassment: A Case Study of one Public University in Kenya." International Journal of Gender and Women’s Studies . 2020;8 (2):122-130.
Abinya NA, Mwanda WO, Maina JMD, Odhiambo AO, Oyiro PO, Mwanzi SA, Dindi E, Waweru A. "Exploring Occupational and Familial Risks for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia." Journal of US-China Medical Science . 2017;1(14):31-35.cml_risk_us-china_publ.pdf
Mwabu G. "Exploring Social Protection as an Instrument for Achieving Millennium Development Goals in Kenya.". In: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, Final Report.; 2011.
Mise JK, Nair C, Odera O, Ogutu M. "Exploring the determinants of brand loyalty in global FMCG markets of soft drinks consumers in Kenya and India." International Journal of Research in Management. 2013;3(2). Abstractexploring_the_determinants_of_brand_loyalty_in_global_fmcg_markets_of_soft_drinks_consumers_in_kenya_and_india.pdfWebsite

This study sought to investigate and compare both the African and Asian soft drink markets. Whereas Kenya is a leading economic hub in Eastern Africa, India remains a powerful economic player in Asia with its large population that offers considerable scope for additional geographic penetration. The study was conducted between January 2012 and October 2012. A total of 1312 respondents were sampled comprising of 434 Kenyans and 878 Indians from selected public universities in India and Kenya. The students sample represented 1.2% of the target population in 3 public universities in Kenya and Kerala respectively. Data was analyzed using simple and multiple regression method. Among the key findings were that promotion was the strongest factor to brand loyalty among Kenyan soft drinks consumers while in India it was product quality.
Keywords: Brand loyalty, soft drinksconsumer, Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG)

AM K, WO O. "Exploring the intricacies of contemporary PhD research process." East Afri Med J. 2015;2015; 92 (6): 308-314(2015; 92 (6): 308-314):2015; 92 (6): 308-314.
Atoh FO. "Exploring the New Ohangla Music in the Context of Urbanization: The Search for Relevance for Sustainability. .". In: International Conference on Refocusing Music and Performing Arts for Sustainable Development . Kabarak University ; Submitted.
N NB, O OT, O KD, N MJ. "Exploring the Possible Use of EN 197 CEM II/B-P and CEM IV/B-P in the Production of High-Performance Concrete.". In: IEK-EBK Conference. Diani, Kenya; 2019.
Okoth S, Jefwa MJ, Karanja N, Kahindi J, Muya E, Okoth P. Exploring the potential of beneficial soil fungi to enhance productivity in agricultural systems.; 2007.
Okoth S, Jefwa MJ, Karanja N, Kahindi J, Muya E, Okoth P. Exploring the potential of beneficial soil fungi to enhance productivity in agricultural systems.; 2007.
Pauw GD, Wagacha PW, De Schryver G-M. "Exploring the SAWA corpus: collection and deployment of a parallel corpus English—Swahili." Language resources and evaluation. 2011;45(3):331-344. Abstract

Research in machine translation and corpus annotation has greatly benefited from the increasing availability of word-aligned parallel corpora. This paper presents ongoing research on the development and application of the sawa corpus, a two-million-word parallel corpus English-Swahili. We describe the data collection phase and zero in on the difficulties of finding appropriate and easily accessible data for this language pair. In the data annotation phase, the corpus was semi-automatically sentence and word-aligned and morphosyntactic information was added to both the English and Swahili portion of the corpus. The annotated parallel corpus allows us to investigate two possible uses. We describe experiments with the projection of part-of-speech tagging annotation from English onto Swahili, as well as the development of a basic statistical machine translation system for this language pair, using the parallel corpus and a consolidated database of existing English-Swahili translation dictionaries. We particularly focus on the difficulties of translating English into the morphologically more complex Bantu language of Swahili.

Abala DO. "Export propensity and intensity of Kenyan manufacturing firms: An Empirical Analysis." Journal of Emerging issues in Economics ,Finance and Banking (JEIFB) . 2013;2(2):616-634.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Export standards, market institutions and smallholder farmer exclusion from fresh export vegetable high value chains: Experiences from Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia.". In: Journal of Agricultural Sceince. Julius J. Okello; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Export standards, market institutions and smallholder farmer exclusion from fresh export vegetable high value chains: Experiences from Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia.". In: Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
Nyarwath O. An exposition and critique of H. Odera Oruka's philosophy. Odhiambo PJA, Ogutu PGEM, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2009.
Ndohvu JB. An Exposition of the Foundations of the Philosophy of Human Natiure. Nyasani PJ, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007.
Ojuka KD SH. "Exposure in emergency general surgery in a time-based residency program: A call for review." Annals of African Surgery. 2008;2(1):15-18.
K DRNDERUFM. "Exposure of calves to taeniid eggs of wild carnivore origin. Bull. Animal Prod. In Africa 30(1) 1982.". In: M.Sc. Thesis University of Nairobi. East African Journal of Development Studies; 1982. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
Kang’ethe EK, Gatwiri M, Sirma AJ, Ouko EO, Mburugu-Musoti CK, Kitala PM, Nduhiu GJ, Nderitu JG, JK Mungatu, Hietaniemi V, V Joutsjoki, Korhonen HJ. "Exposure of Kenyan population to aflatoxins in foods with special reference to Nandi and Makueni counties." Food Quality and Safety. 2017;1 (2):131-137.
Anyenda EO, Higashi T, Kambayashi Y, Nguyen TTT, et al. "Exposure to daily ambient particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients: A longitudinal study." Atmospheric Environment. 2016;140:pp 34-41.
Muiruri KS, Britt A, Amugune NO, Nguu EK, Chan S, Tripathi L. "Expressed Centromere Specific Histone 3 (CENH3) Variants in Cultivated Triploid and Wild Diploid Bananas (Musa spp.)." Frontiers in plant science. 2017;1034:1034.
Perez M-TR, Caminos E. "Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and of its functional receptor in neonatal and adult rat retina." Neuroscience Letters. 1995;183:96-99. AbstractWebsite

The expression of mRNA coding for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and for its functional receptor, the full-length tyrosine kinase receptor trkB (trkB mRNA), was examined in early postnatal and adult rat retina by in situ hybridization using digoxygenin and radioactively-labeled oligonucleotide probes. BDNF and trkB mRNAs are expressed in the ganglion cell layer at postnatal-days (PN) 1, 4, 7, 14, 60, in proximal neuroblastic layer (PN 1, 4, 7), and proximal inner nuclear layer (PN 14, 60). Subpopulations of developing and mature retinal cells are thus capable of synthesizing BDNF.

HM M. EXPRESSION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS ALPHA. Giessen: VVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAG; 2006.
HM M. EXPRESSION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS ALPHA. Giessen: Annual Research Dissemination for VFFV; 2004.
Henry M. "EXPRESSION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS ALPHA and beta in boar testis." 15th international congress on animal reproduction (ICAR), Prto Seguro, Brazil; 2004.
HM M. "Expression of estrogen receptors in boar testis." 40th yearly congress of physiology and pathology of reproduction, Berlin, Germany; 2007.
HM M. "Expression of estrogen sulfatransferase in boar testis." 39th yealy congress on physiology and pathology of reprouction, Hannover, Germany; 2006.
HM M. "Expression of P450 aromatase in boar testis." 38th yearly congress on physiology and pathology of reproduction, Zurich, Switzerland; 2005.
Khainga SO. "Extended pedicle rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap for groin reconstruction: case report." East Afr Med J. 2006;83(10):575-9. Abstract

Reconstruction of left groin defect following a failed left femoral aneurysm bypass procedure. The defect was occasioned by excision of a saccular aneurysm of left femoral artery, and repair with PTFE graft for an ilio femoral bypass. On the second postoperative day, the wound became septic and the graft extruded with a resultant wound defect of about 20 x 10 cm. The graft was later removed and wound coverage achieved by an extended contralateral pedicled rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.

R. Sungura, Onyambu C, Mpolya E, E. Sauli, Vianney J-M. "Extended scope of neuroimaging and prospects in brain atrophy mitigation: A systematic review." Interdisciplinary neurosurgery . 2021;23:100875.
Mulwa MM. "Extending financial services to the poor and Marginalized. A Case Study of Mobile Banking in Kenya.". In: 2nd East African Communication Association Conference. St. Augustine University in Mwanza, Tanzania; 2012.extending_financial_services_to_the_poor_and_marginalized_revised_edition.pdf
Maina EM, Oboko RO, Waiganjo PW. "Extending moodle grouping functionality using artificial intelligent techniques." AFRICON, 2017 IEEE. 2017:55-58. AbstractFull website link

Learning Management Systems such as Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning
Environment (Moodle) only supports random group assignment or instructor based
assignment method. However, with the understanding that random assignment method only
increases the likelihood of heterogeneity in the group, while instructor based method
involves the instructors and it is not dynamic, there is need to develop a group formation
mechanism which can guarantee heterogeneity based on learner's collaboration
competence level, has dynamism in grouping students and has less instructor involvement.
In view of this, this paper discusses how to extend Moodle grouping functionality in
discussion forums using an intelligent grouping algorithm which has the capability to mine
discussion forum data in Moodle and cluster students to different clusters based

Mutahi J, Nganga W. "Extending the Grammatical Framework with Swahili Translation Capability.". In: Tenth CHAKITA Conference.; 2010. Abstract
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Masinde M, Nyikal Z, Bagula N. "Extending the Power of Mobile Phone Using Service Oriented Computing.". In: 4th International ICST Conference on MOBILe Wireless MiddleWARE, Operating Systems, and Application MOBILWARE 2011. Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering; 2011.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Extension education and farmers.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1985.
Nyang’anga, HT OWO, Mugivane, FI MJD, Opande GT. "Extension Officers’ Requirements in an Artificial Intelligent System for Diagnosis of Maize Disease, Kenya." IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences (IOSR-JAVS) 8(10) Ver II. II 13-19. 2016;8:13-19. Abstract
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"The extent and panacea for drug abuse and indiscipline in Kenya schools." Asian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2012;4(1):29-36.
Ngecu W, Nyamai C, Erima G. "The extent and Significance of mass-movements in Eastern Africa: Case studies of some major landslides in Uganda and Kenya.". 2004. AbstractWebsite

The East African region has experienced major landslides in recent years. These landslides have caused many fatalities and injuries, loss of many hectares of productive farmlands and destruction to infrastructure such as roads, railways and bridges. The warm and wet climate of the landslide-prone regions causes rapid weathering and produces a regolith weaker than the underlying rock with an interface between the two layers. This interface serves as the most common plane along which landslides are initiated once it becomes saturated. Landslides in the region are associated with steep topography, human activities such as deforestation, overgrazing, and unplanned farming on steep slopes and are induced by earthquakes and high intensity of rainfall. The landslide-prone areas are agriculturally very productive and the inhabitants depend on agriculture for their livelihood. The areas also contribute substantially to the national food reserve. The landslides are therefore a burden to the economies of the individual farmers and national governments of the region.

NZUVE SNM, Ayub BL. "The Extent of Compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Regulations at Registered Workplaces in Nairobi." International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology . 2012. Abstractthe_extent_of_compliance_with_occupational_safety_and_health_regulatins_at_registered_workplaces_in_nairobi.pdf

The objective of the study was to determine the extent of implementation of the occupational safety and health regulations at workplaces. The study also determined the measures instituted by organizations to comply with the said regulations at workplaces. To meet this objective, the study collected primary data using questionnaires. A sample of 112 was picked out of 2,169 registered workplaces in Nairobi. Data was analyzed using descriptive, factor and regression analysis. The elements used to determine the extent of compliance with occupational safety and health regulations at workplaces were categorized into five factors (independent variables) namely: safety, hygiene, and emergency fire protection and health regulations. All the independent variables were linearly related with the dependent variable using a model of five predictor variables to rate compliance with occupational safety and health regulations at workplaces. The study found out that 90% of the respondents were generally aware of the existence of the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act, 2007. Over 80% of the respondents were of the view that administration and enforcement of the OSH Act, 2007 was adequate and also provided for the safety and health of employees at the workplace. However, inspection and examination of workplaces by occupational safety and health officers was at 52.2%, which is low and could perhaps be one of the factors responsible for lack of full compliance with the OSH Act, 2007. Overall, the extent of compliance with the Act at workplace stood at 64.49%. Organizations still have an abysmal 35.5% level of non-compliance that should be addressed to minimize the dire consequences of non-compliance.

Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Seda, P., Killeen, G.F., Hawley WA, Knols, B.G.J. "Extent of digestion affects the success of amplifying human DNA from blood meals of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). ." Bulletin of Entomological Research. 2002;92:233-239.
DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD, DR. MUKABANA WOLFANGRICHARD. "Extent of digestion affects the success of amplifying human DNA from blood meals of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 92, 233-239.". In: Bulletin of Entomological Research, 92, 233-239. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
Janet Muhalia Chumba, Andanje Mwisukha RMK. "Extent of public support for physical education in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. Submitted;4(10). Abstract

Abstract The mass media have a fundamental role to play in the development of Sports.
Their contribution towards uplifting performance and popularizing sports is particularly
critical in the developing countries where sports programmes tend to receive minimal
attention and resource allocation. The mass media are important tools for marketing,
publicizing and popularizing sports. Their specific roles include bringing talent into the
limelight, giving recognition/appreciation to outstanding sports personalities and ...

Wanjala G, undefined. "Extent of Secondary School Teachers' involvement in Instructional Supervision and its effect on KCSE performance in Gucha South District , Kenya." THE FOUNTAIN , Journal of Educational Research. 2011;v(1):31-43. Abstract

This paper discusses the research that was carried out in order to determine the extent of teachers' involvement in instructional supervision and its effects on KCSE performance in Gucha-South District. The purpose of the research was to establish whether there existed a significant correlation between teacher involvement in instructional supervision and students' performance in KCSE. Using a descriptive survey research design , data were collected from 266 teachers in 13 secondary schools and 8 Quality Assurance Officers. Data were collected using a variety of techniques and analyzed using appropriate descriptive statistics. A major finding of the research is that schools where teachers' involvement in supervision was higher registered better grades in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Examination.

Chepkoech S, Mwinzi DJM. "The Extent to which Enhancement of ICT in Public Technical and Vocational Education and Training Institutions in Kenya has Accelerated Skill Development.". In: Commonwealth Association of Universities and Polytechnics in Africa. Mombasa; 2016.edf_publications_1.pdf
Bulinda, D. M. MJW. "Extent to which system migration influence the implementation of core banking systems project: A case of NIC Bank Kenya LTD." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10):156-166.
Munyoki JM,, Kibera FN, Ogutu M. "Extent To Which University- Industry Linkage Exists In Kenya: A Study Of Medium And Large Manufacturing Firms In Selected Industries In Kenya." Business Administration and Management . Submitted;Vol 1(4):163-169, .
Nyaga JM. External and internal root morphology of the first Permanent molars in a Kenyan population.; 2010. Abstract

Background: A thorough knowledge of dental anatomy and its variability is
critical in clinical dentistry. It is important for the clinician to be familiar with
variations in root morphology for such variations in the roots and canals have
significancein endodontic treatment and restoration of the treated teeth.
Objective: To determine the external and internal root morphology in first
permanentmolars in a Kenyan population.
Study design: This was a cross sectional descriptive study
Study area: The study involved collection of extracted teeth from patients whom
after dental evaluation, a tooth was recommended for extraction in five dental
clinics within Nairobi;- K.N.H.-Dental clinic, U.O.N.-School of Dental Sciences, St
Mary's Hospital Dental clinic, Mbagathi District Hospital Dental clinic and Social
ServicesLeague Dental clinic.
Materials and methods: Maxillary and mandibular first permanent molars were
co~ectedfrom male and female patients aged between 10 and 40 years. The
teeth were collected from individuals who met the inclusion criteria. The teeth
were separated at the collection site based on gender and whether they were
maxillary or mandibular first molars by the researcher and trained research
assistants.After collection, the teeth were further sorted out using the inclusion
criteria.A total of 187 maxillary molars and 189 mandibular molars were studied.
Observationswere done to determine the number of roots, root fusion and the
direction of root curvature. Measurements, using an electronic vernier caliper,
were done to determine the root length in millimetres. A standard clearing
xiii
technique was applied to determine the number of canals and the canal
configurations with reference to Vertucci's classification (1984). A data collection
form was used to record the findings for each tooth after examination
Data analysis and presentation: The data collected was entered into a
computer and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)
12.1. Computation was done to determine pattern of root fusion, frequency of
root curvature in a certain direction, calculate the mean root length, number of
canals per root, frequency of various canal configurations and gender variations
in the findings. The data was presented in form of frequency tables, pie charts
and bar graphs.
Results: All the maxillary first molars had three roots while mandibular first
molars had two roots. Root fusion was observed in 3.9% of the maxillary first
molars. Root fusion between distobuccal and palatal root was more frequent
(2.8%) than the mesiobuccal and distobuccal roots (1.1%) and gender variation
in root fusion was not statistically significant. Majority of the mesiobuccal roots
63.6% were curved and of the curved, 95% curved distally. In the distobuccal
root, 49.7% of the roots were curved and majority 77.4% curved mesial. Majority
of the palatal roots were straight (65.3%). Of the curved palatal roots, 92.5%
curved in a buccal direction. In the mandibular first molars, 16.3% of the mesial
roots were straight while the rest were curved distally in both genders. Majority of
distal roots were straight. The gender variations in root curvature in both
maxillary and mandibular first permanent molars were not statistically significant.
The mean root length in palatal, mesiobuccal and distobuccal roots was
XIV
23.28mm, 20.22mm and 19.67mm respectively. While in the mandibular molars,
the mean root length was 21.97mm and 21.38mm in mesial and distal roots
respectively. Males had longer mean root length compared to females in the first
permanent molars. The gender variation in root lengths was statistically
significant (p=0.001).
Majority of the first permanent molars had 3 canals, 70.1% in maxillary and
56.0% in mandibular first molars. The mesial root of mandibular first molars had
two canals in 96.3% of the teeth in both male and females and type IV canal
configuration was most prevalent in the mandibular mesial root among males and
females. The distal root of mandibular first molar had one canal in 57.7% of the
teeth in males and females. There were significant gender variations in the
number of canals and canal configurations in the distal root. Two canals were
more prevalent in females (53.6%) compared to males (30.4%) and a single
canal was more frequent in males (69.6%) compared to females (46.4%)
(P=0.001). Canal types I, " and IV were the most frequent in mandibular distal
root. The gender variation the frequency of canal types I, " and IV in the distal
root was statistically significant (P=0.001). Most of the palatal (98.9%) and all the
distobuccal roots had one canal Vertucci type I configuration. The mesiobuccal
root had 2 canals in 29.4% of the roots in both males and females. Canal
configurations in mesiobuccal root varied widely. Canal types I, II, IV, V, VI and
VII had frequencies of 65.2%, 12.8%, 14.4%,4.3%,2.7% and 0.5% respectively
in both gender.
xv
Conclusions: The maxillary first molars had three roots while the mandibular
ones had two roots. Root fusion occurred in 3.9% of maxillary first molars.
Palatal and distal root in maxillary and mandibular first molars respectively had
the lowest frequency of curved roots.
In the maxillary first molars, the mean palatal root length was 23.28mm,
mesiobuccal 20.22mm and distobuccal 19.67mm while in mandibular first
permanent molars, mesial root was 21.97 mm and distal 21.38mm.
The mean root lengths were higher in males as compared to females
Most of maxillary first molars 70.1% had three canals while 29.4% had four
canals. Vertucci type I canals configuration was the most prevalent in all roots.
Most of mandibular first molars had three canals 56% while 41% had four canals.
Two canals were more frequent among females 53.6% compared to males
30.4% and Canal types I, II and IV configurations were the most frequent in
mandibular distal root.
Recommendations;
• The palatal root of maxillary and distal root of mandibular first permanent molars
are the most suitable for post placement.
• Three dimensional diagnostic techniques are essential in identification of
anatomical features
• Long and short files should be included in the endodontic armamentarium
• More attention should be directed towards searching for and locating the second
canal in the mesiobuccal and distal roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars
respectively.

O PROFORINDADA. "External quality control performance in Clinical Chemistry experience in Kenya M. J. N. Mbiti, P. J. Ojwang and D.A.O. Orinda E. A. Med. Journal Vol. 70, No. 4 April, 1993.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):16-20. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract
Analysis of eleven biochemical laboratory tests was done during an International External Quality Assessment Scheme (IEQAS) in which the clinical chemistry laboratory at Kenyatta National Hospital participated. Technicon SMA II continuous flow system was used in the biochemical analyses apart from glucose which was assayed manually by the glucose oxidase method. Using the standard deviation index (SDI), twenty six percent of the results were found to be outside the two standard deviation (2SD) limit. However, when variance index score (VIS) was used, 42% of the results were found to be outliers. Overall, our laboratory performed poorly compared to other laboratories in both the IEQAS and the United Kingdom External Quality Assurance Scheme (UKEQAS). This poor performance is attributed to the use of improper equipment which is not regularly maintained, lack of diagnostic reagents, lack of quality control (QC) materials and inadequate staff training in the field of quality control.
Ng’an’ga R N, Masiga MA MSW. "External Root Morphology of the First Maxillary Premolars of Kenyans Africans. ." East Afr. Med. J., . 2009;86(12):539-544.
Kang’ethe SM, Wagacha PW. "Extracting Diagnosis Patterns in Electronic Medical Records using Association Rule Mining." International Journal of Computer Applications. 2014.Full Text
KIPLAGAT CHEBONSAMMY, Onyari JM, Mulaa F, wabomba J. "Extraction and characterization of gelatin from Lates niloticus and potential industrial applications." Biofarmasi Journal of Natural Product Biochemistry. 2017;15(2):53-64. Abstract

Kiplagat CS, Onyari JM, Mulaa F, Wabomba J. 2018. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from Lates niloticus and potential industrial applications. Biofarmasi J Nat Prod Biochem 16: 53-64. This research aims to extract and characterize gelatin from Lates niloticus (Nile perch) scales, then blend it with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Hydrolysis of the scales was done using a crude alkaline protease harvested from a bacterium, Bacillus cereus strain wwcp 1, obtained from Lake Bogoria. The lyophilized solution yielded 16.3% of gelatin powder calculated from the dry weight of the scales. The sample was characterized using infrared spectroscopy and showed peaks at 3442 cm-1, 1653 cm-1 and~ 1590 cm-1 corresponding to Amide A, Amide I and Amide II bands respectively. The amino acid analysis shows that glycine was the most abundant amino acid (21.7%), followed by proline (14.6%) and alanine (11.8%). Isoleucine, Histidine, and Tyrosine were the least abundant (1.8, 1.4 and 0.9% respectively). Polyvinyl alcohol-gelatin blend films of various compositions ranging from 10% to 90% PVA were prepared by solution casting method. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA) tests showed the films had glass transition, melting and thermal decomposition onset temperatures intermediate between those of the respective individual polymers (PVA and gelatin). The thermal stability of the films reduced with the increase in the amount of the less thermally stable constituent. Lastly, potential applications of the prepared blend films were investigated. Batch experiments to assess the potential of the polymer blend …

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Extraction and spectroscopic Study of avocado oil, J. Biochemiphysics, 6&7, 36.". In: Sciences series A., 11 (1), 133. Survey Review; 1998. Abstract
n/a
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Extraction of Resistances in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from Obliquely Sputtered TiO2 Films,.". In: Opto-Electronics Devices: Their potential for Sustainable Development, conference held at the Department of Physics, University of Nairobi. DEPT OF PHYSICS, UON: Elsevier; 2010. Abstract

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NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Extraction of vernonia oil from Vernonia galamensis seeds and it.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; Submitted.
Extraction of vernonia oil from vernonia galamensis seeds and its aminolysis to vernolamides.; 2001. Abstract

Vernonia galamensis grows as a common weed and is widely distributed in Africa,
and its center of diversity is found in East Africa. The dry seeds of Vernonia galamensis
contains a naturally epoxidized oil that is rich in trivernolin, which constitutes about 80% of
the seeds oil. The vernonia oil has a unique structure that makes it attractive for the
preparation of novel and useful products.
This study reports on the extraction of vernonia oil and its conversion to vernolamides
with higher added value. The oil was extracted from the seeds of Vernonia galamensis ssp.
nairobensis using soxhlet extraction. About 31.6% of crude oil was obtained which after
refining gave about 25.2% of oil. The oil was then reacted with 1,6-diaminohexane, 1,8-
diaminooctane, 2-aminopyridine, 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine and 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine to
give the corresponding vernolamides under two varied conditions, temperature (25,70 and
80°C) and solvents (neat, chloroform, dichloromethane and dimethylformamide). In all
~
reactions a mole ratio of vernonia oil to amine (1 :3) was used at the reaction time of 12 h.
!
In all cases, highest yields of the vernolamides (4l.2-72.3%) were obtained at 70°C in
chloroform, while the lowest yields (21-53.3%) were recorded at 80°C. The reactions at 25°C
gave reasonably high yields (17-62.8%), thus aminolysis proceeds even at room temperature.
Aminolysis carried under neat conditions also gave relatively high yields (41-64.2%).
The vernolamides were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), infrared (IR),
electron impact mass spe~ctroscopy (ElMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
spectroscopic techniques.
The antimicrobial activities of the products were investigated at concentrations of
~
100)..lg, 50)..lg and 25)..lg by the disc diffusion method. The vernolamides exhibited only
antibacterial activity and was greater against gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) than in gramIX
negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. There was no antifungal activity shown on all the fungi
that were investigated.

Mendelow AD, Karmi MZ, Paul KS, Fuller GA, Gillingham FJ. "Extradural haematoma: effect of delayed treatment." BMJ. 1979;1:1240-1242. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Rivas JJ, Lobato RD, Sarabia R, Cordobés F, Cabrera A, Gomez P. "Extradural hematoma: analysis of factors influencing the courses of 161 patients." Neurosurgery. 1988;23:44-51. AbstractWebsite
n/a
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU. "Extrapulmonary and disseminated tuberculosis in HIV-1-seropositive patients presenting to the acute medical services in Nairobi. AIDS. 1990 Oct;4(10):981-5.". In: AIDS. 1990 Oct;4(10):981-5. Taylor & Francis; 1990. Abstract
We studied 506 consecutive adult acute medical admissions to hospital in Nairobi; 95 (18.8%) were seropositive for HIV-1, and 43 new cases of active tuberculosis (TB) were identified. TB was clearly associated with HIV infection, occurring in 17.9% of seropositive patients compared with 6.3% of seronegatives [odds ratio (OR) 3.2; 95% confidence limits (CL) 1.6-6.5]. Extrapulmonary disease was more common in seropositive than seronegative TB patients (nine out of 17 versus five out of 26; OR 4.7; 95% CL 1.01-23.6); this accounted for most of the excess cases of TB seen in seropositive patients. Mycobacteraemia was demonstrated in two of eight seropositive TB patients but in none of 11 seronegative TB patients. No atypical mycobacteria were isolated. The World Health Organization (WHO) clinical case definition for African AIDS did not discriminate well between seropositive and seronegative TB cases. Five out of seven seropositive women with active tuberculosis had delivered children in the preceding 6 months and were lactating, compared with only one out of eight seronegative tuberculous women. An association between recent childbirth, HIV immunosuppression and the development of TB is suggested
Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. "Eye diseases and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya. ." East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2008;14(1):42-50. Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual
impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the
catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi.
Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007
Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City
Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined
(96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined
to be examined.
Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only
241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti
divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival
growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by
refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects
(0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the
subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was
0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates
that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The
main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual
impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma.
Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of
blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was
refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were
cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma.
Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should
focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to
address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems
encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and
hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially
in school going children.

Karimurio J, Kimani K, Gichuhi S, Marco S, Nyaga G, Wachira J, Ilako D. "Eye disease and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoreti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2008;14(1):41-49. Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi.
Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City
Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined.
Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma.
Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma.
Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.

J K, K K, Gichuhi S, S M. "Eye disease and visual impairment in Kibera and Dagoretti Divisions of Nairobi, Kenya." East African Journal of Ophthalmology. 2008;14(1):42-50.
Onyango OM, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S. "Eye diseases in a high HIV-risk group; the Majengo commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. ." East Afr. J. Ophthalmol.. 2007;13(3):52-55.
Onyango O, Karimurio J, Gichuhi S. "Eye diseases in a high HIV-risk group; the Majengo commercial sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr J Ophthalmol." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2007;13:52-55. Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence and magnitude of eye disease in a group at high risk for HIV: the Majengo commercial sex worker (CSW) cohort and see how it differs from the general population.
Design: Cross sectional study
Setting: Commercial sex workers (CSW) clinic, Majengo slums, Nairobi in November and December 2003.
Subjects: An open cohort of CSWs on follow-up by the department of Microbiology, University of Nairobi.
Results: There are over 600 CSWs on regular follow-up at the Majengo clinic. 151 aged between 21 years and 56 years were examined. 107 were Kenyan, 40 Tanzanian, 3 Ugandan and 1 Rwandese. 72 were HIV +ve and 79 were HIV –ve. 13.9 % of the HIV+ve CSWs examined were on HAART. The prevalence of general eye disease in the HIV+ve and HIV negative subsets was 86.1% and 69.6% respectively. The prevalence of HIV related eye illnesses in the HIV+ve CSWs was 18.1% with choroidal lesions being the most common. Profound immunodefi ciency characterized by a CD4 count less than 50 was observed in 4 CSWs. While 3 of these CSWs were assymptomatic, one had a retinal hemorrhage and tortuous blood vessels suggestive of HIV retinopathy.
Conclusion: In this C.S.W cohort HIV specifi c cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and genital mucosal antibodies may have caused the lower prevalence of ocular manifestations than that reported in studies in non-high risk groups (30-80%). Some members of this cohort have special immunity to HIV.

Wamitila KW. An Eye for Poetry: A Guide to the Study of Poetry. Nairobi: Vide~Muwa Publishers Ltd.; 2018.
CHEGE GITAOGEORGE. "Eye infection in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) associated with Actinomyces pyogenes." Indian Veterinary Journal. 1992;69:933-934. Abstractpub_35_gitao_and_karaba_1992.pdfWebsite

The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.

Wazid AM, Anyenda OE, Tole NM. "Eye Lens and Thyroid gland dose during CT head scanning in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." South Africa Journal of Radiology. Submitted.
N MRNYUTHOEDWIN. "The Eyes of Africa - An illustrated biography on Mohamed Amin Pub.". In: Sasa Sema Publications. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
INYEGA DRHELLENNASIMIYUH. "Ezeliora, B., Inyega, H.N., & Matula, P. D. (2010). Research Questions, Hypotheses and Instruments for Data Collection. In Ezeliora, B., Ezeokan, J. O. & Inyega, H.N. (eds.). Principles of Research in Education and Social Studies. Enugu, Nigeria: Fourth D."; 2010. Abstract281.pdf

Background: Pethidine, an opioid analgesic is used for pain management. Clomipramine a tricyclic antidepressant primarily used for mood management is also used to treat pain. The objective of this study was to investigate the potentiation of the analgesic effects of sub-threshold dose of pethidine by a tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine. Methods: The antinociceptive activities of clomipramine and pethidine alone and in combination were investigated in Swiss albino mice using the formalin test. Normal saline was employed as the control. Ten animals were used in each experiment. Results: Pethidine 5mg / kg failed to cause any significant effect while the 6.25, 7.5, 8.75 and 10.0mg /kg showed highly significant antinociceptive effect (p< 0.01) compared to the controls in the late phase of formalin test. Clomipramine 0.5 mg / kg did not show any significant effect while 0.75 mg / kg caused a significant effect (p< 0.05) while 1.00 and 1.25mg /kg caused a very highly significant antinociceptive effect (p< 0.001) in the late phase of formalin test compared to the vehicle treated animals. The combination of pethidine 5mg / kg and clomipramine 0.75mg / kg caused a highly significant antinociceptive effect (P<0.01) in the late phase of formalin test. Conclusion: This study demonstrates a marked reduction in the time spent in pain behaviour produced by the combination of low dose pethidine and clomipramine in the late phase of formalin test. The findings demonstrate the potentiation of a narcotic analgesic by a tricyclic antidepressant.

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