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KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Dzierszinski, F., Kibe, M., Mortuaire, M., Dendouga, N., Popescu, O. and Tomavo, S. (2001). Differential expression of two plant-like enolases with distinct enzymatic and antigenic properties during stage conversion of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma go.". In: Proceedings of 4th International congress on Toxoplasmosis p 37. University of Nairobi.; 2001. Abstract

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii differentially expresses two distinct enolase isoenzymes known as ENO1 and ENO2, respectively. To understand differential gene expression during tachyzoite to bradyzoite conversion, we have characterized the two T.gondii enolase promoters. No homology could be found between these sequences and no TATA or CCAAT boxes were evident. The differential activation of the ENO1 and ENO2 promoters during tachyzoite to bradyzoite differentiation was investigated by deletion analysis of 5'-flanking regions fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter followed by transient transfection. Our data indicate that in proliferating tachyzoites, the repression of ENO1 involves a negative distal regulatory region (nucleotides -1245 to -625) in the promoter whereas a proximal regulatory region in the ENO2 promoter directs expression at a low level. In contrast, the promoter activity of ENO1 is highly induced following the conversion of tachyzoites into resting bradyzoites. The ENO2 promoter analysis in bradyzoites showed that there are two upstream repression sites (nucleotides -1929 to -1067 and -456 to -222). Furthermore, electrophoresis mobility shift assays demonstrated the presence of DNA-binding proteins in tachyzoite and bradyzoite nuclear lysates that bound to stress response elements (STRE), heat shock-like elements (HSE) and other cis-regulatory elements in the upstream regulatory regions of ENO1 and ENO2. Mutation of the consensus AGGGG sequence, completely abolished protein binding to an oligonucleotide containing this element. This study defines the first characterization of cis-regulatory elements and putative transcription factors involved in gene regulation of the important pathogen T.gondii.

DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "Dyslipedemia in HIV Infected patients at CCC Kenyatta N Hospital. Manuthu EM, Joshi MD, Lule GN, Karari E.". In: Cardiovascular J of South Africa. 2007;2:112. East African Medical Journal.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the magnitude of laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), identify its pattern of presentation, resolution, and determine the biochemical outcome of affected patients. DESIGN: Prospective patient-treatment cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital, between November 2004 and April 2005. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty two patients receiving first course chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS). RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients completed the study protocol. Forty two patients (37.8%) developed TLS. The incidence in haematological malignancies was 75.5% while in non-haematological malignancies was 3.6%. Hyperphosphataemia and hyperkalaemia were the most consistent diagnostic parameters while hyperuricaemia occurred in only one patient. No patient developed hypocalcaemia. Ninety five percent of patients developed TLS within the first three days of receiving chemotherapy while 55% resolved in the first week. Two TLS case mortalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TLS in this cohort study was 38%, and was highest among haematological malignancies. No cases occurred in breast cancer patients. Majority of the cases were diagnosed on the basis of increase in serum phosphate and potassium; uric acid did not rise predominantly due to prophylactic uricosuric therapy. A majority (95%) developed within three days of commencing chemotherapy.
Buregeya A, Buregeya A. "Dyslexia and dysgraphia in the reading and writing of English words by upper-primary pupils from select schools in Sabatia Sub-county in Kenya." The University of Nairobi Journal of Language and Linguistics. 2017;6(Oct 2017):Oct 2017.
FA F, J K, CF O, A W, S N. "Dysglycaemia among kidney transplant recipients at a national referral hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2018;1(1).
A. FF, Kayima J, Otieno CF, WERE A, Ngare S. "Dysglycaemia among kidney transplant recipients at a national referral hospital in Kenya." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians . 2018;1(1):14-17.
Prentice HA, Price MA, Porter TR, Cormier E, Mugavero MJ, Kamali A, Karita E, Lakhi S, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Amornkul PN, Allen S, Hunter E, Kaslow RA, Gilmour J, Tang J. "Dynamics of viremia in primary HIV-1 infection in Africans: insights from analyses of host and viral correlates." Virology. 2014;449:254-62. Abstract

In HIV-1 infection, plasma viral load (VL) has dual implications for pathogenesis and public health. Based on well-known patterns of HIV-1 evolution and immune escape, we hypothesized that VL is an evolving quantitative trait that depends heavily on duration of infection (DOI), demographic features, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes and viral characteristics. Prospective data from 421 African seroconverters with at least four eligible visits did show relatively steady VL beyond 3 months of untreated infection, but host and viral factors independently associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal VL often varied by analytical approaches and sliding time windows. Specifically, the effects of age, HLA-B(⁎)53 and infecting HIV-1 subtypes (A1, C and others) on VL were either sporadic or highly sensitive to time windows. These observations were strengthened by the addition of 111 seroconverters with 2-3 eligible VL results, suggesting that DOI should be a critical parameter in epidemiological and clinical studies.

Wairimu J, Wandera O. "The Dynamics of Vector-Host Feeding Contact Rate with Saturation: A Case of Malaria in Western Kenya." Scientific Research Publishing. 2013;4(10):1381-1391 . AbstractWebsite

In this study, we develop an expression for a saturated mosquito feeding rate in an SIS malaria model to determine its effect on infection and transmission dynamics of malaria in the highlands of Western Kenya. The basic reproduction number is established as a sharp threshold that determines whether the disease dies out or persists in the population. Precisely, if , the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the disease always dies out and if , there exists a unique endemic equilibrium which is globally stable and the disease persists. The contribution of the saturated contact rate to the basic reproduction number and the level of the endemic equilibrium are also analyzed.

Wairimu J, Ogana W. "The Dynamics of Vector-Host Feeding Contact Rate with Saturation. (http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/am.2013.410187.)." A Case of Malaria in Western Kenya, Applied Mathematics,. 2013;4:pp. 1381-1391.
Ogallo LA. "Dynamics of the East African Climate ." Proc. Indian Acad. Sci.(Earth planet. sci.). 1993;102(1):203-217.
Makanya AN, Dimova I, Koller T, Styp-Rekowska B, Djonov V. "Dynamics of the Developing Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Assessed by Stereology, Allometry, Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Analysis." PLoS ONE. 2016;11(4):e0152821. Abstract

The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a widely used model for the study of angiogenesis, tumour growth, as well as drug efficacy. In spite of this, little is known about the developmental alteration from its appearance to the time of hatching. In the current study the CAM has been studied by classical stereology and allometry. Expression levels of selected angiogenesis-related molecules were estimated by RT-PCR and cell dynamics assessed by proliferation and apoptosis assays. Absolute CAM volume increased from a low of 0.47 ± 0.11 cm3 at embryonic day 8 (E8) to a high of 2.05 ± 0.27 cm3 at E18, and then decreased to 1.6 ± 0.47 cm3 at E20. On allometric analysis, three growth phases were identifiable. Between E8-13 (phase I), the CAM grew fastest; moderately in phase II (E13-18) but was regressing in phase III (E18-20). The chorion, the mesenchyme and the allantoic layers grew fastest in phase I, but moderately in phase II. The mesenchyme grew slowly in phase III while the chorion and allantois were regressing. Chorionic cell volume increased fastest in phase I and was regressing in phase III. Chorionic capillaries grew steadily in phase I and II but regressed in phase III. Both the chorion and the allantois grew by intrinsic cell proliferation as well as recruitment of cells from the mesenchyme. Cell proliferation was prominent in the allantois and chorion early during development, declined after E17 and apoptosis started mainly in the chorion from E14. VEGFR2 expression peaked at E11 and declined steadily towards E20, VEGF peaked at E13 and E20 while HIF 1α had a peak at E11 and E20. Studies targeting CAM growth and angiogenesis need to take these growth phases into consideration.

PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Dynamics of Suspended Sediment Exchange and Transport in a Degraded Mangrove Creek in Kenya.". In: Ambio, Vol. 31, No. 7-8, pp. 580-587, 2002. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract
Kitheka J U, R. G. Angwenyi and K.M. Mavuti.  . .
Karanja NK, Mutua GK, Ayuke FO, Njenga M, Prain G, Kimenju J. "Dynamics of soil nematodes and earthworms in urban vegetable irrigated with wastewater in the Nairobi River Basin, Kenya." Journal of Tropical & Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2010;12:521-530. Abstract

The effects of heavy metals lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Cromium (Cr) on nematode communities and earthworm density and biomass were studied in the wastewater irrigated farms of the Nairobi river basin. The levels of Cr and Pb in the wastewater were below the threshold values considered to be toxic while those of Cd exceeded the permissible limit. Heavy metal accumulation in soils in the Kibera and Maili Saba farms were Cd (14.3 mg kg-1), Cr (9.7 mg kg-1) and Pb (1.7 mg kg-1) and 98.7 mg Cd kg-1, 4.0 mg Cr kg-1 and 74.3 mg Pb kg-1, respectively. High heavy metal concentrations as well as soil organic matter were negatively correlated with plant feeding nematodes in the genera Criconema, Meloidogyne, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus and Scutellonema. Bacterial feeding nematodes genera Rhabditis, Plectus, Cephalobus and Acrobeles were predominant in the gardens treated with wastewater. An average density of 198 m-2 earthworms and a biomass of 68 g m-2 and 102 earthworms m-2 with 33g m-2 biomass were recorded in Kibera and Maili Saba, respectively. The earthworms isolated from both sites were all epigeic with the metal content in Maili Saba suppressing their populations. This study has demonstrated that the use of untreated urban wastewater for irrigation has adverse effects on nematode and earthworm abundance and diversity and their potential as bioindicators of heavy metal presence.
Key words: Heavy metal accumulation; soil fauna; diversity

Söderbom M, Teal F, Wambugu A, Kahyarara G. "Dynamics of returns to education: Evidence from two developing countries." Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics. 2006; 68(3):261-288.
9. Thenya T, Wassmann, R. M, Verchot L. "Dynamics of resource utilization in a tropical wetland." Indigenous strategies of wetland utilization. 2006.
Thenya T, Verburg P, Wassmann R, Verchot ML. "Dynamics of Resource Utilization in a Tropical Wetland." Spatial Statistical Analysis of Land use Change. 2006.
Akaranga SI, Ongong’a JJ. "The dynamics of religiosity and spirituality in Kenyan public Universities." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013;Vol.1 No.6(6):63-80.ijern_vol_1_no.6_june_2013.pdf
and C. Lung’aho, G. Chemining’wa SHSM. "Dynamics of on-farm management of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Central Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research . 2012;7(17):2701-2712.Dynamics_of_on-farm_management_of_potato
Lung’aho C, C. Lung’aho, Chemining’wa G, G. Chemining’wa, Chemining’wa G, Shibairo S, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M, Hutchinson. M. "Dynamics of on-farm management of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Central Kenya." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2012;7(17):2701-2712.dynamics_of_on-farm_management_of_potato_solanum_tuberosum_cultivars_in_central_kenya.
Lung’aho C, Chemining’wa G, Shibairo S, Hutchinson M. "Dynamics of on-farm management of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars in Central Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2012;7(17):2701-2712.
Egeru A, Wasonga O, Majaliwa Mwanjalolo GJ, MacOpiyo L, Mburu J. "Dynamics of land use and land cover change in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda.". 2017. Abstract

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Kamau, Paul George Michuki DMCDA. "Dynamics of Labour Availability and Technical Skills in the Kenyan Garment Industry." ACFRN Working Paper 12.06.; 2012. Abstract
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Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, Geiger V. "The dynamics of culture on environmental sustainability: A case of Central Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies. 2018;12(3)(ISSN 2329-1559):1-15.
Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, V. G. "The Dynamics of Culture on Environmental Sustainability: A Case of Central Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2018;12(3):1-15.
Joyce G. N. Kithure, Shem O. Wandiga IJDKK. "Dynamics of Chlorpyrifos in Water from Upper Tana River in Kenya.". 2014.
N. KJG, O. WS, I. J, K KD. "Dynamics of Chlorpyrifos in water from upper Tana River in Kenya." Open Science Repository Chemistry. 2014. Abstract

Water covers 70.9% of the Earth's surface (WFB, 2008), and is vital for all known forms of life (WFB, 2008). The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals like Persistent Organic Pollutant 1(POPs), pesticides and pathogens. Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide used to kill variety of insects, especially ticks and was introduced in Kenya in 1965 (Meister, 1992). This study set out to determine the chlorpyrifos concentration residue levels in some selected samples from the upper Tana River, to confirm their state of contamination. Water, sediment and weed samples obtained from the upper Tana River in Kenya were screened for chlorpyrifos and found to be contaminated. The river profile was divided into three sections representing upstream, middle stream and downstream. Water samples were sampled using the amber bottles while the sediment samples were collected by scooping it with a shovel. Weed samples were plucked using hands, while the hard ones were cut with a clean stainless steel knife. The extraction of water samples was done by liquid-liquid partitioning method using dichloromethane, while sediment samples were extracted in acetone and hexane solvents by soxhlet extraction method. The extraction of weed samples was done using an orbital shaker in acetone. The analysis of the pesticides was done using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and the data analysis conducted using Microsoft excel, 2ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation Statistical Package for Social Scientists, (SPSS). Chlorpyrifos mean residue levels found in water samples 3(BDL to 6.73µg/L), were generally higher than those detected in weed samples of BDL-2.57 1.43 µg/kg, while sediment samples had the lowest levels of BDL and 1.43 µg/kg, as shown in Figure 1. The mid-stream samples had higher levels than both the up stream and the down stream, as can be observed in Figure 2, probably due to intense industrialisation and farming activities at the midstream.
- See more at: http://www.open-science-repository.com/dynamics-of-chlorpyrifos-in-water-from-upper-tana-river-in-kenya.html#sthash.EDmUfs2a.dpuf

Kithure JGN, Wandiga SO, I.Jumba, Kariuki DK. "Dynamics of chlorpyrifos in water from Upper Tana River in Kenya." Open sci.Repos. 2014;e23050487.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "A dynamical Model for stage-specific HIV Incidences with Application to Sub-Saharan Africa.". In: Applied Maths and Computation, 146 pp93-104, with R.O.Simwa. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 2003. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
Mwanyumba PM, Wahome RG, Mwang’mbe A, Lenihan E, Badamana MS. "A dynamic study of smallholders mixed farms in Wundanyi location, Taita District, Kenya: Activities, performance and interactions." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2010;23.
Opiyo E, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Odongo O, Nowe A. "Dynamic Resource Allocation: A comparison of First Price Sealed Bid and Vickrey Auction Mechanisms in Non Pre-emptive, No Failure Situations.". In: 4th Annual International Conference on Sustainable ICT Capacity in Developing Countries SREC08. Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2008.
O OET, Ayienga E, Getao K, Manderick B, Okello-Odongo W, Nowé A. "Dynamic Resource Allocation: A comparison of First Price Sealed Bid and Vickrey Auction Mechanisms in non pre-emptive, no failure situations." International Journal of Computing and ICT Research. 2008;Vol. 1(Special Issue):28-34.
OKELLO PROFODONGOWILLIAM. "Dynamic Priority Scheduling with the CAN MAC Protocol.". In: Accepted for publication in African Journal of Science and Technology . VLIR; 2006.
Mutai EBK, Gitau AN, Aganda AA, Karuri GE. "Dynamic modeling of Temperatures in Poultry Structures.". 2010.Website
Gitau AN, Mutai EBK, Aganda AA, Karuri GE. "Dynamic modeling of Temperatures in Poultry Structures.". 2010.Website
Mutai EBK, Gitau AN, Aganda AA, Karuri GE. "Dynamic modeling of Temperatures in Poultry Structures.". 2010.Website
Ininda JM. DYNAMIC METREOROLOGY II (SMR 401). Nairobi: University Of Nairobi; 2005. AbstractUniversity of Nairobi

This course is a continuation of Dynamic Meteorology I (SMR401). If you studied SMR301 a long while ago, it
may be advisable to review it once more before you embark on this course. As you worked through SMR301, you may have been introduced to several equations and may be wondering why this course appear to be mathematical. Well, as you may have already found out, there are many processes that take place in the atmosphere, dynamic meteorology will seek not only to explain how this comes about, but also to express the relationship between the forces involved in a mathematical form.

.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Dynamic Circumferential Wall Strains in Cylindrical Silos. International Journal of Biochemiphysics. 17 - 19.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1994. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Ayienga EM, Opiyo ET, Okello-Odongo W, Manderick B. "Dynamic Channel Sharing Strategies through Game-theoretic Reinforcement Learning." International Journal of Computer and Information Technology. 2014;Volume 03(Issue 02).
Ayienga EM, Opiyo ET, Odongo WO, Manderick B. "Dynamic Channel Sharing Strategies through Game-theoretic Reinforcement Learning.". 2014. Abstract
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Kebler R, McDonald FD, Cadnapaphornchai P. "Dynamic changes in serum phosphorus levels in diabetic ketoacidosis." The American Journal of Medicine. 1985;79:571-576. Abstract

The dynamic changes in serum phosphorus levels in 69 episodes of ketoacidosis in 48 diabetic patients were retrospectively evaluated. The mean age was 41 +/- 2 years (mean +/- SEM), and the duration of diabetes mellitus was 7 +/- 1 years. The serum phosphorus levels determined within the first six hours of admission were analyzed. Before initiation of therapy, the incidence of hyperphosphatemia was 94.7 percent. At the end of 12 hours, the mean serum phosphorus level fell from 9.2 +/- 0.6 to 2.8 +/- 0.3 mg/dl. Before therapy, the serum phosphorus level correlated positively with the serum glucose level, the effective plasma osmolality, and anion gaps, and correlated negatively with the serum chloride level. It is concluded that hyperphosphatemia is common in diabetic ketoacidosis before therapy. The increase in serum phosphorus is likely to be due to a transcellular shift. Potential factors responsible for the shift are serum glucose, through its osmotic effect, and the organic anions.

Gathungu MJKJM &. "Dynamic capabilities, Talent Development and from performance." DBA Africa Management Review . 2012;2(3):83-100.
Njoroge KD. "Dynamic Analysis of Dislocation Cores in a-Fe Lattice Using the Embeded Atom Model." International Journal of Computational Engineering Research. 2012;2(3):851-859.
Mulwa JK, Mariita NO. "Dyking processes in Arus-Bogoria geothermal prospect in Kenya revealed using gravity and microseismic data.". In: 37th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop: The next 10,000 Megawatts. New Zealand: University of Auckland, New Zealand Geothermal Association; 2015. Abstract

Arus-Bogoria geothermal prospect, located in the central Kenya rift valley (KRV), encompasses several features of geological significance that are indicators of possible geothermal potential. These include surface manifestations, such as fumaroles, steam jets, mud pools, hot springs, spouting geysers, and high rate of micro-seismic activity of about 500 earthquakes recorded within a period of three months in comparison to other geothermal fields and prospects along the Kenya rift valley (KRV).

A comparison of the results of gravity survey, undertaken between 2005 and 2006 for geothermal resource evaluation of Arus and Lake Bogoria geothermal prospects, to results of micro-seismic monitoring undertaken in 1985 during the Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP 85) was undertaken to map the existence of heat source(s), presumably due to dyking, and define the brittle-ductile transition zone. The results indicate that the heat source is due to a series of north-south trending dyke injections occurring at depths of ~3 – 6 km in the vicinity of the Arus steam jets. The geothermal prospect is seismically active and approximately 95% of the seismic activity is probably associated with tectonic activity due to reactivation of north-south trending faults.

Further, only ~5% of micro-earthquakes can be correlated with the geothermal activity such as dyking, as mapped using gravity data, and hydrothermal processes. The change in seismic activity at Arus-Bogoria geothermal prospect occurs at a depth of 8 – 15 km with a peak in micro-seismic activity at 12.5 km depth. We therefore conclude that 8-15 km represents the brittle-ductile transition zone in Arus-Bogoria geothermal prospect.

AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Dying Lake Victoria, (1996) A community Based Prevention programme, OSIENALA/UNDP Publication (1996), ISBN Bo. 9966 - 42 - 046 -0.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
Otakwa RVM, Simiyu J, Mwabora JM. "Dye-Sensitized and Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic (PV Devices' Outdoor Performance: A Comparative Study." International Journal of Emerging Technological in advanced Engineering . 2013. Abstract

The performance of a dye-sensitized solar module (DSSM) has been investigated under different air mass (AM), irradiance intensity and temperature conditions in Nairobi, Kenya. The good response of the DSSM to short wavelength radiation made it perform well at increased AM values as compared to what is reported of Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) devices. The DSSM performed better compared to what is reported of a-Si PV devices under irradiance and temperature dependence. The results are useful in PV sizing, especially in the area of Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in Kenya and the tropics.

Akach JA, Michael K, Soderenko S, Mijthab M, Nicole F. DWSI Kenya Workshop Report.; 2017.
MBOGANIE DRMWANGIALICE. "DWJ Foeken and AM Mwangi, 2000. .". In: Hydrobiologia 316: 225-237. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 2000.
MBOGANIE DRMWANGIALICE. "DWJ Foeken and AM Mwangi, 1998. .". In: Hydrobiologia 316: 225-237. Internat. Rev. Hydrobiol. 89 (2004) 188; 1998.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dwivedi M, Acharya SK, Tandon BN.The ultrasonographic "common channel" sign: a characteristic feature of malignant obstruction of the lower end of common bile duct.J Clin Gastroenterol. 1989 Apr;11(2):233-5.". In: J Clin Gastroenterol. 1989 Apr;11(2):233-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
We describe an ultrasonographic "common channel" sign as the characteristic sonographic feature of malignant distal common bile duct (CBD) obstruction. Of 24 patients with obstructive jaundice due to distal CBD obstruction (pancreatic carcinoma 8, periampullary cancer 5, choledocholethiasis 10, CBD stricture due to pancreatitis 1) in whom the final diagnosis was proven at laparotomy, ultrasonography revealed 11 patients to have a thin-walled distended gallbladder continuous with a dilated CBD, which was termed the "common channel" sign. In all 11 patients, the cause of obstruction of the lower end of CBD proved to be malignant (pancreatic carcinoma 6, periampullary 5). In contrast, only 2 of the other 13 patients with obstructive jaundice with distal CBD obstruction, but without the "common channel" sign, had a malignant lesion at the lower end of CBD. The positive and the negative predictive values of the common channel sign were 100% and 85%, respectively. Thus, the ultrasonographic common channel sign is a reliable and characteristic feature of distal CBD obstruction due to malignant pathology.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dwivedi M, Acharya SK, Nundy S, Tandon BN.Accuracy of abdominal ultrasonography and the role of a second investigation in surgical obstructive jaundice.Gastroenterol Jpn. 1989 Oct;24(5):573-9.". In: Gastroenterol Jpn. 1989 Oct;24(5):573-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US) was evaluated in delineating the site and cause of biliary obstruction in 59 patients of surgical obstructive jaundice (SOJ). A final analysis of the ultrasonographic data was carried out in 42 patients on whom laparotomy or endoscopic papillotomy with removal of common bile duct stones, confirmed the diagnosis. Evaluation of the role of second investigation following ultrasound in 28 patients (side-viewing endoscopy in 13, ERCP in 12 and PTC in 3) was also done to determine whether they provide any additional information over ultrasonography in delineating the exact level and etiology of biliary obstruction. US was done by the clinician who interpreted the findings in conjunction with the clinical profile of the patient. US correctly diagnosed SOJ in all 42 patients. In 26 of the 28 patients with distal CBD block (specificity 87.5%; sensitivity 100%) and in 14 out of 16 patients with proximal CBD block (specificity 100%; sensitivity 87.5%) US provided and accurate diagnosis of the site of obstruction. US was correct in diagnosing a malignant etiology in 26 out of 27 malignant cases whereas it accurately indentified the benign nature of biliary obstruction in 14 of the 15 patients of SOJ due to benign obstruction (specificity and sensitivity range 93.3% to 96.3%). A second investigation could correctly change the etiology and site of biliary obstruction in only 5 patients (17.9%) whereas in the remaining 23 patients (82.1%) it did not add any additional information over the US findings. Six out of fifteen patients (40%) who underwent cholangiography had cholangitis and in one severe septicemia led to death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Wasamba P. "Dustbin." Mwangaza. 2004;Vol. 2(No. 3):16.garbage.pdf
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Duseja A, Nada R, Kalra N, Acharya SK, Minz M, Joshi K, Chawla Y.Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis-like syndrome in a hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus-negative renal transplant recipient: a case report with autopsy findings.Trop Gastroenterol. 2003 J.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2003 Jan-Mar;24(1):31-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
We report a patient with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis (FCH)-like syndrome in renal transplant recipient, who was negative for hepatitis-B and C-virus infection. The patient presented initially with extrahepatic biliary obstruction due to stricture at the lower end of the common bile duct. Cholestasis persisted inspite of effective biliary drainage. He was operated for empyema of the gallbladder and histological examination showed the presence of cytomegalovirus inclusions in the wall of the gallbladder. The patient died inspite of aggressive management; autopsy examination of the liver revealed evidence of FCH-like changes.
Mwero JN, Abuodha SO, O RG, Mumenya SW, Kavishe FP. "Durability characteristics of concrete containing sugarcane waste fibre ash.". In: Knowledge Exchange for Young Scientists (KEYS), symposium. Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania; 2015.
Mwero, J.N, Abuodha SO, Mumenya SW, Rading GO, Kavishe FPL. "Durability characteristics of concrete containing sugarcane waste fiber ash (SWFA)." INCASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(2):95-114.
Mwero JN, O. AS, Mumenya SW, Rading GO, Kavishe FPL. "Durability Characteristics of Concrete Containing Sugarcane Waste Fiber Ash (SWFA) ." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;Vol. 7(2):95-114.
Mwero(8) JN, Abuodha SO, Mumenya SW, Rading GO, Kavishe FPL. "Durability Characteristics of Concrete Containing Sugar Cane Waste Fiber Ash (SWFA)." ICASTOR J. of Eng. 7 (2), . 2014:95-114.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Duprat C, Mohammed Z, Datta P, Stackiw W, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK, Holmes KK, Plummer FA, Embree J. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 IgA antibody in breast milk and serum. Paediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 13: 603 - 608, 1994.". In: Infect. Dis. J. 13: 603 - 608, 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

P.G J, and Yajnik A-AISKN. "Duodenal perforation following blunt abdominal trauma: A case report." East African Medical Journal . 1998;(75):669.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "DUNN, J.F., DAVISON, W., MALOIY, G.M.O., HOCHACHKA, P.W. and GUPPY, M.(1981) An ultrastructural and histochemical study of African lungfish axial musculature. Cell Tissue Research 220, 599-609.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1981. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Dunckley, L., Camara, S.B., Abdelnour Nocera, J, and Waema, T.M. (2009). Socio-Technical Issues of Participatory Design in the Developing World.". In: International Journal of Sociotechnology and Knowledge Development, (IJSKD), 1(3), 1-14. Pambazuka Press; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Dumonceaux TJ, Schellenberg J, Goleski V, Hill JE, Jaoko W, Kimani J, Money D, Ball TB, Plummer FA & Severini A (2009) Multiplex detection of bacteria associated with normal microbiota and with bacterial vaginosis in vaginal swabs using oligonucleotide-co.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47(12):4067-7; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Dumonceaux TJ, Schellenberg J, Goleski V, Hill JE, Jaoko W, Kimani J, Money D, Ball TB, Plummer FA & Severini A (2009) Multiplex detection of bacteria associated with normal microbiota and with bacterial vaginosis in vaginal swabs using oligonucleotide-co.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47(12):4067-7; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "Duirnal course of light interception by a groundnut crop in association with maize.". In: MIRCEN journal (1985) p. 4445 4454. Kisipan, M.L.; 1985. Abstract
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Mbuthia P G, Nyaga PN, Bebora LC, Njagi LW, Minga U, Olsen JE. "Ducks in rural and semi – urban poultry production.". In: National workshop on “Use of research results in the development of smallholder poultry projects” . ILRI, Nairobi, Kenya; 2003.2003-ducks_in_rural_and_semi-urban_poultry_production.pdf
Ayonga, N J. R.W. R&(2021). "Dual Spatial Patterns, In-optimal Legal Framework and how they affect Land Use Planning in Kenya: Evidence from the Planning statutes. ." Journal of African Habitat Review. 2021; (15(4). (Forthcoming.).
Adoyo Laji, Fatuma Daudi JACM(2017). "The Dual Pathways In The Process of Urban development and Their Influence on Flood Damage In Kisumu City, Kenya. ." Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2017;7, (10)(ISSN 2250):PP 332-340.
M Hussein CKMAY, A Ruturi, Nangole FW, Khainga SO, Khainga SO. "Dual omental flap in obliterating post-pneumonectomy bronchopleural fistulae." KMA. 2015. Abstract

Background: Post-pneumonectomy bronchopleural fistulae is associated with high mortality and morbidity. The omental flap has been widely used to manage this condition either through laparoscopic or open surgery with varied degrees of success. We present a modification of the omental flap by using two flaps of the omentum in obliterating the bronchopleural fistulae. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of dual omental flap in obliteration of postpneumonectomy bronchopleural fistulae Design: A prospective clinical study. Setting: The cardiothoracic unit at the Kenyatta National Hospital between January 2010 and December 2013 . Subjects: Five patients with post-pneumonectomy bronchopleural fistulae managed in a period of four years. Results: Pneumonectomy were due to cancer of the lungs in two patients and tuberculosis in three patients. All the patients had previously attempted repair with a pleural patch without success. Dual omental flap was utilised to repair the fistulae. All patients had successful repair of the fistula and no recurrence was noted at one year of follow up. Conclusion: Dual omental flap offers an alternative technique in obliterating postpneumonectomy fistula. The two flap technique allows for one flap to completely seal the fistula while the second flap provides an additional airtight closure over the first flap and hence prevents any leakages. This ensures higher success rate with few recurrences.

Yangyuoru PM, Antonio MD, Ghimire C, Biffi G, Balasubramanian S, Mao H. "Dual Binding of an Antibody and a Small Molecule Increases the Stability of TERRA G‐Quadruplex." Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 2015;54(3):910-913.
Mbuvi JP. Drylands Research .; 2000.
Hurisso TT, Norton U, Norton JB, Odhiambo J, Grosso SDJ, Hergert GW, Lyon DJ. "Dryland soil greenhouse gases and yield-scaled emissions in no-till and organic winter wheat–fallow systems." Soil Science Society of America Journal. 2016;80(1):178-192.
Mortimore M, Anderson S, Cotula L, Davies J, Faccer K, C.Hesse, Morton J, Nyangena W, J.Skinner, C.Wolfangel. "Dryland Opportunities: A new paradigm for people, ecosystems and development.". 2009.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Drying of Seed Maize. Proceedings of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference. Nairobi, August 1-3.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1990. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
Gumbe LO. Drying Of Seed Maize.; 1989.
Mewa E. A, Okoth M. W KRCNMN. "Drying Modelling, Moisture Diffusivity and Sensory quality of Thin Layer dried Beef." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2018;6(2):552-565.
E.A MEWA, M.W O, N. KC, N. RUGIRIM. "Drying modelling, moisture diffusivity and sensory quality of thin layer dried beef." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science. 2018;6(2):552-565.
Mutuli GP, Mbuge DO. "Drying characteristics and energy requirement of drying coupea leaves and jute mallow vegetables. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE).". In: Engineering and Technology Innovation for Global Food Security Conference. Stellenbosch, South Africa; 2016.
Thompson JF, Reid MS, Felix L, Donis-Gonzalez I, Mjawa B, Ambuko J. "DryCardTM-A Low-Cost Dryness Indicator for Dried Products." AIMS Agriculture and Food. 2017;2:339-344. Abstract
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Kivuti-Bitok LW, Chepchirchir A, Waithaka P, Ngune I. "Dry Taps? A Synthesis of Alternative “Wash” Methods in the Absence of Water and Sanitizers in the Prevention of Coronavirus in Low-Resource Settings." Journal of Primary Care & Community Health. 2020;11:2150132720936858. Abstract
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Kivuti-Bitok LW, Chepchirchir A, Waithaka P, Ngune I. "Dry Taps? A Synthesis of Alternative “Wash” Methods in the Absence of Water and Sanitizers in the Prevention of Coronavirus in Low-Resource Settings." Journal of Primary Care & Community Health. 2020;11:2150132720936858. Abstract
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Kivuti-Bitok LW, Chepchirchir A, Waithaka P, Ngune I. "Dry Taps? A Synthesis of Alternative “Wash” Methods in the Absence of Water and Sanitizers in the Prevention of Coronavirus in Low-Resource Settings." Journal of Primary Care & Community Health. 2020;11:2150132720936858. Abstract
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PROF. IRUNGU LUCYW. "Dry season ecology of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in two traditionally semi-arid villages in Baringo, Kenya.". In: Acarologia, XLIX, 3-4 : 121-137. Albert O Mala 1,2*; 2011. Abstract
{ Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Background: Pre-adult stages of malaria vectors in semi-arid areas are confronted with highly variable and challenging climatic conditions. The objective of this study was to determine which larval habitat types are most productive in terms of larval densities in the dry and wet seasons within semi-arid environments, and how vector species productivity is partitioned over time.   Methods: Larval habitats were mapped and larvae sampled longitudinally using standard dipping techniques. Larvae were identified to species level morphologically using taxonomic keys and to sub-species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Physical characteristics of larval habitats, including water depth, turbidity, and presence of floating and emergent vegetation were recorded. Water depth was measured using a metal ruler. Turbidity, pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperatures salinity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured in the field using the hand-held water chemistry meters.   Results: Mean larval densities were higher in the dry season than during the wet season but the differences in density were not statistically significant (F = 0.04
Kinyamario JI, Imbamba SK. "Dry savanna, Kenya.". 1992.Website
Mganga KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyariki DM, Nyangito MM, Mwang’ombe AW, Ekaya WN, Clavel D, Francis J, von Kaufmann R, Verhagen J, Muiru WM. "Dry matter yields and hydrological properties of three perennial grasses of a semi-arid environment in East Africa." African Journal of Plant Science. 2010;5(4):135-141. Abstract

Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye), Cenchrus ciliaris L. (African foxtail grass) and Eragrostis superba Peyr (Maasai love grass) are important perennial rangeland grasses in Kenya. They provide an important source of forage for domestic livestock and wild ungulates. These grasses have been used extensively to rehabilitate denuded patches in semi-arid environment of Kenya. This study investigated the dry matter yields and hydrological properties of the three grasses under simulated rainfall at three phenological stages; early growth, elongation and reproduction. Laboratory seed viability tests were also done. Hydrological properties of the three grasses were estimated using a Kamphorst rainfall simulator. Results showed that there was a significant difference (p > 0.05) in dry matter yields and soil hydrological properties at the different grass phenological stages. Generally, all the three grasses improved the soil hydrological properties with an increase in grass stubble height. C. ciliaris gave the best soil hydrological properties followed by E. macrostachyus and E. superba, respectively. E. macrostachyus recorded the highest seed viability percentage. C. ciliaris and E. superba were ranked second and third, respectively. C. ciliaris yielded the highest biomass production at the reproductive stage followed by E. superba and E. macrostachyus, respectively.

Key words: Cenchrus ciliaris, Enteropogon macrostachyus, Eragrostis superba, rangeland.

Mganga KZ, Musimba NKR, Nyariki DM, Nyangito MM, Mwang’ombe AW, Ekaya WN, Clavel D, Francis J, von Kaufmann R, Verhagen J, Muiru WM. "Dry matter yields and hydrological properties of three perennial grasses of a semi-arid environment in East Africa.". 2010. Abstract

Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye), Cenchrus ciliaris L. (African foxtail grass) and Eragrostis superba Peyr (Maasai love grass) are important perennial rangeland grasses in Kenya. They provide an important source of forage for domestic livestock and wild ungulates. These grasses have been used extensively to rehabilitate denuded patches in semi-arid environment of Kenya. This study investigated the dry matter yields and hydrological properties of the three grasses under simulated rainfall at three phenological stages; early growth, elongation and reproduction. Laboratory seed viability tests were also done. Hydrological properties of the three grasses were estimated using a Kamphorst rainfall simulator. Results showed that there was a significant difference (p > 0.05) in dry matter yields and soil hydrological properties at the different grass phenological stages. Generally, all the three grasses improved the soil hydrological properties with an increase in grass stubble height. C. ciliaris gave the best soil hydrological properties followed by E. macrostachyus and E. superba, respectively. E. macrostachyus recorded the highest seed viability percentage. C. ciliaris and E. superba were ranked second and third, respectively. C. ciliaris yielded the highest biomass production at the reproductive stage followed by E. superba and E. macrostachyus, respectively.

Key words: Cenchrus ciliaris, Enteropogon macrostachyus, Eragrostis superba, rangeland

Wanjala C. Drums of Death. Nairobi: Africawide Network; 2005.
Kaluku LNEN&. "Drugs and substance abuse in Kenyan secondary schools. Is it a reality?" IJRDO-Journal of Educational Research. 2017;2(3):182-190.
Ndetei DM, Khasakhala LI, Mutiso V, Ongecha-Owuor FA, Kokonya D. "Drug Use in a Rural Secondary School in Kenya.". 2010.
Lwai-Lume L, Ogutu EO, Amayo EO, Kariuki S. "Drug susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter pylori in patients with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi." African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine drug susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline in patients presenting with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and sixty-seven patients aged 15 to 85 years, presenting with dyspepsia and referred for upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy were recruited into the study. RESULTS: Between October 2003 and April 2004, 138 male and 129 female patients aged 15-85 years, with a mean age of 45.4 years were studied. Gastritis was the most common endoscopic finding, occurring in 55%, followed by normal-looking mucosa in 27% and peptic ulcer disease in 16% of the patients. The rapid urease test was positive in 184 patients (69%). The culture yield was 62% of these CLO (Campylobacter like organisms) positive biopsies. The MIC90 (minimum inhibitory concentration) was 256 mg/l for metronidazole, 1.5 mg/l for clarithromycin, 1.5 mg/l for tetracycline and 0.75 mg/l for amoxicillin. The MIC values for amoxicillin were significantly higher in the female patients (p = 0.02) but showed no significant variation for age. The MIC values for metronidazole, tetracycline and clarithromycin showed no significant difference for age or gender. MIC values for tetracycline were significantly higher for patients with duodenitis and duodenal ulcer p = 0.009 and 0.02, respectively. CONCLUSION: All isolated H. pylori organisms were resistant to metronidazole. The susceptibility of the H. pylori isolates was 93.6% for clarithromycin, 95.4% for amoxicillin and 98.1% for tetracycline. The MIC90 for amoxicillin and clarithromycin were found to be close to the upper limit of the susceptibility range. There was a rising MIC90 for tetracycline and metronidazole compared to that found in a previous study in 1991.

Githure JI, Kabiru EW, Martin SK, Khan B, Ofulla AV, Kariuki DM. "Drug sensitivity studies during a highland malaria epidemic in Kenya.". 1992.Website
Ombega JN, Muriuki G. "Drug review, amaryl and prevention of type II diabetes." Pharmacotherapy and Drug Information Journal-E.A. Edition. 2000;II(5).
5. Kibwage I. O., J.K. Thuranira LGIMGNNK’ondJMJK. "Drug quality control work in Drug Analysis and Research Unit: Observations during 1991 to 1995." The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 1999;2(2):32-36.
Thoithi GN, Abuga KO, Nguyo JM, Mukindia G, Kingondu O, Ngugi JK, Kibwage IO. "Drug quality control work in Drug Analysis and Research Unit: Observation during 1996-2000." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2002;5:28-32.
Kibwage IO, Ogeto JO, Maitai CK, Rutere G, Thuranira J, Ochieng' A. "Drug quality control work in Daru: observations during 1983-1986." East Afr Med J. 1992;69(10):577-80. Abstract

During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.

Abuga KO, Amugune BK, Ndwigah SN, Kamau FN, G.N.Thoithi, Ogeto JO, Okaru AO, Nguyo JM, King’ondu OK, Mugo HN, Kibwage IO. "Drug quality control in Kenya: observations in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit (DARU) during the period 2006-2010." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. . 2013;16(2):33-43.
Nguyo JM, Thoithi GN, O. AK, Mukindia G, O. K’ondu, J.K. N, I.O. K. "Drug Quality Control in Kenya. Observation in Drug Analysis and Research Unit During the Period 2001 – 2005." The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2008;11(3): 74-75.
C.K. M, W.M T, Wakori E., Wakori E., Wakori E. "Drug quality control in Kenya –preliminary observations." East Afr Med J.. 1982;59(6):399-403.
T E, M B, N.W P, S A, J A, G E, S H, C H, R H, O K, J N, D O, E O, N O, M.E.M S, M S, E.-J S, C.-F W, G Y, M Z, Q Z, M.S A-D, K A, G A, D B, D B-G, V B, L.K O,, J.N Kiiru, et al. "Drug discovery and biopiracy of natural products" ." Phytomedicine. 2016;Elsevier(23(2)):166-173.efferth_et_al._2016.pdf
Nanyingi, Mark O;, Mbaria JM;, Lanyasunya AL;, Cyrus G;, Cyrus W;G, Kipsengeret K;B, Ogara W. "Drug Discovery And Biodiversity Conservation In Samburu, Kenya.".; 2008.
Nanyingi, Mark O;, Mbaria JM;, Lanyasunya AL;, Cyrus G;, Cyrus W;G, Kipsengeret K;B, Ogara W. "Drug Discovery And Biodiversity Conservation In Samburu, Kenya.".; 2008.
Nanyingi MO, Mbaria JM, Lanyasunya AL, Wagate CG, Koros KB, Ogara WO, O J. "Drug Discovery and Biodiversity Conservation in Samburu, Kenya.". In: Biodiversity Conference . The College of Biological and Physical Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2008.
Ngesu L. "Drug dependence and abuse in Kenyan Secondary Schools: Strategies for intervention." . Educational Research and Review. 2008;3(10):304-308.
S.M. M. "Drug and Substance Abuse among Children and Teenagers.". In: Primary School Teacher Counselors. Mombasa; 2004.
J.M. Mbaria, J. Nduhiu, J.M. Kahunyo, J.N Ombui, J.M. Nguta, J.G. Nderitu. "Drug and chemical Residues in Camel Milk in Nanyuki, Kenya.". In: 9th Biennial Scientific Conference. U.o.N, CAVS, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine; 2014.conference_paper2_september_4th_2014_1.pdf
Mbaria J.M., Ombui J.N., J. N, Nguta J. M., J.M. K, J.G N. "Drug and chemical residues in camel milk in Nanyuki, Kenya .". In: 9th Biennial scientific conference and Exhibition. University of Nairobi Kenya ; 2014.
S.O M. "Drug adherence or compliance." East African Medical Journal . 2009;86(11):497-498.
Ndetei DM. Drug abuse in Kenya: Information, needs, resources and analysis (INRA) project for Kenya.; 2001. Abstract

This is a report of Information, Needs and Resources Analysis, (fNRA) survey carried
out in Kenya in July 200 1. The survey team comprised a Professor of Psychiatry, David
Ndetei from the Nairobi Psychotherapy Services and Institute (NPSI), Dr. Donald A.
Kokonya, Francisca A. Ongecha, Mr. Leonidas Msafiri and Mr. Abel Ndumbu and Ms.
Victoria Mutiso. The UNDep team comprised Dr. Rebecca McKetin and Mr. Mathew
Warner-Smith who provided facilitative support. This survey sought to establish
Kenya's capacity for collecting information on drug abuse. INRA is primarily focussed
on assessment of existing information and sources on drug abuse and the identification
of key needs. It is also expected to propose a development strategy for establishing an
integrated drug information system for monitoring drug abuse trends and associated
problems in Kenya. The purpose of such a drug information system is to provide a
database which can be used to formulate policy and institute intervention programmes
on drug abuse. The information contained in this report was obtained by interviewing a
cross-section of leaders of a number of relevant institutions in Government, the Private
and NGO sectors as well as individual persons - all of whom are stakeholders in matters
of drug abuse. The survey covered Nairobi and its environs only and aimed at providing
a starting point for similar work throughout the country.
The information gathered indicated that drug abuse has been the subject of study for a
number of academic theses, but operational research on the subject has been mute. The
existing information shows that the most abused drugs in Kenya are alcohol and
Cannabis sativa (bhang) which is grown in a few isolated parts of the country. But there
are reports of somewhat isolated cases of cocaine, heroin, mandrax, hallucinogens,
amphetamines and solvents. Khat (miraa) which contains a banned psychotropic
substance (cathinone) is widely consl1med among certain sections of the Kenyan
community has become a major export crop to Somalia and further afield. There have
also been cases of addiction to prescribed analgesics and sedatives. In recent years,
Kenya has become a transit 'zone' (mainly from Pakistan to the west) for traffickers as a
result of its long and porous boundaries; Nairobi being a major communication city and
with a relatively low demand for local consumption.
The survey team identified a number of existing sources of information on illicit drugs
which can make valuable contributions to an integrated drug information system. These
range from treatment data from the national and teaching hospital - Mathari Hospital to
alcohol and drug rehabilitation and detoxification centres run by NGOs and private
companies as well as advocacy agencies involved in counselling and Information,
Education and Communication (lEC) activities. The Central Bureau of Statistics would
be the source of information on drug abuse in its household survey. The Central Bureau
of Statistics is, upon request by NACADA, planning for a national baseline survey to
establish drug abuse prevalence in Kenya. A household survey will follow thereafter.
As elsewhere existing sources of data need to be supplemented with specialized drug
abuse surveys in order to obtain a more comprehensive and reliable assessment of the
situation particularly as regards the abuse of drugs in educational institutions.
Kenya has a very strong manpower base as regards research and studies on drug abuse
information systems. Administratively, Kenya has created a central agency responsible
for coordination of activities on drug abuse - NACADA, the National Agency for the
Campaign Against Drug Abuse. A steering committee for a network on drug abuse has
already been established and is working towards the formation of the network which
will playa supportive role to NACADA.

Coles GC, Bruce JI, Kinoti GK, Mutahi WT, Dias EP, & Katz N. "Drug Resistance in schitosomiasis." Transactions of the Royal Society Tropical Medicine & Hygiene. . 1986;80:347.
WAMBUA DBONIFACEN. "Droughts and floods associated with the Great Elnino episodes over parts of Kenya eastern Africa." Droughts and floods associated with the Great Elnino episodes over parts of Kenya eastern Africa. 1998.
Odingo RS, Ogallo LA. "Drought Occurrences in Eastern Africa. Sub-Region as witnessed from Paleo-and Instrumental Climate workshop,." Published in the Proceedings of the Clivar Workshop; 2008. Abstract
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R.S. O, Ogallo LA. "Drought Occurrences in Eastern Africa. Sub-Region as witnessed from Paleo-and Instrumental Climate workshop,." Paper presented at the ClivarWorkshop on Drought and Climate Change; 2008. Abstract
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Odingo RS, Ogallo L. "Drought Occurrence in Eastern Africa Sub-Region, as witnessed from Palaeo-and Instrumental Climate records.". Paper Presented to CLIVAR/University of Arizona/IPCC; 2003. Abstract
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Ngaina JN, Mutua FM, Muthama NJ, Kirui JWJ, Sabiiti G, Mukhala E, Maingi NW, Mutai BK. "Drought monitoring in Kenya: A case of Tana River County." International Journal of Agricultural Science Research . 2014;3(7):126-135 .
Ngaina JN, Mutua FM, Muthama NJ, Kirui JW, Sabiiti G, Mukhala E, NW Maingi BKM. "Drought monitoring in Kenya: A case of Tana River County." International Journal of Agricultural Science Research. 2014;3(7):126-135. AbstractAcademe Research Journals

Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to assess past, present and projected drought conditions
while Mann Kendall trend test and coefficient of variability is used for trend analysis. Observed data
from National Meteorological and Hydrological Centre in Kenya and simulated data based on Special
Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2 from Providing Region Climate for Impact Studies
(PRECIS) Model and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) RCP 4.5 Wm-2
and RCP 6.0 Wm-2
from Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) were used. Observed
datasets (rainfall and temperature), projected temperature (A1B and A2, RCP 4.5 Wm-2
and RCP 6.0 Wm2
) and rainfall (A2 and RCP 6.0 Wm-2
) all showed monotonic trend. A1B scenario had no significant
trend. Decreasing patterns observed from SPI values based on observations showed increase in dry
conditions. Although projected rainfall showed a decreasing trend, the frequency and magnitude of
drought events increased under all future scenarios. Risk analysis based on observed data showed that
north and central region of Tana River county were susceptible to intense droughts conditions and
projected shift northwards under all scenarios. The susceptibility of the region to drought conditions is
thus expected to increase conflicts due to limited water resources, pasture and food insecurity in the
region and thus limit achievement of Kenya’s long term development envisioned in the Vision 2030.
Key words: Climate change, drought, livestock production, scenarios, semi arid.

Mogotsi K, Nyangito MM, Nyariki DM. "Drought Management Strategies among Agro-Pastoral Communities in Non-Equilibrium Kalahari Ecosystems." Environmental Research Joumal. . 2011; 5 ((4)):156-162. Abstract

Rural Kalahari communities whose livelihoods are heavily dependent on rain-fed agriculture are
exposed to increasing intensity and frequency of drought spells. Subsequently their resilience is gradually
being eroded and they are left increasingly vulnerable. This study unearths and higtrlights the myriad measures
employedby small scale agro-pastoralists to cope with and adapt to droughts. Such strategies include enrolling
in the govemment's Labour Intersive Public Works Programme, harvesting larvae of Imbrasia belina
(Westwood) moth for corsurnption and/or sale, supplementary feeding of livestock, providing water for
livestock and selling part of the livestock herd while some households moved livestock to better graz:rrg areas
within the commtmal area and sor:ght altemative sources of income or-rtside agriculture. This fluidity and
flexibility is necessary to manage the often harsh and unpredictable environment commr:nities operate under.
But more importantly, some of these currently used measures could be enhanced to buffer Kalahari
agro-pastoralists from anticipated future dry spells in the Southern African region.

Key words: Adaptation Botswana. coping, drought, Kalahari, semi-arid, strategies

Odingo RS, Ogallo L. "Drought in Eastern Africa-CLIVAR/UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA/IPCC." Workshop on Drought in Tucson Arizona. Papers presented to the workshop on Drought and Climate Change. Workshop on Drought Episodes and Climate Change, Tucson Arizona; 2003. Abstract
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OLE PROFMBATIAOLIVER. "The Drought in Africa:.". In: Read at Africa Week at the University of California, Los Angeles, May 20, 1975. University of Nairobi.; 1975. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
Nyandega IA, Krhoda G. "Drought Frequency and Persistence in the Upper River Tana basin in Kenya." Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International. 2018;18(3):1-22.
"Drought Frequencies, Persistence, and Impact in the Upper Tana Catchment in Kenya." Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International. 2018;18(3):1-22.
Agwata JF, Nyaoro W. "Drought Coping Strategies at the Local Level: The Case of Masinga Division of Machakos District, Kenya.". The KDSA Annual Conference Workshop, Egerton University, Njoro, 17th-19th Oct., 2007; 2007. Abstract
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"Drought and famine in Turkana: some human problems and attempted solutions." The Kenya Geographer, vol. 5. Nos. 1&2, pp. 175 ; 1983. Abstract
n/a
Opiyo F, Wasonga O, Nyangito, Moses M, Schilling J, Munang, R. "Drought adaptation and coping strategies among the Turkana pastoralists of northern Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Risk Science,. 2015;6(3):295-309.
Opiyo F, Oliver Wasonga, Nyangito M, Schilling J, Munang R. "Drought adaptation and coping strategies among the Turkana pastoralists of northern Kenya." International Journal of Disaster Risk Science. 2015;6:295-309. Abstract
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Nyangito M, Schilling J, Munang R, Oliver Wasonga, Opiyo F. "Drought Adaptation and Coping Strategies Among the Turkana Pastoralists of Northern Kenya.". 2015. Abstract
n/a
Mwangi, J.W., NEWSON RM, KAAYA GP. "Drop-off patterns for engorged adult females, nymphs and larvae of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus." Insect Science and Its Application. 1991;12:629-633.
M. MRMBUTHIAJACKSON. "DrMwangi Mbuthia, Ph.D. "On Line .Graphic Display of Power Systems Transmission And Distribution Network for Switching and Fault Isolation for the Kenyan PowerSystem", Submiitcd to Kenya National_Academy of Sciences. November 2001.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. au-ibar; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
K'Oyugi BO. Drivers That Will Influence National Development Beyond 2030 – Population and Resources Maximization Dynamics in Kenya. Kenya School of Monetary Studies Nairobi: National Economic and Social Council Secretariat; 2011.
J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Drivers of use of information and communication services by farm households: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya.". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. The Kenya Medical Association; 2012. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
Alulu J, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Ochieng J. "Drivers of transformations in smallholder indigenous vegetable value chains in western Kenya: Evolution of contract farming." Journal of Business and Economics. 2020;22(6):151-165.
and AA, Odipo G. "Drivers of migration in East African Community.". In: the Regional meting of The Research Consortium Migration out of Poverty.; 2011.
Dr. Juliet Gathoni Muiga PRWR. "Drivers of Gated Community Developments in Urban Areas (Case Study: Nairobi, Kenya)." International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development -IJAUD. 2017;Volume 7(Issue 4):Pages 5-18.
Anthony Egeru, Oliver Wasonga, Mburu J, Yazan E, Majaliwa MGJ, MacOpiyo L, Bamutaze Y. "Drivers of forage availability: An integration of remote sensing and traditional ecological knowledge in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda." Pastoralism. 2015;5:19. Abstract
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"Drivers of Agricultural Land Subdivision in Drylands of Kenya: A Case of Kajiado County." The International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(6):195-212.
KIMANI M, Mwangi W, Syagga P, Museleku E. "Drivers of Agricultural Land Subdivision in Dryland of Kenya: A Case of Kajiado County, Kenya." International journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(6).
Masu SM, Mutuku RN. "Drivers for change in the built environment and their implications in construction management curricula at African universities.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

The paper explains the context of built environment in relation to construction management and identifies the drivers of change as globalization, technology and competition. Specific drivers for change in the built environment and their impacts in the training of professionals within the built environment are described. Implications for construction management curricula in universities are explored including an examination of the construction management curricula in universities in African countries and in some overseas commonwealth countries. A review of the various construction management programmes offered in selected African Universities is carried out in order to understand their implications in the construction management curricula. There is a description of a modern trends in construction project procurement models and their incorporation in construction management training programmes. The paper highlights and compares how construction management curricula responds to current change drivers in the built environment. The paper concludes by recommending the adoption of new trends in construction management training programmes. It concludes by suggesting that there should be an improved exchange of knowledge between researchers and practitioners and how these research processes need to be modified to serve the needs of practitioners and society through relevant training and curriculum development in the construction industry.

Olago D, Marchant R, Richer S, Capitani C, Courtney-Mustaphi C, Prendergast M. "Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000years ago to present." Earth-Science Reviews. 2018;178:322-378. AbstractFull Text

East African landscapes today are the result of the cumulative effects of climate and land-use change over millennial timescales. In this review, we compile archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from East Africa to document land-cover change, and environmental, subsistence and land-use transitions, over the past 6000 years. Throughout East Africa there have been a series of relatively rapid and high-magnitude environmental shifts characterised by changing hydrological budgets during the mid- to late Holocene. For example, pronounced environmental shifts that manifested as a marked change in the rainfall amount or seasonality and subsequent hydrological budget throughout East Africa occurred around 4000, 800 and 300 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). The past 6000 years have also seen numerous shifts in human interactions with East African ecologies. From the mid-Holocene, land use has both diversified and increased exponentially, this has been associated with the arrival of new subsistence systems, crops, migrants and technologies, all giving rise to a sequence of significant phases of land-cover change. The first large-scale human influences began to occur around 4000 yr BP, associated with the introduction of domesticated livestock and the expansion of pastoral communities. The first widespread and intensive forest clearances were associated with the arrival of iron-using early farming communities around 2500 yr BP, particularly in productive and easily-cleared mid-altitudinal areas. Extensive and pervasive land-cover change has been associated with population growth, immigration and movement of people. The expansion of trading routes between the interior and the coast, starting around 1300 years ago and intensifying in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries CE, was one such process. These caravan routes possibly acted as conduits for spreading New World crops such as maize (Zea mays), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), although the processes and timings of their introductions remains poorly documented. The introduction of southeast Asian domesticates, especially banana (Musa spp.), rice (Oryza spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and chicken (Gallus gallus), via transoceanic biological transfers around and across the Indian Ocean, from at least around 1300 yr BP, and potentially significantly earlier, also had profound social and ecological consequences across parts of the region.

Through an interdisciplinary synthesis of information and metadatasets, we explore the different drivers and directions of changes in land-cover, and the associated environmental histories and interactions with various cultures, technologies, and subsistence strategies through time and across space in East Africa. This review suggests topics for targeted future research that focus on areas and/or time periods where our understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and land-cover change are most contentious and/or poorly resolved. The review also offers a perspective on how knowledge of regional land-use change can be used to inform and provide perspectives on contemporary issues such as climate and ecosystem change models, conservation strategies, and the achievement of nature-based solutions for development purposes.

Madadi VO, Ngotho MW, Masese FA. "Drinking Water Quality Challenges in Nakuru County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2017;3(6):5-11.
GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "Dreher, D., Kok M., C. Obregon, Kiama S. G., Gehr P., and L. P Nicod(2002). Salmonella virulence factor SipB induces activation and release of IL-18 in human dendritic cells. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 72:743-751.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, 3rd to 5th November 2004. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays an important role in innate and acquired immunity, in particular against intracellular pathogens. However, little is known about the microbial factors that trigger IL-18 secretion by dendritic cells (DCs). To determine the influence of bacterial virulence factors on the activation and release of IL-18, we infected human monocyte-derived DCs with virulence mutants of the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Our results show that infection by S. typhimurium causes caspase-1-dependent activation of IL-18 and triggers the release of IL-18 in human DCs. The secretion of IL-18 by the DCs was closely correlated with the ability of the S. typhimurium strains to induce apoptosis. We demonstrate that activation and release of IL-18 are blocked by mutations in the Salmonella sipB gene, which encodes a virulence factor that activates caspase-1 to induce apoptosis. These findings indicate that the activation and release of IL-18 induced by bacterial virulence factors may represent one component of innate immunity against the intracellular bacteria.
GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "Dreher, D., Kok M., C. Obregon, Kiama S. G., Gehr P., and L. P Nicod (2002). Salmonella virulence factor SipB induces activation and release of IL-18 in human dendritic cells. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 72:743-751.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, 3rd to 5th November 2004. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) plays an important role in innate and acquired immunity, in particular against intracellular pathogens. However, little is known about the microbial factors that trigger IL-18 secretion by dendritic cells (DCs). To determine the influence of bacterial virulence factors on the activation and release of IL-18, we infected human monocyte-derived DCs with virulence mutants of the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Our results show that infection by S. typhimurium causes caspase-1-dependent activation of IL-18 and triggers the release of IL-18 in human DCs. The secretion of IL-18 by the DCs was closely correlated with the ability of the S. typhimurium strains to induce apoptosis. We demonstrate that activation and release of IL-18 are blocked by mutations in the Salmonella sipB gene, which encodes a virulence factor that activates caspase-1 to induce apoptosis. These findings indicate that the activation and release of IL-18 induced by bacterial virulence factors may represent one component of innate immunity against the intracellular bacteria.
GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "Dreher, D., Cochand L., Kok M., Kiama S. G., Gehr P., Pech.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference 2002. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Dendritic cells play a central role in initiation of primary T lymphocyte responses to foreign antigens. Their potency in antigen presentation vis-a-vis reported low or lack of ability to phagocytize particulate matter has limited our understanding of the role that they play in inducing immunity to particulate antigens. One hypothesis is that dendritic cells may possess a high phagocytic capacity when immature and located in peripheral tissues, which they lose on maturation. Our goal was to characterize the phagocytic capacity in human immature dendritic cells. The phagocytic capacity of human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells was studied by morphological and morphometric means, and compared to that of professional phagocytes, human alveolar macrophages, their progenitors, the peripheral blood monocytes, and mature dendritic cells. Phagocytic index (proportion of phagocytic cells) was decreased by 42.8% (immature dendritic cells) and 74.2% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to monocytes. Similarly, the phagocytic index was decreased by 46.5% (immature dendritic cells) and 75.9% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to macrophages. Volume density of phagocytized particles was decreased by 76.1% (immature dendritic cells) and 96.7% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to the monocytes. However, volume density was decreased by 34.3% (immature dendritic cells) and 91% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to alveolar macrophages. These results show that human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells possess a phagocytic capacity that is lower than that of peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages but higher than that of mature dendritic cells.
GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "Dreher D., Obregon C., Kok M., Kiama S.G., Gehr P., and L. P. Nicod(2001). Release of IL-18 by salmonella SipB protein in human antigenpresenting cells. Journal of Aerosol Medicine 14: P2-11.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference 2002. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Dendritic cells play a central role in initiation of primary T lymphocyte responses to foreign antigens. Their potency in antigen presentation vis-a-vis reported low or lack of ability to phagocytize particulate matter has limited our understanding of the role that they play in inducing immunity to particulate antigens. One hypothesis is that dendritic cells may possess a high phagocytic capacity when immature and located in peripheral tissues, which they lose on maturation. Our goal was to characterize the phagocytic capacity in human immature dendritic cells. The phagocytic capacity of human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells was studied by morphological and morphometric means, and compared to that of professional phagocytes, human alveolar macrophages, their progenitors, the peripheral blood monocytes, and mature dendritic cells. Phagocytic index (proportion of phagocytic cells) was decreased by 42.8% (immature dendritic cells) and 74.2% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to monocytes. Similarly, the phagocytic index was decreased by 46.5% (immature dendritic cells) and 75.9% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to macrophages. Volume density of phagocytized particles was decreased by 76.1% (immature dendritic cells) and 96.7% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to the monocytes. However, volume density was decreased by 34.3% (immature dendritic cells) and 91% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to alveolar macrophages. These results show that human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells possess a phagocytic capacity that is lower than that of peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages but higher than that of mature dendritic cells.
GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "Dreher D., Kok M., Kiama S. G., Cochand L., Gehr P., and L. P. Nicod(2000). Apoptosis in dendritic cells: Consequences for immunotherapy with Salmonella vectors.". In: Presented at the fourth NFP37 Somatic Gene Therapy meeting held in Fribourg, Switzerland on 6th October 2000. Elsevier; 2000. Abstract
Recent publications have demonstrated that the protease caspase-1 is responsible for the processing of pro-interleukin 18 (IL-18) into the active form. Studies on cell lines and murine macrophages have shown that the bacterial invasion factor SipB activates caspase-1, triggering cell death. Thus, we investigated the role of SipB in the activation and release of IL-18 in human alveolar macrophages (AM), which are the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens. Under steady-state conditions, AM are a more important source of IL-18 than are dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes. Cytokine production by AM and DC was compared after both types of cells had been infected with a virulent strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and an isogenic sipB mutant, which were used as an infection model. Infection with virulent Salmonella led to marked cell death with features of apoptosis while both intracellular activation and release of IL-18 were demonstrated. In contrast, the sipB mutant did not induce such cell death or the release of active IL-18. The specific caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK blocked the early IL-18 release in AM infected with the virulent strain. However, the type of Salmonella infection did not differentially regulate IL-18 gene expression. We concluded that the bacterial virulence factor SipB plays an essential posttranslational role in the intracellular activation of IL-18 and the release of the cytokine in human AM.
GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "Dreher D., Kok M., Imboden P., Kiama S. G., Muhindi, D.W., Georgopoulos C., and L. P. Nicod (2001). From genomics to vaccination: treatment of latent tuberculosis by recombinant salmonella.". In: Fifth NFP37 Somatic Gene Therapy meeting. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Dendritic cells play a central role in initiation of primary T lymphocyte responses to foreign antigens. Their potency in antigen presentation vis-a-vis reported low or lack of ability to phagocytize particulate matter has limited our understanding of the role that they play in inducing immunity to particulate antigens. One hypothesis is that dendritic cells may possess a high phagocytic capacity when immature and located in peripheral tissues, which they lose on maturation. Our goal was to characterize the phagocytic capacity in human immature dendritic cells. The phagocytic capacity of human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells was studied by morphological and morphometric means, and compared to that of professional phagocytes, human alveolar macrophages, their progenitors, the peripheral blood monocytes, and mature dendritic cells. Phagocytic index (proportion of phagocytic cells) was decreased by 42.8% (immature dendritic cells) and 74.2% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to monocytes. Similarly, the phagocytic index was decreased by 46.5% (immature dendritic cells) and 75.9% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to macrophages. Volume density of phagocytized particles was decreased by 76.1% (immature dendritic cells) and 96.7% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to the monocytes. However, volume density was decreased by 34.3% (immature dendritic cells) and 91% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to alveolar macrophages. These results show that human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells possess a phagocytic capacity that is lower than that of peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages but higher than that of mature dendritic cells.
GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "Dreher D., Cochand L., Kok M., Pechere J. C., Kiama S.G., Gehr P., and L. P. Nicod (2000). Genetic background of Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strains has profound influence on infectivity and cytokine production in human dendritic cells. Schweiz. Med. W.". In: Fifth NFP37 Somatic Gene Therapy meeting. Elsevier; 2000. Abstract
Salmonella typhimurium (ST) can cause infection in man, and attenuated strains are under consideration as live vaccine vectors. However, little is known about the interaction of ST with human dendritic cells (DC). Here, we compared the consequences of exposure of human, monocyte-derived DC with different attenuated strains of ST. Infection was observed with all four strains tested (wild type, PhoP-, PhoPc, and AroA), but the PhoPc strain was by far the most efficient. Intracellular persistence of wild type and PhoP- was longer than that of PhoPc and AroA, both of which were largely eliminated within 24 h. Most DC survived infection by the attenuated strains, although apoptosis was observed in a fraction of the exposed cells. All strains induced DC maturation, independent from the extent of infection. Although all strains stimulated secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-12 strongly, PhoPc induced significantly less IL-10 than the other three strains and as much as 10 times less IL-10 than heat-killed PhoPc, suggesting that this mutant suppressed the secretion of IL-10 by the DC. These data indicate that infectivity, bacterial elimination, and cytokine secretion in human DC are controlled by the genetic background of ST.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. ""Dreaming Their Dreams," Margaret Laurence Review 15 (2005) & 16 (2006): 18-22.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature 4 (March 2006): 83-89. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2006. Abstract

This paper presents a case for the need to build a virtual bibliography of Kenyan literature on the World Wide Web; this catalogue without cards will present to the wide audience with access to the internet basic and correct information on this literature. In the course of discussing the place of modern information technology in the world, the paper discusses the Kenyan literary heritage as a form of higher culture reflecting social experiences, capturing the souls of the nation and encapsulating the high ideals of humanism and progress. Further, the paper calls for honesty and sensitivity in the preservation of information on the literary texts, lest this information is laid open to possible distortion, even manipulation, by those who post it on the World Wide Web. Implicitly, the paper makes a case for the need of the developing world

Achilla. RA, Bulimo. WD, Majanja. JM, Wadegu. MO, Mukunzi. SO, Opot. BH, Mwangi. J, Mwangi. JW, Njiri. JO, Osuna. F, Nyambura. JM, Ocholla. SO, Mitei. KM, Wurapa. EK. "Drastic decline of pandemic (2009) H1N1 Influenza cases in sentinel surveillance sites in Kenya; May 2011-May 2012.". In: International Society for Influenza and other respiratory virus diseases conference. Munich Germany.; 2012. Abstract
n/a
Musonye MM. "The Dramatization of Power Relations in Children’s Animated Cartoons: The Case of Lion king. ." he Nairobi Journal of Literature. 2006;(No. 4).
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Drama in East Africa' in Encyclopaedia of Post-Colonial Literatures in English.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1995. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
Wanjala C. "Drama in East Africa.". In: The Companion to African Literatures. Oxford: James Currey; 2000.
OGOLA ESN. "The Drakensberg declaration on the control of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Africa." S Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;96(3 Pt 2):246. 2006. AbstractWebsite

This paper reviews some research studies on tillage methods influencing soil and moisture conservation in the eastern African countries of Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Ethiopia during the past four decades. Most of these studies were conducted in marginal rainfall (semi arid ) areas and on shallow soils of various textures (sandy clay loam, sandy clay, clay and loam). The studies were meant to establish the effects of tillage and residue management practices on physico-chemical soil properties (i.e. structure, bulk density, soil moisture and organic matter contents), runoff and infiltration. This review emphasizes the importance of appropriate tillage and residue management methods (contour bunds and terraces, minimum tillage, tied ridging, mulching and conventional tillage) in providing soil conditions favourable for soil moisture conservation and subsequent crop performance and yield on smallholder farms.

F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Drainage Evolution in Kenya. Chapter 12 of Studies in East African Geography and Development Ed.S.H. Ominde Heinemann. Pp.137-145.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1971. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Drain P, Baeten JM, Overbaugh J, Wener M, Bankson DD, Lavreys L, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, McCllelland RS. Low serum albumin and the acute phase response predict low serum selenium in HIV-1 infected women.". In: BMC Infectious Diseases 2006, 6:85. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstractlow_serum_albumin_and_the_acute_phase_response.doclow_serum_albumin_and_the_acute_phase_response.pdf

{ BACKGROUND: Low serum selenium has been associated with lower CD4 counts and greater mortality among HIV-1-seropositive individuals, but most studies have not controlled for serum albumin and the presence of an acute phase response. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate relationships between serum selenium concentrations and CD4 count, plasma viral load, serum albumin, and acute phase response markers among 400 HIV-1-seropositive women. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, lower CD4 count, higher plasma viral load, lower albumin, and the presence of an acute phase response were each significantly associated with lower serum selenium concentrations. In multivariate analyses including all four of these covariates, only albumin remained significantly associated with serum selenium. For each 0.1 g/dl increase in serum albumin, serum selenium increased by 0.8 microg/l (p < 0.001). Women with an acute phase response also had lower serum selenium (by 5.6 microg/l

Kiamba A. "The Dragon in Africa.". In: China’s rise and emerging role in Africa Lecture of opportunity. Germany; 2012.
D. DRONGORE. "Draft Report The Apparent Prevalence of Human Brucellosis Among Patients Attending Health Facilities in Nairobi with Special Emphasis in Kibera .". In: Draft Report The Apparent Prevalence of Human Brucellosis Among Patients Attending Health Facilities in Nairobi with Special Emphasis in Kibera . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1985. Abstract
A study of malaria on the Kano Plain, Kisumu District, Western Kenya, was carried out between April and August, 1985. The study included a knowledge, attitudes and practices (K.A.P.) survey on malaria illness and the mosquito vector. Overall knowledge about malaria illness was found to be good. However, treatment and prevention practices of malaria were found to be poor. Knowledge of the mosquito and its relationship to malaria was found to be high. Knowledge of methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high but actual use of the methods was low. Knowledge of traditional methods of prevention of mosquito bites was also found to be high. Actual use was again found to be low.
K'Oyugi BO. Draft Population Policy for National Development. Hotel Intercontinental, Mombasa: National Council for Population and Development; 2011.
NEBAT MRMOMANYIAKUNGA. "Draft Land Based and Sources and Activities Protocol to the Nairobi Convention LBS/A Protocol), under the on going UNEP/ GEF WIO LaB Project, as a consultancy key output.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2005. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
NEBAT MRMOMANYIAKUNGA. "Draft Land Based and Sources and Activities Protocol to the Nairobi Convention LBS/A Protocol), under the on going UNEP/ GEF WIO LaB Project, as a consultancy key output.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2006. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
Anne Fischer, Ivette Santana-Cruz, Wambua L, Cassandra Olds, Charles Midega, Matthew Dickinson, Praphat Kawicha, Zeyaur Khan, Masiga D, Joerg Jores, Bernd Schneider. "Draft genome sequence of “Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae” strain Mbita1, the causative agent of Napier grass stunt disease in Kenya." Genome announcements. 2016;4(2):e00297-16.

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