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D
F. NJ, O LK. "Determinants of Commercial Mixed Farming on Small Farms in Kenya." European Journal of Business and Management . 2013;5(22):47-54. Abstract

Agriculture is a topic of concern for rural development programs in Kenya because of the high poverty incidents among farmers. Fundamentally, smallholder agriculture contributes substantially to total agricultural production and total employment. Despite the fact that Kenyan farmers largely practice mixed farming, some are unable to act commercially and consequently, unable to improve their livelihoods. This paper therefore aims at establishing the entrepreneurial indicators of farming activities that lead to improved rural livelihoods. Cross-sectional survey of 388 small farms in Thika was carried out to investigate the determinants of commercial mixed farming. Linear probability model, logit and probit models were used to estimate the determinants of commercial mixed farming. The results show that the size of the farm, gender of the farmer, availability of electricity supply and running water on the farm are the main determinants of mixed farming. This study suggests that policies be put in place to discourage partitioning of farm land into uneconomical sizes. It also recommend that rural electrification and training programs on best farming practices be intensified in the rural areas to enable farmers to act commercially.
Key words: Commercial Mixed Farming, Farm Characteristics, Entrepreneurship, Logit and Probit models

Mensah ER;, Karantininis K;, Adégbidi A;, Okello JJ. "Determinants of Commitment to Agricultural Cooperatives: Cashew Nuts Farmers in Benin."; 2012. Abstract

Forming and using cooperatives as marketing channel is usually advised to African smallholder farmers for overcoming the constraint of market access. However, limited evidence of cooperative behavior in marketing has been observed. In this paper, we estimate a two-stage model of commitment to cooperatives by cashew nut farmers in Benin, West Africa. In the first stage, we use data on 109 non-members and 168 members and estimate a binary Logit model of farmer’s discrete choice with respect to committing to membership. In the second stage, we use the members’ data to estimate a Tobit model of the proportion of produce delivered to the cooperative, after controlling for the endogeneity of the proportion of presales. Empirical results reveal that the commitment to membership depends on the assessment of prices offered by the marketing channels, the farmer’s preferences for the specific attributes of the channels, the total farm size, and some psycho-sociological factors; the commitment to business depends on prices and transaction costs in the channels. Our findings call cooperatives for improving commitment by considering the subjective and economic reasoning of the farmers, and setting formal contracts between members and their organization.

Maalu J MS. "Determinants of community participation in constituency development fund projects in Mvita Constituency, Mombasa County, Kenya." Prime Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS).. 2014;3 (8)(July 2014):842-849.
Kathambi BE, Mutembei HM’I. "Determinants of compliance with governance instruments for adoption of green concept in environmental management: Case of Nairobi." Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Science. 2018;12(3):28-38.
E.N. PN. "Determinants of condom use among female sex workers in Kenya: a case-crossover analysis.". 2011. Abstract

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011 May;20(5):733-8. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2010.2436. Epub 2011 Mar 25.
Determinants of condom use among female sex workers in Kenya: a case-crossover analysis.
Gallo MF, Warner L, Bell AJ, Bukusi EA, Sharma A, Njoroge B, Ngugi E, Jamieson DJ, Eschenbach DA.
Source

Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724, USA. mgallo@cdc.gov
Abstract
BACKGROUND:

We evaluated predictors of consistent condom use among female sex workers (FSWs), a core group for controlling the spread of HIV.
METHODS:

In an analysis of data collected in 2004-2005 from 140 Kenyan FSWs who completed questionnaires administered during a baseline study visit and three bimonthly follow-up visits, we used a case-crossover design to identify predictors of consistent condom use during all coital acts in the preceding 2 weeks, overall and by partner type.
RESULTS:

Participants (n=140) completed the baseline visit and 390 bimonthly follow-up visits. Alcohol use during sex was negatively associated with consistent condom use with helping partners (defined as regular sex partners to whom the woman could go for help or support if needed) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-6.5) but not associated with condom use with other partners. Coital frequency was associated with condom use with other partners only. Women who reported 1-5 (AOR 11.0, 95% CI 4.3-28.3) or 6-9 recent coital acts (AOR 3.8, 95% CI 1.7-8.8) with other partners were more likely to report consistent condom use with those partners than were women who reported ≥10 acts. Having a recent partner delay payment was inversely associated with consistent condom use with helping, other, or all partners.
CONCLUSIONS:

Correlates of consistent condom use differed by partner type. By using a case-crossover design, we were able to identify potentially modifiable factors associated with consistent condom use by FSWs who used condoms consistently with a given partner type during some periods but not others.

PMID:
21438697
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ikamari LDE. 'Determinants of Contraceptive Use in Kenya'. Population Studies and Research Institute, University of Nairobi; 1985.
Wanyoike AN, Oleche OM. "Determinants of Demand for Healthcare Services in Private Hospitals in Kenya." International Journal of Novel Research in Marketing Management and Economics . 2017;4(3):9-30.
Maina SW, Osanjo GO, Ndwigah SN, Opanga SA. "Determinants of discontinuation of contraceptive methods among women at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. ." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2016;5(1):28-34.
Maina W, Osanjo G, Ndwigah S, Opanga S. "Determinants of discontinuation of Contraceptive Methods among Women at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. ." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2016;5(1).
Musyoka PK, Onjala J, Mureithi LP. "Determinants of distress sales of farmland in rural Kenya." Development Studies Research. 2021;8(1):317-345.
Ayisi RK, Thuita FM, NJERU E, Wakoli AB. "Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding for six months in a peri urban settlement of Kangemi. A qualitative approach." European International Journal of Science and tecnology. 2013;2(10):53-60.
Kalai, J.M., Mulu C. "Determinants of Female Teachers' Progression to Governance Positions in Public Primary Schools in Mutitu Sub County , Kenya.". In: International Conference on Research and Innovation in Education University of Nairobi.; 2019.
M.Mwangi, J.Wanjugu. "The Determinants of Financial Performance in General Insurance Companies in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2015;11(1):288-297. Abstract

The contribution of the general insurance industry in Kenya to thegross domestic product is at 2.08%. This is low and hence the need toestablish factors that can influence improved performance of some of the keyplayers – the general insurance companies. The study was therefore toestablish the factors that affect the profitability of general insurers in Kenya.The study employed multiple linear regression, with return on assets as thedependent variable, and considered all the general insurance companies inKenya for the period 2009-2012. Profitabilitywas positively related toleverage, equity capital, management competence index and negativelyrelated to sizeand ownership structure. The study did not find a relationshipbetween performance and retention ratio, liquidity, underwriting risk andage. The study recommends that for general insurers in Kenya to performbetter they should increase leverage, equity capital and quality of staff.

MWANGI MIRIE. "Determinants of Financial Performance of General Insurance Underwriters in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2014;5(13):210-215. Abstract

The objective of the study was to establish the effect of corporate governance practices on earnings management of companies listed at the Nairobi Security Exchange (NSE). The target population consisted of the 49companies that had been continuously and actively trading at the NSE between January 2010 and December 2012. Secondary data was used covering the period 2010 to 2012 and analyzed using linear regression to test the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The study found that earnings management is negatively related to ownership concentration, board size and board independence but positively related to board activity and CEO duality. The study recommended the need for effective corporate governance practices in listed companies in Kenya to contribute to reduced earnings management and avert possible collapse of listed companies in Kenya.

MWANGI MIRIE, Iraya C. "Determinants of Financial Performance of General Insurance Underwriters in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2014;5(13): 210-215. Abstract

The objective of the study was to establish the effect of corporategovernance practices on earnings management of companies listed at the Nairobi Security Exchange (NSE). The target population consisted of the 49companies that had been continuously and actively trading at the NSE between January 2010 and December 2012. Secondary data was used covering the period 2010 to 2012 and analyzed using linear regression to test the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable. The study found that earnings management is negatively related to ownership concentration, board size and board independence but positively related to board activity and CEO duality. The study recommended the need fore ffective corporate governance practices in listed companies in Kenya to contribute to reduced earnings management and avert possible collapse of listed companies in Kenya.

Koh VT, Tham Y-C, Cheung CY, Wong W-L, Baskaran M, Saw S-M, Wong TY, Aung T. "Determinants of ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness measured by high-definition optical coherence tomography." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 2012;53:5853-5859. Abstract

{PURPOSE: To determine the distribution, variation, and determinants of ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness in nonglaucomatous eyes measured by high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT). METHODS: Six hundred twenty-three Chinese adults aged 40 to 80 years were consecutively recruited from a population-based study. All subjects underwent a standardized interview, ophthalmic examination, and automated perimetry. HD-OCT with macular cube protocol was used to measure the GC-IPL thickness. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between GC-IPL thickness with ocular and systemic factors. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) age of study subjects was 52.84 ± 6.14 years, 50.1% were male, and all subjects had normal visual fields with no signs of glaucoma or glaucoma suspect. The mean overall, minimum, superior, and inferior GC-IPL thicknesses were 82.78 ± 7.01 μm, 79.67 ± 9.17 μm, 83.30 ± 7.89 μm, and 80.16 ± 8.31 μm, respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, GC-IPL thickness was significantly associated with age (β = -0.202, P {\textless} 0.001), female sex (β = -2.367, P {\textless} 0.001), axial length (β = -1.279

Musau LM, Migosi J, Muola JM. "Determinants of girls’ performance in science, mathematics and technology subjects in public secondary schools in Kenya." International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies. 2013;5(3):33-42.
Isabella K, Murrithi M, Kioko U. "Determinants of Health Insurance Choice in Kenya." European Scientific Journal, . 2013;Vol. 9(No. 13): ISSN: 7857-7881 .
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Determinants of Health Insurance Ownership Among South African Women" (with Joses M. Kirigia, Luis G. Sambo, Benjamin Nganda, Rufaro Chatora and Takondwa Mwase), BMC Health Services Research 2005, 5:17doi:10.1186/1472-6963-5-17.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
T
Kamau E, Kayima J, Otieno CF. "THE DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF PATIENTS ON MAINTENANCE HAEMODIALYSIS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, KENYA." East African Medical Journal. 2014;91(10):368-374. Abstract

Background: Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly being recognised as a primary outcome measure in the treatment of end stage renal disease. In addition to being an important surrogate marker of quality of care in patients on maintenance haemodialysis, HRQOL measures have being shown to be robust predictors of mortality and morbidity.

Objective: To determine the health related quality of life and its determinants in patients on maintenance haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

Setting: Renal unit, Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Adult patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis.

Results: The mean physical composite summary and mental composite summary scores were 39.09 ± 9.49 and 41.87 ± 10.56 respectively. The burden of kidney disease sub-scale, symptom and problems sub-scale and effect of kidney disease on daily life sub-scale scores were 16.15 ± 21.83, 73.46 ± 18.06 and 67.63 ± 23.45 respectively. No significant correlations were found between the health-related quality of life scores, socio-demographic and clinical factors assessed.

Conclusion: The health-related quality of life of patients on maintenance haemodialysis is reduced. The physical quality of life is more affected than the mental quality of life. No independent determinants of health-related quality of life were identified.

D
Gioto V, Wandiga S, Oludhe C. "Determinants of Household Food Security Status and Challenges of Building Resilience to Climate Variability and Change Posed by Drought in Tharaka …." Handbook of Climate Change Resilience. 2018;2(1):1-29. Abstractlink.springer.com

Climate change and variability pose momentous severe threats to agricultural development and consequently to economic growth and increased poverty levels. In reference, this paper examines the determinants of household food security status and assesses the challenges of building resilience to climate variability and change posed by drought in Tharaka Nithi, Kenya. The study coverage is Tharaka North and Tharaka South sub-counties which are semiarid and cover an area of 1,569 square kilometers (km2) with a total population of 158,023 people; this is about 65% of Tharaka Nithi County (Kenya). The sub-counties have three main livelihood zones (LZs). These are marginal mixed farming at 52%, mixed farming at 38%, and rain-fed cropping at 10%.

The area is exposed to climate change, aggravated by minimal adaptive capacity. Climate variability and climate change threaten food production leading to about 20–30% of the population being in poor and borderline food consumption score. The year 2017 describes one of the cyclical drought situations with low productivity and depleted range land conditions exposing approximately 30,000 persons in need of humanitarian assistance. This study reflects on challenges of building resilience to climate variability and change posed by drought using a transdisciplinary approach. The problems of the household food security status were poor rainfall performance, high temperatures, low livestock prices, high food prices, poor crop production, poor pasture and browse quality, and inadequate water for both domestic and livestock use. The solutions to the above-listed issues lie in the increased advocacy, rainwater harvesting structures, marketing linkages, timely early warning knowledge management, and eco-based farming practices. The study also found that there was a significant relationship between the household level of education, family size, household income, and household head age with food security. Findings of this study will form a platform for policy makers.

Keywords
Climate variability Climate change Tharaka Nithi Drought and resilience

Nthambi M, Nyikal R, Mburu J. "DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLDS' CHOICE OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS IN KIBERA SLUM, KENYA." Journal of International Real Estate and Construction Studies; Hauppauge . 2013;3(2):143-162. AbstractWebsite

Each of the about 44 million citizens of Kenya has a duty to cooperate with the State and other persons to protect and conserve the environment for sustainable development. Responsibilities to the environment are particularly critical with respect to waste management. At the southwest of Nairobi city is the largest slum in sub-Saharan Africa, Kibera slum. Waste build up in the slum is a common phenomena with visible waste mountains along the roads and public places. The main objective of this study is to assess the determinants of households' choice of solid waste management options. Using the quantitative research methodology, a survey of 250 households was carried out in the slum and a multi-stage random sampling procedure was used to select the sample. Waste management options hyphothesized in the study included solid waste reuse, burning, recycling and disposal. Data collected was analyzed by Stata software using a multinomial logit regression model (MNL). MNL was used to assess the effect of household socioeconomic and institutional attributes on the choice of household solid waste management options. Findings revealed that institutional factors such as contractual arrangements, waste management regulations of 2006, disposal returns, distance to the main road, years of schooling, family size,ownership of a slum/sack garden,community based recycling practise, disposal returns and waste segregation explain the households' choice of solid waste management options. As a result, the study recommends strong pro-poor waste management policies, community-based waste management approaches, support for informal waste recyclers, privatisation of waste management services and development of compost manure market among urban and peri-urban areas farmers.

Keywords: waste management options, household solid waste, multinomial logit model, determinants

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Determinants of Immunization Coverage in Butere-Mumiasi District. Omutanyi, M and Mwanthi, M.A.". In: East African Medical Journal, 82:(10). 501-505, 2005. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
Mulwa JK, Kalai JM, Migosi J. "Determinants of implementation of public procurement regulations in Kenya’s secondary schools." International Journal of Educational Research and Reviews. 2014;2(1):9-16.
Mulwa JK, Kalai JM, Migosi J. "Determinants of implementation of public procurement regulations in Kenya’s secondary schools." International Journal of Educational Research and Reviews. 2014;2(1):9-16.
Muse, B., Ndirangu, Imonje R. "Determinants of Implementing Chemistry Curriculum in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL): A Case of Public Secondary Schools in Garissa, Kenya." International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research . 2018;17(12):99-115.
Ngugi RW. "Determinants of Interest rate spread in Kenya." African Journal of Economic Policy. 2003.Website
Kibera LW, Kibera FN. "The Determinants of Learning Achievement of Public Primary School Children in Kenya." Journal of African International Business and Management . 2011.
Samanta P. "The Determinants of life insurance demand – the Kenya case, 1974 - 2004." The Journal of Risk Finance. 2006.
Lutta AI, Wasonga OV, Robinson LW, Nyangito MM, Jason Sircely. "Determinants of livestock market participation among pastoral communities of Tana River County, Kenya." Environment, Development and Sustainability. 2020.
Lutta, A. I., Wasonga OV, Robinson LW, Nyangito MM, Sircely J. "Determinants of livestock market participation among pastoral communities of Tana River County, Kenya." Environment, Development and Sustainability, . 2021;23(5):7393-7411.
Abala DO. "Determinants of manufactured exports in Kenya:An application of control function approach." DBA Africa management review. 2013;Vol. 3 no.1(1):50-72. Abstract

This paper uses firm level survey panel data to estimate parameters of export propensity and intensity in Kenyan manufacturing. The effects of unobservable factors that would otherwise bias the estimated parameters are removed using a control function regression procedure. The key finding of the study is that export propensity and intensity are strongly responsive to total factor productivity. In particularly a 10% increase in total factor productivity increases export propensity by 54%, but export intensity rises less steeply by 18%. We also find that ownership structure of the firm and unobserved factors specific to firms strongly influence exports. Taken together, the estimation results provide insights into the policies
needed to promote entry and stay of firms in export markets. The findings suggest that policy measures to improve export performance of Kenyan firms should focus on improving total factor productivity, encouraging foreign direct investment and stimulating modernization of manufacturing capital.

Keywords: Exports, manufacturing firms, total factor productivity, control function approach, Kenya.

Mbembe EA, Otieno DJ, Nyikal R, Odendo M. "Determinants of market participation by smallholder soybean farmers in Kakamega County, Kenya”.". In: 6th African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) . Abuja, Nigeria; 2019.
Ndungu JM, Moturi CA. "Determinants of Mobile Fintech Uptake in Kenyan Microfinance Sector." Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2020;39(28):102-114. AbstractWebsite

The Kenyan microfinance sector faces many challenges such as high operation costs, increased credit risk, low visibility and poor understanding of emerging technology opportunities and risks among others. These problems are persistent due to low levels of innovation and limited uptake of digital financial technologies. This research aimed to identify the determinants that influence uptake of mobile fintech and propose an appropriate model for uptake of mobile fintech within the sector. A descriptive survey of all 30 Microfinance institutions registered with Association of Microfinance Institutions (AMFI) 2018 in Kenya was carried out. Data was collected using questionnaires from 120 respondents. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Based on correlation model, this study established that technology factors (r=0.862, P<.05), environmental characteristics (r=0.387, P<.05) and organizational factors (r=0.256, P<.05) have a strong influence on the uptake of mobile fintech. Using regression model, technology factors (β=.563, P<.05), organizational factors (β=.281, P<.05) and environmental characteristics (β=.562, P<.05) all have positive and significant influence on uptake of mobile fintech. These factors include technology availability, perceived technology benefits, organization size, resources availability, and competition, regulatory and legal environment among others. Uptake of mobile fintech was found to reduce operation costs and improve business operations efficiency. Understanding of the factors derived in this study will help microfinance institutions, software developers and policy makers as they develop strategies directed at promoting successful implementation of mobile fintech.

Litondo KO, Ntale JF. "Determinants of Mobile Phone Usage for E-Commerce among Micro and Small Enterprises in the Informal Sector of Kenya." International Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2013;3(6). Abstractdeterminants_of_mobile_phone_usage_for_e-commerce_among_micro_and_small_enterprises_in_the_informal_sector_of_kenya.pdf

Studies done on the usage of Information and Commutation Technologies (ICTs) for e-commerce in the informal sector have mostly concentrated on the roles of computers and internet usage, and give contradicting results on the determinants and benefits of using these technologies. Evidence on factors leading to the mobile phones usage for business among Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya is lacking. This paper investigates determinants of mobile phone usage among informal MSEs in Kenya. Primary data was collected from a survey of 384 MSEs in Nairobi County. Linear probability model, logit and probit models were used to estimate the determinants of mobile phone usage in e-commerce. The results of the study show that education level is the prime determinant of mobile phone usage for e-commerce. Number of employees and gender of MSEs also have a significant effect on the mobile phone usage for e-commerce. The study recommends the training of MSEs in the mobile phones applications for business and the government should create an enabling environment for MSEs to use mobile phone for e-commerce.
Key words: Mobile phone usage, e-commerce, informal sector, MSEs, and Education

Maalim H, Omuga B, Ongeso A, Okube T. "Determinants of Mode of Delivery Among Postnatal Mothers Admitted in Wajir County Referral Hospital, Kenya." EC Gynaecology. 2017;6(4):128-138. Abstract

Background: Globally, giving birth through the natural process, ‘Vaginally’ has been widely accepted as unquestioned mode of birth. On the other hand, use of caesarean Section (CS), which involves a surgical incision, has also been utilized as a mode of delivery especially among women with medical or obstetric indications. Delivery through CS is a life saving measure which plays a crucial role in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality from direct causes such as hemorrhage, infection, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and obstructed labor [1]. In Kenya, the National maternal mortality rate was 362/100,000. However, in the study area, Wajir county, it was 1683/100,000 [2]. Advances in technology and its adoption in reproductive health have resulted in an increase in the number of Caesarean delivery in the recent years. This has increased options for preferred mode of delivery for mothers and plays a significant role in reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates. However, in most African countries, mainly in rural and marginalized areas, use of caesarian section remains low even when there is clear indication. Despite this, limited studies to establish determinants of modes of delivery have been done especially in remote rural areas such as Wajir County.
Objective: The main objective of this study was to establish determinants of mode of delivery among postnatal mothers admitted in Wajir County referral Hospital.
Materials and Methods: A hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Mixed method of quantitative and qualitative data was employed among 178 postnatal mothers who were systematically sampled from Wajir county Referral hospital.
Quantitative data was collected using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and qualitative data was collected using Focus group discussion from the postnatal mothers. Descriptive analysis using means, frequency and proportions was computed. Chi-square test
(p < 0.05) with corresponding 95% confidence interval was used to determine the association between the various variables.
Results: The prevalence of Caesarian Section delivery among the respondents was 32%. Analyses with Chi-Square test of independence revealed that maternal age (p = 0.001), marital status (p = 0.016), level of education (p = 0.007), parity (p = 0.03), FGM practice
(p = 0.001) and belonging to the social health groups (p = 0.001) were the variables significantly associated with mode of delivery. A substantial number of women did not have sufficient knowledge on delivery options, benefits and risks to inform their decisions on delivery modes.
Conclusion: Vaginal Delivery is the most preferred mode of delivery even when CS is medically indicated. Caesarian section acceptance remains low due to lack of correct knowledge, poor attitude towards CS and lack of proper women counseling during ANC visits. Therefore, there is need for educational and economic empowerment of women and girls complemented with effective community sensitization and awareness campaigns on delivery-related complications, risks and alternative delivery options for emergency cases.
Keywords: Mode of Delivery; Postnatal Mothers; Wajir County Referral Hospital; Vaginal Delivery

Machio PM. "Determinants of Neonatal and Under-five Mortality in Kenya: Do Antenatal and Skilled Delivery Care Services Matter?" Journal of African Development, African Finance and Economic Association. 2018;20(1):59-67.
Migosi J, Ombuki C, Ombuki KN, Evusa Z. "Determinants of non-compliance of public procurement regulations in Kenyan secondary schools." International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies. 2013;5(7):154-159.
RN. M. "Determinants of nutritional status in children." East Afr Med J. 2008 Oct;85(10):469-70. No abstract available. 2008.
Omollo EO, Wasonga OV, Elhadi MY, Mnene WN. "Determinants of pastoral and agro-pastoral households." Pastoralism. 2018;8:9. Abstract
n/a
Sala, M.S., Otieno JD, Nzuma, M.J., Mureithi, S.M. "Determinants of Pastoralists’ Participation in Commercial Fodder Markets for Livelihood Resilience in Drylands of Northern Kenya: Case of Isiolo." Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice . 2020;10(1):DOI: 10.1186/s13570-020-00166-1.
Hughes JP, Baeten JM, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wald A, de Bruyn G, Kiarie J, Inambao M, Kilembe W, Farquhar C, Celum C. "Determinants of per-coital-act HIV-1 infectivity among African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):358-65. Abstract

Knowledge of factors that affect per-act infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is important for designing HIV-1 prevention interventions and for the mathematical modeling of the spread of HIV-1.

Hughes JP, Baeten JM, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wald A, de Bruyn G, Kiarie J, Inambao M, Kilembe W, Farquhar C, Celum C. "Determinants of per-coital-act HIV-1 infectivity among African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples." J. Infect. Dis.. 2012;205(3):358-65. Abstract

Knowledge of factors that affect per-act infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is important for designing HIV-1 prevention interventions and for the mathematical modeling of the spread of HIV-1.

Francis Opiyo, Oliver V. Wasonga MNSMJOMM, Munang R. "Determinants of perceptions of climate change and adaptation among Turkana pastoralists in northwestern Kenya." Climate and Development. 2015. Abstract
n/a
Mureithi SM, Obando J, Munang R, Opiyo F, Nyangito M, Wasonga OV, others. "Determinants of perceptions of climate change and adaptation among Turkana pastoralists in northwestern Kenya.". 2014. Abstract
n/a
Opiyo F, Wasonga OV, Nyangito MM, Mureithi SM, Obando J, Munang R. "Determinants of perceptions of climate change and adaptation among Turkana pastoralists in northwestern Kenya." Climate and Development. 2015;8(2):179-189.
Opiyo F, Oliver V. Wasonga, Nyangito MM, Stephen M. Mureithi, Obando J, Munang R. "Determinants of perceptions of climate change and adaptation among Turkana pastoralists in northwestern Kenya." Climate and Development. 2015;8(2):179-189.
Miruri R, Wanjohi J. "Determinants of performance of irrigation projects: Case of Nthawa irrigation project of Mbeere North Sub-county, Embu County, Kenya." International Academic Journal of Information Sciences and Project Management. 2017;2(1):447-463. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Water Irrigation has become one of the
vital income generating activities on land
,in that it enhances food security ,creates
employment opportunities ,improves
nutritional status of a nation and brings
about good health in a particular society.
The purpose of this study was to establish
the determinants of performance of
irrigation projects a case of Nthawa
irrigation project of Mbeere North Subcounty of Embu county Kenya. The study
sought to determine the effect of
management of the project, community
participation, resources adequacy,
technology and availability of sizable land
for irrigation on performance of irrigation
projects in Mbeere North Sub-county,Embu
county Kenya. The target population for
this study comprised the 500 registered
members in Nthawa Irrigation Project of
Mbeere North Sub- County, Embu County.
In addition, 19 key informants comprising
9 executive management committee
members from the project and 10 Ministry
of Water and Irrigation officials made up of
2 technical officers from the District
Irrigation Office and 8 Water Resource
Management Authority (WRMA) regional
officials. For this study, the sample size
was 130 respondents. On the Executive
committee members and officials, the
researcher did not sample since the target
population was small, hence the study
employed a census method that is by
capturing the entire population of
Executive Committee Members and
Ministry of Water and Irrigation Officials.
The primary data was collected using selfadministered questionnaires made up of
both open ended and closed ended
questions. The data collected was analyzed
using Statistical Package for Social
Sciences (SPSS Version 21.0). All the
questionnaires received were referenced
and items in the questionnaire were coded
to facilitate data entry. After data cleaning,
the data was presented inform of tables
showing frequencies, percentages, mean
score and standard deviation. From the
results, it was observed that management of
the projects , resource adequacy, and
technology used, community participation
and availability of sizable land for
irrigation all positively and greatly affect
the performance of public irrigation
projects in Kenya. It is thus recommended
that full participation of members in
irrigation project development should been
encouraged to enhance capacity to perceive
their own needs and members’ managed
irrigation projects should encourage a
maximum number of people to participate
at various stages of project development.

Adrogué HJ, Lederer ED, Suki WN, Eknoyan G. "Determinants of plasma potassium levels in diabetic ketoacidosis." Medicine. 1986;65:163-172. Abstract

The classic proposal of intracellular K+ for extracellular H+ exchange as responsible for the hyperkalemia of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been questioned because experimentally induced organic anion acidosis fails to produce hyperkalemia. It has been suggested, instead, that the elevated serum [K+] of DKA might be the result of the compromised renal function, secondary to volume depletion, that usually accompanies DKA. However, several metabolic derangements other than volume depletion and acidosis, which are known to alter potassium metabolism, also develop in DKA. This study of 142 admissions for DKA examines the possible role of alterations in plasma pH, bicarbonate, glucose (G), osmolality, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma anion gap (AG) on the levels of [K+]p on admission. Significant (p less than 0.01) correlations of [K+]p with each of these parameters were found that could individually account for 8 to 15 percent of the observed variance in the plasma potassium levels; however, the effects of some or all of these parameters on the [K+]p could be independent and therefore physiologically additive. Since the parameters under study are themselves interrelated, having statistically significant correlations with each other, their possible independent role on [K+]p was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. Only plasma pH, glucose and AG emerged as having a definite independent effect on [K+]p, with no independent role found for bicarbonate, BUN and osmolality. The equation that best describes [K+]p on admission for DKA was: [K+]p = 25.4 - 3.02 pH + 0.001 G + 0.028 AG, (r = 0.515). These results indicate that the endogenous ketoacidemia and hyperglycemia observed in DKA, which result primarily from insulin deficit, are the main determinants of increased [K+]p. Since exogenous ketoacidemia and hyperglycemia in the otherwise normal experimental animal do not increase [K+]p, it is postulated that insulin deficit itself may be the major initiating cause of the hyperkalemia that develops in DKA. Renal dysfunction by enhancing hyperglycemia and reducing potassium excretion also contributes to hyperkalemia.

LC Ng éno, VK Mukthar, SJ Kulei, Chege M. "Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children attending immunisation services at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2016. Abstract

East African Medical Journal 2016

Open Access Subscription or Fee Access
Determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children attending immunisation services at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya
LC Ng éno, VK Mukthar, SJ Kulei, M Chege

Abstract

Objective: To establish the determinants of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake among children brought to Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: A cross-sectional hospital-based quantitative and qualitative study
Setting: Kenyatta National hospital which is the largest teaching and referral hospital in East and Central Africa situated in Nairobi, Kenya.

Subjects: The respondents were the parents/guardians of children less than two years of age attending immunisation services at KNH and those admitted in the peadiatric wards with pneumonia.
Results: The study established that the determinants of uptake of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine are age(OR 5.8, CI 1.4-23.4, p=0.014), level of education (OR 5.8, CI 1.5-22.4, p=0.01), parity (OR 0.2, CI 0.1-0.7, p=0.017), occupation (OR 6.5, CI 1.5-27.6, p=0.011), family income (OR 8.8, CI 1.4-55.6, p=0.001), knowledge (OR 6.5, CI 1.1-15.2, p=0.011) and attitude (OR 6.3, CI 1.9-26.8, p=0.001).
Conclusion: The study concluded that factors of the caregivers/parents that are statistically significant to the uptake of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine uptake are Income, parity, education leve, age and occupation. Also a friendly attitude from health personnel was shown to motivate parents/guardians’ adherence to vaccination schedules

Kabubo FM, Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Determinants of Poverty in Urban Areas: A Case Study of Mathare Valley in Nairobi." International Journal of Afro - Asian Studies. 2008;1(2):40-56.
ATIENO DRODINGOALICE. "Determinants of Poverty: Lessons from Kenya. Paper submitted for publication in GeoJournal.". In: Paper submitted for publication in GeoJournal. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Mwangi J. "Determinants of Private Sector Investment in Kenya.". In: Conference Proceedings Silver Springs Hotel Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
n/a
Ndege TM, Migosi JA, Onsongo J. "Determinants of Research Productivity among academics in Kenya." International Journal of Economics Education and Development. 2011;2(3):288-300.
Migosi J. Determinants of Research Productivity of University Faculty: Experiences from a developing country. Germany: Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2012.
Kamonjo FW, Migosi J. "Determinants of Secondary School academic performance differences of students drawn from Private and Public Primary Schools in Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge: Africa Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2013;1(1):77-91.
Akaranga SI, Simiyu PC. "Determinants of Secondary school learners’ performance in Christian Religious Education in Lelan sub county, Kenya." Journal of Education and Practice. 2015;7(5):125-130.
Muthini D, Nyikal R, Otieno DJ. "Determinants of Small-Scale Mango Farmers’ Market Channel Choices in Kenya: An Application of the Two-Step Cragg’s Estimation Procedure." Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics (JDAE). 2017;9(5):111-120. AbstractWebsite

The study estimates small-scale mango farmers’ choice of market channels using the Cragg’s two-step procedure where the farmer decides on the channel in the first step and the proportion sold to the selected channel in the second step. Cross section data was collected from a sample of 224 mango farmers selected through multistage sampling just after the mango season. The study was carried out in Makueni County in Eastern Kenya. The county is leading in production of mangoes in Kenya, having produced over 146,000 tonnes valued at over 18 million US dollars, in 2015. The data was analyzed using Cragg’s two step regression model. The first step assessed factors that determine choice of a particular channel, while the second step assessed factors that influence the proportion of produce sold to the channel. Results show that socio-economic factors significant in the first stage are not necessarily significant in the second stage. In some cases, the direction of effect reverses. Factors such as distance to tarmac road, number of mango trees in the farm, membership in producer marketing groups, training in mango agronomy, and access to extension services affect choice of export market channel. Only membership to mango marketing groups significantly influences proportion sold. Household income, distance to tarmac, number of trees, market information, and gender significantly affect choice of the direct market channel. The direct market channel earns farmers the largest margins, followed by the export channel. However, majority of farmers sell to brokers followed by export channel. It was found that despite being aware that they could fetch higher prices through direct selling, they lacked financial capacity, transport resources, and information on market locations and requirements. Policies need to enhance financial capacity of farmers, as well as expand efforts to disseminate timely and accurate market information.

Key words: Small-scale farmers, mango market channels, Kenya. Collapse

Muatha IT, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "Determinants of smallholder farmers’ awareness of agricultural extension devolution in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR). 2017;12(10)(ISSN – 1991-637x):3549-3555.
Tesesia MI, Otieno DJ, Nyikal RA. "Determinants of smallholder farmers’ awareness of agricultural extension devolution in Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research (AJAR) . 2017;12(51):3549-3555.
Ogolla K, Awino ZB, Muchemi AW. "Determinants of Strategic Forces That Shape Competition in Handicraft Industry in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;Volume 1(12):58-67.
Ogollah K, Bolo AZ, Muchemi AW. "Determinants of Strategic Forces That Shape Competition in Handicraft Industry In Kenya ." Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;1(2):58-67.ogollah_et_al1.pdf
Opanga SA, Mwang’ombe NJ, Okalebo FA, Oluka M, Kuria K. "Determinants of the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis among neurotrauma patients at a referral hospital in Kenya: Findings and implications." Journal of Infectious Diseases and Preventive Medicine. 2017:1-7.
Kibui AW. "Determinants of the girl child participation in secondary school education in Central Division of Mandera East District Kenya." The Fountain Journal of Educational Research, University of Nairobi. 2012;Vol V, No. 1, 2011(ISSN 2079-3383):p. 130.
Mburu J;, Karanja-Lumumba T;, Mwai OA. "Determinants of transaction costs in group-based breeding approaches: the case of dairy goats in the eastern Kenyan highlands."; 2008. Abstract

Exotic dairy goats were introduced in the eastern Kenyan highlands by FARM- Africa through a group-based approach about a decad e ago. Interested farmers had to organize themselves into legally recognized farmers’ groups which would then register with dairy goat breeding stations est ablished by this international non-governmental organization. It was only after su ch a collective action process that individual farmers accessed Toggenburg bucks ( imported from Europe), local markets for kids and milk, and dairy goats’ h usbandry techniques. This process made local communities incur several catego ries of transaction costs whose huge magnitudes hindered some poor farmers fr om participating in the dairy goat breeding activities. It is also expected that transaction costs were induced by transaction attributes, e.g. asset speci ficity, bounded rationality, etc. that are to a large extent dependent on farmers’ so cio-economic conditions and farm characteristics. The relevance of these factor s in determining magnitudes of transaction costs in group-based small ruminants br eeding approaches has not been so far extensively investigated. This is parti cularly so in the developing world. Using a case study of 165 randomly selected farmers in the Kenyan highlands’ Meru District this paper analyzes determ inants of transaction costs of farmers’ participation in dairy goat breeding activ ities. The paper uses econometric analyses to generate these factors and derives important policy implications that would positively influence future targeting strategies in dairy goat breeding programmes in Kenya.

Mburu J;, Karanja-Lumumba T;, Mwai OA. "Determinants of transaction costs in group-based breeding approaches: the case of dairy goats in the eastern Kenyan highlands."; 2008. Abstract

Exotic dairy goats were introduced in the eastern Kenyan highlands by FARM- Africa through a group-based approach about a decad e ago. Interested farmers had to organize themselves into legally recognized farmers’ groups which would then register with dairy goat breeding stations est ablished by this international non-governmental organization. It was only after su ch a collective action process that individual farmers accessed Toggenburg bucks ( imported from Europe), local markets for kids and milk, and dairy goats’ h usbandry techniques. This process made local communities incur several catego ries of transaction costs whose huge magnitudes hindered some poor farmers fr om participating in the dairy goat breeding activities. It is also expected that transaction costs were induced by transaction attributes, e.g. asset speci ficity, bounded rationality, etc. that are to a large extent dependent on farmers’ so cio-economic conditions and farm characteristics. The relevance of these factor s in determining magnitudes of transaction costs in group-based small ruminants br eeding approaches has not been so far extensively investigated. This is parti cularly so in the developing world. Using a case study of 165 randomly selected farmers in the Kenyan highlands’ Meru District this paper analyzes determ inants of transaction costs of farmers’ participation in dairy goat breeding activ ities. The paper uses econometric analyses to generate these factors and derives important policy implications that would positively influence future targeting strategies in dairy goat breeding programmes in Kenya.

Agwanda AO. "Determinants of transitions to first sex, marriage and pregnancy: Evidence from South Nyanza, Kenya.". In: Under review, International Family Planning Perspectives. E Afr Med J; 2004. Abstract

African Population Studies 19 (2): 42-62

Agwanda A. Determinants of Unmet Need for Contraception in Kenya. Dakar: Union of African Population Studies; 2000.
Wanyoike AN, Oleche OM. "Determinants of Utilization of Health Care Services in Kenya." International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2017;7(10).
KAMAU MRMUBUUPETERSON. "Determinants of women's political participation in Kenya.". In: draft research report (GOK/UNDP-WLEA/FIDA/ICJ Project). Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
and Joseph G. Kabiru PMEMN. "Determinants of workers’ welfare in cut flower industry in Kenya." International Jounal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2017;4(2313-3759):1-17.
G. KJ, I. MJ, N. WR, L TC. "Determination of Deltamethrin Residue Levels in Selected Vegetables Consumed in Nairobi, Kenya using HPLC." Journal of International; Published by Environmental Application & Science . 2010;5(1)(11-ICCA Special Issue):801-805. Abstract

Abstract Vegetables provide vital minerals and other nutrients to our bodies.
However, pests destroy vegetables. This as lead to rampant use of pesticides on
vegetables in Kenya. The pesticides that are commonly used on vegetables in
Kenya are the pyrethroids which include; deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and
chismethrin. In this study deltamethrin was analysed in selected vegetables which
include; kales, cabbages and tomatoes during the dry and wet seasons. The
vegetables were bought from some markets in Nairobi city in Kenya.
Deltamethrin residues were extracted from the samples using organic solvents.
The residues were then determined by high performance liquid chromatography
1
(HPLC). The results shows that the deltamethrin mean residue levels ranged
between 0.0700±0.0200 and 0.2000±0.1000 mg/kg during the dry season and
between 0.0080±0.0500 and 0.0400±0.0001 mg/kg during the wet season. The
deltamethrin residue levels were significantly higher during the wet season than
during the wet season in most of the samples.
Keywords: Vegetables, pyrethroids, deltamethrin, residues and HPLC

P.E. O, W.M. A, D.W. N, K.O. O, H.O. R, J.R. W,.RC. L, Njagi S.M., Mumenya S.W. K’A. "Determination of Background Ionizing Radiations in Selected Buildings in Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Radiaion Therapy . 2016;7(3).
Ong’ayo E.O., S.K. M, S.O A. "Determination of basic mean hourly wind speeds for structural design in Nairobi County." International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Emerging Technologies . 2014;Vol 7 (Issue 2 ).
O. OW, G. N, S.A. A, O. ON. "Determination of carnivore prey base in Samburu community group ranches byscat analysis.". In: 6th Biennial Scientific Conference. University of Nairobi; 2008.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Determination of carnivores prey base by scat analysis in Samburu community group ranches in Kenya.". In: Journal. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology; Submitted. Abstract

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William O. Ogara1, Nduhiu J. Gitahi1, Samuel A. Andanje2 , Nicholas Oguge3, Dorcas W. Nduati1 and Alfred O. Mainga1

1Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya

2Kenya Wildlife services, Nairobi, Kenya

3Earthwatch Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

This study determined the prey base for four main carnivores found in Samburu Community group ranches and grazing area, Lion (Panthera leo), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and Hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, and Hyaena hyaena). A total of 96 scat samples including, 8 from Lion, 16 Leopards', 2 Wild dogs', and 70 Hyaenas' were collected, identified and microscopically analyzed for prey hair characterisation. At least 50 different hairs from every scat sample were mounted on slides and microscopically characterized using details from reference hairs. Hairs from 18 depredated species both domestic and wild ungulates were recovered from the scat samples. Predated species were identified, as either domestic (Cow, Sheep, Goat, Donkey, and Camel) or wild ungulate prey (Grant's gazelle, plain zebra, Grevy's Zebra, Impala, Waterbuck, Dikdik, Eland, lesser Kudu, greater Kudu, Baboon, rock Hyraxes, Elephant and Oryx). The carnivores showed a relatively high kill of wild ungulate prey compared to domestic prey. Camel was the most preferred cow and donkey respectively. Grevy's zebra contributed highest to the lion's diet while the Plain zebra was most preferred by the leopard. Both the hyaena and Wild dog had a preference for the waterbuck. The Hyaena had the highest domestic depredation, while all the other big cats depredated more on wild ungulates.

Key words: Scat, group ranch, domestic, wild ungulate, prey, depredation.

O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Determination of carnivores prey base by scat analysis in Samburu community group ranches in Kenya.". In: Journal. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology; Submitted. Abstract

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William O. Ogara1, Nduhiu J. Gitahi1, Samuel A. Andanje2 , Nicholas Oguge3, Dorcas W. Nduati1 and Alfred O. Mainga1

1Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya

2Kenya Wildlife services, Nairobi, Kenya

3Earthwatch Institute, Nairobi, Kenya

This study determined the prey base for four main carnivores found in Samburu Community group ranches and grazing area, Lion (Panthera leo), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Wild dog (Lycaon pictus) and Hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, and Hyaena hyaena). A total of 96 scat samples including, 8 from Lion, 16 Leopards', 2 Wild dogs', and 70 Hyaenas' were collected, identified and microscopically analyzed for prey hair characterisation. At least 50 different hairs from every scat sample were mounted on slides and microscopically characterized using details from reference hairs. Hairs from 18 depredated species both domestic and wild ungulates were recovered from the scat samples. Predated species were identified, as either domestic (Cow, Sheep, Goat, Donkey, and Camel) or wild ungulate prey (Grant's gazelle, plain zebra, Grevy's Zebra, Impala, Waterbuck, Dikdik, Eland, lesser Kudu, greater Kudu, Baboon, rock Hyraxes, Elephant and Oryx). The carnivores showed a relatively high kill of wild ungulate prey compared to domestic prey. Camel was the most preferred cow and donkey respectively. Grevy's zebra contributed highest to the lion's diet while the Plain zebra was most preferred by the leopard. Both the hyaena and Wild dog had a preference for the waterbuck. The Hyaena had the highest domestic depredation, while all the other big cats depredated more on wild ungulates.

Key words: Scat, group ranch, domestic, wild ungulate, prey, depredation.

Ogara WO, Gitahi NJ, Andanje SA, Oguge N, Nduati DW, Mainga AO. "Determination of carnivores prey base by scat analysis in Samburu community group ranches in Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2010;4(8):540-546.determination_of_carnivore_prey_base_by_scat_analysis_in_samburu_community_group_ranches_in_kenya.pdf
N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Determination of fluoride in different toothpaste formulations", Kenya J.". In: Sciences series A., 11 (1), 133. Survey Review; 1998. Abstract
Ground Flowers of Matricaria Recutita (German Chamomile) Banat Variety grown in Kenya, were subjected to Clevenger distillation under varying temperature, distillation, pressure conditions and the yields assessed. An inert solvent being present in the collecting column of the Clevenger apparatus increases the yield of the oil by reducing dispersion of the blue oil; its presence however, in the distillation flask inhibits the production of the essential oil. Distillation under reduced pressure leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced. A break in distillation time especially during the first three hours of distillation also leads to a decrease in the yield of the oil produced.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Determination of Fluoride in Water and Tea Using Ion Selective Electrode and Calorimetric Methods'.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. UoN; 1982. Abstract
n/a
Omar AA, Omuto C, Ondieki S. "Determination of Irrigation Supply Efficiency in Challenging Environment Case Study of Bal’ad District, Middle Shabelle Region in Somalia." Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering . 2019;Volume 8(01).
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Determination of labile fluoride in soils: An Intercomparison of Different Extracting Medias'.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, 3, 18 - 22. UoN; 1994. Abstract

Labile fluoride in soil samples was extracted using sodium citrate - EDTA, sodium citrate - TISAB II, ammonium lactate, IMhydrochloric acid and water. Hydrochloric acid was found to give the highest fluoride level while water gave the lowest fluoride level.Shaking time andamount of sample showed that 1 1/2 hours shaking and lgm sample gave the best results with ammonium lactateextracting media Recovery of fluoride using ammonium lactate was found to be 90-100% efficient while medium clay samples gaveless than 90% fluoride.

H K, Njoroge K, Mugo S, Ariga ES, Kanampiu F, Nderitu JH. "Determination of levels of Striga germination stimulants for maize gene bank accessions and elite inbred lines." International Journal of Plant Production. 2012;6(2):209-224.
H K, Njoroge K, Mugo S, Ariga ES, Kanampiu F, Nderitu JH. "Determination of levels of Striga germination stimulants for maize gene bank accessions and elite inbred lines." . International Journal of Plant Production. 2012;6 (2):209-224.
Karaya H, Njoroge K, Mugo S, Ariga ES, Kanampiu F, Nderitu JH. "Determination of levels of Striga germination Stimulants for maize gene bank accessions and elite inbred lines." International Journal of Plant Production . 2012;6(2):209-223.abstract_levels_of_striga_germination_maize_gene_bank_karaya_ariga_et_al_2012.pdf
Muiruri J, Ambuko J, Nyankanga R, Owino WO, others. "Determination of maturity indices of three mango varieties produced in Embu County of Kenya.". In: The 1st All Africa Post Harvest Congress & Exhibition, Reducing food losses and waste: sustainable solutions for Africa, 28th-31st March 2017, Nairobi, Kenya. Conference Proceedings. University of Nairobi; 2017:. Abstract
n/a
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Determination of Mechanical Properties of Fresh Avocado Fruits. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 6- 8 August, Milimani Hotel, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1997. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
I.O JUMBA, S.O W. "The determination of mercury in body beauty soaps and creams sold in Kenya and Norway.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Technol (a) 3, 89-91. Association of Africa Universities; 1982. Abstract

flame-less atomic absorption spcctropholometry technique lias been used to determine mercury concentrations in 14 skin-lightening creams and soaps commonly sold in the Kenyan market and 10 in the Norwegian market. The use of borohydride or stannous chloride as the reducing agents for mercuric salts gave different results. When slannous chloride was used as the reducing agent the range of mercury content was 222 to 4920 jjg/kg. When borohydride was used as the reducing agent the range of mercury content was 0.95 to 1121.86 |jg/kg. The difference in results has been attributed to the difference in digestion modes and the ability of the boric acid to encapsulate the mercuric salts. In general the Kenya products had slightly higher mercury content.

Isaac J, O. WS. "The determination of mercury in body beauty soaps and creams sold in Kenya and Norway.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Technol (a) 3, 89-91. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1982. Abstract

flame-less atomic absorption spcctropholometry technique lias been used to determine mercury concentrations in 14 skin-lightening creams and soaps commonly sold in the Kenyan market and 10 in the Norwegian market. The use of borohydride or stannous chloride as the reducing agents for mercuric salts gave different results. When slannous chloride was used as the reducing agent the range of mercury content was 222 to 4920 jjg/kg. When borohydride was used as the reducing agent the range of mercury content was 0.95 to 1121.86 |jg/kg. The difference in results has been attributed to the difference in digestion modes and the ability of the boric acid to encapsulate the mercuric salts. In general the Kenya products had slightly higher mercury content.

Mbugua P, Salim A, Onditi A, Yusuf A. "Determination of Micronutrients and micronutrients in Soil Samples from Around Lake Ol-Bolossat." Int. J. Biol. Sci.. 2010;2(8):140-148.scan0016.pdf
Musyoka SM, Karanja FN. Determination of minimum and maximum land holding. Case Study: Kajiado County, Transnzoia County and Kisii County. Nairobi: Instituition of Surveyors of Kenya; 2012.
Thabano JRE, bong’o DA, Sawula GM. "Determination of nitrate by suppressed ion chromatography after copperised-cadmium column reduction." Journal of Chromatography A. 2004;1045(1):153-159. AbstractFull text link

The nitrate-selective copperised-cadmium (Cu-Cd) reduction reaction coupled directly to the highly sensitive nitrite ion chromatographic detection, produced a more precise method for determination of nitrate than any one of the two conventional methods. A borate buffer solution used in the reduction reaction, in place of the conventional ammonium–EDTA buffer solution, eliminated interferences from co-eluting ions in the subsequent ion chromatographic detection of nitrite. Optimised experimental conditions included using a packed-bed Cu-Cd reductor column length of 12.5 cm, a solution flow rate of 3.0 ml/min, and using 10.0 ml of borate buffer solution for each 20.0 ml of nitrate-containing solution. Precision was high for results obtained within a greatly extended linear dynamic range of 0.006–1.20 mg/l NO3−, with a much lower limit of detection of 0.40 μg/l NO3−. Cu-Cd reductor column efficiency was 98.20 ± 6.03%. Validation of the method was undertaken using certified reference materials. The method was successfully applied to analysis of dam water, river water and storm water samples, producing more precise results than either the conventional colorimetric method or the conventional ion chromatographic method.

Thabano JRE, D.Abongo, Sawula GM. "determination of nitrates using suppressed ion chromatography after copperised cadmium column reduction ." Journal of chromatography A. 2004;1045:153-159.thabano_publication.pdf
Onyango Nelson O. MJ. "Determination of optimal vaccination strategies using an orbital stability threshold from periodically driven systems." Journal of Mathematical Biology. 2014;68(3):763-784.
KAAYA G.P., KANDILA-MUANDINGI, P.N., LOTFY EL-SAYED, H.R, MSHIGENI K. "Determination of optimum ratios of seaweed in mushroom cultivation substrates and ability of mushrooms to absorb iodine.". In: Proc. AGRISSON Congress. Oshakati Country Hotel; 2009.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in soil and water from River Nyando drainage system within Lake Victoria basin, Kenya.". In: Contam. Toxicol. 72: 335-343. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2004. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Gitonga L, Memeu DM, Kaduki KA, Mjomba ACK, Muriuki, N.S. "Determination of Plasmodium Parasite Life Stages and Species in Images of Thin Blood Smears Using Artificial Neural Networks." Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics. 2014;4:78-88. Abstract
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Murimi E, Kihiu J, Nyakoe G, Mutuli S, Kimotho J. "Determination of resonant frequency of a piezoelectric ring for generation of ultrasonic waves.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Ultrasound technology has become an important aspect in material handling and machining. Standing and traveling ultrasonic waves have been applied in powder transportation, feeding, dosing and supply of small amounts of powder with high quantitative accuracy and precision. Piezoelectric actuators are the most commonly used to generate the ultrasonic waves in various devices. Hence, these devices have presented a unique, economic and simple means of accurate handling of powder. This paper describes the determination of the resonant frequency of a piezoelectric ring that can be applied for generation of the ultrasonic waves. The resonant frequency is important in determining the highest amplitude of the vibration of the ring.

Chege WH;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, Mbuthia PG. "Determination of seasonal parasite carriage of village chicken in Mbeere, antiparasitic treatments used and effectiveness of selected anthelmintics."; 2012. Abstract

The overall objective of the study is to determine parasite carriage of village chicken of Mbeere district, Eastern province of Kenya. The study was conducted for over two seasons, the dry (January to March) and wet (October to December) season. Subsequently efficacy testing of selected antiparasitic drugs will be conducted. Twenty four birds of three age groups (chicks, growers and adults) were randomly selected from homesteads. The study showed that all chicken (100%) harboured ecto and endoparasites and 79.1% were infected with haemoparasites. With respect to ectoparasites, all the birds (100%) were infested, with lice, while 75% were infected with mites, 66.7% with ticks and 54.1% with fleas. The most prevalent nematodes were the caecal worms (91.7%), Tetramere species (54.1%), Gonglylonema (29.1%) and Coccidial oocyst (20.8%). Cestodes were also present in 91.7% of the samples. Haemoparasites had a prevalence of 83.3%. This study has shown that endo and ectoparasites are a common health problem in the village chicken in Mbeere District, Kenya. The studies for wet season and for drug sensitivity testing are still on-going.

Chege WH;, Bebora LC;, Maingi N;, Mbuthia PG. "Determination of seasonal parasite carriage of village chicken in Mbeere, antiparasitic treatments used and effectiveness of selected anthelmintics."; 2012. Abstract

The overall objective of the study is to determine parasite carriage of village chicken of Mbeere district, Eastern province of Kenya. The study was conducted for over two seasons, the dry (January to March) and wet (October to December) season. Subsequently efficacy testing of selected antiparasitic drugs will be conducted. Twenty four birds of three age groups (chicks, growers and adults) were randomly selected from homesteads. The study showed that all chicken (100%) harboured ecto and endoparasites and 79.1% were infected with haemoparasites. With respect to ectoparasites, all the birds (100%) were infested, with lice, while 75% were infected with mites, 66.7% with ticks and 54.1% with fleas. The most prevalent nematodes were the caecal worms (91.7%), Tetramere species (54.1%), Gonglylonema (29.1%) and Coccidial oocyst (20.8%). Cestodes were also present in 91.7% of the samples. Haemoparasites had a prevalence of 83.3%. This study has shown that endo and ectoparasites are a common health problem in the village chicken in Mbeere District, Kenya. The studies for wet season and for drug sensitivity testing are still on-going.

Dulo SO. "Determination of some Physico-chemical parameters of the Nairobi River, Kenya.". 2003. AbstractWebsite

This paper discusses the results of a study carried out in 2003 on the water quality of Nairobi River on the basis of pollution parameters and water quality index. The study aimed at establishing whether the water meets the surface water quality criteria for water supply. The area of study in Nairobi River was within its entry and exit of Nairobi province. It was observed that human activities along the river with visible encroachment to the banks, contribute to the heavy level of pollution of the river. This is the section that industrial discharges and municipal sewerage are discharged into the river. The study was carried out through field surveys and laboratory tests on samples taken from the river. The results obtained from laboratory tests were analysed and compared to the established surface water quality criteria by A.S.C.E, W.H.O, Natural watercourses Standards of Kenya and classification of rivers by Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal. Human activities along the river course have severely impacted on the River water quality. The study area had average pH of 7.04; the average turbidity was 41.5N.T.U, the average suspended solids in the section was 116.43 mg/l, the average dissolved oxygen was 4.32mg/l. the average BOD was 182.5mg/l. The average COD for the reach studied was 49.5mg/l. The river was therefore classified as bad according to Klein 1966. The study concluded that the Nairobi River within Nairobi province was badly polluted as indicated by the water quality index analysis. The WQI gives a value of 49.27, fall between the numerical ranges of the classification of bad (26-50).

Mulwa JK, Kimata F. "Determination of source parameters for the May 20, 1990 Southern Sudan earthquake by inversion of teleseismic body-waves.". In: Operating Management of Earthquake, Tsunami and Volcano Eruption Observation Systems. Nagoya: Research Center for Seismology, Volcanology and Disaster Mitigation, Nagoya University; 2011. Abstract

The May 20, 1990 earthquake which occurred in southern Sudan is so far the strongest earthquake to occur in the eastern part of African continent within the past 21 years. It caused damage in southern Sudan as well as severe shaking in parts of Uganda and Kenya, and was accompanied by aftershocks on May 24, 1990 of moment magnitudes Mw = 6.5 and 7.1.

Inversion of teleseismic body-waves has been undertaken for the purpose of this study in an attempt to reassess the seismo-tectonics of northern and central Kenya as well as southern Sudan. The results show that the best solution for the inversion of teleseismic body waves for the May 20, 1990 earthquake consists of only one event with a source mechanism of 315o/84o/-3o (strike/dip/rake) and the fault plane is characterized by left-lateral strike-slip fault mechanism. The focal depth for this earthquake is 12.1 km, seismic moment Mo = 7.65 x 1019 Nm and moment magnitude, Mw = 7.19 (7.2). The fault rupture started 15 seconds earlier and lasted for a duration of 17 seconds along a fault plane having dimensions of length  60 km and width  40 km. The average dislocation along the fault is 1.1 m and the stress drop,  is 1.63 Mpa.

The distribution of historical earthquakes from southern Sudan through central Kenya shows a NW-SE alignment of epicenters. On a local scale in Kenya, the NW-SE alignment of epicenters is characterized by earthquakes of local magnitude Ml  4.0. This NW-SE alignment of epicenters confirms the existence of an active fault zone, the Aswa-Nyangia fault zone, from southern Sudan through central Kenya and further into the Indian Ocean. However, owing to lack of waveform data for these historical earthquakes, it is not possible to determine the source mechanism of the fault. Further work on inversion of short period waveform data is required so as to precisely determine the fault mechanism of this NW-SE trending fault zone in the central and southeastern parts of Kenya.

Yangyuoru PM, Otieno AC, Mwongela SM. "Determination of Sphingosine Kinase 2 Activity using Fluorescent Sphingosine by Capillary Electrophoresis." Electrophoresis. 2011;32(13):1742-9.
O. DRABUODHASILVESTER. "Determination of stress characteristics at Connections of Welded Members using Finite Element Method. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practise, Volume 1, No. 1, April 2004.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 Aug;73(8):538-40. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2004. Abstract
Between June and December 1992 forty AIDS patients as defined by the CDC criteria, admitted to the medical wards of the Kenyatta National Hospital, were studied to determine the prevalence and pattern of peripheral neuropathy. Their mean age was 33 +/- 3 years with a range of 16 to 55 years. Clinical and laboratory assessment were carried out both to confirm peripheral neuropathy and exclude other causes of peripheral neuropathy apart from AIDS. All the patients had nerve conduction and electromyographic studies done. Eighteen patients were asymptomatic while fourteen had both signs and symptoms. The commonest symptom was painful paresthesiae of the limbs (35%) while the commonest sign was loss of vibration sense (60%). When symptoms, signs, and electrophysiological studies were combined, all the patients fitted the definition of peripheral neuropathy. The commonest type of peripheral neuropathy was distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) (37.5%). PIP: In Kenya, physicians evaluated 40 AIDS patients admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital during June-December 1992 to determine the prevalence and types of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients. 75% were 21-40 years old. 18 (45%) of the 40 AIDS patients had symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms included increased sensitivity to stimulation (43%), hyperpathia (15%), and muscle or limb weakness (13%). 26 AIDS patients had signs of peripheral neuropathy, especially impaired sense of vibration (60%). 14 of these patients had both signs and symptoms. Electromyographic and nerve conduction velocity revealed peripheral neuropathy in 16 (40%) AIDS patients. The types of peripheral neuropathy included distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (37.5%), polyneuropathy, and mononeuritis multiplex. When the symptoms, signs, and electroneurophysiological test findings were considered, all 40 AIDS patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy.
GATEBE CK, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, Kwach R, Njau LN, Mukolwe EA, Maina DM. "Determination of suspended particulates matter of major significance to human health using nuclear techniques in Kenya.". 1996.Website
GATEBE CK, Kinyua AM, MANGALA MJ, Kwach R,... "Determination of suspended particulates matter of major significance to human health using nuclear techniques in kenya." … of Radioanalytical and …. 1996. AbstractWebsite

Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis of aerosol samples in Nairobi is presented. Results show that elemental concentrations are of the order of 10− 4 to 10− 6 μg/m 3 for most elements analyzed. The total suspended particulate (TSP) matter was …

Ndeda JOH, Rabiu AB, Ngoo LHM, Ouma GO. "Determination of the Coefficient of Correlation Between Radiation and Relative Humidity, and Determining Equation of the Line of Best Fit Using Statistical Methods." 2nd UN/NASA Workshop on International Heliophysical Year and Basic Space Science. 2006:81. AbstractSAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System

This paper investigates the inter-relationship between solar radiation intensity RD and relative humidity RH in Kenya using daily data obtained at five meteorological stations; Nairobi (1.3°S, 36.75°E), Kericho (0.37˚S, 35.72˚E), Kisumu (0.10˚S, 34.75˚E), Mombasa (4.03˚S, 39.65˚E) and Garissa (0.48˚S, 39.63˚E) during the solar minimum year 1986. Statistical methods were employed and the coefficients of correlation, r obtained range from 0.16094 to -0.6758618 between the two variables for the five stations. The linear equation relating the solar radiation intensity RD to relative humidity RH is obtained using linear regression analysis as RH = 109.1091-1.5997RD for the Nairobi station. Jandel scientific and Megastat software analyses gave fairly similar trends of results for Nairobi and other stations, and for all the seasons except for those of Garissa station. Obviously there exists a negative interdependence between solar radiation intensity and relative humidity such that the relative humidity decreases as solar radiation increases and vice versa. This observation is explicable in terms of the dynamics of atmospheric heating and advection traceable to solar activity.

Omuga DB. "Determination Of The Daily Nursing Procedures Performed To Children Admitted With Medical Conditions At Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Kenya Nursing Journal. 2011;39(2):16-23. Abstract

Abstract
The daily nursing procedures are those aspects of nursing that occur most frequently, affect a large number of patients andplace patients at ·riskby not providing care correctly or providing care that is not indicated. There has been an increasing outcry of falling standards of health care in hospitals. Many a times health care providers including the nurse do not follow recommended procedures or do not carry out required tasks at all. Checks on procedures performed to hospitalized children and their parents has been documented as one way of evaluating the quality of care. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried at KNHwith the aim of determining the daily nursing procedures and the adherence to oral drug administration' procedure. The children whose parents/ guardians participated in the study were selected through systematic random
sampling using the admission registers while the nurses were purposely selected. A total of 256 parents/guardians staying with the selected children, 78 nurses and 4 nurse in- charges were recruited into the study. Data was analysed by use of the "Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS)".Drug administration was established as one of the procedures that almost all nurses carried out on a daily basis. However, the procedure for administration of oral medications was not adhered to by all the nurses observed. Other daily procedure.s.mentioned invariably included nutritional care (50%),hygiene (50%),taking of
vital observations (46.4%),comfort caring (44%);health education (36%)and infection control (2.5%).It was concluded that there is minimal performance of the expected daily nursing procedures and non-adherence to the laid down procedures for the administration of oral medications thus indicating that the quality of care is sub-optimal. The study recommended that standards of paediatric nursing be developed and emphasis be laid on the performance of the daily procedures and adherence to the laid procedures for oral drug administration to minimize drug errors.

GITHII MW. "DETERMINATION OF THE UNIT COST FOR BACHELOR OF COMMERCE DEGREE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. Ghana: MBA; 2004. Abstract

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W PROFNJENGALYDIAH, W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Determination of total fluoride in vegetables and plants by open-flame ashing and microdiffusion: comparison with furnace ashing and oxygen-flask combustion'.". In: Analytical Chemical Acta 212 (1988) 133-143. UoN; 1988. Abstract

The sample is ashed in a nickel crucible over an open flame with calcium hydroxide as thefixative; fluoride is separated by micro-diffusion and measured with a fluoride-selective electrode.The calcium hydroxide fixative permits a temperature of 800—850°C during the final ashing, sothat insoluble silicates are decomposed and fluoride is converted to an acid-soluble form. Otheradvantages over furnace ashing at 600°C are less contamination and more rapid ashing (20 mincompared to 6 h). The interference of aluminium and silica on microdiffusion was studied: per-chloric acid was found to be preferable to sulphuric acid as medium. A new way for preparingcalcium hydroxide suspension, low in fluoride, is described. The values found by the proposedmethod generally compare well with those obtained by oxygen flask combustion. Direct diffusion(i.e. without ashing) gave much lower values than the ashing methods, except for tea leaves.

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Determination of Trace Elements in Medicinal Plants and Herbal Medicines. J. Phytochemistry, Submitted.". In: Electroanal. Chem., 17, 1984, 265. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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MANGALA MJ, Korier KA, Maina DM, Kinyua AM. Determination of Trace Elements in Mineral Water Samples using Total Reflection X ray Fluorescence (TXRF).; 2003. Abstract

Preliminary results of trace element analysis by TXRF of drinking tap water, various brands of local and imported bottled water samples sold in Nairobi as mineral are presented. The levels of potassium(K) ranged from 0.2 to 28.9 μg/ml, calcium(Ca) 2.2 to 120 μg/ml, titanium(Ti) 11 to 60 μg/l, manganese(Mn)8 to 670 μg/l, iron(Fe)31 to 50 μg/l, copper(Cu) 8 to 30 μg/l, bromine(Br) 9 to 248 μg/l, rubidium(Rb )10 to 40 μg/l, and strontium(Sr)10 to 1000 μg/l. It was found that the local mineral water samples contained higher levels of trace elements especially Mn, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr compared to the imported brands. Principal component analysis of the results revealed three factors with the highest component loadings clustering Rb, Sr, Ca in the first eigenvalue; Ti, Fe, Br, Zn, in the second; Zn, Mn, K in the third. A limited spread of 5–6 mm for a 10μl samples was achievable by completely drying the quartz Suprasil sample carrier in a low pressure (300mbar) oven at temperature of 70oC for 10 hours.

MANGALA MJ, Korier KA, Maina DM, Kinyua AM. Determination of trace elements in mineral water samples using total reflection X ray fluorescence (TXRF). inis.iaea.org; 2003. AbstractWebsite

[en] Full text: Preliminary results of trace element analysis by TXRF of drinking tap water, various brands of local and imported bottled water samples sold in Nairobi as mineral are presented. The levels of potassium (K) ranged from 0.2 to 28.9 μg/ml, calcium (Ca) 2.2 to …

Midzi V, Ayele, A., ESARSWG. "Determination of velocity models for the East and Southern Africa Region." Africa Geoscience Review. 2010;Vol.17(1):21-34.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Determination of_-BHC (Lindane) in Breast Milk of Kenyan women.". In: Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiopia. 2(1), 39-44. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1988. Abstract
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Okova, Dulo, Patts. "Determining Break Down of Hydrocarbons in Effluent Discharges from Petroleum Service Stations." Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering . 2016;Vol. 1(No. 5):112-117 .
Okoth S. "Determining resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in African maize inbred lines resistant to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins." Euphytica. 2017;213(4):93. Abstract10.10072fs10681-017-1883-7.pdfWebsite

Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus
flavus cause Fusarium ear rot (FER) and Aspergillus
ear rot (AER) of maize, respectively. Both pathogens
are of concern to producers as they reduce grain yield
and affect quality. F. verticillioides and A. flavus also
contaminate maize grain with the mycotoxins fumonisins
and aflatoxins, respectively, which has been
associated with mycotoxicosis in humans and animals.
The occurrence of common resistance mechanisms to
FER and AER has been reported. Hence, ten Kenyan
inbred lines resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation
were evaluated for resistance to FER, F.
verticillioides colonisation and fumonisin accumulation;
and compared to nine South African lines
resistant to FER and fumonisin accumulation. Field
trials were conducted at three localities in South Africa
and two localities in Kenya. FER severity was
determined by visual assessment, while F. verticillioides
colonisation and fumonisin content were
quantified by real-time PCR and liquid chromatography
tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Significant
genotype x environment interactions was
determined at each location (P B 0.05). Kenyan
inbred CML495 was most resistant to FER and F.
verticillioides colonisation, and accumulated the lowest
concentration of fumonisins across localities. It
was, however, not significantly more resistant than
Kenyan lines CML264 and CKL05015, and the South
African line RO549 W, which also exhibited low FER
severity (B5%), fungal target DNA (B0.025 ng lL-1
)
and fumonisin levels (B2.5 mg kg-1
). Inbred lines
resistant to AER and aflatoxin accumulation appear to
be promising sources of resistance to F. verticillioides
and fumonisin contamination.
Keywords Fusarium ear rot Aspergillus ear rot
Resistance Mycotoxins Maize inbred lines
In

Rose LJ, Okoth S, Beukes I, Ouko A, Mouton M, Bradley CF, Makumbi D, Viljoen A. "Determining resistance to Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisin accumulation in African maize inbred lines resistant to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins." Euphytica . 2017:213-93.
Zander K;, Mburu J. "Determining Right Priorities for Conserving Farm Animal Genetic Resources — The Case of Borana Cattle in East Africa."; 1985. Abstract

Borana cattle have their origin in Southern Ethiopia and Kenya where they are guarded by the Borana-Oromyfa clans in the harsh environment of the Borana plateau. Borana cattle are also the main source of the livestock-keepers’ income and the local people’s cultural identity is formed on the husbandry of these animals. Nowadays the existence of this breed and hence its cultural heritage is threatened due to intensifying crossbreeding among different breeds and eventually dwindling records of pure Borana animals. Conservation of the pure Borana genetic resources is important for future use and enhancement of biodiversity, but financial aid for conservation initiatives is scarce. This study addresses two crucial topics in conservation theory: the question of “which” Borana animals should be conserved and hence deserve priority in funding, and the question of “who” should conserve them. 370 livestock-keepers on the Borana plateau were selected for conducting semi-structured questionnaires and choice experiments. The models were then analysed using NLOGIT 3.0. The first question is driven by the fact that currently three different subtypes of the Borana breed are known and kept on the Borana plateau. Appropriate allocation of funds among them must take place according to their economic and genetic values. Economic values are determined by applying a discrete choice analysis estimating the livestock-keepers’ willingness to pay and relative preferences for different attributes of the Borana cattle. Genetic values depend on two factors, namely the level of extinction probability and the level of marginal genetic diversity. Both factors are incorporated into the model and together with economic values form the total value of Borana cattle and its subtypes. The question of “who” should participate in conservation initiatives requires the consideration of individual livestock-keepers’ characteristics into the model revealing heterogeneity in livestock-keepers’ preferences and willingness to pay for different cattle attributes. A random parameter logit model is used seeking to establish different groups of livestock-keepers that can be targeted for conserving Borana. Results suggest that Borana cattle are particularly important because of their adaptability and performance attributes and that their values vary significantly among livestock keepers with different production systems and in different areas.

Lelei JK. "Determining Safety Stock with an Electronic Spreadsheet: A Simulation Approach.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Management Vol.2, Nairobi. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1996. Abstract

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Obiero JPO, Hassan. MA. Determining the effect of land use change on streamflow using soil water assessment tool (SWAT) Model. Pula/Sardinia/Italy: CRS4 Research Centre, Italy; 2015.
Ogweno, J.O., Kalai, J.M., Okoth, S.A. "Determining the influence of Principals’ use of participatory decision making on the status of students’ discipline in secondary schools I Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Sciences and Economic Research. 2016:841-861.12.pdf
Ogweno J, Kalai J, Okoth UA. "Determining the Influence of the Principals’ Use of Participatory Decision Making on the Status of Students’ Discipline in Secondary Schools in Kiambu County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research (IJSSER). 2016;1(7):841-861.
O. PROFWEKEPATRICKGUGE. "Deterministic Claims Reserving in Short-Term Insurance Contracts.". In: E.A.J. of Statistics, Vol. 1, No. 2: 198 . East African Journal of Statistics; 2006.
Lelei JK. "Determinng safety stock with an electronics spreadsheet: A simulation approach. .". In: The Nairobi Journal Management Vol. 4 No October. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1996. Abstract

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K DRKARUUSIMONP. "Detrimental effects of Chloride, Fluoride, Sulphate and Phosphate ions in contact with concrete made with ordinary Portland cement". International Journal of Biochemiphysics.". In: Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2004. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
CHANDRA DRSAMANTAPURNA. "Devaluation - a few safeguids, Published in the Journal of Economics and Business, University of Zambia Business and Economic Association,.". In: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Vol. 103, No. 3., pp. 211-220. Journal of Natural Products; 1981. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
Andago A, Imungi J, Mwangi A, Lamuka P, Ruth Nduati. "Developemnt of a bovine blood enriched porridge flour for alleviation of anaemia among young children in Kenya." Food Science and Quality Management. 2015;39:73-83.
RUKWARO DRROBERT. "Developer profits undermine residents.". In: Implications for local government in Kenya. VLIR; 2003.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Developing a cost-effective strategy for PHC implementation at the district level (with J. Maneno and C. Thube) paper presented at the WHO meeting on Strengthening of District Health Systems Harare, July-August 1987.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1987. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

Bett B;, Kitala J;, Gathuma J. "Developing a Frame Work for Evaluating Vaccination Strategies Against Foot and Mouth Disease Required for the Establishment of ‘Disease Free Zones’ in Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

Foot and mouth disease is the most economically devastating disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals. In most parts of Kenya, the disease has become endemic because the available control measures (prophylactic or reactive vaccination) are not being applied at an intensity that would curtail the maintenance of the disease. The effectiveness of the control interventions is complicated by factors that reduce vaccination coverage and efficacy; these factors include spatial and host heterogeneities, low rates of uptake of the vaccines and the multiple serotypes of the virus. The conditions necessary for the establishment of disease free zones, given these limitations, are explored using a mathematical model that combines the mass-action transmission principles with spatial correlation structure describing the contact patterns between clusters of cattle and potential reservoirs. Cattle clusters are nested within those of potential reservoirs. The relative contact probabilities between clusters vary depending on the distances between them. The outputs indicate that with a trivalent vaccine, very high vaccination coverage would have to be realized on a regular basis if disease free zones were to be established. This may require a review of the existing cost sharing policy as it is the main cause of the low uptake of prophylactic vaccination.

Bett B;, Kitala J;, Gathuma J. "Developing a Frame Work for Evaluating Vaccination Strategies Against Foot and Mouth Disease Required for the Establishment of ‘Disease Free Zones’ in Kenya."; 2006. Abstract

Foot and mouth disease is the most economically devastating disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals. In most parts of Kenya, the disease has become endemic because the available control measures (prophylactic or reactive vaccination) are not being applied at an intensity that would curtail the maintenance of the disease. The effectiveness of the control interventions is complicated by factors that reduce vaccination coverage and efficacy; these factors include spatial and host heterogeneities, low rates of uptake of the vaccines and the multiple serotypes of the virus. The conditions necessary for the establishment of disease free zones, given these limitations, are explored using a mathematical model that combines the mass-action transmission principles with spatial correlation structure describing the contact patterns between clusters of cattle and potential reservoirs. Cattle clusters are nested within those of potential reservoirs. The relative contact probabilities between clusters vary depending on the distances between them. The outputs indicate that with a trivalent vaccine, very high vaccination coverage would have to be realized on a regular basis if disease free zones were to be established. This may require a review of the existing cost sharing policy as it is the main cause of the low uptake of prophylactic vaccination.

M DRKITALAPHILIP. "Developing a Framework for Evaluating Vaccination Strategies Against Foot and Mouth Disease Required for the Establishment of .". In: conference. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2006. Abstract
Foot and mouth disease is the most economically devastating disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals. In most parts of Kenya, the disease has become endemic because the available control measures (prophylactic or reactive vaccination) are not being applied at an intensity that would curtail the maintenance of the disease. The effectiveness of the control interventions is complicated by factors that reduce vaccination coverage and efficacy; these factors include spatial and host heterogeneities, low rates of uptake of the vaccines and the multiple serotypes of the virus. The conditions necessary for the establishment of disease free zones, given these limitations, are explored using a mathematical model that combines the mass-action transmission principles with spatial correlation structure describing the contact patterns between clusters of cattle and potential reservoirs. Cattle clusters are nested within those of potential reservoirs. The relative contact probabilities between clusters vary depending on the distances between them. The outputs indicate that with a trivalent vaccine, very high vaccination coverage would have to be realized on a regular basis if disease free zones were to be established. This may require a review of the existing cost sharing policy as it is the main cause of the low uptake of prophylactic vaccination.
Shepherd M, Kasem S, Ablett G, Ochieng J, Crawford A. Developing a genetic classification for gene pool management of spotted gums.; 2013. Abstract

Spotted gums (Genus Corymbia Section Politaria) occur as a species replacement series along the eastern seaboard of Australia, their distributions marked by regions of disjunction and sympatry. Their taxonomy remains controversial, with species assignment often challenging and reliant upon knowledge of geographic origin as well as subtle morphological or leaf oil variation. In this paper we explore a classification for spotted gums without assuming predefined geographic or taxonomic groups, instead using genetic structure at microsatellite marker loci (n=9) and a Bayesian model-based clustering approach implemented in STRUCTURE software. The C. torelliana outgroup (n=21; Section Cadagaria) formed a well resolved cluster (min. pairwise Fst = 0.19). Four populations were evident within the spotted gums (n=93) but structure was weak (pairwise Fst range 0.13 -0.05). Geography, both distance and topography were major determinants of structure, with migration among populations approximating a linear stepping-stone model. Corymbia maculata was resolved as a taxon and had the greatest genetic distance to any other population (min pairwise Fst 0.08). Three clusters were evident within the northern taxa but alignment with taxonomic groupings was poor. Corymbia citriodora material from north of a major disjunction in Central Queensland formed a Northern population. Corymbia citriodora, C. variegata and C. henryi material from below this disjunction but north of the Border Ranges, formed a Central population, whereas a Southern population was comprised of C. variegata and C. henryi from predominately south of the Border Ranges. Fewer ambiguous assignments occurred using genetic rather than taxonomic groups for self classification of the spotted gum reference population.

T.K. M. "Developing a national framework for medicinal and aromatic plants in Kenya.". In: Stakeholder workshop on the sustainable, safe and effective use of medicinal plants in Eastern Africa - IDRC & USAID/USDA. Arusha, Tanzania; 2003.
Luciani R, Laneve G, Mito C, Jahjah M. "Developing a satellite based automatic system for crop monitoring: Kenya's Great Rift valley a case study.". In: ESA SP 740, LPS16, Proceedings of the conference held 9–13 May 2016. L. Ouwehand. Vol. 740.; 2016:. Abstract
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