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PN Katiku, Gachuiri CK, Mbugua PN. "The Bio-economics Of S Tall Managed Dairy Cattle Feeding Regimes In Mbeere District Of Estern Kenya." University of Nairobi Animal Production . 2013.
Anne W Muohi, Gerd‐Peter Zauke, Hans‐Jurgen Brumsack, Mavuti KM. "Bioaccumulation of trace elements in Arthrospira fusiformis algal blooms in Lakes Bogoria and Sonachi, Kenya: Evaluation and verification of toxicokinetic models." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management. 2018;23(4):277-286.
Muohi, A. W.(2007). Bioaccumulation of trace metals in biota (algae and chironomids) from Kenyan Saline Lakes (Bogoria and Nakuru): Evaluation and verification of two compartment toxicokinetic models.. Oldenburg: Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Germany, Institut für Chemie und Biologie des Meeres (ICBM).; 2007.
SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Bioactive Compounds from Some Kenyan Ethno-medicinal Plants: Myrsinaceae, Polygonaceae and Psiadia punctulata.". In: Chemical Sciences Journal Vol. 2012: CSJ-56. Elsevier; 2002. Abstract

There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2′-glucosyl-6′-hydroxy-4′-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found.

ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Bioactive Compounds from some Kenyan Ethnomedicinal Plants: Myrsinaceae, Polygonaceae and Psiadia punctulata,.". In: Phytochemistry Reviews, 1,311-323 (2002). Springer; 2002. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
Yenesew A. "Bioactive compounds from some Kenyan ethnomedicinal plants: Myrsinaceae, Polygonaceae and Psiadia punctulata." Phytochemical Reviews . 2002;1:311-323. Abstractpaper_29_midiwo_et_al_phytochemical_rev_2002.pdf

here are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2′-glucosyl-6′-hydroxy-4′-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found.

Gakuubi MM, Wanzala W, Wagacha JM, Dossaji SF. "Bioactive properties of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oils: A review." American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products. 2016;4(2):27-36. Abstract4-2-6.1_1.pdf

Mexican marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) and its accruing products have a long worldwide history of human uses such as food, therapeutics and aromatherapy which are inherent in the plant’s unique chemical composition and bioactivities. In the recent past, T. minuta essential oils (EOs) have received great attention in research, and their phytochemistry, bioactivities and uses remain the focus of considerable scientific studies. The interest in EOs is largely due to increased demand by consumers for natural-based products such as additives, drugs and pesticides, whose global acceptability and safety is highly regarded compared to synthetic products. The purpose of this review is to document the existing value addition and evidence-based multipurpose potential and considerations of T. minuta as a new generation crop as provided for by in-depth scientific studies of its EOs. Among the bioactivities and therapeutic properties attributed to T. minuta EOs include: antihelminthic, carminative, arthropod repellency, sedative, weedicidal, antiseptic, diaphoretic, spasmolytic, germicides, stomachic, antispasmodic, antiprotozoal, bactericidal, emmenagogue, nematicidal, insecticidal, fungicidal, antiviral and other microbicidal properties against a wide range of plant, human and animal pathogens, pests and parasites. Oil of T. minuta is therefore a potentially useful agent for protecting food crops on farm and in storage and livestock, thereby enhancing food security and improving human livelihoods. Nevertheless, increased value addition and the need for validation of traditionally claimed usages and applications of T. minuta EOs through in-depth scientific studies should be prioritized to globally position this plant as a new generation crop.

Osebe T, Mbaria J, Yole D, Odongo D, Nderitu J, Ochanda H. "Bioactivity and toxicity of Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum americanum plant extracts." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2016;6(1):5-11. AbstractWebsite

Background: Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum
americanum plant species are commonly used in traditional medicine for a
number of ailments. The extracts of these plants have been shown to have antischistosomal
activity suggesting that they could be used for the development of
new chemical entities (NCEs) for the treatment of schistosomiasis. However
there is limited knowledge on their toxicological profile and their use in
traditional medicine may not be a satisfactory safety indication.
Methods: In this study the extracts were first screened for bioactivity using
brine shrimp lethality test for the determination of LC50 followed by rodent
acute toxicity and 28 day subchronic studies.
Results: B. micrantha water extract with a LC50 of 77µg/ml was deemed toxic
while C. ambrosoides methanol and water extracts were moderately toxic with
LC50 of 104.63µg/ml and 696.44µg/ml respectively. O. americanum hexane
and water extracts toxicity varied from moderate to slightly toxic with LC50 of
887.59µg/ml and 2254.60µg/ml respectively. C. ambrosoides and O.
americanum water extracts which were preferentially selected for subsequent
studies were found to have mild to no irritation to rodent eyes and skin.
Moreover, the aminotransferases AST and ALT which were used to detect liver
injury suggested negligible effect.
Conclusions: This therefore confirms that C. ambrosoides and O. americanum
water extracts are safe for clinical use with O. americanum water extract having
a slight edge.
Keywords: Antihelminthic, Schistosomiasis, Toxicity

Osebe T, Mbaria J, Yole D, Odongo DO, Nderitu J, Ochanda H. "Bioactivity and toxicity of Bridelia micrantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum americanum plant extracts." International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 2017;6:5-11.
Tom Osewe, James Mbaria DYDOJNHO(2017). "Bioactivity and toxicity of Bridelia mirantha, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Ocimum americanum plant extracts." International Journal of Basic clinical Pharmacology,. 2017;( DOI:http//dx.doi.org/10.18203/23192003.ibjbcp2020164753).
Yenesew A, Gumuia I, Heydenreich M, Derese S, Okalebo FA, Ndiege IO, Erdelyi M. "Bioactivity of 'Flemingin A' and other Natural Products from the leaves of Flemingia grahamiana.". 2011.yenesew.pdfWebsite
Mbwambo Z, Lukhoba W, Kisangau D, Odhiambo J, Dossaji S, Joseph C, Lyaruu H, Siboe G, Hosea K. "Bioactivity screening and value-added processing of medicinal plant products for the management of HIV and AIDS fungal infections in Lake Victoria." Ethnobotany and Health. Proceedings of the Cluster Workshop, Entebbe, Uganda, 4-7 September 2010. 2012:103-108.
NGUTA DRJOSEPHMWANZIA. "Bioavailability of cobalt, Zinc and Selenium and Anthelmintic effects of fortified and non fortified Albendazole in Sheep. J.M.Nguta; J.M.Mbaria.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian, Volume 35, Issue 1, 2011. The Kenya Veterinary Association; 2011. Abstract

Abstract: The present study was carried out to compare the use of liver and plasma analysis as methods of assessing the status of cobalt, zinc and selenium in sheep, and also to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of fortified and non-fortified albendazole preparations. plasma and liver samples were collected in duplicate from fourteen sheep aged nine to twelve months. Plasma samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and liver samples  on days 0, 14 and 28 post treatment, upon sacrifice of the study animals. Various trace elements were isolated from the organic matrix by wet oxidation for mineral analysis using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. data was statistically analysed using repeated measurement test. Significance was noted at p < 0.05. Both the fortified albendazole and non fortified albendazole cleared all the worms in the treated sheep by day 14 post treatment. All the trace elements were shown to be more bioavailable in the liver and plasma of fortified albendazole (Group B) treated sheep compared to the non-fortified albendazole (Group A) treated sheep. The current study has shown that the liver is a better indicator of cobalt, zinc and selenium status in sheep compared to plasma.
Key words: Plasma; Liver; Cobalt; Zinc and Selenium

M. MRMAINADAVID. "Bioavailability of Essential Trace elements in Some Traditional Diets Consumed in Eastern parts of Kenya as determined using the EDXRF Technique. B. K. Nyilitya1, D. M. Maina1, L. W. Njenga2 and J. M. Onyari2.". In: (1979-1986)Guidance in the development of numerous Institute of Adult Studies. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2010.
Were SA, Narla R, Mutitu EW, Muthomi JW, Munyua LM, Roobroeck D, Vanlauwe B, E J. "Biochar and vermicompost soil amendments reduce root rot disease of common bean (Phaseolous Vulgaris L.)." African Journal of Biological sciences. 2021;3(1):176-196.
Chern CJ, Beutler E. "Biochemical and electrophoretic studies of erythrocyte pyridoxine kinase in white and black Americans." Am. J. Hum. Genet.. 1976;28(1):9-17. Abstract

The mean PNK activity in red blood cells from black subjects was only about 40% of that in whites. Among 51 whites examined, one was found to have enzyme deficiency. The estimated gene frequencies for PNKH (the common allele in whites which codes for higher enzyme activity) and PNKL (the common allele in blacks which codes for lower enzyme activity) were .35 and .65, respectively, for black donors, and .81 and .19, respectively, for white donors, The variant enzyme in persons with enzyme deficiency was associated with an increased rate of degradation in red cells during aging. No other biochemical or electrophoretic differences were detected.

Chern CJ, Beutler E. "Biochemical and electrophoretic studies of erythrocyte pyridoxine kinase in white and black Americans." Am. J. Hum. Genet.. 1976;28(1):9-17. Abstract

The mean PNK activity in red blood cells from black subjects was only about 40% of that in whites. Among 51 whites examined, one was found to have enzyme deficiency. The estimated gene frequencies for PNKH (the common allele in whites which codes for higher enzyme activity) and PNKL (the common allele in blacks which codes for lower enzyme activity) were .35 and .65, respectively, for black donors, and .81 and .19, respectively, for white donors, The variant enzyme in persons with enzyme deficiency was associated with an increased rate of degradation in red cells during aging. No other biochemical or electrophoretic differences were detected.

Marab PM, Musyoki S, Amayo A. "Biochemical changes in whole blood stored for transfusion at Bungoma County Referral Hospital, Kenya." African Journal of Laboratory Medicine. 2020;9(1):a1182.
"Biochemical composition of pigeonpea genotypes in Kenya." Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2019;13(11):1848-1855.juliana_cheboi_biochemical_paper.pdf
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Biochemical identification of Phlebotomus (Larroussius) pedifer and Phlebotomus (Larroussius) elegonensis.". In: Bioch system. & ecol., 16 (1/8): 655-659. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1988.sf07230719.pdf
Mbugua JK, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) of Market Wastes from Nairobi Inoculated With Dagoretti Slaughterhouse Waste." Int J Sci Res Sci Eng & Technol.. 2020;7(4):81-90. Abstract

Background: Anaerobic degradation entails the conversion of substrate organic matter to biogas. A wide variety of substrate has been employed. The biochemical methane potential of twenty market wastes was investigated using rumen fluid inoculum.
Experimental: The proximate properties like carbohydrates, crude proteins, crude lipids, fibre, and moisture levels were determined using standard procedures. The physio-chemical analysis was done to investigate the ash, total solids and volatile matter content. The substrates biogas production capacity
based on elemental composition, COD, organic fraction composition was investigated. However, the BMP experiments were carried out at mesophillic conditions.
Results: The total biogas production was in the range of 1000 to 3500ml, with a methane composition of 56 – 60%. The biodegradability of the substrates ranges from 71 to 94%, subject to the lignin levels.
Conclusion: The BMP studies are vital in assessing the methane potential of the substrate without carrying out the experiments.
Keywords : Biogas, Methane, rumen fluid, market wastes.

O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.". In: Proceedings of the First Pan-African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2nd-6th September, 1996, Nairobi, Kenya. Edited by J.O. Ochanda., J. K. Kiaira and D.W Makawiti. Published by Biochemical Society of Kenya. East African Medical Journal; 1996. Abstract
Immunization of rabbits with a faecal extract of the human body louse (Pediculus humanus) induced a high titre of specific IgG. The mean weight of blood taken by females fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower (29%) than taken by females fed on the control rabbits. The mean number of eggs per female fed on the immunized rabbits was significantly lower than for females fed on the control rabbits. The hatchability of the eggs laid by lice fed on immunized rabbits (91%) was significantly lower than of those fed on control rabbits (94%). The rate of development of nymphs fed on control rabbits was significantly higher than those fed on the immunized rabbits. There was no difference in survival rates of lice fed on immunized and control rabbits.
Ebrahim YH. "Bioclimatic analysis, synthesis and sustainable architecture." Dr. Ebrahim Digital Clipboard. 2019;August 2019 (1)(1(1)):1-20.
P. KAAYAG. "Biocontrol of ticks using entomogenous fungi: Development of cheap fungal culture methods.". In: In proc. 3rd African Acarology Symposium. Cairo, Egypt ; 2004.
KAAYA, G.P. ANDMWANGIEN. "Biocontrol potentials of Entomogenous fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for livestock ticks Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma variegatum.". In: Proceedings of 9th International Congress of Acarology. Columbus, Ohio, USA; 1994.
Obiero G, Martha Smit,. SHTL. "Bioconversion of linear alkanes to dicarboxylic acids using genetically engineered yeast strains.". In: Bio-08 conference.; 2008.
JM O, Mulaa F, J M, P S. "Biodegradability of PLA, Preparation and Properties of PLA/Gum Blends." Journal of Polymers and the Environment. 2008;16:205-212.
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Biodegradability of Poly (lactic acid), Preparation and Characterization of PLA/Gum Arabic Blends.". In: Journal of Polymers and the Environment Volume 16, Number 3, 205-212, DOI: 10.1007/s10924-008-0096-5. Springerlink; 2008.
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable Water Hyacinth Cellulose-Graft- Poly(Ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) Polymer hydrogel for potential Agricultura Application." Heliyon. 2019;(Article No. e01416).
Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. Abstract

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Rop K, Mbui D, Njomo N, Karuku GN, Michira I, Ajayi RF. "Biodegradable water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly (ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel for potential agricultural application." Heliyon. 2019;5(3):e01416. AbstractHeliyon

Description
Swollen cellulose fibres isolated from water hyacinth were utilized in the synthesis of water hyacinth cellulose-graft-poly(ammonium acrylate-co-acrylic acid) polymer hydrogel (PHG). Acrylic acid (AA) partially neutralized with NH3 was heterogeneously grafted onto swollen cellulose by radical polymerization reaction using N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The reaction conditions were optimized through assessment of grafting parameters such as grafting cross-linking percentage (GCP), percentage grafting cross-linking efficiency (%GCE) and water absorption tests. Characterization of the copolymer by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed successful grafting of the monomer onto cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of acetone-extracted PHG displayed micro-porous structure. The optimized product …

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Biodegradation and Detoxification of Malachite Green Dye Using Novel Enzymes from Bacillus cereus Strain KM201428: Kinetic and Metabolite Analysis.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

Enzyme based degradation of organic pollutants is a promising detoxifying approach due to the promiscuous nature of the enzyme, efficiency, cost effective and ecofriendly. In the present study, we have carried out detailed decoloration and degradation studies on a model triphenyl methane group of dyes (Malachite Green dye (MG)) using a newly isolated enzyme from Bacillus cereus KM201428 under the static condition. Biodegradation of dyes was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the resultant metabolites analyzed by Liquid Chromatography–Hybrid Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC–QToF-MS) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC - MS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that enzymatic degradation of MG dye resulted in complete mineralization and benzene ring-removal; the latter known for organic dye toxicity. Kinetic study results revealed that first-order kinetic model was best applicable for describing MG dye decoloration. Michaelise-Menten kinetics, Lineweaver–Burk plot and Eadie-Hofstee plot models were used to establish the kinetic parameters for the dye decoloration. Lineweaver–Burk plot provided the best theoretical correlation of the experimental data with maximum rate (Vmax) of 17.70 mg l-1h-1 and Michaelis constant (Km) of 124 mgl-1. Results provide evidence that crude enzyme from Bacillus cereus strain KM201428 offers an effective, renewable, ecofriendly and affordable biotechnology for treatment of industrial effluents polluted with organic dye.

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Biodegradation and detoxification of malachite green dye using novel enzymes from bacillus cereus strain KM201428: kinetic and metabolite analysis." Energy Procedia. 2017;119:38-51. AbstractScience Direct Journal

Description
Enzyme based degradation of organic pollutants is a promising detoxifying approach due to the promiscuous nature of the enzyme, efficiency, cost effective and ecofriendly. In the present study, we have carried out detailed decoloration and degradation studies on a model triphenyl methane group of dyes (Malachite Green dye (MG)) using a newly isolated enzyme from Bacillus cereus KM201428 under the static condition. Biodegradation of dyes was monitored by UV-VIS spectrophotometer and the resultant metabolites analyzed by Liquid Chromatography–Hybrid Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (LC–QToF-MS) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC - MS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that enzymatic degradation of MG dye resulted in complete mineralization and benzene ring-removal; the latter known for organic dye toxicity. Kinetic study results revealed that first-order kinetic …

Osano A, Siboe G, Ochanda J, Kokwaro J. "Biodegradation properties of white rot fungi in Karura forest Kenya." Discovery & Innovation. 2004;16(1):78-84.
Thuo DN, Junga JO, Kamau JM, Amimo JO, Kibegwa FM, Githui KE. "Biodiversity & Endangered Species Population Viability Analysis of Black Rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis michaeli ) in Lake Nakuru National Park, Kenya." J Biodivers Endanger Species. 2015;3:1-5. Abstract

n/a

Njage PMK, Dolci S, Jans C, Wangoh J, Lacroix C, Meile L. "Biodiversity and Enterotoxigenic Potential of Staphylococci Isolated from Raw andSpontaneously Fermented Camel Milk." British Microbiology Research Journal. 2013;3(2):128-138.2013_biodiversity_and_enterotoxigenic_potential_of.pdf
F. Mwaura, Mavuti KM, and Wamicha WN. "Biodiversity characteristics of small high altitude tropical man-made reservoirs in the eastern Rift Valley, Kenya." Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management. 2002;7:1-12.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Biodiversity characteristics of small high-altitude tropical man-made reservoirs in the Eastern Rift Valley, Kenya. Lakes & Reservoirs: Lakes and Reservoirs.". In: Research and Management 2002 7:1-12. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2002. Abstract
Mwaura F, K M Mavuti and W N Wamicha. . :
Bosshard A, Reinhard BR, Taylor S, Gichuki NN, Kinuthia WW. "Biodiversity in tropical small scale farms in central Kenya.". In: IFOAM Guide to Biodiversity and Lanscape Quality in Organic Agriculturend. Bonn: International Federation of Organic Farming Movements (IFOAM) ; 2009.
Ayuke FO. Biodiversity of soil macrofauna functional groups and their effects on soil structure in West and East African cropping systems, as related to organic resource management, crop rotation and tillage. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen University; 2010. Abstract

Soil macrofauna, especially earthworms and termites are important components of the soil ecosystem and, as ecosystem engineers, they influence formation and maintenance of the soil structure and regulate soil processes. Despite advances made in understanding the links between soil macrofauna and agricultural productivity, this component of biodiversity is still very much a “black box”. In this thesis, I proposed to link soil biodiversity to soil functioning through the diversity of the soil structures produced by ‘ecosystem engineers’ like earthworms and termites, i.e. organisms, which physically modify and create habitats for other soil organisms and plant roots. This study aimed at providing an understanding of the link between soil macrofauna and crop management practices on soil aggregation and soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics as this is key to the improvement and the management of infertile or degrading soils.
The methodological approach used in this study involved assessment of:
1. How agricultural management affects earthworm and termite diversity across sub-humid to semi-arid tropical zones.
2. The influence of soil macrofauna on soil aggregation and SOM dynamics in agro-ecosystems of sub-Saharan Africa as influenced by management practices.
3. How management practices (e.g. tillage and use of organic inputs) influence macrofauna-induced biogenic structures in East and West African soils.
4. Disclosing farmers’ knowledge and perception on the roles of termites in Western Kenya.

In chapter 2, I examined how agricultural management affects earthworm and termite diversity across sub-humid to semi-arid tropical zones. This study, conducted in 12 long-term agricultural field trials of Eastern and Western Africa, provides new insights on diversity of earthworms and termites in SSA, since it is the first time that a study like this is done on this scale. In each trial, treatments with high and low soil organic C were chosen to represent contrasts in long-term soil management effects, including tillage intensity, organic matter and nutrient management and crop rotations. High soil C was considered to reflect relatively favorable conditions, and low soil C less favourable conditions for soil macrofauna. For each trial, a fallow representing a relatively undisturbed reference was also sampled.
I have shown that earthworm and termite diversity and abundance were low in fallow, high-C and low-C agricultural treatments in 12 long-term trial fields across the sub-humid to semi-arid tropical zones in Eastern and Western Africa. This is in contrast to most typical native or undisturbed forest ecosystems of the tropical zones. Environmental variables contributed 42% and 25% of variation observed in earthworm and termite taxonomic abundance, respectively. Earthworm and termite taxa were less abundant in the relatively cooler, wetter and more clayey sites characteristic of Eastern Africa, compared to the warmer, drier and more sandy sites in West Africa. Continuous crop production has significant negative effects on earthworm-, but little effect on termite diversity, as compared to long-term fallow, and agricultural management resulting in high soil C increases earthworm and termite diversity as compared to low-C soil. I conclude that fewer species of earthworms and termites are favored under agricultural management that leads to lower soil C. Results indicate that soil disturbance that goes with continuous crop production is more detrimental to earthworms than to termites as compared to fallow.

In chapter 3, a broad regional study was conducted to examine how management intensity affects soil macrofauna, and how macrofauna in turn influence soil aggregation in agro-ecosystems of sub-Saharan Africa.
My study has shown that macrofauna, especially earthworms, and to a smaller extent termites, are important drivers of stable soil aggregation, in conjunction with climate, soil organic C content and soil texture in sub-Saharan agroecosystems. However, the beneficial impact of earthworms and termites on soil aggregation is reduced with increasing management intensity and associated soil disturbance due to cultivation. I suggest that this knowledge is important in designing agricultural management systems aimed at increasing long-term soil fertility in sub-Saharan Africa.

In chapter 4, a long-term trial at Kabete, Kenya was selected to examine in detail the interactive effects of organic and inorganic fertilizerson soil macrofauna diversity and soil aggregation and SOM dynamics in arable cropping systems. Differently managed arable systems were compared to a long-term green fallow system representing a relatively undisturbed reference.
Application of manure in combination with fertilizer significantly improved aggregate stability and C and N stabilization in arable soil. Furthermore, manure-fertilizer application enhanced earthworm diversity and biomass. Significant correlations between the amount and C and N contents of aggregate fractions and whole soil C and N were observed with earthworm parameters (Shannon diversity index, abundance and biomass), but not with termite parameters. Factor and regression analyses showed that earthworms had a profound effect on aggregation, C and N stabilization in whole soil and in aggregate fractions, whereas contributions of termites were limited. Therefore, my results indicate that long-term application of manure in combination with fertilizer result in higher earthworm Shannon diversity and biomass, which leads to improved soil aggregation and enhanced C and N stabilization within this more stable soil structure. These practices therefore result in the dual benefits of improving soil physical and chemical properties. In contrast, no significant improvements in soil aggregation and C and N stabilization were found when organic inputs were applied in the form of maize stover as compared to the no-input control, irrespective of fertilizer addition. Under the conditions studied, earthworms were more important drivers of aggregate stability and C and N stabilization in aggregate fractions, but termites less so.

In chapter 5, a micromorphological approach was used to describe and quantify macrofauna-induced biogenic structures in undisturbed soil samples (i.e. thin sections) from long-term field experiments in East and West Africa. Management systems differing in tillage intensity and with or without organic amendments (manure/crop residue) were compared.
My study has shown the soil management practices tillage type and addition of organic inputs influence soil fauna activities with a significant impact on soil structure and hence soil physical properties. Among the management practices assessed across two agroecological zones, fallowing, conservation tillage plus residue application (in East Africa) and hand-hoeing plus manure (in West Africa) enhanced biogenic soil structure formation, resulting in a well developed soil structure and a continuous pore system through many faunal channels. By contrast, intensive tillage and absence of organic inputs resulted in soil with less biogenic soil structural features and was, therefore, prone to slaking.

Chapter 6 describes farmers’ knowledge on the occurrence and behavior of termites, their perception of the importance of termites in their cropping systems and the management of termite activities in their farm fields in Nyabeda, Western Kenya. Being the main actors in environmental conservation or degradation, farmers’ knowledge and perception can enrich scientific understanding of the ecology and sustainable management of termites under different agroecological conditions.
My research has shown that farmers in Nyabeda were aware of the existence of termites, their activities and nesting habits and had local names for termites that they frequently encountered. Geographic location explained 23% of the variance in farmers’ perception and management of termites, whereas socio-economic variables explained only 5%. Ninety percent of the farmers perceived termites as pests and maize was rated as the most susceptible crop to termite attack, especially during the flowering/tasseling stage and in wet periods. More than 88% of the farmers used control measures against termites, further indicating a lack of awareness or appreciation of the beneficial effects often ascribed to termites with respect to soil properties in crop production. There is an urgent need for more research to assess the trade-offs between positive and negative impacts of termites on crop yields, as well as to get an understanding of the effects of different termite control strategies used by farmers on agroecosystem functions.

I.O JUMBA, S.O W, KITUYI E, MARUFU L, ANDREAE MO, HELAS G. "Biofuel availability and domestic use patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 71-82. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract

The annual domestic consumption levels and patterns of various common biofuels in Kenya were surveyed. The main fuelwood sources were farmland trees, indigenous forests, woodlands and timber off-cuts from plantations. In 1997, about 15.4 million tonnes of firewood (air-dried) were consumed and an equivalent of 17.1 million tonnes round wood wet weight (w/w) was converted to charcoal. In the same year, 1.4 million tonnes of a variety of crop residues were also consumed as domestic fuel. Biofuel availability was the major factor influencing the reported annual spatial species use and consumption patterns. Competing demand for the commonly-used tree species (mainly eucalyptus trees) for commercial and other purposes accounts, to a large extent, for the reported dwindling amounts. Communities in various regions have responded by gradually shifting to other available types including those in gazetted forests. Such a response strategy has implications on the long-term spatial and temporal biofuel use patterns. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Biofuel availability and domestic use patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 71-82. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Biofuel availability and domestic use patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 71-82. BEP Electronic Press; 2001. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
Jumba IO, Wandiga SO, KITUYI E, MARUFU L, HUBER B, ANDREAE MO, HELAS G. "Biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 83-99. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract

Abstract
A questionnaire survey was conducted in rural and urban Kenya to establish biofuel consumption rates and patterns. The survey targeted households, commercial catering enterprises and public institutions such as schools and colleges. Firewood was the main biofuel used, mostly by rural households, who consumed the commodity at average consumption rates in the range 0.8-2.7 kg cap"1 day~'. Charcoal was mostly consumed by the urban households at weighted average rates in the range 0.18-0.69kgcap~' day"1. The consumption rates and patterns for these fuels by restaurants and academic institutions, and those for crop residues are also reported. The rates largely depended on the fuel availability but differed significantly among the three consumer groups and between rural and urban households. Other factors which may have influenced consumption rates are discussed. Although good fuelwood sufficiency was reported in the country in 1997, there were increasing difficulties in accessing these resources by most households, a situation having both short- and long-term implications for biofuel consumption rates and patterns. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Biofuels; Per capita consumption; Kenya

ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 83-99. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS, NYONGESA DRKITUYIEVANS. "Biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Kenya.". In: Biomass and Bioenergy 20, 83-99. BEP Electronic Press; 2001. Abstract
Kituyi, E. and Kirubi, C. ()
JK MUSINGI. "Biofuels and human food security.". In: Developing Sustainable Utilization of Bio-energy opportunities in Eastern Africa Region:East Africa Farmers Federation (EAFF) Conference.; 2011.
Anyango SO, Orindi V. "Biofuels Production as a Mitigation Strategy: The Potential Impacts on Food Security and Environmental Sustainability in Kenya .". In: National conference on the Environment . Nairobi, Kenya; 2008.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM. Biogas Digester Automation.; 2020.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Biogas Slurry Systems, Biogas for Rural Development. CSC Technical Publication No, 137.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1983. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
CHESELEMI MRWAFULAJAMES. "Biogas technology for rural households in Kenya by James C. Wafula and Justus K. Laichena published by the OPEC Review.". In: Vienna, AUSTRIA. VDM Verlag; 1997. Abstract

Less than 20% of Kenya's population is connected to the grid. Only 5% of the country's rural population, which accounts for over 70% of the total population enjoys electricity connectivity. To compensate for this deficiency in rural areas, kerosene has been the preferred choice for lighting. Kerosene is used in approximately 92% of all households. Off-grid lighting products such as LED lights are poised to play a pivotal role in the transformation of the lighting scenario in the rural areas of the developing world. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

Omuombo C, Olago D, Williamson D. Biogeochemical proxies of climate change and land use patterns in the Central Kenya highlands. Obergurgl, Austria: European Science Foundation; 2012.
Omuombo C, Williamson D, Olago D. "Biogeochemical proxy evidence of gradual and muted geolimnological response of Lake Nkunga, Mt. Kenya to climate changes and human influence during the past millennium.". 2020;8:e00416. AbstractWebsite

Lake Nkunga is a crater Lake on the north eastern slopes of Mount Kenya that provides a record of catchment changes covering the last millennium. A multi proxy study was carried out on 89 cm of sediment core retrieved from 20 m near the lake shoreline. The mineralogy, magnetic mineralogy, organic and elemental geochemical proxies indicate a rejuvenating lake during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly with limited sediment supply and sustained by ground water. A progressive response to wetter conditions commences ca. 810 cal yr. BP with an increase in sediment influx that peaked at 500 cal yr. BP, a period that encompasses the start of the Little Ice Age (LIA). The establishment of the present-day maar conditions may have occurred during this period of the LIA. The lake has been relatively stable with declining terrestrial input from 290 cal yr. BP to present. The inferred changes in Lake Nkunga levels from deep to shallow phases are characterized by slow and muted response to both abrupt (e.g. Medieval Climate Anomaly) and sustained and prolonged climate shifts (e.g. Little Ice Age), reflecting the resilience of geolimnological and catchment processes in this lake and its watershed to climatic changes and human influence. This study provides new insights into the utility of biogeochemical proxies from nearshore lake cores in the equatorial east Africa highlands whose responses to extreme weather events are not well understood over the last 1000 years.

Thenya T, Rego AB. "Biogeography II. Department of Geography & Environmental Studies." Biogeography II. Department of Geography & Environmental Studies. 2006.
Simila HO, Karpukhina N, Hill RG, Bushby A. "Bioglass Incorporation into Biodentine: Impact on Biological and Physical Properties.". In: Internationa Association of Dental Research. Capetown, South Africa; 2014.
Simila HO, Karpukhina N, Hill RG, Andy B. "Bioglass Incorporation into Biodentine: Impact on Biological and Physical Properties." Journal of Dental Research. 2014;93(Special Issure B):315.iadr_poster_-_colour_copy.ppt
Kumar S, Mehta D, Singh S, Garg ML, Mangal PC, Trehan PN. "Biokinetics of lead in various mouse organs/tissues using radiotracer technique." Indian J. Exp. Biol.. 1988;26(11):860-5.
W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Biological acitivity of Lantana trifolia. Submitted to International Journal and Pharmacognosy. K.J. Achola, J.W. Mwangi, and Rahab W. Munenge (1993).". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Mathiu PM;, Mbugua PM;, Mugweru J. "Biological activity screening of some Kenyan medicinal plants.".; 2004.
Mathiu PM;, Mbugua PM;, Mugweru J. "Biological activity screening of some Kenyan medicinal plants.".; 2004.
Gichuki FN, Gachene CKK. Biological and water-harvesting measures for gully control.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The Arpolo gullying control project in the West Pokot Region of Kenya is described. This is an example of conservation work done to protect the Arpolo dispensary which cost >KES350,000 to put up and serves about 3,000 people and is threatened by a fast-growing gully. The initial proposal for a concrete wall in the first phase of implementation was not feasible since it would be undermined during the rains. The alternative was to plan, design and apply water-harvesting methods and implement biological measures that would reduce the erosive energy of the surface runoff. The design of the water-harvesting structures is shown. The success of the project shows that land and water management requires skillful planning and design, especially where soils are vulnerable to erosion. The physical and chemical properties of the soils in the area are described. Given proper hydraulic designs, water-harvesting measures are still a reliable means of soil conservation.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Biological and water-harvesting measures for gully control.; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The Arpolo gullying control project in the West Pokot Region of Kenya is described. This is an example of conservation work done to protect the Arpolo dispensary which cost >KES350,000 to put up and serves about 3,000 people and is threatened by a fast-growing gully. The initial proposal for a concrete wall in the first phase of implementation was not feasible since it would be undermined during the rains. The alternative was to plan, design and apply water-harvesting methods and implement biological measures that would reduce the erosive energy of the surface runoff. The design of the water-harvesting structures is shown. The success of the project shows that land and water management requires skillful planning and design, especially where soils are vulnerable to erosion. The physical and chemical properties of the soils in the area are described. Given proper hydraulic designs, water-harvesting measures are still a reliable means of soil conservation.

El_Banhawy EM, El-Borolossy MA, El-Sawaf BM, Afia SI. "Biological aspects and feeding behavior of the soil mite, Nenteria hypotrichus ( Uropodina: Uropodidae)." Acarologia. 1997;38:357-360.
KAAYA GP. "Biological control agents and other natural factors as regulators of tick populations.". In: Proceedings of 9th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference. Arusha, Tanzania; 1991.
Machangi JM;, Gitonga LM;, Nderitu JH;, Maniania NK;, Kabira JN. "Biological Control Agents Of Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) On Potatoes(Solanum Tuberosum L.) In Kenya.".; 2010.
P. KAAYAG. "Biological control of livestock ticks using entomogenous fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae.". In: Proceedings of Tanzania Veterinary Association Scientific conference. Arusha; 1995.
W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE. "Biological control of root rot of beans caused by Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Phaseoli using an antagonist.". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2008. Abstract

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KAAYA GP. "Biological Control: An environmentally safe alternative to chemical Pesticides.". In: In "community-based environmentally-safe Pest Management". Eds. R.K. Saini and P.T. Haskell.; 1993.
KUBASU, S.S., MAKOKKHA GL, KAAYA G. "Biological differences within Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann (AKARI: IXODIDAE) Populations in Kenya." Journal of the Eqyptian Society of Parasitology . 2007;37 (2):411-418.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Biological Diversity Management in Africa: Legal and Policy Perspectives in the run-up to WSSDD (11.1 Review of European Community &International Environmental Law p. 38 (With Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 2002. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
Kaul R, Cohen CR CYTJTMKLRRAKDWR. "Biological factors that may contribute to regional and racial disparities in HIV prevalence." Am J Reprod Immunol. . 2011;65(3):317-24.
Ssali H;, Keya SO. "Biological nitrogen fixation in Africa."; 1984.
NGUTA DRJOSEPHMWANZIA. "BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF KENYAN MEDICINAL PLANTS USING ARTEMIA SALIA L. (ARTEMIIDAE). J.M.Nguta *, J.M.Mbaria; D.W.Gakuya; P.K.Gathumbi; J.D.Kabasa; , S.G.Kiama.". In: Pharmacologyonline 2: 458-478 (2011). University of Salerno, Italy; 2011.
J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P. K. Gathumbi, J.D.Kabasa, S.G.Kiama. "Biological screening of Kenyan medicinal plants using Artemia salina L.(ARTEMIIDAE)." Pharmacologyonline. 2011;2:458-478.
Abou-Awad BA, El-Banhawy EM. "Biological studies of Amblyseius olivi, a new predator of eriophyid mite infesting olive trees in Egypt (Acari : Phytoseiidae). Entomophaga, 31: 99.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1986. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Biological studies on some predacious mites. MSc. Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, 94 pp.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1967. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
Kwadha CA, Ong’amo GO, Ndegwa PN, Raina SK, Fombong AT. "The biology and control of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Insects. 2017;8(2):61.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Biology and feeding behavior of the predatory mite, Amblyseius brazilli (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae). Entomophaga, 20: 353 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1975. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
KIMANI DRJOHNMUTURI. "Biology of Acomys percivali and Acomys Kempi (African spiny mice) of Eastern Africa.". Rodentia; 2012. Abstract

The  study found out that Masinga Dam has adversely affected the public health in the communities around the dam. malaria was the most prevalent ailment followed by typhoid fever. Bilharzia has also increased since the dam was constructed.

JP E, S E, J K, LW I. "Biology of the coconut bug Pseudotheraptus wayi on French Beans. ." Journal of Insect Science . Submitted.
Egonyu JP, Ekesi S, Kabaru J, IRUNGU LUCYW. "Biology of the coconut bug Pseudotheraptus wayi on French Beans.". 1999.Website
Sigana DOA. The biology of the mullets (Pisces: Mugilidae) from Kilifi, a tropical mangrove creek on the Kenya coast. Mavuti KM, Ruwa RK, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2010.
Young AS, Ochanda H, Perry BD, Morzaria SP, Dolan TT, Medley GF, Gettinby G. The biology of the transmission dynamics of Theileria parva. . Nairobi, Kenya: International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics.; 1994.
Mose F, Newman LP, Njunguna R, Tamooh H, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C, Kiarie J. "Biomarker evaluation of self-reported condom use among women in HIV-discordant couples." Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24(7):537-40. Abstract

Self-reported condom use is a commonly collected statistic, yet its use in research studies may be inaccurate. We evaluated this statistic among women in HIV-discordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial in Nairobi, Kenya. Vaginal swabs were acquired from 125 women and tested for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for semen exposure, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ten (10%) of 98 women who reported 100% use of condoms in the previous month tested PSA positive. In a bivariate logistic regression analysis, among women who reported 100% condom use in the previous month, those with ≤8 years of school had significantly higher odds of testing PSA-positive (odds ratio [OR] = 8.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-69.13) than women with more schooling. Our estimate may be conservative, as the ability to detect PSA may be limited to 24-48 hours after exposure. Less educated women may be a target group for counselling regarding reporting sexual behaviour in clinical trials.

Musau RM, Munavu RM. "Biomass.". 2006.Website
wandiga Kitui S, et al. "Biomass burning in Africa: role in atmospheric change and opportunities in emission mitigation." University of Nairobi, Macx-Planck Institute of Chemistry, Germany : Cambridge University Press; 2005.
Mugo F, Gathui T. Biomass energy use in Kenya.; 2010. Abstract

Biomass energy situation and consequences: Biomass energy provides 68% of Kenya’s national energy requirements and it is expected to remain the main source of energy for the foreseeable future. In 2000, Kenya was reported to use 34.3 million tonnes of biomass for fuel of which 15.1 million tonnes was in form of fuelwood while 16.5 million tonnes was wood for charcoal processed in kilns with only 10% efficiency. Up to 43% of the national consumption was from sustainable supplies while 57% was from unsustainable supplies. Of Kenya’s total land area of 57.6 million hectares, only 6% (3,456,000) is forest cover and is estimated to be decreasing at the rate of 52,000 hectares (0.09%) per year. In 1980, 94% of all the wood harvested in the country was used for woodfuel, 4% for poles and 2% for timber. By 1997, the proportions were estimated to be 90% woodfuel, 5% for industrial feedstock and another 5% for poles and posts. These proportions were projected to remain the same in the year 2000. Although biomass is a renewable resource, the high rate of its extraction and inefficient utilization renders it a non-renewable, a trend that needs to be reversed. Fuelwood, charcoal production and agriculture contribute to woodland degradation and deforestation. However, the contribution of each varies from one area to another. Rural and urban population growth, unemployment and land tenure are key drivers of woodland degradation and deforestation hence any intervention has to seriously deal with the key drivers for effective and sustainable management of the forest resources. The wider consequences of unsustainable extraction of biomass for energy include deforestation, land degradation, reduction in the ecological services of forests, woodlands and bushes, increased soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, loss of jobs, increased suffering especially for the women as they search for household energy, increased food insecurity as a result of limited biomass for cooking and diversion of household income to purchase woodfuel for energy. Given the high contribution of woody biomass for energy, there is need to emphasize and deliberately invest in wood production specifically for energy and manufacture and marketing of efficient end-use technologies to ensure efficient utilization of the resource. Policy, legal framework and potential interventions: For a long time, lack of appropriate policy, legislation and political will has hindered development of the biomass energy sub-sector. However, in the last seven years, Kenya has formulated an energy policy and legislation, forest legislation and charcoal rules to govern biomass energy development. Other relevant policy and legal provisions are a draft forest policy currently in parliament and a draft environmental policy in its final touches of completion. With policy and legal frameworks in place and the huge effective demand for charcoal and the emerging and growing market for fuelwood especially in the tea industry, commercial growing of wood for charcoal and fuelwood should be exploited. In addition, large scale investment in the manufacture and marketing of energy efficient stoves has promise. There are technologies in the country that can reduce the consumption of biomass energy by almost 80%. They include the improved charcoal stove (KCJ) which can save up to 50%, the improved wood stove that can also save 50% energy, fireless cookers that can save up to 50% and the improved charcoal kilns which can save up to 60% energy when compared to the traditional technologies. Investment in the development and promotion of other biomass technologies like biogas and woody crop residues should be considered. Way forward: To tame the high and increasing level of over 57% biomass energy supply deficit, emerging evidence shows the highest promise to be in extensive commercialization of the biomass energy sub-sector to provide energy for the country, create employment, generate income and provide ecosystem services. The recommended approaches include: a. large scale corporate production of biomass energy in designated regions where land is not a major constraint; b. small scale farmers producing charcoal and fuelwood as cash crops modelled in the line of the tea industry; c. sustainable management of naturally growing woodlands and bush lands guided by approved management plans; d. investing in value addition of the biomass residue that is not suitable for soil fertility improvement; and e. expanded manufacture of energy efficient stoves, kilns and biogas appliances. A strong awareness and catalization programme aggressive cultivation of the necessary political will of the highest office in the land accompanied with development of suitable financial products by the financial institutions are preconditions for the transition. To start implementation of the proposed change, there is need to package the need to change to commercial production of biomass energy in convincing and easily understandable terms. Convincing case studies and models could be used to bring about this change. This should be followed by sensitization of the government of Kenya and the development partners on the need to take the commercial route. The relevant NGOs and CBOs in the sector should also be sensitized and aligned accordingly. The next step will involve development of new commercially oriented long term biomass development programmes, and mobilize sufficient resources for investing in the same. Development of markets should be given sufficient attention since they will act as a pull factor in the whole process. To ensure continuous supply of information for decision making, a biomass energy research centre/programme should be established within the Kenya Forestry Research Institute and funded sufficiently to deliver. In addition, each County should be supported to develop a biomass energy information and planning office to regularly generate vital statistics for planning and investment. Appropriate indicators to measure progress and success should be identified to help track performance of the biomass development programme for poverty alleviation and ecosystem services.

Mwaniki JM, Mbugua SN, Gituauki KM. "Biomass fuel from chamomile waste flowers." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2005;Vol 14(1):1-9. Abstract

The waste chamomile flowers from solvent extraction of fresh chamomile flowers. were compacted into cylindrical shapes with and without added binder (Calcium Sulphate), then carbonised using an electric oven to avoid contamination. The gross fuel content of the carbonised biomass fuel determined using a constant volume bomb calorimeter was found to be 29,379 KJ kg-1, while the Net Calorific value was calculated as 26,661 KJ Kg-1.

ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "Biomass production and nutrient accumulation by Tephrosia vogelii (Hemsley) A. Gray and Tithonia diversifolia Hook F. fallows during the six-month growth period at Maseno, Western Kenya. Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ. 3(4), 237-246.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1999. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Wangila AJ, Gachuiri CK, Muthomi JW, Ojiem JO. "Biomass yield and quality of fodder from selected varieties of lablab (lablab purpureus l) in Nandi South sub-county of Kenya." Online journal of Animal and Feed Research. 2021;11(1):28-35.
Fredrick Ongowe, Sophie Hennequin, Josephine Kagunda Wairimu, Nyoungue Aimé, Mamadou Lamine Diouf, Mouhamadou Diaby, Abderrahman Iggidr, Mamadou Sy, Salle G. "Biomathematics modelling for the study of failures propagation: Application to a production resource.". 2010.
ONGETI DRKEVINWANGWE. "Biometric features of facial foramina in adult Kenyan skulls.". In: European Journal of Anatomy. Spanish Society of Anatomy; 2008.
JAMEELA PROFHASSANALI. "Biometric features of facial foramina in adult Kenyan skulls. Ongeti K, Hassanali J, Ogengo J, Saidi H. European Journal of Anatomy 12 :1:89-95 (2008).". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 1986; 63: 651. European Journal of Anatomy 12 :1:89-95 (2008); 2008. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Biometric features of facial foramina in adult Kenyan skulls. Ongeti K., Hassanali J, Ogeng�o J, Saidi H. Eur J Anat 2008; 21(1): 89-95.". In: Eur J Anat 2008; 21(1): 89-95. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract
Several studies have indicated ethnic, age and sex-related variations in the position and size of the facial foramina. The present study reports the biometric features of the mental foramen (MF), and infraorbital (10), supraorbital (SO), and zygomaticofacial (ZF) foramina in a sample of adult Kenyan skulls. One hundred and four adult human skulls were evaluated for the sizes, positions, multiplicity, syrnmetry and geometries of the MF, 10, SO, and ZF foramina. Our observations reveal that the MF was present in all 104 skulls. The distance of the mental foramina from the symphysis menti ranged from 16.5 mm ro 34.0 mm. The 10 foramina were multiple in 5% of the skulls. The 10 foramen was positioned 6.26: +/-1.8 mm from the inferior orbital margin and 32.87: t3 mm from the superior alveolar margins, respectively. The distance from the superior alveolar pracess was greater in males. The distance of the MF, IO and SO from the midline was about 27 mm. ZF were absent in 3-4% of the skulls and multiple in 50% of the skulls. Ten percent of the supraorbital passages were foramina; 60% were notches, while the rest were both notches and foramina. In conclusion, the biometric characteristics of the facial foramina reveal variations in Kenyan skulls. Clinicians operating in this are a should be aware of this anatomy and dimorphic sexual features when anaesthetizing and operating in the facial region.
ONGETI K, Hassanali J, Ogeng’o J, Saidi H. "Biometric features of facial foramina in adult Kenyans." Eur J Anat. 2008;12(1):91-97.
Muthomi JW, Lengai GMW, Fulano AM, Wagacha JM, Narla RD, Mwang’ombe AW. "Biopesticide-based IPM systems to reduce synthetic pesticide residues in vegetables for niche market access by small holder growers.". In: 5th Biennial RUFORUM Conference. Cape Town, South Africa; 2016.
Lengai G, Muthomi J. "Biopesticides and Their Role in Sustainable Agricultural Production." Journal of Biosciences and Medicines. 2018;6:7-41.
WANYOIKE DRGICHUHIJOSEPH. "Biophysical profile scores and resistance indices of the umbilical artery as seen in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension. East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):96-101.". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Mar;83(3):96-101. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The role of Biophysical Profile Score and resistive index of the umbilical artery for monitoring pre-eclampsia patients. DESIGN: Descriptive prospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital and Mater Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: One hundred and ten cases during a three month period. RESULTS: Normal biophysical profile scores were found in 93 (84.5%), and 17 (17.5%) cases had abnormal scores ranging from mild to severe foetal distress. Resistive index of umbilical artery (RI-UA) were normal in 72 (66.1%) and high resistive index accounted for 33.9%. Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) was a prominent finding accounting for 30.5%. A positive relationship was shown to exist between IUGR and RI-UA and also with severity of hypertension with P-values < 0.05. Resistive index of umbilical artery was positively related to the duration of illness confirming its dependence on chronicity (P = 0.004). Resistive index of umbilical artery proved to be an earlier indicator of foetal compromise before any foetal distress becomes obvious. CONCLUSION: Regular obstetrical ultra sound foetal surveillance in pre-eclampsia patients is important for foetal wellbeing. Doppler evaluation of high risk patients is more sensitive test than the biophysical profile score.
Efferth T, Banerjee M, Abu-Darwish MS, Abdelfatah S, Böckers M, Bhakta-Guha D, Bolzani V, Daak S, Demirezer LÖmür, Dawood M, Efferth M, El-Seedi HR, Fischer N, Greten HJ, Hamdoun S, Hong C. "Biopiracy versus One-World Medicine–From colonial relicts to global collaborative concepts." Phytomedicine. 2019;53:319-331. Abstract

Background
Practices of biopiracy to use genetic resources and indigenous knowledge by Western companies without benefit-sharing of those, who generated the traditional knowledge, can be understood as form of neocolonialism.
Hypothesis
The One-World Medicine concept attempts to merge the best of traditional medicine from developing countries and conventional Western medicine for the sake of patients around the globe.
Study design
Based on literature searches in several databases, a concept paper has been written. Legislative initiatives of the United Nations culminated in the Nagoya protocol aim to protect traditional knowledge and regulate benefit-sharing with indigenous communities. The European community adopted the Nagoya protocol, and the corresponding regulations will be implemented into national legislation among the member states. Despite pleasing progress, infrastructural problems of …

Oketch Oboth JWB. Biopsychology. Nairobi: Centre for Open and Distant Learning, University of Nairobi; 2008.
Ndhine EO, Slotved H-C, Osoro EM, Olsen KN, Rugutt M, Wanjohi CW, Mwanda W, Kinyagia BM, Steenhard NR, Hansen J-ES. "A Biosecurity Survey in Kenya, November 2014 to February 2015." Health Secur. 2016;14(4):205-13. Abstract

A biosecurity survey was performed to gather information on the biosecurity level and laboratory capacity in Kenya for the purpose of providing information outlining relevant components for biosecurity legislation, biosecurity implementation, and enforcement of biosecurity measures in Kenya. This survey is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to be published from an African country. A total of 86 facilities with laboratories covering relevant categories, such as training laboratories, human diagnostic laboratories, veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and research laboratories, were selected to participate in the survey. Each facility was visited by a survey team and staff were asked to answer 29 groups of questions from a questionnaire. The survey showed that Kenyan laboratory facilities contain biological agents of biosecurity concern. The restrictions for these agents were found to be limited for several of the facilities, in that many laboratory facilities and storage units were open for access by either students or staff who had no need of access to the laboratory. The survey showed a great deal of confusion in the terms biosecurity and biosafety and a generally limited biosecurity awareness among laboratory personnel. The survey showed that the security of biological agents of biosecurity concern in many facilities does not meet the international requirements. The authors recommend developing a legal framework in Kenya for effective controls, including national biosecurity regulations, guidelines, and procedures, thereby reducing the risk that a Kenyan laboratory would be the source of a future biological attack.

Krämer PM. Biosensors.; 2011.Website
J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "Biosensors in: Handbook of Food Safety Engineering.". In: Handbook of Food Safety Engineering. Da-Wen Sun, Springer Verlag; 2011.
Anzeze DA, Onyari JM SPMGJW. "Biosorption of Zn (II) ions from aqueous solutions by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crasippes): Equilibrium and Kinetic studies,." International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research,. 2014;Vol. 8(No. 2 Sep. 2014,):224-233.
Waga DD. "Biostratigraphy of Paleogene sediments of Donbas and Great Caucasus.". In: Problems of Phanerozoic stratigraphy of Ukraine. Lviv, Ukraine; 2004.
Sila MJ, Nyambura MI, Abong’o DA, Mwaura FB, Iwuoha E. "Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Eucalyptus Corymbia Leaf Extract at Optimized Conditions.". In: Nano Hybrids and Composites Vol. 25. Vol. 25. South Africa; 2019:. Abstract

Abstract:

This study reports the biosynthesis of narrow range diameter silver nanoparticles at optimum conditions using Eucalyptus corymbia as a reducing and stabilizing agent. Optimal conditions for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were found to be; an extraction temperature of 90°C, pH of 5.7 a Silver Nitrate concentration of 1mM and AgNO3 to plant extract ratio of 4:1. UV-Visible spectroscopy monitored the formation of colloidal AgNPs. The UV-Visible spectrum showed a peak around 425 nm corresponding to the Plasmon absorbance of the AgNPs. The size and shape characterization of the AgNPs was done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques which revealed narrow range diameter (18-20 nm), almost monodispersed AgNPs, spherical in nature and with minimal agglomeration. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) results showed the presence of two peaks at 3.0 and 3.15 keV in the silver region. The Fourier Transform Infrared-Spectra (FTIR) of the plant extract and the AgNPs gave rise to vibrational peaks at 3260 and 1634 wavenumbers which are due to the presence of OH and –C=C-functional groups respectively.

Sila MJ, Nyambura MI, Abong'o DA, Mwaura FB, Iwuoha E. "Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Eucalyptus Corymbia Leaf Extract at Optional Conditions." Nanohybrids and Composites. 2019;25:32-45.
Emelda OP, Nyambura MI, Masikini M, Emmanuel I. "Biosynthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Ethanol Chemical Sensor." Journal of Nano Research. Submitted.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERI-MBOTE. "Biotechnology & Food Security: Some Policy & Institutional Considerations.". In: Encyclopaedia on Globalization. Moschovits; 2005.
"Biotechnology and Animal Health.". In: 7th Biennial Scientific Conference & Exhibition. University Of Nairobi, Kenya; 2010.
Mbugua-Gitonga Agnes, F M, Thenya & T. "Biotechnology and Food Security in Kenya - An Assessment of Public Concerns on Biosafety, Public Health and Religious Ethics." Journal of Advances in Biology & Biotechnology. . 2016;9(3):1-13.
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Biotechnology Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property Rights.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
Ochieng JW, Ananga A. "Biotechnology in Agricultural Policies of Sub-Saharan Africa." Elem Bioeconomy. 2019.
O DROGARAWILLIAM. "Biotechnology in aquaculture. Journal of Aquatic Sciences 17(2): 150-156.". In: journal. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract
As part of a study to assess zoonotic milk-borne health risks, seasonal survey data and unpasteurized milk samples were collected between January 1999 and February 2000 from randomly selected informal milk market agents (220 and 236 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) and from households purchasing raw milk (213 and 219 samples in the dry and wet seasons, respectively) in rural and urban locations in Central Kenya and screened for antibiotics, Brucella abortus (B. abortus) and presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli 0157:H7).The latter was assessed based on samples from consumer households only. Antibodies to B. abortus were screened using the indirect antibody Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Milk Ring Test (MRT). The presence of E. coli 0157:H7 was assessed by culture, biochemical characterization, serological testing for production of verocytotoxin one (VTI) and two (VT2) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of genes encoding for the toxins.                                                                                                         The prevalence of antibodies to B.abortus varied considerably ranging from none in milk sold in small units and originating from intensive production systems to over 10% in samples that were bulked or originating from extensive production systems. E. coli 0157:H7 was isolated from two samples (0.8%), one of which produced VTI. All urban consumers (100%) and nearly all rural consumers (96%) of marketed milk boiled the milk before consumption, mainly in tea, thus reducing chances of exposure to live pathogens and potential health risks.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Biotechnology in Kenya' in Calestous Juma et. al eds., Coming to Life: Biotechnology in African Economic Recovery (with Boniface Makau).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1994. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
JAMES PROFODEK. "Biotechnology, Interllectual Property Rights and Sustainable Development. The kenyan Case , a paper presented at the Brussels Conference (above0 on patenting Life,1994.". In: Paper presented at the WIPO High Level Forum on IP Policy and Strategy, Tokyo . Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1994. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
Imwene K.O., Mbui D.N., Kinyua, Gladys Wanjiru, J.K M, Ahenda S, Onyatta JO. "Biotransformation of Biodegraded Organic Waste from a Batch Mode Microbial Fuel Cell to Organic Fertilizer." J. Bioremediat Biodegrad. . 2021;12(8):1-5.
Obiero, G.O, MS S. "Biotransformation of phenylnonane using Yarrowia lipolytica overexpressing a benzoate para-hydroxylase from R. minuta.". In: 14th Congress of the South African Microbiology Society. Pretoria, South Africa; 2006.
OdongoMahacla, McLarenIM, JESmith, CWray. "A biotyping Scheme for Salmonella livingstone." British Veterinary Journal. 1990;146:175-179.
OdongoMahacla, MerekajeGraceIgbatala. "A biotyping Scheme for Salmonella typhi." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2008;32(1):18-25.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "BIP-Based Alarm Declaration and Clearing in SONET Networks Employing Automatic Protection Switching, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Computer, Information, and Systems Science, and Engineering, Vol.3, No.1, pp.30-35, 2009.". In: International Journal of Computer, Information, and Systems Science, and Engineering, Vol.3, No.1, pp.30-35, 2009. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 2009. Abstract
The paper examines the performance of bit-interleaved parity (BIP) methods in error rate monitoring, and in declaration and clearing of alarms in those transport networks that employ automatic protection switching (APS). The BIP-based error rate monitoring is attractive for its simplicity and ease of implementation. The BIP-based results are compared with exact results and are found to declare the alarms too late, and to clear the alarms too early. It is concluded that the standards development and systems implementation should take into account the fact of early clearing and late declaration of alarms. The window parameters defining the detection and clearing thresholds should be set so as to build sufficient hysteresis into the system to ensure that BIP-based implementations yield acceptable performance results.
DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "Birch A.N.E., Wheatley R.., Anyango B., Arpaia S., Capalbo D., Getu E. Degaga, Fontes E., Kalama P., Lelmen E., Lovei G., Melo I. S., Munyekho F., Ngi-Song A., Ochieno D., Ogwang J., Pitelli R.., Shuler T., Setamou M., Sithanantham S., Smith J., Van Son N.". In: Vol. 1. Study of Bt Maize in Kenya . CAB International, Wallingford , UK . El-Banhawy, E. M.; 2004. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
"Bird Flu: The imminent pandemic and how we may prepare.". In: Annual meeting of Kenya Association of Paediatricians . Nairobi, Kenya; 2006.
Munyekenye FB, Mwangi EM, Gichuki NN. "Bird Species richness and abundance in different forest types at Kakamega Forest, western Kenya." Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology. 2008;79(1):37-42.
Muchane M, Githiru M. "The birds of Gongoni Forest Reserve South Coast, Kenya." SCOPUS. Submitted:1. Abstract
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Ogoma MO, Breckling B, Reuter H, Muchane M, Githiru M. "The birds of Gongoni Forest Reserve, South Coast, Kenya." Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. 2010;30:1-11. Abstract
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W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Birithia, R. L., Subramanian, S., Muthomi, J., and Narla, R. D. 2010. Distribution of the tospovirus Iris Yellow Spot Virus infecting onions in Kenya. 10th Horticultural Association of Kenya (HAK) Workshop on Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tr.". In: 10th Horticultural Association of Kenya (HAK) Workshop on Sustainable Horticultural Production in the Tropics: Analysis of Production Chains of Ornamentals for the Local Market and For Export. 8th - 11th December 2010, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agricult. Horticultural Association of Kenya (HAK); 2011.
Ikamari LDE. "Birth Intervals and Child Survival in Kenya." African Journal of Health Sciences . 1998;5(1):15-24. AbstractWebsite

This paper seeks to identify some the factors that underlie regional variation in infant mortality in Kenya. The data drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used for this purpose. Logistic regression is used to analyse the data. On the basis of infant mortality estimates obtained, provinces were grouped into two groups: High (HMP) and low (LMP). The results obtained show that the values of explanatory variables in LMP region than in the high mortality region. However, their differences did not explain much of the variation in infant mortality between the two mortality regions. Decomposing the results revealed that the differences were largely due to the differences in the nature or structure of relationships, as represented by logit coefficients, between mortality and explanatory variables. The results indicate that the lower average level of maternal education, higher proportion of preceding child loss, higher proportion mothers belonging to low economic status households and a lower proportion of mothers belonging to households possessing livestock and lower use of modern contraception modestly contributed to high infant mortality in the high mortality region

S.M M, Z. Q, J. K. "Birth preparedness among antenatal clients." East Afr Med J. 2008;85(6):275-83. Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate birth preparedness and complication readiness among antenatal care clients.

DESIGN:
A descriptive cross- sectional study.

SETTING:
Antenatal care clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.

SUBJECTS:
Three hundred and ninety four women attending antenatal care at Kenyatta National hospital were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire between May 2006 and August 2006. Clients who were above 32 weeks gestation and had attended the clinic more than twice were recruited. Systematic sampling was used to select the study participants with every third client being interviewed.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Health education on birth preparedness, knowledge of danger signs, preparations for delivery and emergencies.

RESULTS:
Over 60% of the respondents were counselled by health workers on various elements of birth preparedness. Eighty seven point three per cent of the respondents were aware of their expected date of delivery, 84.3% had set aside funds for transport to hospital during labour while 62.9% had funds for emergencies. Sixty seven per cent of the respondents knew at least one danger sign in pregnancy while only 6.9% knew of three or more danger signs. One hundred and nine per cent of the respondents did not have a clear plan of what to do in case of an obstetric emergency. Level of education positively influenced birth preparedness.

CONCLUSIONS:
Education and counselling on different aspects of birth preparedness was not provided to all clients. Respondents knowledge of danger signs in pregnancy was low. Many respondents did not know about birth preparedness and had no plans for emergencies.

Otieno AAT. "Birth Spacing in Kenya: Application of Accelerated Failure Time Regression Models with Surviving Fraction." African Population Studies. 2001;16(2):21-39. AbstractWebsite

Demography India 32 (2): 26-32

O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Birthweights of infants of teenage mothers in Nairobi. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl . 1985; 319 : 89-94 . PMID: 3868931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Bwibo NO.". In: Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl . 1985; 319 : 89-94 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1985. Abstract

Teenage pregnancies lower average birthweight. In the NBS, teenage mothers had significantly lower average birthweight of 2 920 +/- 553 g compared with 3 133 +/- 533 g among women in the general population. A high rate of LBW on the infants of the teenage mothers was the significant factor in lowering the average birthweight. In both NBS and the PMHS the incidence of LBW 18% and 15% respectively as well as the rate of preterm delivery of 24% and 23% respectively were high. In PMHS although the numbers were small, the incidence of LBW was high (13%) in the 14-year-olds and in the 15-year-olds it was 4.8% which was much lower than that for 17- and 18-year-olds. In a large series in Nigeria the incidence of LBW was 27% in mothers aged less than 15 years, 26% in mothers aged 15-19, 20% in those aged 20-24 and least (18%) in the 25-29 year age group. Many unfavourable socioeconomic circumstances and lack of adequate antenatal supervision contribute to these high rates. Some of the teenage mothers-particularly the very young, below 16 years-are physically immature and are still growing children themselves. Their nutrient intake is shared between their own growth needs and those of their foetuses. In the Nigerian study, administration of folic acid and iron together with antimalarials to pregnant mothers resulted in increased maternal height as well as foetal growth, thus stressing the importance of nutritional care for the teenage mothers.

PIP: Teenage pregnancies lower average birth weight. In the Nairobi Birth Survey (NBS), teenage mothers had significantly lower average birth weight of 2920 +or- 553 gm compared with 3133 +or- 533 gm among women in the general population. A high rate of low birth weight (LBW) in those infants born to teenage mothers was the significant factor in lowering that figure. In both the NBS and the Pumwani Maternity Hospital Study (PMHS), the incidence of LBW was 18% and 15%, respectively, and the rate of preterm delivery 24% and 23%, respectively. In the PMHS, although the numbers were small, the incidence of LBW was high (13%) in the 14-year-old group and it was 4.8% in the 15-year-old group; these figures were much lower than those for ages 17 and 18. In a large series in Nigeria, the incidence of LBW was 27% in mothers aged less than 15, 26% in mothers aged 15-19, 20% in those aged 20-24, and least (18%) in those 25-29. Many unfavorable socioeconomic circumstances and lack of adequate antenatal supervision contribute to these high rates. Some teenage mothers–particularly those under age 16–are physically immature and are themselves still growing. Their nutrient intake is shared between their own growth needs and those of their fetuses. In the Nigerian study, administration of folic acid and iron together with antimalarials to pregnant mothers resulted in increased maternal height as well as fetal growth, thus stressing the importance of nutritional care for teenage mothers. author's modified

PMID: 3868931 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Bishop, R.P., Baylis, H., Allsopp, B., Toye, P., Nene, V., Dolan, T., Spooner, P., Kibe, M.K. and Morzaria, S.P. (1992). Genomic polymorphisms in Theileria parva. In: Genome analysis of protozoan parasites (Morzaria, S .P., Ed), pp 6 1 -66, ILRAD, Nairobi.". In: parasites (Morzaria, S .P., Ed), pp 6 1 -66, ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
Bacteriophage clones containing ribosomal RNA genes of Theileria parva were isolated from genomic DNA libraries. Physical mapping studies revealed 2 ribosomal DNA units, which were distinguishable by restriction enzyme site polymorphisms in flanking sequences. The cloned ribosomal DNA units were mapped to 2 separate T. parva chromosomes. Analysis of sequences contained in lambda EMBL3 recombinants, together with Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA and data on the copy number of the rRNA genes, suggested that the rDNA units were not tandemly repeated. This organisation of ribosomal transcription units is similar to that described for other genera of apicomplexan protozoa, but 2 rDNA units, each containing single copies of the rRNA coding genes, would be the lowest copy number described for any eukaryote in which amplification of rRNA genes is not known to occur. EcoRI restriction fragment length polymorphisms, which were revealed using rRNA gene probes, separated T. parva stocks into 2 categories. Nucleotide sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified internal transcribed spacer DNA revealed 2 different ITS sequences derived from rDNA transcription units within the genome of a cloned T. parva parasite. Polymorphism was also observed between ITS sequences amplified from the DNA of different T. parva stocks. A synthetic oligonucleotide derived from T. parva Uganda ribosomal ITS DNA sequences hybridised to DNA from the T. parva Uganda stock, but not to the DNA of the T. parva Muguga stock. This oligonucleotide is potentially useful as a marker for the T. parva Uganda stock.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Biwott, K.J, C.K. Gachuiri, R.G. Wahome and J. Tanner. 1998. Effects of different levels of concentrate supplementation on milk production and body weights of lactating dairy cows. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:212- 214.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Black Aesthetic, Nairobi University, College of Education and External Studies.". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1988. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
"BLACK AUTHORS, POETS AND RECITATIONS.". In: First Black American History Symposium. United States International University – Africa, Nairobi, Kenya; 1994.
GATARI MJ, Boman J. "Black carbon and total carbon measurements at urban and rural sites in Kenya, East Africa." Atmospheric Environment. 2003. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports measurements of black carbon (BC) and total carbon (TC)(TC= BC+ organic carbon) in the lower troposphere in Nairobi and the towns of Nanyuki and Meru in Kenya. The rural sites of Nanyuki and Meru are both located on the equator on the …

MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "Black Civilization and the promotion of Indigenous African Languages.". In: Colloquium section on Languages in Africa at Lagos Festival of Black Civilization and Art held. Lagos; 1977.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Black Market Trade: An Example from a Rural District in Kenya," (with Joseph Wang.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Blackburn, H.D., Davis, S.K., Taylor, J.F. Cartwright, T.C., Rurangirwa, F. & Waruiru, R.M., l990. Genetic resistance to internal parasites.". In: In: Proc. of the 8TH SR-CRSP Scientific Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, l00-05 pp. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "Blanton R.E., Wachira T.M., Zeyhle E.E., Njoroge E.M., Magambo J.K. and Schantz P.M. (1998) Oxfendazole Treatment for Cystic Hydatid Disease in Naturally Infected Animals.". In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 42(3): 601 - 605. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1998. Abstract

Few chemotherapeutic agents are available for the medical management of hydatid disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. In order to test the potential of oxfendazole for the treatment of infection with this parasite, nine infected goats and four sheep were given oxfendazole twice weekly at a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks and monitored by ultrasound for an additional 4 weeks. Efficacy was finally evaluated by postmortem examination, including determination of protoscolex viability and cyst wall histology. In treated animals, protoscolices were dead or absent in 97% of cysts from oxfendazole-treated animals compared to 28% of cysts from untreated control animals. On postmortem examination, 53% of cysts from treated animals were found to be grossly degenerate. A sample of those cysts that appeared potentially viable all demonstrated evidence of severe damage to the cyst wall. By light microscopy, cysts showed severe disorganization of the adventitial layer with invasion of inflammatory cells and in some cases frank necrosis with no apparent adventitial layer. The follow-up period for assessment of the drug's ability to cause complete degeneration and resorption of cysts was relatively short. This study, however, indicates that oxfendazole is at least as effective as and is easier to administer than albendazole for the treatment of hydatid disease.

Akaranga SI, Mwikamba CM. "Blessed are the rich and prosperous for theirs is the Kingdom of this world:The Kenyan Challenge." Research on Humanities and Soicial Sciences. 2015;Vol 5(14):138-141.
CM M, K K, C K. "Blind naso-endotracheal intubation." Annals of African Surgery . 2013;10(1):43-46.
Makori EO. "Blockchain Applications and Trends That Promote Information Management.". In: Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things. In Libraries. Pennsylvania: IGI Global; 2020.
Oredo J. "Blockchain as an Emerging Financial Trust Model." MANAGEMENT April (2019).

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