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Forthcoming
Geyer. S and Wairire GG, Lombard A, Wairire GG. "A comparative content analysis of South African and Kenyan drug policies from a social development perspective." The Social Work Practitioner-Researcher. Forthcoming.
R M, L.K O, J.O M, V M. "Cytotoxicity of principles from Bridelia micrantha.". Forthcoming.
Submitted
JP E, S E, J K, LW I. "Biology of the coconut bug Pseudotheraptus wayi on French Beans. ." Journal of Insect Science . Submitted.
Muirhead JD, Kattenhorn SA, Lee H, Mana S, Turrin BD, Fischer TP, Kianji G, Dindi E, Stamps DS. "Evolution of upper crustal faulting assisted by magmatic volatile release during early-stage continental rift development in the East African Rift." Geosphere. Submitted;12(6):1-31.
Plasman, M., Tiberi, C., Ebinger, C., Albaric, J., Peyrat, S., Déverchère, J., Le Gall, B., Tarits, P., Roecker, S., Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Wambura, R. MMAG, Mtelela, K. MKHPGMGS, Msabi, M. KHPGGSJ. "Lithospheric low-velocity zones associated with a magmatic segment of the Tanzanian Rift, East Africa." Geophyscical Journal International. Submitted.
Weinstein, A. EORTALWAGMCSS, Ebinger, C. ORTALWAGMSSC, Oliva, S. RTALWAGMSCM, Roecker, S. TALWAGMCMC, Tiberi, C. ALWAGMMCE, Aman, M. LWAGMCEJ, Lambert, C. WAGMEJS, Witkin, E. AGMJS, Albaric, J. GMS, Gautier, S. M, Muzuka, A. MKHI-KMFPMRGGR, Mulibo, G. KG, Kianji, G., Hadfield, R. I-KMFPMRFMR, Illsley-Kemp, F. MFPMRMRS, Msabi, M. FPMRRSJ, Ferdinand, R. PMRSJ, Peyrat, S. MRJ, Muirhead, J. R, Rodzianko, A., Fischer T. "Magmatic Co2 assisted rifitng in East Africa : seismicity of the Magadi-Natron-Manyara basins, Africa. Submitted to Tectonics." tectonics. Submitted.
Muia JMK, Kariuki JN, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Lukibisi LB, Ayako WO, Ngunjiri WV. "Smallholder dairy production in high altitude Nyandarua milk-shed in Kenya: Status, challenges and opportunities.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

A stratified sampling method was used to select 156 dairying households from representative Divisions in Nyandarua County. The stratification was based on cattle grazing systems (CGS) and agro-ecological zones (AEZs) across the Divisions. The objectives of the study were to assess status of smallholder dairy cattle production in relationship to CGS and AEZ, major challenges facing smallholder dairy production, and the opportunities for improvement. Data collected included the characteristics of the farm, family, farmer, feeds and feeding, dairy cattle and their performance, milk uses and markets, and the dairy production services. The information on the challenges facing dairy production and the opportunities for improvement was obtained from discussions with livestock extension workers, dairy co-operatives, milk processors, and from secondary sources. The present results indicated that the average farm size was 3.5 Ha and 41, 38, and 44% of the households fed dairy stock with improved fodders, grass hay, and concentrate supplements, respectively. Among the households, about 44, 38 and 32% had access to artificial insemination (AI), extension, and all weather roads services, respectively. Households keeping crosses of the dairy breeds were 59% while the average herd size was 5.3 heads consisting of 40% cows in milk. The average calf live-weight gain was 322g/ day and milk yield per cow was 8.4kg/day. About 65% of the milk was marketed at an average price of 15.00 KES/kg, equivalent to 0.205 US$/kg. As the levels of dairy intensification increased, there were significant increase in milk production per hectare and decrease in calf live-weight gains (P<0.05). On the other hand, as the level of agricultural potential increased, there were significant decreases in milk production and marketed milk per farm (P<0.05). It was concluded that smallholder dairy cattle production was below the potential for Nyandarua County and was influenced by the CGS and AEZs. The major challenges in smallholder dairy production included poor road network and milk marketing, high costs and inaccessibility of dairy production inputs and support services, inappropriate dairy production technologies, and limited value addition of milk.

Pan J, Utama MIB, Zhang Q, Liu X, Peng B, Wong LM, Sum TC, Wang S, Xiong Q. "for Adv. Mater., DOI: 10.1002/adma. 201104996.". Submitted. Abstract
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L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Preparation (with others) of an Urban Development Plan for Ruiru Town.". In: Winrock International, Morrilton, U.S.A. EAMJ; Submitted. Abstract
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de la Mata M, Magen C, Gazquez J, Utama MIB, Heiss M, Lopatin S, Furtmayr F, Fernández-Rojas CJ, Peng B, Morante JR, others. "Supplementary information of the manuscript entitled.". Submitted. Abstract
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Mutua M, Kinuthia W, Otieno NE, Muriuki JM, Lange CN, Muchai M, Ingrisch S, Oyieke H, Lampe KH. "Type specimen of the insect order Coleoptera in the scientific collection of the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi.". Submitted. Abstract
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Luiza C. Campos DO, Osborn. D. "Water and the UN sustainable development goals." UCL Open Eviron. Submitted:1. Abstract
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In Press
JP E, J K, LW I, F H. "Description of pre-adult stages of the coconut bug, Pseudotherapthus wayi ." Journal of Insect Science . In Press.
Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW, Sitati IN, Musundi SW, Mwenda E. "On almost-similarity and metric equivalence of operators." Pioneer Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PJMMS)-accepted June 14, 2016. In Press.
2022
Beydon N, Ferkol T, Harris AL, Colas M, Davis SD, Haarman E, Hogg C, Kilbride E, Kouis P, Kuehni CE, Latzin P, Marangu D, Marthin J, Nielsen KG, Robinson P, Rumman N, Rutter M, Walker W, Lucas JS. "An international survey on nasal nitric oxide measurement practices for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia." ERJ Open Res. 2022;8(2). Abstract

Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurements are used in the assessment of patients suspected of having primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), but recommendations for performing such measurements have not focused on children and do not include all current practices. To guide the development of a European Respiratory Society-supported technical standard for nNO measurement in children, an international online survey was conducted to better understand current measurement practices among providers involved in PCD diagnostics. 78 professionals responded, representing 65 centres across 18 countries, mainly in Europe and North America. Nearly all centres measured nNO in children and more than half performed measurements before 5 years of age. The test was often postponed in children with signs of acute airway infection. In Europe, the electrochemical technique was more frequently used than chemiluminescence. A similar proportion of centres performed measurements during exhalation against a resistance (49 out of 65) or during tidal breathing (50 out of 65); 15 centres used only exhalation against a resistance and 15 used only tidal breathing. The cut-off values used to discriminate PCD were consistent across centres using chemiluminescence analysers; these centres reported results as an output (nL·min). Cut-off values were highly variable across centres using electrochemical devices, and nNO concentrations were typically reported as ppb. This survey is the first to determine real-world use of nNO measurements globally and revealed remarkable variability in methodology, equipment and interpretation. These findings will help standardise methods and training.

Plisnier P-D, Kayanda R, MacIntyre S, Obiero K, Okello W, Vodacek A, Cocquyt C, Abegaz H, Achieng A, Akonkwa B, Albrecht C, Balagizi C, Barasa J, Abel Bashonga R, Bashonga Bishobibiri A, Bootsma H, Borges AV, Chavula G, Dadi T, De Keyzer ELR, Doran PJ, Gabagambi N, Gatare R, Gemmell A, Getahun A, Haambiya LH, Higgins SN, Hyangya BL, Irvine K, Isumbisho M, Jonasse C, Katongo C, Katsev S, Keyombe J, Kimirei I, Kisekelwa T, Kishe M, Otoung A. Koding S, Kolding J, Kraemer BM, Limbu P, Lomodei E, Mahongo SB, Malala J, Mbabazi S, Masilya PM, McCandless M, Medard M, Migeni Ajode Z, Mrosso HD, Mudakikwa ER, Mulimbwa N'sibula, Mushagalusa Déo, Muvundja FA, Nankabirwa A, Nahimana D, Ngatunga BP, Ngochera M, Nicholson S, Nshombo M, Ntakimazi G, Nyamweya C, Ikwaput Nyeko J, Olago D, Olbamo T, O'Reilly CM, Pasche N, Phiri H, Raasakka N, Salyani A, Sibomana C, Silsbe GM, Smith S, Sterner RW, Thiery W, Tuyisenge J, Van der Knaap M, Van Steenberge M, van Zwieten PAM, Verheyen E, Wakjira M, Walakira J, Ndeo Wembo O, Lawrence T. "Need for harmonized long-term multi-lake monitoring of African Great Lakes.". 2022. AbstractWebsite

To ensure the long-term sustainable use of African Great Lakes (AGL), and to better understand the functioning of these ecosystems, authorities, managers and scientists need regularly collected scientific data and information of key environmental indicators over multi-years to make informed decisions. Monitoring is regularly conducted at some sites across AGL; while at others sites, it is rare or conducted irregularly in response to sporadic funding or short-term projects/studies. Managers and scientists working on the AGL thus often lack critical long-term data to evaluate and gauge ongoing changes. Hence, we propose a multi-lake approach to harmonize data collection modalities for better understanding of regional and global environmental impacts on AGL. Climate variability has had strong impacts on all AGL in the recent past. Although these lakes have specific characteristics, their limnological cycles show many similarities. Because different anthropogenic pressures take place at the different AGL, harmonized multi-lake monitoring will provide comparable data to address the main drivers of concern (climate versus regional anthropogenic impact). To realize harmonized long-term multi-lake monitoring, the approach will need: (1) support of a wide community of researchers and managers; (2) political goodwill towards a common goal for such monitoring; and (3) sufficient capacity (e.g., institutional, financial, human and logistic resources) for its implementation. This paper presents an assessment of the state of monitoring the AGL and possible approaches to realize a long-term, multi-lake harmonized monitoring strategy. Key parameters are proposed. The support of national and regional authorities is necessary as each AGL crosses international boundaries.

Cohen AS, Campisano CJ, Arrowsmith RJ, Asrat A, Beck CC, Behrensmeyer AK, Deino AL, Feibel CS, Foerster V, Kingston JD, Lamb HF, Lowenstein TK, Lupien RL, Muiruri V, Olago DO, Owen BR, Potts R, Russell JM, Schaebitz F, Stone JR, Trauth MH, Yost CL. "Reconstructing the Environmental Context of Human Origins in Eastern Africa Through Scientific Drilling." Annual Review of Earth and Planetary SciencesAnnual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 2022. AbstractWebsite

Paleoanthropologists have long speculated about the role of environmental change in shaping human evolution in Africa. In recent years, drill cores of late Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks have yielded valuable high-resolution records of climatic and ecosystem change. Eastern African Rift sediments (primarily lake beds) provide an extraordinary range of data in close proximity to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites, allowing critical study of hypotheses that connect environmental history and hominin evolution. We review recent drill-core studies spanning the Plio?Pleistocene boundary (an interval of hominin diversification, including the earliest members of our genus Homo and the oldest stone tools), and the Mid?Upper Pleistocene (spanning the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa and our early technological and dispersal history). Proposed drilling of Africa's oldest lakes promises to extend such records back to the late Miocene. ?High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are critical for understanding external drivers of human evolution. ?African lake basin drill cores play a critical role in enhancing hominin paleoenvironmental records given their continuity and proximity to key paleoanthropological sites. ?The oldest African lakes have the potential to reveal a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context for the entire late Neogene history of hominin evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 50 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.Paleoanthropologists have long speculated about the role of environmental change in shaping human evolution in Africa. In recent years, drill cores of late Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks have yielded valuable high-resolution records of climatic and ecosystem change. Eastern African Rift sediments (primarily lake beds) provide an extraordinary range of data in close proximity to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites, allowing critical study of hypotheses that connect environmental history and hominin evolution. We review recent drill-core studies spanning the Plio?Pleistocene boundary (an interval of hominin diversification, including the earliest members of our genus Homo and the oldest stone tools), and the Mid?Upper Pleistocene (spanning the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa and our early technological and dispersal history). Proposed drilling of Africa's oldest lakes promises to extend such records back to the late Miocene. ?High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are critical for understanding external drivers of human evolution. ?African lake basin drill cores play a critical role in enhancing hominin paleoenvironmental records given their continuity and proximity to key paleoanthropological sites. ?The oldest African lakes have the potential to reveal a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context for the entire late Neogene history of hominin evolution. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 50 is May 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

PN R, GO O, O AE, L A, J K. "Assessment of Guideline Concordant Antibiotic Prescribing for Patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia at The Kenyatta National Hospital Medical Wards." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2022;5(1):34-42. Abstractassessment_of_guideline_concordant_antibiotic_prescribing.pdf

Background: Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity
and mortality globally. Despite the proven benefits of
guideline concordant antibiotic prescribing, research
has shown that adherence to clinical guideline
recommendations is dismal.
Objectives: The study aims to determine utilization of
Kenyatta National Hospital antibiotic guideline titled
‘The KNH guide to empiric antimicrobial therapy
2018’ in the management of community acquired
pneumonia in the Kenyatta National Hospital medical
wards and the perceived barriers towards the utilization
of this guideline.
Materials and methods: A check list derived from the
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) guide to empiric
antimicrobial therapy 2018 was used to assess guideline
concordance based on seven quality indicators:
empiric antibiotic, dose and route of administration,
switch to oral antibiotics, duration of antibiotics (at
least 5 days), collection of microbiological samples
before initiating antibiotics, review of antibiotics at 48
hours and once the culture results are out. Online selfadministered questionnaires were used to determine
attitude and perceived barriers towards utilization
of the KNH guideline among the Internal Medicine
registrars and medical officers.
Analysis: Descriptive statistics were applied in
the representation of each of the seven quality
indicators. These were then compared with the
guideline recommendations and adherence to the
guideline for each parameter was expressed as a
percentage of the total number of patients admitted
with community acquired pneumonia. These were
then graded into the following categories based on the
level of concordance: Good >90%, Intermediate 60-
90%, poor <60%. Questions on the attitude and the
perceived barriers towards KNH guideline utilization
were answered using a 5 point Likert scale. Perceived
barrier statements that were positively formulated
were then recorded so that a lower score meant a
lower level of the perceived barriers and vice versa.
Percentages were then calculated for the total number
of doctors that agreed or strongly agreed that the
barrier was applicable. An open ended question on the
top three barriers to the KNH guideline utilization was
also included in the questionnaire.
Results: For each of the other quality indicators,
adherence to the KNH guideline for patients with
community acquired pneumonia was as follows:
empiric antibiotic choice 48%, collection of samples
for culture prior to antibiotic administration 0%, review
of antibiotics at 48 hours 26.4%, review of antibiotics
with culture results 45.8%, total duration of antibiotics
28.8% and time to switch to oral antibiotics 3.6%. The
top three barriers towards guideline utilization among
the doctors were: unavailability of drugs (52.7%),
inaccessibility of the KNH guideline (45.1%) and lack
of or delay of investigations (34.1%).
Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that the level
of adherence to the seven quality indicators from the
KNH guide is poor with the overall adherence being
35.5%. The recommendation least adhered to was
collection of microbiological samples before initiation
of empiric antibiotics. The most commonly identified
barriers to utilization of the guideline were external
and guideline related barriers.
Key words: Guide to empiric antimicrobial therapy
2018, Guideline Concordance antibiotic prescribing,
Community acquired pneumonia

Hoang NT, Nguyen VT, Tuan NDM, Manh TD, Le P-C, Tac DV, Mwazighe FM. "Degradation of dyes by UV/Persulfate and comparison with other UV-based advanced oxidation processes: Kinetics and role of radicals." Chemosphere. 2022.Website
L. G, A W. "Financing the Future of the WHO ." Lancet. 2022;399(10334):1445-1447.
Su R, Wu J, Hu J, Ma L, Ahmed S, Zhang Y, Abdulraheem MI, Birech Z, Li L, Li C, Wei W. "Minimalizing Non-Point Source Pollution Using a Cooperative Ion Selection Electrode System for Estimating Nitrate Nitrogen in Soil." Frontiers in Plant Science. 2022;12:810214.
Zhang Y, Li L, Zhang H, Shang J, Li C, Naqvi SMZA, Birech Z, Hu J. "Ultrasensitive detection of plant hormone abscisic acid-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy aptamer sensor." Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2022;414:2757-2766 .
Lee AC, Peng B, Du K, Kung H-H, Monserrat B, Cheong S-W, Won CJ, Blumberg G. "Chiral Electronic Excitations in a Quasi-2D Rashba System BiTeI." arXiv preprint arXiv:2202.03569. 2022. Abstract
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Lee AC, Peng B, Du K, Kung H-H, Monserrat B, Cheong SW, Won CJ, Blumberg G. "Chiral electronic excitations in the quasi-two-dimensional Rashba system BiTeI." Physical Review B. 2022;105:L161105. Abstract
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Deng Y, Liu L, Li MY, Jiang M, Peng B, Yang Y. "A data-driven wheel wear prediction model for rail train based on LM-OMP-NARXNN." Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering. 2022:1-11. Abstract
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Niu Y-T, Qing F-Z, Li X-S, Peng B. "Inhomogeneous strain and doping of transferred CVD-grown graphene." Rare Metals. 2022;41:1727-1734. Abstract
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Meng T, Shi M, Guo Y, Wang H, Fu N, Liu Z, Huang B, Lei C, Su X, Peng B, others. "Multifunctional Ag-coated CuO microbowl arrays for highly efficient, ultrasensitive, and recyclable surface-enhanced Raman scattering." Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2022;354:131097. Abstract
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Peng B, Chen Z, Li Y, Liu Z, Liang D, Deng L. "Multiwavelength magnetic coding of helical luminescence in ferromagnetic 2D layered CrI3." Iscience. 2022;25:103623. Abstract
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Su G, Gao A, Peng B, Hu J, Zhang Y, Liu F, Zhang H, Zhan P, Wu W. "Observation of in-plane exciton–polaritons in monolayer WSe2 driven by plasmonic nanofingers." Nanophotonics. 2022. Abstract
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Liu Z, Guo Y, Chen Z, Gong T, Li Y, Niu Y, Cheng Y, Lu H, Deng L, Peng B. "Observation of intrinsic crystal phase in bare CrI3 ferromagnetism." arXiv preprint arXiv:2204.13312. 2022. Abstract
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Zhang J, Peng B, Kim S, Monifi F, Jiang X, Li Y, Yu P, Liu L, Liu Y-xi, Alu A, others. "Optomechanical dissipative solitons (vol 600, pg 75, 2021)." NATURE. 2022. Abstract
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Peng B, Zhou H, Liu Z, Li Y, Shang Q, Xie J, Deng L, Zhang Q, Liang D. "Pattern-Selective Molecular Epitaxial Growth of Single-Crystalline Perovskite Arrays toward Ultrasensitive and Ultrafast Photodetector." Nano Letters. 2022;22:2948-2955. Abstract
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Zhang J, Peng B, Kim S, Monifi F, Jiang X, Li Y, Yu P, Liu L, Liu Y-xi, Alù A, others. "Publisher Correction: Optomechanical dissipative solitons." Nature. 2022. Abstract
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2021
Scriven YA, Mulinge MM, Saleri N, Luvai EA, Nyachieo A, Maina EN, Mwau M. "Prevalence and factors associated with HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in treatment-experienced patients in Nairobi, Kenya: A cross-sectional study." Medicine (Baltimore). 2021;100(40):e27460. Abstract

An estimated 1.5 million Kenyans are HIV-seropositive, with 1.1 million on antiretroviral therapy (ART), with the majority of them unaware of their drug resistance status. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors, and the variables associated with drug resistance in patients failing treatment in Nairobi, Kenya.This cross-sectional study utilized 128 HIV-positive plasma samples obtained from patients enrolled for routine viral monitoring in Nairobi clinics between 2015 and 2017. The primary outcome was human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance mutation counts determined by Sanger sequencing of the polymerase (pol) gene followed by interpretation using Stanford's HIV Drug Resistance Database. Poisson regression was used to determine the effects of sex, viral load, age, HIV-subtype, treatment duration, and ART-regimen on the primary outcome.HIV-1 drug resistance mutations were found in 82.3% of the subjects, with 15.3% of subjects having triple-class ART resistance and 45.2% having dual-class resistance. NRTI primary mutations M184 V/I and K65R/E/N were found in 28.8% and 8.9% of subjects respectively, while NNRTI primary mutations K103N/S, G190A, and Y181C were found in 21.0%, 14.6%, and 10.9% of subjects. We found statistically significant evidence (P = .013) that the association between treatment duration and drug resistance mutations differed by sex. An increase of one natural-log transformed viral load unit was associated with 11% increase in drug resistance mutation counts (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.11; 95% CI 1.06-1.16; P < .001) after adjusting for age, HIV-1 subtype, and the sex-treatment duration interaction. Subjects who had been on treatment for 31 to 60 months had 63% higher resistance mutation counts (IRR 1.63; 95% CI 1.12-2.43; P = .013) compared to the reference group (<30 months). Similarly, patients on ART for 61 to 90 months were associated with 133% higher mutation counts than the reference group (IRR 2.33; 95% CI 1.59-3.49; P < .001). HIV-1 subtype, age, or ART-regimen were not associated with resistance mutation counts.Drug resistance mutations were found in alarmingly high numbers, and they were associated with viral load and treatment time. This finding emphasizes the importance of targeted resistance monitoring as a tool for addressing the problem.

Lubembe DM, Odongo DO, Joubert F, Sibeko-Matjila KP. "Limited diversity in the CD8+ antigen-coding loci in Theileria parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa." Vet Parasitol. 2021;291:109371. Abstract

Theileria parva infections in cattle causes huge economic losses in the affected African countries, directly impacting the livelihood of the poor small-holder farmers. The current immunization protocol using live sporozoites in eastern Africa, is among the control measures designed to limit T. parva infections in cattle. However, the ability of the immune protection induced by this immunization to protect against field parasites has been compromised by the diversity of the parasite involving the schizont antigen genes. Previous studies have reported on the antigenic diversity of T. parva parasites from southern and eastern Africa, however, similar reports on T. parva parasites particularly from cattle from southern Africa remains scanty, due to the self-limiting nature of Corridor disease. Thus, we evaluated the diversity of CD8+ T-cell regions of ten schizont antigen genes in T. parva parasites associated with Corridor disease and East Coast fever (ECF) from southern and eastern Africa respectively. Regions of schizont antigen (TpAg) genes containing the CD8+ T-cell epitopes (CTL determinants) were amplified from genomic DNA extracted from blood of T. parva positive samples, cloned and sequenced. The results revealed limited diversity between the two parasite groups from cattle from southern and eastern Africa, defying the widely accepted notion that antigen-encoding loci in cattle-derived parasites are conserved, while in buffalo-derived parasites, they are extensively variable. This suggests that only a sub-population of parasites is successfully transmitted from buffalo to cattle, resulting in the limited antigenic diversity in Corridor disease parasites. Tp4, Tp5, Tp7 and Tp8 showed limited to absence of diversity in both parasite groups, suggesting the need to further investigate their immunogenic properties for consideration as candidates for a subunit vaccine. Distinct and common variants of Tp2 were detected among the ECF parasites from eastern Africa indicating evidence of parasite mixing following immunization. This study provides additional information on the comparative diversity of TpAg genes in buffalo- and cattle-derived T. parva parasites from cattle from southern and eastern Africa.

Dean WH, Buchan J, Gichuhi S, Philippin H, Arunga S, Mukome A, Admassu F, Lewis K, Makupa W, Otiti J, Kim MJ, Macleod D, Cook C, Burton MJ. "Simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma versus conventional training alone: the GLAucoma Simulated Surgery (GLASS) trial. A randomised controlled, educational intervention efficacy trial in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe." Br J Ophthalmol. 2021. AbstractWebsite

Background/aim: Glaucoma accounts for 8% of global blindness and surgery remains an important treatment. We aimed to determine the impact of adding simulation-based surgical education for glaucoma.

Methods: We designed a randomised controlled, parallel-group trial. Those assessing outcomes were masked to group assignment. Fifty-one trainee ophthalmologists from six university training institutions in sub-Saharan Africa were enrolled by inclusion criteria of having performed no surgical trabeculectomies and were randomised. Those randomised to the control group received no placebo intervention, but received the training intervention after the initial 12-month follow-up period. The intervention was an intense simulation-based surgical training course over 1 week. The primary outcome measure was overall simulation surgical competency at 3 months.

Results: Twenty-five were assigned to the intervention group and 26 to the control group, with 2 dropouts from the intervention group. Forty-nine were included in the final intention-to-treat analysis. Surgical competence at baseline was comparable between the arms. This increased to 30.4 (76.1%) and 9.8 (24.4%) for the intervention and the control group, respectively, 3 months after the training intervention for the intervention group, a difference of 20.6 points (95% CI 18.3 to 22.9, p<0.001). At 1 year, the mean surgical competency score of the intervention arm participants was 28.6 (71.5%), compared with 11.6 (29.0%) for the control (difference 17.0, 95% CI 14.8 to 19.4, p<0.001).

Conclusion: These results support the pursuit of financial, advocacy and research investments to establish simulation surgery training units and courses including instruction, feedback, deliberate practice and reflection with outcome measurement to enable trainee glaucoma surgeons to engage in intense simulation training for glaucoma surgery.

Trial registration number: PACTR201803002159198.

Vogel JP, Vannevel V, Robbers G, Gwako G, Lavin T, Adanikin A, Hlongwane T, Pattinson RC, Qureshi ZP, Oladapo OT. "Prevalence of abnormal umbilical arterial flow on Doppler ultrasound in low-risk and unselected pregnant women: a systematic review." Reprod Health. 2021;18(1):38. Abstract

While Doppler ultrasound screening is beneficial for women with high-risk pregnancies, there is insufficient evidence on its benefits and harms in low- and unselected-risk pregnancies. This may be related to fewer events of abnormal Doppler flow, however the prevalence of absent or reversed end diastolic flow (AEDF or REDF) in such women is unknown. In this systematic review, we aimed to synthesise available data on the prevalence of AEDF or REDF.

Oreskovic A, Panpradist N, Marangu D, Ngwane WM, Magcaba ZP, Ngcobo S, Ngcobo Z, Horne DJ, Wilson DPK, Shapiro AE, Drain PK, Lutz BR. "Diagnosing Pulmonary Tuberculosis by Using Sequence-Specific Purification of Urine Cell-Free DNA." J Clin Microbiol. 2021;59(8):e0007421. Abstract

Transrenal urine cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a promising tuberculosis (TB) biomarker, but is challenging to detect because of the short length (<100 bp) and low concentration of TB-specific fragments. We aimed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity of TB urine cfDNA by increasing recovery of short fragments during sample preparation. We developed a highly sensitive sequence-specific purification method that uses hybridization probes immobilized on magnetic beads to capture short TB cfDNA (50 bp) with 91.8% average efficiency. Combined with short-target PCR, the assay limit of detection was ≤5 copies of cfDNA in 10 ml urine. In a clinical cohort study in South Africa, our urine cfDNA assay had 83.7% sensitivity (95% CI: 71.0 to 91.5%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 86.2 to 100%) for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB when using sputum Xpert MTB/RIF as the reference standard. The detected cfDNA concentration was 0.14 to 2,804 copies/ml (median 14.6 copies/ml) and was inversely correlated with CD4 count and days to culture positivity. Sensitivity was nonsignificantly higher in HIV-positive (88.2%) compared to HIV-negative patients (73.3%), and was not dependent on CD4 count. Sensitivity remained high in sputum smear-negative (76.0%) and urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM)-negative (76.5%) patients. With improved sample preparation, urine cfDNA is a viable biomarker for TB diagnosis. Our assay has the highest reported accuracy of any TB urine cfDNA test to date and has the potential to enable rapid non-sputum-based TB diagnosis across key underserved patient populations.

Burton MJ, Ramke J, Marques AP, Bourne RRA, Congdon N, Jones I, Ah Tong BAM, Arunga S, Bachani D, Bascaran C, Bastawrous A, Blanchet K, Braithwaite T, Buchan JC, Cairns J, Cama A, Chagunda M, Chuluunkhuu C, Cooper A, Crofts-Lawrence J, Dean WH, Denniston AK, Ehrlich JR, Emerson PM, Evans JR, Frick KD, Friedman DS, Furtado JM, Gichangi MM, Gichuhi S, Gilbert SS, Gurung R, Habtamu E, Holland P, Jonas JB, Keane PA, Keay L, Khanna RC, Khaw PT, Kuper H, Kyari F, Lansingh VC, Mactaggart I, Mafwiri MM, Mathenge W, McCormick I, Morjaria P, Mowatt L, Muirhead D, Murthy GVS, Mwangi N, Patel DB, Peto T, Qureshi BM, Salomão SR, Sarah V, Shilio BR, Solomon AW, Swenor BK, Taylor HR, Wang N, Webson A, West SK, Wong TY, Wormald R, Yasmin S, Yusufu M, Silva JC, Resnikoff S, Ravilla T, Gilbert CE, Foster A, Faal HB. "The Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health: vision beyond 2020." Lancet Glob Health. 2021;9(4):e489-e551.Website
Vogel JP, Comrie-Thomson L, Pingray V, Gadama L, Galadanci H, Goudar S, Rose Laisser, Lavender T, Lissauer D, Misra S, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Amole T, Berrueta M, Dankishiya F, Gwako G, Homer CSE, Jobanputra J, Meja S, Nigri C, Mohaptra V, Osoti A, Roberti J, Solomon D, Suleiman M, Robbers G, Sutherland S, Vernekar S, Althabe F, Bonet M, Oladapo OT. "Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the World Health Organization Labour Care Guide: A mixed-methods, multicountry evaluation." Birth. 2021;48(1):66-75. Abstract

The World Health Organization's (WHO) Labour Care Guide (LCG) is a "next-generation" partograph based on WHO's latest intrapartum care recommendations. It aims to optimize clinical care provided to women and their experience of care. We evaluated the LCG's usability, feasibility, and acceptability among maternity care practitioners in clinical settings.

Golden L, Chaya S, Reichmuth K, Visagie A, Ayuk A, Kwarteng Owusu S, Marangu D, Affendi N, Lakhan A, Gray D, Vanker A, Zar H, Zampoli M. "Aetiology and presentation of childhood pleural infections in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era in South Africa." Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med. 2021;27(4). Abstract

Complications of respiratory infections including pleural effusion (PE) are associated with a high morbidity. Differentiating between PE caused by (Mtb) infection and other bacterial infections in endemic areas is difficult in children, thus, impacting treatment.

Baba MM, Bitew M, Fokam J, Lelo EA, Ahidjo A, Asmamaw K, Beloumou GA, Bulimo WD, Buratti E, Chenwi C, Dadi H, D'Agaro P, De Conti L, Fainguem N, Gadzama G, Maiuri P, Majanja J, Meshack W, Ndjolo A, Nkenfou C, Oderinde BS, Opanda SM, Segat L, Stuani C, Symekher SL, Takou D, Tesfaye K, Triolo G, Tuki K, Zacchigna S, Marcello A. "Diagnostic performance of a colorimetric RT -LAMP for the identification of SARS-CoV-2: A multicenter prospective clinical evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa.". 2021;40:101101. Abstract1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdf1-s2.0-s2589537021003813-main-1.pdfWebsite

BackgroundManagement and control of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is critically dependent on quick and reliable identification of the virus in clinical specimens. Detection of viral RNA by a colorimetric reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a simple, reliable and cost-effective assay, deployable in resource-limited settings (RLS). Our objective was to evaluate the intrinsic and extrinsic performances of RT-LAMP in RLS.
Methods
This is a multicenter prospective observational study of diagnostic accuracy, conducted from October 2020 to February 2021 in four African Countries: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya and Nigeria; and in Italy. We enroled 1657 individuals who were either COVID-19 suspect cases, or asymptomatic and presented for screening. RNA extracted from pharyngeal swabs was tested in parallel by a colorimetric RT-LAMP and by a standard real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Findings
The sensitivity and specificity of index RT LAMP compared to standard RT-PCR on 1657 prospective specimens from infected individuals was determined. For a subset of 1292 specimens, which underwent exactly the same procedures in different countries, we obtained very high specificity (98%) and positive predictive value (PPV = 99%), while the sensitivity was 87%, with a negative predictive value NPV = 70%, Stratification of RT-PCR data showed superior sensitivity achieved with an RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) below 35 (97%), which decreased to 60% above 35.
Interpretation
In this field trial, RT-LAMP appears to be a reliable assay, comparable to RT-PCR, particularly with medium-high viral loads (Ct < 35). Hence, RT-LAMP can be deployed in RLS for timely management and prevention of COVID-19, without compromising the quality of output.

MM B, M B, J F, EA L, A A, K A, GA B, WD B, E B, C C, H D, P D'A, L DC, N F, A M. "Diagnostic performance of a colorimetric RT -LAMP for the identification of SARS-CoV-2: A multicenter prospective clinical evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa." EClinicalMedicine. 2021. Abstract
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Debrah I, Afrane YA, Amoah LE, Ochwedo KO, Mukabana WR, Zhong D, Zhou G, Lee M, Onyango SA, Magomere EO, Atieli HE, Githeko AK, Yan G. ", Larval ecology and bionomics of Anopheles funestus in highland and lowland sites in western Kenya." PLoS ONE . 2021;16(10):e0255321.
Babiaka SB, Simoben CV, Abuga KO, Mbah JA, Karpoormath R, Ongarora D, Mugo H, Monya E, Cho-Ngwa F, Sippl W, Loveridge JE, Ntie-Kang F. "Alkaloids with Anti-Onchocercal Activity from Voacanga africana Stapf (Apocynaceae): Identification and Molecular Modeling." Molecules. 2021;26(1):70. Abstract

A new iboga-vobasine-type isomeric bisindole alkaloid named voacamine A (1), along with eight known compounds—voacangine (2), voacristine (3), coronaridine (4), tabernanthine (5), ibox-ygaine (6), voacamine (7), voacorine (8) and conoduramine (9)—were isolated from the stem bark of Voacanga africana. The structures of the compounds were determined by comprehensive spec-troscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were found to inhibit the motility of both the microfilariae (Mf) and adult male worms of Onchocerca ochengi, in a dose-dependent manner, but were only moderately active on the adult female worms upon biochemical assessment at 30 μM drug concentrations. The IC50 values of the isolates are 2.49–5.49 µM for microfilariae and 3.45–17.87 µM for adult males. Homology modeling was used to generate a 3D model of the O. ochengi thioredoxin reductase target and docking simulation, followed by molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculations attempted to offer an explanation of the anti-onchocercal struc-ture–activity relationship (SAR) of the isolated compounds. These alkaloids are new potential leads for the development of antifilarial drugs. The results of this study validate the traditional use of V. africana in the treatment of human onchocerciasis.

Mamadou Alieu Jallow, Weke Patrick, Lukman Abiodun Nafiu, Ogutu C. "Application of a Discrete time Semi–Markov Model to the Stochastic Forecasting of Capital Assets as Stock." Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics, . 2021;63(1):1-18.
Luvai AK, Obiero JPO, Omuto CT. "Assessment of Soil Loss in a Typical Ungauged Dam Catchment using RUSLE Model (Maruba Dam, Kenya)." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2021;Vol 11(No. 16):56-68.
Grossheim L, Ruff P, Ngoma T, Vanderpuye V, Wango GM, Ochieng P, Palmer D, Kouya F, Lasebikan N, Ntekim A, Ngoma M, Bih N, Malloum A, Elzawawy A, Kerr D, Ngwa W. "Cancer and Covid-19 Experiences at African Cancer Centers: The Silver Lining." JCO Global Oncology. 2021;7:410-415.
Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW. "The chemosystematics of the genus Zanthoxylum L.(Rutaceae) in Kenya." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2021; 98, :104319.
Ngwili N, Lian T, Githigia S, Muloi D, Marshal K, Wahome R, Roesel K. "co-infection of pigs with Taenia solium cysticercosis and gastrointestinal parasites in Eastern and Western Uganda." Parasitology Research. 2021;2021(https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07380-9):1-14.
Heylen D, Day M, Schunack B, Fourie J, Labuschange M, Johnson S, Samuel Maina Githigia, Akande FA, Nzalawale JS. "A community approach of pathogens and their arthropod vectors (ticks and fleas) in dogs of African Sub-Sahara." Parasites & Vectors. 2021;2021(14:576):1-20.
Makau MC, Powell J, Prendergast J, de Late PL, Morrison LJ, Gathura P, Fisch A. "Corrigendum to “Inverted CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in Boran (Bos indicus) cattle”[Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol." Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 2021:235.
(eds) Harle J, Lamptey RB, Mwangi A, Nzegwu F, Okere O. "Creating digital content and delivering digital learning in African universities."; 2021. Abstract

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Lutta, A. I., Wasonga OV, Robinson LW, Nyangito MM, Sircely J. "Determinants of livestock market participation among pastoral communities of Tana River County, Kenya." Environment, Development and Sustainability, . 2021;23(5):7393-7411.
Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Mbega ER. "Effect of plant extracts on important fungal pathogens and germination of tomato seed." International Journal of Biosciences (IJB). 2021;18(4):77-92.
Peter K, John VL, George G, Luke H, Shawn MK, Spencer G. "Impact of calf housing improvement and farmer training on finances, management and animal welfare perceptions of Kenyan smallholder dairy farmers." Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. 2021;13(2):119-129.
Makinya KJ, Wagacha JM, Odhiambo JA, Likhayo P, Edoh-Ognakossan K, Tefera T, Abass A, Mutungi C. "The importance of store hygiene for reducing post-harvest losses in smallholder farmers’ stores: Evidence from a maize-based farming system in Kenya." Journal of Stored Products Research. 2021;90(DOI:10.1016/j.jspr.2020.101757):101757.
Nyamweya NN, Lumb PN, Mujyarugamba JC, Abuga KO. "Inactive Ingredients used in Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers marketed in the Nairobi Metropolitan Area." PJK. 2021;25(1):17-20. Abstract

Background: Alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) have become widely used products since the advent of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus based COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to ethanol or isopropanol (the active ingredients of ABHS) and water, these products are formulated with a number of ingredients to optimize delivery, efficacy and safety as well as to provide consumer appeal. Despite the widespread use of ABHS, there is very limited information in the literature on the non-alcohol ingredients used in these products.
Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the inactive ingredients used in ABHS marketed in metropolitan Nairobi.
Methodology: ABHS products were randomly obtained from several locations at retail outlets within the Nairobi metropolitan region. The ingredients used in each ABHS were obtained from the product labels.
Results: The most common inactive ingredients based on percentage frequency of listing on product labels were glycerin (50%), fragrances (36%), carbomer (26%), triethanolamine (18%) and propylene glycol (17%). It was observed that some products incorporated additional antimicrobial agents and preservatives in the formulation. The fragrances and some of the preservatives used in the ABHS products are potential allergens. Incomplete or inadequate ingredient naming was noted for several products.
Conclusions: There is a need for ABHS manufacturers to fully disclose all raw materials used in ABHS products using standardized ingredient nomenclature. ABHS users need to be aware of potential allergens present in respective marketed products.

Li WM, Li Z, Luvembe AMO, Yang C. "Influence maximization algorithm based on Gaussian propagation model." Information Sciences. 2021;568:Pages 386-402. AbstractScience Direct

The influence of each entity in a network is a crucial index of the network information dissemination. Greedy influence maximization algorithms suffer from time efficiency and scalability issues. In contrast, heuristic influence maximization algorithms improve efficiency, but they cannot guarantee accurate results. Considering this, this paper proposes a Gaussian propagation model based on the social networks. Multi-dimensional space modeling is constructed by offset, motif, and degree dimensions for propagation simulation. This space’s circumstances are controlled by some influence diffusion parameters. An influence maximization algorithm is proposed under this model, and this paper uses an improved CELF algorithm to accelerate the influence maximization algorithm. Further, the paper evaluates the effectiveness of the influence maximization algorithm based on the Gaussian propagation model supported by theoretical proofs. Extensive experiments are conducted to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of a series of influence maximization algorithms. The results of the experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm shows significant improvement in both effectiveness and efficiency.

Rahman M, Ahmed R, Moitra M, Damschroder L, Brownson R, Chorpita B, Idele P, Gohar F, Huang KY, Saxena S, Lai J, Peterson SS, Harper G, McKay M, Amugune B, Esho T, Ronen K, Othieno C, Kumar M. "Mental Distress and Human RightsViolations During COVID-19: A RapidReview of the Evidence InformingRights, Mental Health Needs, andPublic Policy Around VulnerablePopulations." Front. Psychiatry . 2021;11:603875.
Weboko FI, Nyongesa BS, Makhanu MN, Luna KDG, Dey GES, Viloria IL. "A Minimally Invasive Treatment Option For Restoring Esthetics." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2021;12(2):952-957.
L C, M W, O L, M N, KM MI, Kaba M, et al. "One hundred years of zoonoses research in the Horn of Africa: A scoping review." PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021;15(7).
Livoi A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E. "Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast." Agricultural Science. 2021;3(1):7-14.
Livoi A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E. "Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast." Agricultural Science. 2021;3(1):7-14.
Gitao CG, Njihia LW, Lamuka P. 'Prevalence and risk of milk-borne microbes from camels" Potential microbes from camel milk in Isiolo county, Kenya. Nairobi: lAP Lambert Academic Publishing; 2021.
Gitao CG, Njihia LW, Lamuka P. "Prevalence and risk of milk-borne microbes from camels. Potential microbes from camel milk in Isiolo County, Kenya." Lap Lambert Academic Publishing a trademark of Omni scriptum S.R.L Publishing group. 2021;(ISBN- 978-620-3-93087-0.).
Haubek D, Mullie T, Kemoli A, Lindholm M, Gjørup H, Nørregaard M-LM, Johansson A. "Prevalence of JP2 and Non-JP2 Genotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Oral Hygiene Practice of Kenyan Adolescents in Maasai Mara." Pathogens. 2021;2021, 10,488.(2021, 10,488.):2021, 10,488.
Chemonges CC, Joshua N, Granai M, Lazzi S, Ndungu JR, Leoncini L. "A review of the sub-classification of lymph node biopsies reported as reactive lymphadenitis at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Int. J Pathol Clin Res. . 2021;7(1):120.
Kibet S, M N, L MO, D K. "Savanna woody plants responses to mammalian herbivory and implications for management of livestock-wildlife landscape." Journal of Ecological Solutions and Evidence.. 2021;2(3):1-13.
Leonard M. Nderitu, John Gachohi FO, Eddy G. Mogoa, Mathew Muturi AM, Eric M. Osoro, Isaac Ngere, Peninah M. Munyua, Harry Oyas ON, Eric Lofgren, Thomas Marsh M-AW, Bernard Bett KNM. "Spatial clustering of livestock Anthrax events associated with agro-ecological zones in Kenya, 1957–2017." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2021;21(191).
Rop KV, Langat PK, Ouma HA. "Spectrum Sensing on High Density Cognitive Radio Vehicular Ad Hoc Network." ,” Journal of Communications (JCM). 2021;16(7):259-266.
Lengoiboni M, Katcho Karume, Siriba D, Ssengendo R, Potel J, Lemmen C, Zevenbergen J. "Strengthening the Eastern Africa Land Administration Network (SEALAN) project in enhancing inter-university Collaboration in land administration Eastern Africa." African Journal on Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences . 2021;4(1):143-161.
Jekayinoluwa T, Tripathi JN, Dugdale B, Obiero G, E M, Dale J, L T. "Transgenic Expression of dsRNA Targeting the Pentalonia nigronervosa acetylcholinesterase Gene in Banana and Plantain Reduces Aphid Populations." Plants.. 2021;10 (4)(613):1-18.
Wang N, Zhang H, Liu S, Peng B, Deng Z. "Composite polydopamine-based TiO2 coated mesh with restorable superhydrophobic surfaces for wastewater treatment." Journal of Materials Science. 2021;56:7321-7333. Abstract
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Peng B, Li Q, Feng X-Q, Gao H. "Effect of shear stress on adhesive contact with a generalized Maugis-Dugdale cohesive zone model." Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 2021;148:104275. Abstract
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Liu Z, Deng L, Peng B. "Ferromagnetic and ferroelectric two-dimensional materials for memory application." Nano Research. 2021;14:1802-1813. Abstract
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Wu Y, Hua J, Zhou Z, Zhang J, Liu S, Peng B, Fang Y, Ning X, Nie Z, Li F, others. "High-throughput injection–acceleration of electron bunches from a linear accelerator to a laser wakefield accelerator." Nature Physics. 2021;17:801-806. Abstract
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Wang C, Jiang X, Sweeney WR, Hsu CW, Liu Y, Zhao G, Peng B, Zhang M, Jiang L, Stone DA, others. "Induced transparency by interference or polarization." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2021;118. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Parzefall P, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-Scale Mapping of Moiré Superlattices by Hyperspectral Raman Imaging." Advanced Materials. 2021;33:2008333. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Parzefall P, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-Scale Mapping of Moiré Superlattices by Hyperspectral Raman Imaging (Adv. Mater. 34/2021)." Advanced Materials. 2021;33:2170267. Abstract
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Wan Y, Cheng X, Li Y, Wang Y, Du Y, Zhao Y, Peng B, Dai L, Kan E. "Manipulating the Raman scattering rotation via magnetic field in an MoS 2 monolayer." RSC Advances. 2021;11:4035-4041. Abstract
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Parzefall P, Holler J, Scheuck M, Beer A, Lin K-Q, Peng B, Monserrat B, Nagler P, Kempf M, Korn T, others. "Moiré phonons in twisted MoSe2–WSe2 heterobilayers and their correlation with interlayer excitons." 2D Materials. 2021;8:035030. Abstract
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Meng T, Zhang J, Wang H, Fu N, Wang M, Li W, Shi R, Peng B, Li P, Deng Z. "Multifunctional CuO-Coated Mesh for Wastewater Treatment: Effective Oil/Water Separation, Organic Contaminants Photodegradation, and Bacterial Photodynamic Inactivation." Advanced Materials Interfaces. 2021;8:2101179. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Ong CS, Bange S, Faria Junior PE, Peng B, Ziegler JD, Zipfel J, Bäuml C, Paradiso N, Watanabe K, others. "Narrow-band high-lying excitons with negative-mass electrons in monolayer WSe2." Nature communications. 2021;12:1-8. Abstract
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Lee A, Peng B, Du K, Kung H-H, Monserrat B, Cheong S-W, Blumberg G. "Observation a Chiral Electronic Continuum in the Giant Rashba Spin-Split System, BiTeI." Bulletin of the American Physical Society. 2021;66. Abstract
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Niu Y-T, Lu X, Shi Z-T, Peng B. "Observation of magnetoresistance in CrI3/graphene van derWaals heterostructures." Chinese Physics B. 2021;30:117506. Abstract
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Zhang J, Peng B, Kim S, Monifi F, Jiang X, Li Y, Yu P, Liu L, Liu Y-xi, Alù A, others. "Optomechanical dissipative solitons." Nature. 2021;600:75-80. Abstract
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Li Z, Peng B, Lin M-L, Leng Y-C, Zhang B, Pang C, Tan P-H, Monserrat B, Chen F. "Phonon-assisted electronic states modulation of few-layer PdSe2 at terahertz frequencies." npj 2D Materials and Applications. 2021;5:1-8. Abstract
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Wang B, Ma Y, Wang N, Wang J, Luo J, Peng B, Deng Z. "Reproducible and fast preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces via an ultrasound-accelerated one-pot approach for oil collection." Separation and Purification Technology. 2021;258:118036. Abstract
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Peng B, Liu Y, Aarts DGAL, Dullens RPA. "Stabilisation of hollow colloidal TiO 2 particles by partial coating with evenly distributed lobes." Soft Matter. 2021;17:1480-1486. Abstract
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Zhao X, Qiao J, Zhou X, Chen H, Tan JY, Yu H, Chan SM, Li J, Zhang H, Zhou J, others. "Strong Moiré Excitons in High-Angle Twisted Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Homobilayers with Robust Commensuration." Nano Letters. 2021. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Faria Junior PE, Bauer JM, Peng B, Monserrat B, Gmitra M, Fabian J, Bange S, Lupton JM. "Twist-angle engineering of excitonic quantum interference and optical nonlinearities in stacked 2D semiconductors." Nature communications. 2021;12:1-7. Abstract
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Liu S, Gao Y, Ma Y, Meng T, Yi C, Xu Z, Peng B, Deng Z. "Ultrasonication-Assisted Waterborne Synthesis of Self-Restorable Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Prolonged Lifespan in Oil Collection." Advanced Materials Interfaces. 2021;8:2001886. Abstract
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2020
Naidoo K, Kempen JH, Gichuhi S, Braithwaite T, Casson RJ, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Leasher J, Limburg H, Pesudovs K, Resnikoff S, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA. "Prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections." Br J Ophthalmol. 2020. AbstractWebsite

Background: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of vision loss in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in 2015, compared with prior years, and to estimate expected values for 2020.

Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting distance visual acuity <3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting distance visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting distance visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18), and also near vision impairment (

Nanteza A, Obara I, Kasaija P, Mwega E, Kabi F, Salih DA, Njahira M, Joyce Njuguna, Odongo D, Bishop RP, Skilton RA, Ahmed J, Clausen P-H, Lubega GW. "Antigen gene and variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) diversity in Theileria parva parasites from Ankole cattle in south-western Uganda: Evidence for conservation in antigen gene sequences combined with extensive polymorphism at VNTR loci." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:99-107. Abstract

Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted apicomplexan protozoan parasite that infects lymphocytes of cattle and African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), causing a frequently fatal disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. A live vaccination procedure, known as infection and treatment method (ITM), the most frequently used version of which comprises the Muguga, Serengeti-transformed and Kiambu 5 stocks of T. parva, delivered as a trivalent cocktail, is generally effective. However, it does not always induce 100% protection against heterologous parasite challenge. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of T. parva in target cattle populations is therefore important prior to extensive vaccine deployment. This study investigated the extent of genetic diversity within T. parva field isolates derived from Ankole (Bos taurus) cattle in south-western Uganda using 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) satellite loci and the sequences of two antigen-encoding genes that are targets of CD8+T-cell responses induced by ITM, designated Tp1 and Tp2. The findings revealed a T. parva prevalence of 51% confirming endemicity of the parasite in south-western Uganda. Cattle-derived T. parva VNTR genotypes revealed a high degree of polymorphism. However, all of the T. parva Tp1 and Tp2 alleles identified in this study have been reported previously, indicating that they are widespread geographically in East Africa and highly conserved.

Bishop RP, Odongo D, Ahmed J, Mwamuye M, Fry LM, Knowles DP, Nanteza A, Lubega G, Gwakisa P, Clausen P-H, Obara I. "A review of recent research on Theileria parva: Implications for the infection and treatment vaccination method for control of East Coast fever." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:56-67. Abstract

The infection and treatment (ITM) live vaccination method for control of Theileria parva infection in cattle is increasingly being adopted, particularly in Maasai pastoralist systems. Several studies indicate positive impacts on human livelihoods. Importantly, the first detailed protocol for live vaccine production at scale has recently been published. However, quality control and delivery issues constrain vaccination sustainability and deployment. There is evidence that the distribution of T. parva is spreading from endemic areas in East Africa, North into Southern Sudan and West into Cameroon, probably as a result of anthropogenic movement of cattle. It has also recently been demonstrated that in Kenya, T. parva derived from cape buffalo can 'breakthrough' the immunity induced by ITM. However, in Tanzania, breakthrough has not been reported in areas where cattle co-graze with buffalo. It has been confirmed that buffalo in northern Uganda national parks are not infected with T. parva and R. appendiculatus appears to be absent, raising issues regarding vector distribution. Recently, there have been multiple field population genetic studies using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences and sequencing of antigen genes encoding targets of CD8+ T-cell responses. The VNTR markers generally reveal high levels of diversity. The antigen gene sequences present within the trivalent Muguga cocktail are relatively conserved among cattle transmissible T. parva populations. By contrast, greater genetic diversity is present in antigen genes from T. parva of buffalo origin. There is also evidence from several studies for transmission of components of stocks present within the Muguga cocktail, into field ticks and cattle following induction of a carrier state by immunization. In the short term, this may increase live vaccine effectiveness, through a more homogeneous challenge, but the long-term consequences are unknown.

Lutta HO, Odongo D, Mather A, Perez-Casal J, Potter A, Gerdts V, Berberov EM, Prysliak T, Martina Kyallo, Kipronoh A, Olum M, Pelle R, Naessens J. "Baseline analysis of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides antigens as targets for a DIVA assay for use with a subunit vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16(1):236. Abstract

Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in cattle. A prototype subunit vaccine is being developed, however, there is currently no diagnostic test that can differentiate between infected cattle and those vaccinated with the prototype subunit vaccine. This study characterized Mmm proteins to identify potential antigens for use in differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.

Obara I, Githaka N, Nijhof A, Krücken J, Nanteza A, Odongo D, Lubembe D, Atimnedi P, Mijele D, Njeri A, Mwaura S, Owido G, Ahmed J, Clausen PH, Bishop RP. "The Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick vector of Theileria parva is absent from cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) populations and associated ecosystems in northern Uganda." Parasitol Res. 2020;119(7):2363-2367. Abstract

Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is the major tick vector of Theileria parva, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite that causes the most economically important and lethal disease of cattle in East and central Africa. The African cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the major wildlife host of T. parva from southern Uganda and Kenya to southern Africa. We show herein that R. appendiculatus appears to be absent from the two largest national parks in northern Uganda. Syncerus caffer is common in both of these national parks, specifically Murchison falls (MFNP) and Kidepo Valley (KVNP). We re-confirmed the previously reported absence of T. parva in buffalo sampled in the two northern parks based on RLB data using a nested PCR based on the T. parva p104 gene. By contrast, T. parva-infected R. appendiculatus ticks and parasite-infected buffalo were present in Lake Mburo (LMNP) in South central Uganda. This suggests that the distribution of R. appendiculatus, which is predicted to include the higher rainfall regions of northern Uganda, may be limited by additional, as yet unknown factors.

Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Lubembe DM, Odongo DO, Salih DA, Sibeko-Matjila KP. "Microsatellite and minisatellite genotyping of Theileria parva population from southern Africa reveals possible discriminatory allele profiles with parasites from eastern Africa." Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2020;11(6):101539. Abstract

The control of Theileria parva, a protozoan parasite that threatens almost 50% of the cattle population in Africa, is still a challenge in many affected countries. Theileria parva field parasites from eastern Africa, and parasites comprising the current live T. parva vaccine widely deployed in the same region have been reported to be genotypically diverse. However, similar reports on T. parva parasites from southern Africa are limited, especially in Corridor disease designated areas. Establishing the extent of genetic exchange in T. parva populations is necessary for effective control of the parasite infection. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite and minisatellite loci were targeted for genotypic and population genetics analysis of T. parva parasites from South Africa, Mozambique, Kenya and Uganda using genomic DNA prepared from cattle and buffalo blood samples. The results revealed genotypic similarities among parasites from the two regions of Africa, with possible distinguishing allelic profiles on three loci (MS8, MS19 and MS33) for parasites associated with Corridor disease in South Africa, and East Coast fever in eastern Africa. Individual populations were in linkage equilibrium (VL) was observed. Genetic divergence was observed to be more within (AMOVA = 74%) than between (AMOVA = 26%) populations. Principal coordinate analysis showed clustering that separated buffalo-derived from cattle-derived T. parva parasites, although parasites from cattle showed a close genetic relationship. The results also demonstrated geographic sub-structuring of T. parva parasites based on the disease syndromes caused in cattle in the two regions of Africa. These findings provide additional information on the genotypic diversity of T. parva parasites from South Africa, and reveal possible differences based on three loci (MS8, MS19 and MS33) and similarities between buffalo-derived T. parva parasites from southern and eastern Africa.

Brizuela V, Bonet M, Romero CLT, Abalos E, Baguiya A, Fawole B, Knight M, Lumbiganon P, Minkauskienė M, Nabhan A, Osman NB, Qureshi ZP, Souza JP. "Early evaluation of the 'STOP SEPSIS!' WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Awareness Campaign implemented for healthcare providers in 46 low, middle and high-income countries." BMJ Open. 2020;10(5):e036338. Abstract

To evaluate changes in awareness of maternal sepsis among healthcare providers resulting from the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) awareness campaign.

Arunga S, Kintoki GM, Mwesigye J, Ayebazibwe B, Onyango J, Bazira J, Newton R, Gichuhi S, Leck A, Macleod D, Hu VH, Burton MJ. "Epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis in Uganda: A Cohort Study." Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2020;27(2):121-131. AbstractWebsite

: To describe the epidemiology of Microbial Keratitis (MK) in Uganda.: We prospectively recruited patients presenting with MK at two main eye units in Southern Uganda between December 2016 and March 2018. We collected information on clinical history and presentation, microbiology and 3-month outcomes. Poor vision was defined as vision < 6/60).: 313 individuals were enrolled. Median age was 47 years (range 18-96) and 174 (56%) were male. Median presentation time was 17 days from onset (IQR 8-32). Trauma was reported by 29% and use of Traditional Eye Medicine by 60%. Majority presented with severe infections (median infiltrate size 5.2 mm); 47% were blind in the affected eye (vision < 3/60). Microbiology was available from 270 cases: 62% were fungal, 7% mixed (bacterial and fungal), 7% bacterial and 24% no organism detected. At 3 months, 30% of the participants were blind in the affected eye, while 9% had lost their eye from the infection. Delayed presentation (overall = .007) and prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine (aOR 1.58 [95% CI 1.04-2.42], = .033) were responsible for poor presentation. Predictors of poor vision at 3 months were: baseline vision (aOR 2.98 [95%CI 2.12-4.19], < .0001), infiltrate size (aOR 1.19 [95%CI 1.03-1.36], < .020) and perforation at presentation (aOR 9.93 [95% CI 3.70-26.6], < .0001).: The most important outcome predictor was the state of the eye at presentation, facilitated by prior use of Traditional Eye Medicine and delayed presentation. In order to improve outcomes, we need effective early interventions.

Mbaabu PR, Olago D, Gichaba M, Eckert S, Eschen R, Oriaso S, Choge SK, Linders TEW, Schaffner U. "Restoration of degraded grasslands, but not invasion by Prosopis juliflora, avoids trade-offs between climate change mitigation and other ecosystem services.". 2020;10(1):20391. AbstractWebsite

Grassland degradation and the concomitant loss of soil organic carbon is widespread in tropical arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Afforestation of degraded grassland, sometimes by using invasive alien trees, has been put forward as a legitimate climate change mitigation strategy. However, even in cases where tree encroachment of degraded grasslands leads to increased soil organic carbon, it may come at a high cost since the restoration of grassland-characteristic biodiversity and ecosystem services will be blocked. We assessed how invasion by Prosopis juliflora and restoration of degraded grasslands in a semi-arid region in Baringo, Kenya affected soil organic carbon, biodiversity and fodder availability. Thirty years of grassland restoration replenished soil organic carbon to 1 m depth at a rate of 1.4% per year and restored herbaceous biomass to levels of pristine grasslands, while plant biodiversity remained low. Invasion of degraded grasslands by P. juliflora increased soil organic carbon primarily in the upper 30 cm and suppressed herbaceous vegetation. We argue that, in contrast to encroachment by invasive alien trees, restoration of grasslands in tropical semi-arid regions can both serve as a measure for climate change mitigation and help restore key ecosystem services important for pastoralists and agro-pastoralist communities.

Sorensen JPR, Carr AF, Nayebare J, Diongue DML, Pouye A, Roffo R, Gwengweya G, Ward JST, Kanoti J, Okotto-Okotto J, van der Marel L, Ciric L, Faye SC, Gaye CB, Goodall T, Kulabako R, Lapworth DJ, MacDonald AM, Monjerezi M, Olago D, Owor M, Read DS, Taylor RG. "Tryptophan-like and humic-like fluorophores are extracellular in groundwater: implications as real-time faecal indicators.". 2020;10(1):15379. AbstractWebsite

Fluorescent natural organic matter at tryptophan-like (TLF) and humic-like fluorescence (HLF) peaks is associated with the presence and enumeration of faecal indicator bacteria in groundwater. We hypothesise, however, that it is predominantly extracellular material that fluoresces at these wavelengths, not bacterial cells. We quantified total (unfiltered) and extracellular (filtered at < 0.22 µm) TLF and HLF in 140 groundwater sources across a range of urban population densities in Kenya, Malawi, Senegal, and Uganda. Where changes in fluorescence occurred following filtration they were correlated with potential controlling variables. A significant reduction in TLF following filtration (ΔTLF) was observed across the entire dataset, although the majority of the signal remained and thus considered extracellular (median 96.9%). ΔTLF was only significant in more urbanised study areas where TLF was greatest. Beneath Dakar, Senegal, ΔTLF was significantly correlated to total bacterial cells (ρs 0.51). No significant change in HLF following filtration across all data indicates these fluorophores are extracellular. Our results suggest that TLF and HLF are more mobile than faecal indicator bacteria and larger pathogens in groundwater, as the predominantly extracellular fluorophores are less prone to straining. Consequently, TLF/HLF are more precautionary indicators of microbial risks than faecal indicator bacteria in groundwater-derived drinking water.

Obiero K, Lawrence T, Ives J, Smith S, Njaya F, Kayanda R, Waidbacher H, Olago D, Miriti E, Hecky RE. "Advancing Africa’s great lakes research and academic potential: Answering the call for harmonized, long-term, collaborative networks and partnerships." Journal of Great Lakes Research. 2020. Abstractdio.org

Abstract
The African Great Lakes (AGL) have rich fisheries and are renowned “biodiversity hotspots”. Consequently the AGLand the ecosystem services they provide, underpin the welfare and livelihoods of over 50 million people across 10 countries. Despite the recognized importance of the AGL, these vital ecosystems and their livelihood support systems are threatened by numerous anthropogenic stressors at local, regional, and global scales. Past and continued efforts to address critical challenges on these lakes are often short-term, parochial, disparate, and uncoordinated resulting in a lack of comprehensive and comparable scientific data and inadequate resources to influence evidence-based policy. Over the past two decades, several international workshops, conferences and scientific publications have identified the need for collaboration, knowledge sharing, and harmonization of research and management as key elements to enhance conservation efforts in the AGL. In this commentary, we introduce the African Center for Aquatic Research and Education (ACARE), which aims to strengthen research and provide the scientific evidence needed to make informed decisions related to sustainable fisheries and aquatic resource management in the AGL. To do this, ACARE will administer a highly collaborative network of experts with three long-term goals: (1) strengthen global and regional research partnerships; (2) establish transboundary and inter-jurisdictional lake advisory groups; and (3) build capacity of freshwater scientists through experiential education and public engagement.

Keywords
African Great Lakes Collaborative networks Transboundary lake advisory groups, educationResearch partnerships

S.Senda T, Lance W. Robinson, K.K.Gachene C, Kironchi G, Doyo J. "An assessment of the implications of alternative scales of communal land tenure formalization in pastoral systems." Land use Policy. 2020;94.
Mundo L, Porro LD, Granai M, Siciliano MC, Mancini V, Santi R, Marcar L, Vrzalikova K, Vergoni F, Stefano GD, Schivoni G, Segreto G, Noel Onyango, Nyagol JA, Amato T, Bellan C, Anagnostopoulos I, Falini B, Leoncini L, Lazzi S. "Correction: Frequent traces of EBV infection in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas classified as EBV-negative by routine methods: expanding the landscape of EBV-related lymphomas." Modern Pathology. 2020:10.1038/s41379-020-0608-y.
M G, L M, AU A, MC S, H R, V M, N O, J N, OA A, I M, S M, W W, M B, PP P, L Q-M, F F, S L, Leoncini L, T M. "Correction: Immune landscape in Burkitt lymphoma reveals M2-macrophage polarization and correlation between PD-L1 expression and non-canonical EBV latency program. ." Infect Agent & Cancer . 2020;15(39):doi:10.1186/s13027-020-00304-9.
Lutta AI, Wasonga OV, Robinson LW, Nyangito MM, Jason Sircely. "Determinants of livestock market participation among pastoral communities of Tana River County, Kenya." Environment, Development and Sustainability. 2020.
Sola L, Levin NW, Johnson DW, Pecoits-Filho R, Aljubori HM, Chen Y, Claus S, Collins A, Cullis B, Feehally J, Harden PN, Hassan MH, Ibhais F, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, Saleh A, Schneditz D, Tchokhonelidze I, Kazancioglu RT, Twahir A, Walker R, Were AJO, Yu X, Finkelstein FO. "Development of a framework for minimum and optimal safety and quality standards for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis." Kidney International Supplements. 2020.
Langat MK, Ndunda B, Salter C, Odusina BO, Isyaka SM, Mas-Claret E, Onocha PA, Midiwo JO, Nuzillard J-M, Mulholland DA. "Diterpenoids from the stem bark of Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M. G. Gilbert." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;39:1-7.
Langat MK, Ndunda BM, Salter C, Odusina BO, Isyaka SM, Mas-Claret E, Onocha PA, Midiwo JO, Nuzillard J-M, Mulholland DA. "Diterpenoids from the stem bark of Croton megalocarpoides Friis & MG Gilbert." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;39:1-7. AbstractPhytochemistry Letters

Description
Five previously undescribed compounds, megalocarpoidolide I (1), megalocarpoidolide J (3), 12-epi-crotonzambefuran A (4), megalocarpoidolide K (5), 1-trans-p-hydroxycoumaroyl–geranylgerani-1-ol (6) were isolated from the stem bark of Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M. G. Gilbert. The known ent-trachyloban-18-ol, megalocarpoidolide B, megalocarpoidolide C (2), megalocarpoidolide H, crotocorylifuran, 7,8-dehydrocrotocorylifuran, 1,2-dehydrocrotocorylifuran-2-one, acetyl aleuritolic acid, lupeol, N-trans-p-coumaroyl-3′,4′-dihydroxyphenylethylamine, dodecyl trans-ferulate and lignoceryl trans-ferulate were also isolated. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, IR spectroscopy and HRMS. The structure of compound 1 was determined using Logic for Structural Determination (LSD). Compounds 1, 2 and 3 that were selected for screening based on their ability to add diversity to the …

Brizuela V, Bonet M, Romero CLT, Abalos E, Baguiya A, Fawole B, Knight M, Lumbiganon P, Minkauskienė M, Nabhan A, Osman NB, Qureshi ZP, Souza JP. "Early evaluation of the ‘STOP SEPSIS!’ WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Awareness Campaign implemented for healthcare providers in 46 low, middle and high-income countries." British Medical Journal . 2020;10(5). AbstractWebsite

Objective To evaluate changes in awareness of maternal sepsis among healthcare providers resulting from the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) awareness campaign.

Design Independent sample precampaign/postcampaign through online and paper-based surveys available for over 30 days before campaign roll-out (pre) and after study data collection (post). Descriptive statistics were used for campaign recognition and exposure, and odds ratio (OR) and percentage change were calculated for differences in awareness, adjusting for confounders using multivariate logistic regression.

Setting and participants Healthcare providers from 398 participating facilities in 46 low, middle and high-income countries.

Intervention An awareness campaign to accompany GLOSS launched 3 weeks prior to data collection and lasting the entire study period (28 November 2017 to 15 January 2018) and beyond.

Main outcome measures Campaign recognition and exposure, and changes in awareness.

Results A total of 2188 surveys were analysed: 1155 at baseline and 1033 at postcampaign. Most survey respondents found the campaign materials helpful (94%), that they helped increase awareness (90%) and that they helped motivate to act differently (88%). There were significant changes with regard to: not having heard of maternal sepsis (−63.4% change, pre-OR/post-OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.68) and perception of confidence in making the right decisions with regard to maternal sepsis identification and management (7.3% change, pre-OR/post-OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.06).

Conclusions Awareness raising campaigns can contribute to an increase in having heard of maternal sepsis and an increase in provider perception of confidence in making correct decisions. Offering the information to make accurate and timely decisions while promoting environments that enable self-confidence and support could improve maternal sepsis identification and management.

Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Environmental Planning and Management. 2020;63(2).
Mudavadi Patrick Ongadi, Emmanuel A Mpolya, Charles Gachuiri, Francis Namasake Muyekho, Lukuyu AB. "Effects of Season Variation on Water, Feed, Milk Yield and Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows in Smallholder Farms in Eastern Africa." Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International. 2020.
Li D, Zhang Y, Guo Q, Sun X, Zhang H, Wang S, Birech Z, Hu J. "An efficient LSPR method to quantitatively detect dimethoate: Development, characterization and evaluation. ." Plos one. 2020;15(9):e0239632.
Makau MC, Powell J, Prendergast J, de Late PL, Morrison LJ. "A Fisch (2021) Inverted CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in Boran (Bos indicus) cattle ." Veterinary Immunology And Immunopathology . 2020;230:235.
Mundo L, Porro LD, Granai M, Siciliano MC, Mancini V, Santi R, Marcar L, Vrzalikova K, Vergoni F, Stefano GD, Schivoni G, Segreto G, Noel Onyango, Nyagol JA, Amato T, Bellan C, Anagnostopoulos I, Falini B, Leoncini L, Lazzi S. "Frequent traces of EBV infection in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas classified as EBV-negative by routine methods: expanding the landscape of EBV-related lymphomas." Modern Pathology . 2020.
Ogali IN, Okumu PO, Mungube EO, Lichoti, J. K., Ogada S, Moraa GK, Ommeh SC. "Genomic and Pathogenic Characteristics of Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Chicken in Live Bird Markets and Backyard Flocks in Kenya." . International journal of microbiology. 2020;2020:1-11.
M G, L M, AU A, MC S, H R, V M, N O, J N, OA A, I M, S M, W W, M B, PP P, L Q-M, F F, S L, Leoncini L, T M. "Immune landscape in Burkitt lymphoma reveals M2-macrophage polarization and correlation between PD-L1 expression and non-canonical EBV latency program. ." Infectious Agents & Cancer . 2020;15(28).
E L, M K, S S, FH R, Kinuthia J, L S, W J, H A, A K, F E, John-Stewart, Fredricks DN, McClelland S. "Impact of preconception vaginal microbiota on women’s risk of spontaneous preterm birth: Protocol for a prospective case-cohort study." BMJ Open J. 2020;2020; 10:e035186(2020; 10:e035186):2020; 10:e035186.
MA O, BK K, KK K, LW G. "Implication of Minamata convention on mercury on oral health in Kenya." Kenya policy brief towards vision 2030. 2020;vol 1 No 1.
Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW, Yaouba S, Makunga NP, Githiomi J, Yenesew A. "In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of the Root Bark Extract and Isolated Chemical Constituents of Zanthoxylum paracanthum Kokwaro (Rutaceae)." Plants. 2020;9(7):920. AbstractPlants

Description
Zanthoxylum paracanthum Kokwaro (Rutaceae) is an endemic Kenyan and Tanzanian plant used in folk medicine by local populations. Although other Zanthoxylum species have been studied, only Z. paracantum stem extracts have been profiled, even though the roots are also used as herbal remedies. As root extracts may be another source of pharmaceutical compounds, the CH 2 Cl 2/MeOH (1: 1) root bark extract was studied in this report. Eight root bark compounds were isolated and their structural identities were confirmed by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)(using COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HMBC) analyses. The structural identities were determined as follows: the fatty acid—myristic acid (1); the sterol—stigmasterol (2); the lignan—sesamin (3); two β-carboline alkaloids—10-methoxycanthin-6-one (6) and canthin-6-one (7); and three phenanthridine alkaloids—8-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine (4), arnottianamide (5) and 8-oxochelerythrine (8). Some of these compounds were identified in the species for the first time. These compounds and the extract were then tested in vitro against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) before tests for antiproliferative activity against the human breast cancer (HCC 1395), human prostate cancer (DU 145) and normal (Vero E6) cell lines were conducted. Minimum inhibition concentration values of 3.91, 1.95, 0.98 and 7.81 µg/mL against MRSA, S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans, respectively, were recorded. Among the isolates, canthin-6-one was the …

Kaigongi, M.M., Lukhoba, C.W., Yaouba, S., Makunga NP, Githiomi, J., Yenesew A. "In vitro antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of the root bark extract and isolated chemical constituents of Zanthoxylum paracanthum kokwaro (Rutaceae)." Plants . 2020;9(7):920.
Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Ilias M, Larry W, Malebo HM, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "In vitro Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic activity of Three Medicinal Plants used Traditionally for Treatment of Malaria." Investigational Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacology. 2020;10(1):2-6.omole_et_al_2020.pdf
Omole RA, Moshi MJ, Ilias M, Larry W, Malebo HM, Omosa LK, Midiwo JO. "In vitro Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic activity of Three Medicinal Plants used Traditionally for Treatment of Malaria." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2020;10(1):2-6. AbstractPharmacognosy Communications

Description
Introduction:
Reports of emergence of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs) resistant malaria parasites in Greater Mekong region and Equatorial Guinea, is a strong reason necessitating increased efforts to discover new antimalarial compounds with novel mechanisms of action. Plants have potential to yield new antiplasmodial compounds. This study investigated the safety and efficacy of three plants; Bersama abyssinica Fresen, Rubus keniensis Standl and Hypoestes verticillaris (Lf) Sol. ex Roem. and Schult that are used by the Ogiek community of Kenya for treatment of malaria.
Methodology:
The crude extracts were tested for in vitro antimalarial activity using Plasmodium falciparum strains W2 (chloroquine resistant) and D6 (chloroquine sensitive). Safety evaluation was done using monkey kidney Vero cells and the brine shrimp lethality test.
Results:
Dichloromethane: methanol (1: 1) and 5% aqueous methanol extracts of the three plants exhibited in vitro antiplasmodial activity against the W2 and D6 Plasmodium falciparum strains with IC50= 12.11–19.18 µg/mL, 5.46-7.04 µg/mL and 9.82–34.52 µg/mL, respectively. H. verticillaris extracts were the most active against the two Plasmodium falciparum strains. The dichloromethane: methanol extracts of the three plants exhibited lower toxicity on monkey kidney Vero cells relative to antiplasmodial activity as compared to the 5% aqueous methanol extracts. The mean Vero cells: parasite selectivity index of the dichloromethane: methanol extracts was (4.8), B. abyssinica (3.75) and R. keniensis (1.9), while for the 5% aqueous methanol extracts they were H. verticillaris (1.0), B. abyssinica (1.95 …

Makau MC, Powell J, de Laté PL, LJ Morrison FA. "Inverted CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in Boran (Bos indicus) cattle." Veterinary immunology and immunopathology. 2020;230:110126.
Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW, Taylor M, Yenesew A, Makunga NP. "LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) Populations." Molecules. 2020;25(18):4130. AbstractMolecules

Description
Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) is a medicinal plant with a worldwide distribution. The species has undergone enormous taxonomic changes which caused confusion amongst plant users. In Kenya, for example, two varieties are known to exist based on morphology, ie, D. viscosa var. viscosa along the coast, and D. viscosa var. angustifolia in the Kenyan inland. These two taxa are recognized as distinct species in some reports. This prompted us to apply metabolomics to understand the relationship among naturally occurring populations of D. viscosa in Kenya, and to identify compounds that can assist in taxonomic delineation of the different varieties of D. viscosa from different parts of Kenya. The phytochemical variability of Kenyan D. viscosa var. angustifolia populations collected from four different geographical regions (Nanyuki, Machakos, Nairobi, and Narok) and one coastal D. viscosa var. viscosa (the Gazi) were analyzed by LC-MS using a metabolomics-driven approach. Four known compounds, two diterpenoids (dodonic acid (1), hautriwaic acid lactone (3), and two flavonoids (5, 7, 4′, 5′-tetrahydroxy-3, 6, 2′-trimethoxyflavone (2) and catechin (4)) were isolated and purified from the Gazi coastal collection. The presence of these compounds and their relative abundance in other populations was determined by LC-MS analyses. Multivariate statistical analyses of LC-MS data was used for the visualization of the patterns of variation and identification of additional compounds. Eleven discriminant compounds responsible for separating chemometric clusters were tentatively identified. In an antimicrobial assay, hautriwaic acid …

Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba, C.W., Ochieng, P., Taylor, D, Yenesew A, Makunga NP. "LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. (Sapindaceae) Populations." Molecules. 2020;25 (18):4130.
Twalib MH, Lukio O. "Maneuvering Through Antiplagiarism." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2020;10(2):595-597.
Jedidah Nankaya, Nathan Gichuki, Lukhoba C, Balslev H. "Medicinal Plants of the Maasai of Kenya: A Review." Plants. 2020;9(44).
Luvai AK, Obiero JPO, Omuto. CT. "Methods for Erosion Estimates in Assessment of Soil Degradation: A Review for Catchments in Kenya." . International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT). 2020;Vol. 9 (Issue 05):489-494.
Weboko FI, Nyongesa BS, Makhanu MN, Santos MS, Luna KDG, Dey GES, Viloria IL. "Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Pulpotomy for Apexogenesis of an Immature Permanent Molar. A Case Report." Endodontic Society of the Philippines journal . 2020;32(1):16-21.
Nambati EA, Njoka M, Eyase F, Majanja J, Njuguna N, Gitonga SM, Mwikwabe N, Lelo E, Mwangi M, kingoro A, Kimani F, Lubano K, Bulimo W. "Multidisciplinary approach towards training of the next generation of forensic DNA analysts in Africa; a Kenyan perspective." Forensic Science International: Synergy. 2020;2:123-125. Abstract1-s2.0-s2589871x20300267-main.pdfWebsite

The uptake of forensic DNA testing technologies in Africa has been slow despite the revolutionary technology being discovered and adopted 3 decades ago. African governments and partners have invested in construction and equipping of forensic laboratories in Africa but the benefits are yet to be realised as the laboratories are still faced with the challenge of shortage of adequately trained personnel. This paper describes an innovative multidisciplinary training approach that was developed and used to train officers from the Directorate of Criminal Investigations Kenya. We report on the structure, implementation and effectiveness of the training. It is expected that with the increased number of trained forensic DNA analysts, there will be an improvement in quality of forensic DNA evidence presented in courts and a reduction in backlog in the forensic biology laboratories in Kenya.

Mbugua SN, Sibuyi NRS, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. "New Palladium(II) and Platinum(II) Complexes Based on Pyrrole Schiff Bases: Synthesis, Characterization, X ray Structure, and Anticancer Activity." ACS Omega . 2020;5(25):14942−14954 . AbstractACS OMEGA

New palladium (Pd)II and platinum (Pt)II complexes (C1−C5) from the Schiff base ligands, R-(phenyl)methanamine (L1), R-(pyridin-2-yl)methanamine (L2), and R-(furan2-yl)methanamine (L3) (R-(E)-N-((1H-pyrrol-2-yl) methylene)) are herein reported. The complexes (C1−C5) were characterized by FTIR, 1 H and 13C NMR, UV−vis, and microanalyses. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis was performed for the two ligands (L1−L2) and a Pt complex. Both L1 and L2 belong to P21/n monoclinic and P-1 triclinic space systems, respectively. The complex C5 belongs to the P21/c monoclinic space group. The investigated molar conductivity of the complexes in DMSO gave the range 4.0−8.8 μS/cm, suggesting neutrality, with log P values ≥ 1.2692 ± 0.004, suggesting lipophilicity. The anticancer activity and mechanism of the complexes were investigated against various human cancerous (Caco-2, HeLa, HepG2, MCF-7, and PC-3) and noncancerous (MCF-12A) cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Apopercentage assays, respectively. C5 demonstrated strong DNA-binding affinity for calf thymus DNA (CTDNA) with a binding constant of 8.049 × 104 M−1 . C3 reduced cell viability of all the six cell lines, which included five cancerous cell lines, by more than 80%. The C5 complex also demonstrated remarkably high selectivity with no cytotoxic activity toward the noncancerous breast cell line but reduced the viability of the five cancerous cell lines, which included one breast cancer cell line, by more than 60%. Further studies are required to evaluate the selective toxicity of these two complexes and to fully understand their mechanism of action

Mbugua SN, Sibuyi NRS, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. "New Palladium(II) and Platinum(II) Complexes Based on Pyrrole Schiff Bases: Synthesis, Characterization, X‑ray Structure, and Anticancer Activity." ACS Omega. 2020. Abstractdx.doi.org

New palladium (Pd)II and platinum (Pt)II complexes (C1–C5) from the Schiff base ligands, R-(phenyl)methanamine (L1), R-(pyridin-2-yl)methanamine (L2), and R-(furan-2-yl)methanamine (L3) (R-(E)-N-((1H-pyrrol-2-yl) methylene)) are herein reported. The complexes (C1–C5) were characterized by FTIR, 1H and 13C NMR, UV–vis, and microanalyses. Single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis was performed for the two ligands (L1–L2) and a Pt complex. Both L1 and L2 belong to P21/n monoclinic and P-1 triclinic space systems, respectively. The complex C5 belongs to the P21/c monoclinic space group. The investigated molar conductivity of the complexes in DMSO gave the range 4.0–8.8 μS/cm, suggesting neutrality, with log P values ≥ 1.2692 ± 0.004, suggesting lipophilicity. The anticancer activity and mechanism of the complexes were investigated against various human cancerous (Caco-2, HeLa, HepG2 …

Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On unitary equivalence of some classes of operators in Hilbertspaces." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(2):35-37. Abstractfull text link

It is a well-known result in operator theory that whenever two operators are similar then they have equal spectra even though they do not have to belong to the same class of operators. However under a stronger relation of unitary equivalence it can be shown that two unitarily equivalent operators may belong to the same class of op erators. In this paper we endeavor to exhibit results on such classes of operators which belong to same class under unitary equivalence.

Luketero SW, Khalagai JM. "On unitary equivalence of some classes of operators in Hilbert spaces." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(2):35-37. AbstractWebsite

It is a well-known result in operator theory that whenever two operators are similar then they have equal spectra even though they do not have to belong to the same class of operators. However under a stronger relation of unitary equivalence it can be shown that two unitarily equivalent operators may belong to the same class of operators. In this paper we endeavor to exhibit results on such classes of operators which belong to same class under unitary equivalence.

Nzimbi BM, Luketero SW. "On Unitary Quasi-Equivalence of Operators." International Journal of Mathematics And its Applications. 2020;8(1):207-215. Abstractfull text link

In this paper we investigate unitary quasi-equivalence of operators in Hilbert spaces. We characterize operators that are unitarily quasi-equivalent. We also investigate equivalence relations closely related to unitary quasi-equivalence. We give and prove conditions under which unitary quasi-equivalence coincides with other operator equivalence relations.

Bernard M. Nzimbi, Luketero SW. "On unitary quasi-equivalence of operators." International Journal of Mathematics and Its Applications. 2020;8(1):207-215. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we investigate unitary quasi-equivalence of operators in Hilbert spaces. We characterize operators that are
unitarily quasi-equivalent. We also investigate equivalence relations closely related to unitary quasi-equivalence. We give
and prove conditions under which unitary quasi-equivalence coincides with other operator equivalence relations

Omwenga I, Kanja Laetitia W, Zomer P, Louisse J, Rietjens IMCM, Mol HGJ. "Organophosphate and carbamate pesticide residues and accompanying risks in commonly consumed vegetables in Kenya." Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B Surveillance . 2020;14(1):1-11.
Langat SK, Eyase FL, Berry IM, Nyunja A, Bulimo W, Owaka S, Ofula V, Limbaso S, Lutomiah J, Jarman R, Distelhorst J, Sang RC. "Origin and evolution of dengue virus type 2 causing outbreaks in Kenya: Evidence of circulation of two cosmopolitan genotype ." Virus Evol. 2020;6(1):veaa026. Abstractveaa026.pdfWebsite

Dengue fever (DF) is an arboviral disease caused by dengue virus serotypes 1-4 (DENV 1-4). Globally, DF incidence and disease burden have increased in the recent past. Initially implicated in a 1982 outbreak, DENV-2 recently reemerged in Kenya causing outbreaks between 2011 and 2014 and more recently 2017-8. The origin and the evolutionary patterns that may explain the epidemiological expansion and increasing impact of DENV-2 in Kenya remain poorly understood. Using whole-genome sequencing, samples collected during the 2011-4 and 2017-8 dengue outbreaks were analyzed. Additional DENV-2 genomes were downloaded and pooled together with the fourteen genomes generated in this study. Bioinformatic methods were used to analyze phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary patterns of DENV-2 causing outbreaks in Kenya. The findings from this study have shown the first evidence of circulation of two different Cosmopolitan genotype lineages of DENV-2; Cosmopolitan-I (C-I) and Cosmopolitan-II (C-II), in Kenya. Our results put the origin location of C-I lineage in India in 2011, and C-II lineage in Burkina Faso between 1979 and 2013. C-I lineage was the most isolated during recent outbreaks, thus showing the contribution of this newly emerged strain to the increased DENV epidemics in the region. Our findings, backed by evidence of recent local epidemics that have been associated with C-I in Kenya and C-II in Burkina Faso, add to the growing evidence of expanding circulation and the impact of multiple strains of DENV in the region as well as globally. Thus, continued surveillance efforts on DENV activity and its evolutionary trends in the region, would contribute toward effective control and the current vaccine development efforts.

Buyana K, Lwasa S, Tugume D, Mukwaya P, Walubwa J, Owuor S, Kasaija P, Sseviiri H, Nsangi G, Byarugaba D. "Pathways for resilience to climate change in African cities. Environ. Res. Lett. 15 (2020) 073002.". 2020.2020_environmental_research_letters_journal.pdf
Langat MK, Djuidje EFK, Ndunda BM, Isyaka SM, Dolan NS, Ettridge GD, Whitmore H, Lopez I, Alqahtani AM, Atiku I, Lobe JS, Mas-Claret E, Crouch NR, Midiwo JO, Mulholland DA, Kamdem AFW. "The phytochemical investigation of five African Croton species: Croton oligandrus, Croton megalocarpus, Croton menyharthii, Croton rivularis and Croton megalobotrys." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;40:148-155. AbstractPhytochemistry Letters

Description
The chemistry of five African Croton taxa, Croton oligandrus Pierre ex Hutch., Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Croton menyharthii Pax, Croton rivularis Mull.Arg. and Croton megalobotrys Mull.Arg. is described. The undescribed ent-19-hydroxyisopimara-8(9),15-dien-7-one and ent-isopimara-7(8),15-dien-16,19-diol were isolated from the fruits of C. oligandrus, ent-isopimara-7(8),15-dien-19-yl octadecanoate was obtained from both the fruits and leaves, and ent-19-hydroxyisopimara-8(9),15-dien-7-one was isolated from the leaves of this species. The undescribed 3,4,15,16-diepoxy-8α-hydroxycleroda-13(16),14-dien-12S,17-olide and (5S,9R,10S)-7,13-ent-abietadien-2-one were isolated from the leaves and roots of C. megalocarpus respectively. Compounds isolated from C. menyharthii, C. rivularis and C. megalobotrys have been reported from other sources. The structures of the compounds were determined using …

Langat MK, Djuidje EFK, Ndunda BM, Isyaka SM, Dolan NS, Ettridge GD, Whitmore H, Lopez I, Alqahtani AM, Atiku I, Lobe JS, Mas-Claret E, Crouch NR, Midiwo JO, Mulholland DA, Kamdem AFW. "The phytochemical investigation of five African Croton species: Croton oligandrus, Croton megalocarpus, Croton menyharthii, Croton rivularis and Croton megalobotrys." Phytochemistry Letters. 2020;40(2020):148-155.chemistry_of_five_croton_species_phytolletters_2020.pdf
Okello JJ, Shiundu FM, Mwende J, Lagerkvist CJ, Nyikal RA, Muoki P, Mburu J, Low JW. "Quality and psychosocial factors influencing purchase of orange‐fleshed sweet potato bread." International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2020. AbstractWebsite

This 2018 study, conducted in six Tusky's supermarkets in Nairobi, Kenya, combined the Just-About-Right, Penalty and Mean-End-Chain analyses to examine the quality and psychosocial factors influencing the purchase of a novel bread made from orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP), a biofortified crop, focusing on sixty-one male and eighty female urban OFSP bread buyers recruited at point of purchase. It finds that sensory and psychosocial factors drive purchasing decisions and that some of the bread's sensory characteristics are misaligned with consumers' expectations. It also finds that women and men's evaluations of the bread's characteristics are different, as are their motivations for purchase. However, good sensory attributes and the knowledge of the bread's nutritional value were key drivers. Some misaligned characteristics reveal levers for the reformulation of the bread and present opportunities for segmenting the market. Several other implications of the findings for policy and future improvement of the bread are discussed.

Gathumbi JK, Kemboi DC, Antonissen G, Ochieng PE, Croubels S, Kangethe EK, Okoth S, Faas J, Lindahl JF. "A Review of the Impact of Mycotoxins on Dairy Cattle Health: Challenges for Food Safety and Dairy Production in Sub-Saharan Africa." Toxins 2020. 2020;12(4).
Udahemuka JC, Aboge GO, George O Obiero, Lebea PJ, Onono JO, Paone M. "Risk factors for the incursion, spread and persistence of the foot and mouth disease virus in Eastern Rwanda." BMC Vet Res. 2020;16 (1):387.
Udahemuka JC, Aboge GO, Obiero GO, Lebea PJ, Onono JO, Paone M. "Risk factors for the incursion, spread and persistence of the foot and mouth disease virus in Eastern Rwanda." BMC Veterinary Research. 2020;6(1):1-10.
J.O'Connell P, Brown M, Chan TM, Granado RC-D, J.Davies S, Eiam-Ong S, H.Hassan M, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Levin A, E.Martin D, Muller E, Ossareh S, Tchokhonelidze I, Trask M, Twahir A, J.O.Were A, Yang C-W, Zemchenkov A, N.Harden P. "The role of kidney transplantation as a component of integrated care for chronic kidney disease." Science Direct. 2020.Website
Leo S. "Semiotic Survey of Kivumba Superstitions." International Journal of Innovative Research And Knowledge (IJIRK). 2020;5(5).
Kamau S, Barrios E, K.Karanja N, O.Ayuke F, Lehmann J. "Short-term casting activity of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) after biochar additions." Soil Biology and Biochemistry . 2020;143.
Kamau S, Barrios E, K.Karanja N, O.Ayuke F, Lehmann J. "Short-term casting activity of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) after biochar additions." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2020;143:107736.
Gummadi S, Kadiyala MDM, Rao KPC, Athanasiadis I, R. M, Kilavi M, Legesse G, T. A. "Simulating adaptation strategies to offset potential impacts of climate variability and change on maize yields in Embu County, Kenya." PLOS ONE. 2020;15(11).
Harris DCH, Davies SJ, Finkelstein FO, Jha V, Bello AK, Brown M, Caskey FJ, Donner J-A, Liew A, Muller E, Naicker S, O’Connell PJ, Filho RP, Vachharajani T, behalf of the Groups OSPW. "Strategic plan for integrated care of patients with kidney failure." International Society of Nephrology. 2020;98(5):1067-1070.Website
Fidelis Mukudi, Justus Mile, Lucy Chikamai, Aywa S. "Strong Commutativity of Unbounded Self-adjoint Operators on a Separable Hilbert space." Mathematical Theory and Modeling. 2020;10(8). AbstractWebsite

The unbounded Self-adjoint operators that strongly commute on a common dense subset of their domain
commute pointwise. When the operators commute pointwise on the same dense subset, there is to guarantee that
they will commute strongly. By imposing some conditions, we on the operators as well as the underlying space,
we get pointwise commuting unbounded operators that commute strongly. This article shows that by suitably
selecting two unbounded positive Self-adjoint operators with compact inverses we get a set of pointwise
commuting self-adjoint operators that commute on common core. then prove that it strongly commutes on the
same subspace.

Kerosi J, Ouma H, Langat K. "Sum Rate and Fairness Maximization in Device-to-Device Communication Underlaying Cellular Networks." International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research (IJSTR). 2020;9(2):6438-6443.
Mbugua SN, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meye M, NS, Lalancette RA, Onani MO. "Synthesis, Characterization, and DNA-Binding Kinetics of New Pd(II) and Pt(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes: Spectral, Structural, and Anticancer Evaluation." Journal of Chemistry. 2020:1-17. AbstractJournal of Chemistry

In a bid to come up with potential anticancer agents, a class of thiosemicarbazone ligands bearing substituted thiophene were synthesized followed by complexation with various Pd(II) and Pt(II) metal precursors. 'e ligands (E)-1-((thiophen-2-yl) methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L1), (E)-1-((4-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L2), and (E)-1-((5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L3) were synthesized by condensation reactions and obtained in good yields. Complexation of L1 and L2 with Pd(cod)Cl2 gave C1 (C6H7Cl2N3PdS2) and C2 (C6H6BrCl2N3PdS2), respectively. Complexation of L1 with K2PtCl4 gave C3 (C6H7Cl2N3PtS2), while L3 with K2PtCl2[(PPh)3]2 gave C4 (C24H21BrClN3PPtS2). 'e structures and coordination for all compounds were established by FTIR, 1 H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for ligand L1. Tuning of the spectral and anticancer activity of the compounds was investigated by changing the position of the bromide substituent, metal center, and the σ or π-donor/acceptor strength of the groups surrounding the metal center. 'e compounds had low to moderate anticancer potency with their spectral and structural properties correlating with the corresponding anticancer activity profiles. DNA binding modes were studied by spectroscopy and were comparable to known DNA intercalators. Structure-activity profiles were evident especially between C1 and C2 differing by the presence of a Br in position 5 of thiophene ring, which caused a remarkable increase in IC50

Mbugua SN, Njenga LW, Odhiambo RA, Wandiga SO, Meyer M, NS, Lalancette RA, Onani MO, Onani MO. "Synthesis, Characterization, And DNA-Binding Kinetics Of New Pd(II) And Pt(II) Thiosemicarbazone Complexes: Spectral, Structural, And Anticancer Evaluation." Journal of Chemistry . 2020;2020((5409)):1-17. Abstract

In a bid to come up with potential anticancer agents, a class of thiosemicarbazone ligands bearing substituted thiophene were synthesized followed by complexation with various Pd(II) and Pt(II) metal precursors. The ligands
(E)-1-((thiophen-2-yl) methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L1),
(E)-1-((4-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L2),
and (E)-1-((5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methylene)thiosemicarbazide (L3) were synthesized by condensation reactions and obtained in good yields. Complexation of L1 andL2 with Pd(cod)Cl2 gave C1(C6H7Cl2N3PdS2) and C2(C6H6BrCl2N3PdS2),respectively. Complexation of L1 with K2PtCl4 gave C3(C6H7Cl2N3PtS2),while L3 with K2PtCl2[(PPh)3]2 gave C4(C24H21BrClN3PPtS2).The structures and coordination for all compounds were established by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, UV-Vis, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for ligand L1. Tuning of the spectral and anticancer activity of the compounds was investigated by changing the position of the bromide substituent, metal center, and the σ or π-donor/acceptor strength of the groups surrounding the metal center. The compounds had low to moderate anticancer potency with their spectral and structural properties correlating with the corresponding anticancer activity profiles. DNA binding modes were studied by spectroscopy and were comparable to known DNA intercalators. Structure-activity profiles were evident especially between C1and C2 differing by the presence of a Br in position 5 of thiophene ring, which caused a remarkable increase in IC50 values,from14.71±0.016(C1)to43.08±0.001(C2)in Caco-2 cells, 1.973±0.048 (C1) to 59.56±0.010 (C2) in MCF-7 cells, 16.65±0.051 (C1) to 72.25±0.003 (C2) in HeLa cells, 14.64±0.037 (C1) to 94.34±0.003 (C2) in HepG2, and 14.05±0.042 (C1) to>100(C2) in PC-3 cells.

Ouko A, Okoth S, l. N NE, Altus V, Lindy JR. "Tolerance to Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin accumulation in maize F1 hybrids and subsequent F2 population. ." Agronomy journal. 2020;112(4):2444-2432.
Idowu TE, R. W, Lasisi, K H, Kiema JBK. "Towards achieving Sustainability of Coastal Environments: Urban Growth Analysis and Prediction of Lagos, State Nigeria." South African Journal of Geomatics. 2020;9(2):149-162.
Chiorean GE, Nandakumar G, Fadelu T, Temin S, Alarcon-Rozas AE, Bejarano S, Croitoru A-E, Grover S, Lohar PV, Odhiambo A, Park SH, Garcia ER, Teh C, Rose A, Zaki B, Chamberlin MD. "Treatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified GuidelineTreatment of Patients With Late-Stage Colorectal Cancer: ASCO Resource-Stratified Guideline." Journal of Global Oncology. 2020;6(2020):414-438.
Ongadi Patrick Mudavadi, Mpolya Abraham Emmanuel, Lukuyu Adubwa Bernard, Haule Alphonse, David Peter Ngunga, Gachuiri Charles, Muyekho Francis Namasake, Wolde-meskel E. "Urea-molasses Pre-treatment to Enhance Nitrogen Gain, Digestibility, Intake and Milk Yield from Crop-Residues in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Eastern Africa." Asian Journal of Research in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 2020:28-43.
Vogel JP, Comrie‐Thomson L, Pingray V, Gadama L, Galadanci H, Goudar S, Rose Laisser, Lavender T, Lissauer D, Misra S, Pujar Y, Qureshi ZP, Amole T, Berrueta M, Dankishiya F, Gwako G, Homer CSE, Jobanputra J, Meja S, Nigri C, Mohaptra V, Osoti A, Roberti J, Solomon D, Suleiman M, Robbers G, Sutherland S, Vernekar S, Althabe F, Bonet M, Oladapo OT. "Usability, acceptability, and feasibility of the World Health Organization Labour Care Guide: A mixed‐methods, multicountry evaluation." Wiley Online Library . 2020. AbstractWebsite

Introduction
The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Labour Care Guide (LCG) is a “next‐generation” partograph based on WHO’s latest intrapartum care recommendations. It aims to optimize clinical care provided to women and their experience of care. We evaluated the LCG’s usability, feasibility, and acceptability among maternity care practitioners in clinical settings.

Methods
Mixed‐methods evaluation with doctors, midwives, and nurses in 12 health facilities across Argentina, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Purposively sampled and trained practitioners applied the LCG in low‐risk women during labor and rated experiences, satisfaction, and usability. Practitioners were invited to focus group discussions (FGDs) to share experiences and perceptions of the LCG, which were subjected to framework analysis.

Results
One hundred and thirty‐six practitioners applied the LCG in managing labor and birth of 1,226 low‐risk women. The majority of women had a spontaneous vaginal birth (91.6%); two cases of intrapartum stillbirths (1.63 per 1000 births) occurred. Practitioner satisfaction with the LCG was high, and median usability score was 67.5%. Practitioners described the LCG as supporting precise and meticulous monitoring during labor, encouraging critical thinking in labor management, and improving the provision of woman‐centered care.

Conclusions
The LCG is feasible and acceptable to use across different clinical settings and can promote woman‐centered care, though some design improvements would benefit usability. Implementing the LCG needs to be accompanied by training and supportive supervision, and strategies to promote an enabling environment (including updated policies on supportive care interventions, and ensuring essential equipment is available).

Mweresa CK, Mukabana WR, van Loon JJA, Dicke M, Takken W. "Use of semiochemicals for surveillance and control of hematophagous insects." Chemoecology. 2020;3:139-149.

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