Publications

Found 2209 results

Sort by: Author [ Title  (Asc)] Type Year
Filters: First Letter Of Last Name is L  [Clear All Filters]
A B C D E F G H I J K [L] M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   [Show ALL]
D
P
LISHENGA JL. " "Profitability of Momentum Strategies in Emerging Markets: Evidence From Nairobi Stock Exchange".". In: The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, . White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania : Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1996. Abstract

Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

This paper tests the profitability of momentum strategies in Kenya, an emerging market for the period 1995 to 2007. Analysis revealed that Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) exhibit medium term return continuation over the entire sample period and the sub-periods. We used RSS results to evaluate the influence of transaction costs, calendar effects, risk factors and other reported momentum characteristics on momentum profitability. We employ WRSS results to discriminate between the two diametrically opposed causes for the profitability of momentum strategies:.  Our results show that, consistent with the evidence elsewhere, momentum is an anomaly; being driven by continuation in the idiosyncratic component of individual-security, rather than by cross-sectional differences in expected return and risks.

A
Gathumbi JK, Kanja LW, Maitho TE, Mbaria JM, Nduhiu JG, Gitau FK, Ndiritu JG, Lucy MM, Maloba K. " Assessment of lead and copper in fish and soil sediments in Kirinyaga South District, Kenya." Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation . 2013;8(3):145-150.
B
D
Langat S, Mbuge DO, Mutai EBK. " Determination of the Parameters for Design of Flexible Plastic Tank." AJST. 2010;Vol. 11(No. 2):37-45.
S
$
Bichang’a G, Lage J-LD, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Zivy M, Balliau T, Sambai K, Ru BL, Kaiser L, Juma G, Maina ENM, others. "$\alpha$-Amylase mediates host acceptance in the braconid parasitoid Cotesia flavipes." Journal of chemical ecology. 2018;44:1030-1039. Abstract
n/a
)
Wanjala W Cornelius, Teresa Akeng'a, George O Obiero, Lutta. KP. "). Antifeedant activities of Erythrinaline alkaloids from Erythrina latissima against Sporodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera noctuidae)." Records of Natural Products. 2009;3(2):96-103.
,
Debrah I, Afrane YA, Amoah LE, Ochwedo KO, Mukabana WR, Zhong D, Zhou G, Lee M, Onyango SA, Magomere EO, Atieli HE, Githeko AK, Yan G. ", Larval ecology and bionomics of Anopheles funestus in highland and lowland sites in western Kenya." PLoS ONE . 2021;16(10):e0255321.
.
1
Franceschi L, Gachenga E, Lutz D, Akech M. "14) GOVERNANCE, INSTITUTIONS AND THE HUMAN CONDITION ." Strathmore University & Law Africa. 2009.
Wangara AA, Leeper S, Mweu J, Harty S, Martin IBK, Hunold KM, Ekernas K, Dunlop SJ, Twomey M, Maingi A, others. "192 Strengthening Emergency Care Operations in East Africa: Implementation of the South African Triage Scale at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2017;70:S77. Abstract
n/a
Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Zhu Y, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "1D Nanostructures: 1D SbSeI, SbSI, and SbSBr With High Stability and Novel Properties for Microelectronic, Optoelectronic, and Thermoelectric Applications (Adv. Theory Simul. 1/2018)." Advanced Theory and Simulations. 2018;1:1870001. Abstract
n/a
Peng B, Xu K, Zhang H, Ning Z, Shao H, Ni G, Li J, Zhu Y, Zhu H, Soukoulis CM. "1D SbSeI, SbSI, and SbSBr with high stability and novel properties for microelectronic, optoelectronic, and thermoelectric applications." Advanced Theory and Simulations. 2018;1:1700005. Abstract
n/a
2
3
4
6
Lois Muiva-Mutisya, Bernard Macharia MHAKHASDLOAMK. "6α-Hydroxy-α-toxicarol and (+)-tephrodin with antiplasmodial activities from Tephrosia species." Phytochemistry Letters. 2014;10:179-183. Abstract

6α-Hydroxy-α-toxicarol and (+)-tephrodin with antiplasmodial activities from Tephrosia species

Lois Muiva-Mutisyaa, Bernard Machariaa, Matthias Heydenreichb, Andreas Kochb, Hoseah M. Akalac, Solomon Deresea, Leonidah K. Omosaa, Amir O. Yusufa, Edwin Kamauc, Abiy Yenesew
Phytochemistry Letters, Volume 10, December 2014, Pages 179–183

Abstract
The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Tephrosia villosa showed good antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 3.1 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.3 μg/mL, respectively. Chromatographic separation of the extract yielded a new rotenoid, 6α-hydroxy-α-toxicarol, along with five known rotenoids, (rotenone, deguelin, sumatrol, 12a-hydroxy-α-toxicarol and villosinol). Similar treatment of the extract of the stem of Tephrosia purpurea (IC50 = 4.1 ± 0.4 and 1.9 ± 0.2 μg/mL against D6 and W2 strains of P. falciparum, respectively) yielded a new flavone having a unique substituent at C-7/C-8 [trivial name (+)-tephrodin], along with the known flavonoids tachrosin, obovatin methyl ether and derrone. The relative configuration and the most stable conformation in (+)-tephrodin was determined by NMR and theoretical energy calculations. The rotenoids and flavones tested showed good to moderate antiplasmodial activities (IC50 = 9 − 23 μМ). Whereas the cytotoxicity of rotenoids is known, the flavones (+)-tephrodin and tachrosin did not show significant cytotoxicity (IC50 > 100 μМ) against mammalian African monkey kidney (vero) and human larynx carcinoma (HEp2) cell lines.

8
9
Nanyingi MO, Mbaria JM, Okello RO, Wagate CG, Lanyasunya AL, Kipsengeret B Koros, M.Oguna M. "9.131 Evaluation of resistance development to three anthelmintics and efficacy of plant extracts against nematodes of sheep in Samburu District, Kenya .". In: KVA Scientific Seminar.; 2008.
:
A
Mwonga PV, Makau NW, Amolo GO, Lutta S, Okoth MDO, Musembi RJ, Maghanga CM, R. Gateru, Mwabora J. Ab-initio Studies of Point Defects in : A Density Functional Approach. United Kenya Club, Nairobi, 28-29th November 2013; 2013. Abstract

Titanium dioxide has been intensively studied as a wide band gap transition metal oxide due to its n-type semi-conducting property which makes it to have many applications in industry. Some of the observed conductivity arises from its intrinsic point defects. The structural properties and electronic band structures of TiO2 (rutile and anatase) phases, have been investigated using ab-initio methods. The structural properties were obtained using generalized gradient approximation (GGA) employing pseudopotentials and plane wave basis sets. For the two phases of TiO2, the calculated equilibrium lattice constants, bulk moduli and bond lengths were found to be in good agreement with other recent theoretical calculations and also with experimental data. After introduction of various defects to the perfect super cell, the Ti-O bond lengths were altered greatly. The apical bond lengths changed from a constant 1.959 Å to a range of values (1.718 - 1.861) Å, and the equatorial bond lengths changed from a constant 2.006 Å to a range of values (2.072 - 2.231 ) Å for rutile TiO2. The apical bond lengths changed from a constant 1.956 Å to a range of values (1.782 - 1.830) Å, and the equatorial bond lengths changed from a constant 2.050 Å to a range of values (2.112 - 2.214) Å, for anatase TiO2. Also altered were Ti-O-Ti angles, from the two constants (99.93, 131.04)° to a range of values (88.86 - 95.69 and 132.01 - 143.49)° for rutile TiO2. For anatase TiO2, Ti- O-Ti angles changed from the two constants (103.81, 152.39)° to a range of values (93.59 - 149.91 and 156.74 - 176.05)°. Electronic properties were investigated too. Perfect rutile and anatase super cells gave band gaps of 2.24 eV and 2.44 eV, respectively, underground-state conditions. Valence bandwidths (VB) and conduction bandwidths (CB) were also obtained for both phases. VB of 5.6 eV and CB of 1.654 eV were observed for rutile TiO2, while VB of 4.76 eV and CB of 2.35 eV were observed for anatase TiO2; all in good agreement with experimental values. This study also investigated the defect formation enthalpies of Frenkel and Schottky defects in both rutile and anatase phases of TiO2. This study also considered point defect stability in rutile and anatase phases of TiO2. The formation energies for oxygen and titanium atoms, defects were found to be in agreement with the experimental values, especially the case of rutile oxygen atom vacancy. Both Frenkel and Schottky defects were found to induce new energy states in titanium dioxide. Normally band gaps are reduced in defective TiO2 crystals, and in this study, reduced energy band gaps were reported for all the defective super cells. In rutile, the metal oxide gaps were found to almost vanish due to the presence of oxygen atom vacancy, oxygen atom Frenkel and titanium Frenkel defects. These gave direct energy band gaps: 0.35 eV, 0.207 eV and 0.327 eV, respectively. Defects in anatase phase showed a similar trend, with the least energy band gap being reported for the case titanium interstitial (0.041 eV, which is indirect). With such infinitesimal gaps, these otherwise insulating oxides can with ease become conducting metal oxides, by either increasing the temperatures or pressure since these calculations were done at 0 K and 0 pressure. It can thus be said that intrinsic point defects in titanium dioxide do contribute to the improvement of the electrical conductivity of this oxide.

KD O, L O. "Abdominal cocoon: A Case Report." Annals of African Surgery. 2009;4(1):36-38.
C.W Maribie, G.H.N Nyamasyo, P.N Ndegwa, Lagerlof J, Gikungu M. "Abundance and Diversity of Soil Mites (acari) along a gradient of land-use types in Taita-Taveta, Kenya,." Tropical & Sub-Tropical Agro-ecosystems. 2011;13:11-27.
Sekadde-Kigondu C, Mwathe EG, Ruminjo JK, Nichols D, Katz K, Jessencky K, Liku J. "Acceptability and discontinuation of Depo-Provera, IUCD and combined pill in Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A (IUCD), the injectable, Depo-Provera and the low-dose oral contraceptive pill, Microgynon. A non-randomised sample of volunteer participants was used. One thousand and seventy-six users were followed up for a period of one year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUCD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older, and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of IUCD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUCD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12 month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%) and lowest for IUCD users (20%) and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). Ninety percent of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUCD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUCD has the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among the young OC users.
PIP:
This paper reports on a prospective study conducted between June 1990 and June 1992 to determine method acceptability, user satisfaction, and continuation rates for three highly effective and reversible contraceptive methods currently available in Kenya: the CuT 380A IUD; the injectable Depo-Provera; and the low-dose oral contraceptive Microgynon. A nonrandomized sample of volunteer participants was used. 1076 users were followed up for a period of 1 year or up to the time of discontinuation of the method, whichever came earlier. Analysis revealed method-specific differences in users' characteristics. The OC users were younger and had fewer children than the IUD or Depo-Provera users. The Depo-Provera users were older and had the largest family sizes. Many OC users (almost 40%) were single, while almost three-quarters of the IUD and Depo-Provera users were married. IUD users were also more educated compared to OC and Depo-Provera users. Survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative life table discontinuation rates by method for the 12-month period. Discontinuation rates were highest for OC users (80%), lowest for IUD users (20%), and intermediate for Depo-Provera users (39%). 90% of OC and Depo-Provera users and 86% of IUD users said they were satisfied with their respective methods. While OCs are among the most popular family planning methods in Kenya, they are also one of the most problematic, while IUDs have shown the fewest compliance problems. Service providers need to address the issue of high discontinuation rates among young OC users

Omosa-Manyonyi G, Park H, Mutua G, Farah B, Bergin PJ, Laufer D, Lehrman J, Chinyenze K, Barin B, Fast P, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal specimen collection in clinical trial participants in Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2014;9(10):e110228. Abstract

Mucosal specimens are essential to evaluate compartmentalized immune responses to HIV vaccine candidates and other mucosally targeted investigational products. We studied the acceptability and feasibility of repeated mucosal sampling in East African clinical trial participants at low risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

Ouma OW, Birungi H, Askew I, Warren C, Liambila W, Meme M. "Acceptability and Sustainability of Focused ANC in Kenya.". 2004.Website
Lund LH;, Boon TE. "Accountability of experts in the Danish national park process.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

In 2002 the Danish Minister of Environment initiated a process to investigate the possibilities of establishing national parks in Denmark. For this purpose experts were mobilised to investigate the status and potentials of the areas in question. The national park process was extensive in scope and complex, and in theory such complexity is assumed to make it difficult for non-experts to understand all the relevant aspects of policy. This exclusion of non-experts may lead to scientification of politics. Furthermore politicisation of science might occur as experts might advocate political interests disguised as objective science, and policy-makers might select results that further their own interests. As a result policy-makers risk losing a source of legitimacy, scientists risk losing credibility and the citizens risk losing the possibility to hold policy-makers accountable for their decisions, which puts democracy at risk. This paper examines the accountability relationships that experts were a part of in the national park process. These include accountability towards the employer, towards the buyer and towards the general public. The purpose is to determine if these relationships were adequate to circumvent the problems associated with scientification of politics and to discuss how accountability relationships and thereby democracy could be strengthened. The empirical analysis shows that in the national park process experts were mainly accountable towards the National Forest and Nature Agency. There were formal accountability relationships between the experts and the local steering committees and the national advisory group, but these relationships were less significant. Moreover, despite the fact that the process was deemed unusually open to the public by the participants, the relationship between experts and the public cannot be characterised as an accountability relationship and could have been improved by including experts in the deliberative fora of the process.

Chamandy L, Frank A, Blackman EG, Carroll-Nellenback J, Liu B, Tu Y, Nordhaus J, Chen Z, Peng B. "Accretion in common envelope evolution." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2018;480:1898-1911. Abstract
n/a
I.O JUMBA, S.O W, D.M.K O, L MBUVI, J.O L, I.O JUMBA. "Accumulation, distribution and Metabolism of 14C-1, 1-Trichloro-2, 2- bis-(p-Chlorophyenly) ethane (ppDDT) residues in model tropical marine ecosystem.". In: Environmental Technology (U.K.) 23, 1285-1292. Association of Africa Universities; 2002. Abstract

Accumulation, distribution and metabolism of ring labelled, "C-1,1,1, - trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) in a model marine aquatic ecosystem consisting of sea water, sediment, oysters (Isognomonon alatus) and Humbug fish (Dascillus aruanus) were studied in the laboratory. "C-p,p'-DDT distributes rapidly in the ecosystem immediately after application on the water surface with reduction of its concentration in the water phase from 1.18 ng g"1 to 0.71 ng g'after 2 hours and an increase in its content in the sediment and oysters. The bioconcentration factor reached a maximum of 19x 10* in oysters, and 1657 in Humbug fish after 24 hours. The sediment concentration reached 117 ng g"1 after 168 hours from start of application. A peak bioconcentration factor of 111 x 103 was calculated after 120 hours when 0.24 mg kg"1 of '^>p,p'-DDT was maintained through dosing every 24 hours with 0.002 mg kg' of a mixture of labelled and non-labelled pesticide. The rate of depuration of accumulated "C-p,p'-DDT sediment residues was up to 78.3% after 24 hours while oysters lost only 14.0% during the same period. The loss in Humbug fish was only 22.2% in three days. Volatilisation and sorption losses from seawater alone (without sediment/biota) were found to be very high in the range of 73.8 - 91.5% over 24 h for p,p'-DDT in aerated and non-aerated ecosystem. Gas chromatograph and TLC analysis of water, sediment and oyster samples revealed presence of p,p'-DDT and substantial amounts of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD three days after pesticide dosage.

Lowther K, Harding R, Victoria Simms, Aabid Ahmed, Zipporah Ali, Nancy Gikaara, Lorraine Sherr, Hellen Kariuki, and Selman IHLEJ. "Active ingredients of a person-centred intervention for people on HIV treatment: analysis of mixed methods trial data ." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2018;18:27(1):27.
Li Y, Li J, Huang T, Huang F, Qin J, Bi L, Xie J, Deng L, Peng B. "Active macroscale visible plasmonic nanorod self-assembled monolayer." Photonics Research. 2018;6:409-416. Abstract
n/a
and Luc Van Purvelde. H., Boscelaers NVDFMMJDK. "Activity of 6-pentacylsalicylic Acid of Ozoroa insignis (Anarcadiaceae) against Marine Crustacians." Pharmaceutical Biology . 2000;40 ((1)):74-76 .
Slyker JA, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC, Maleche-Obimbo E, Emery S, Richardson B, Dong T, Iversena AKN, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Overbaugh J, Rowland-Jones SL. "Acute cytomegalovirus infection in Kenyan HIV-infected infants.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Objective: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection may influence HIV-1 disease progression
during infancy. Our aim was to describe the incidence of CMV infection
and the kinetics of viral replication in Kenyan HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected
infants.
Methods: HIV-1 and CMV plasma viral loads were serially measured in 20 HIVexposed
uninfected and 44 HIV-infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers.
HIV-infected children were studied for the first 2 years of life, and HIV-exposed
uninfected infants were studied for 1 year.
Results: CMVDNAwas detected frequently during the firstmonths of life; by 3months of
age,CMVDNAwasdetectedin90%ofHIV-exposeduninfectedinfantsand93%of infants
whohadacquiredHIV-1inutero.CMVviral loadswerehighest inthe1–3monthsfollowing
the first detection of virus and declined rapidly thereafter. CMV peak viral loads were
significantlyhigher in theHIV-infectedinfantscomparedwith theHIV-exposeduninfected
infants (mean3.2versus2.7 log10CMVDNAcopies/ml, respectively,P¼0.03).Thedetection
of CMV DNA persisted to 7–9 months post-CMV infection in both the HIV-exposed
uninfected (8/17, 47%) and HIV-infected (13/18, 72%, P¼0.2) children. Among HIVinfected
children, CMV DNA was detected in three of the seven (43%) surviving infants
tested between 19 and 21 months post-CMV infection. Finally, a strong correlation was
found between peak CMV and HIV-1 viral loads (r¼0.40, P¼0.008).
Conclusion: Acute CMV coinfection is common in HIV-infected Kenyan infants. HIV-1
infection was associated with impaired containment of CMV replication.

Slyker JA, Rowland-Jones SL, Dong T, Reilly M, Richardson B, Emery VC, Atzberger A, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Lohman-Payne BL, John-Stewart GC. "Acute cytomegalovirus infection is associated with increased frequencies of activated and apoptosis-vulnerable T cells in HIV-1-infected infants.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection is associated with infant HIV-1 disease progression and mortality. In a cohort of Kenyan HIV-infected infants, the frequencies of activated (CD38(+) HLA-DR(+)) and apoptosis-vulnerable (CD95(+) Bcl-2(-)) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells increased substantially during acute CMV infection. The frequency of activated CD4(+) T cells was strongly associated with both concurrent CMV coinfection (P = 0.001) and HIV-1 viral load (P = 0.05). The frequency of apoptosis-vulnerable cells was also associated with CMV coinfection in the CD4 (P = 0.02) and CD8 (P < 0.001) T cell subsets. Similar observations were made in HIV-exposed uninfected infants. CMV-induced increases in T cell activation and apoptosis may contribute to the rapid disease progression in coinfected infants.

Makworo D, Laving AM. "Acute medical conditions in under five year old children at a public hospital in Kenya.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the prevalence of childhood preventable and treatable medical conditions and the parent's/guardian's knowledge about the conditions and their management.
DESIGN:
A descriptive cross-sectional study.
SETTING:
Paediatric medical wards at Kenyatta National hospital
SUBJECTS:
All children aged 0-60 months with preventable conditions (that included pneumonia, malaria, diarrhoea/dehydration, meningitis and malnutrition) in paediatric wards who had stayed in the ward for 24 to 48 hours.
RESULTS:
Two hundred and fifty six parents/guardians staying with their children were recruited into the study. The vast majority (85.5%) of the children were aged less than two years. The prevalence of the acute treatable and preventable medical conditions was 88.6% over a one month period. The leading cause of admission for most children was pneumonia (31.6%) followed by malnutrition (16.8%) and gastro-enteritis (16%). Other conditions included neonatal sepsis (9.1%), measles (6%) and malaria (4.8%). The parents'/guardians' mean and median age was 26 years and the majority (89.8%) were mothers. A great proportion (46.5%) of the parents/guardians had attained at least some primary education. More than 70% of the parents/guardians were found to lack knowledge about their children's health problems and the drugs they were using. This was regardless of the parent's/guardians level of education and the frequency of admission of the child.
CONCLUSION:
Acute preventable and treatable medical conditions at KNH are highly prevalent, and the leading conditions include pneumonia, malnutrition and gastroenteritis. Most parents/guardians did not understand their children's health problems regardless of their level of education.

AJ W, LS O. "Acute renal failure as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital." East Afr Med J. 1992;69(2):110-3. Abstract

Forty seven patients with acute renal failure were studied prospectively over a two-year period at the Kenyatta National Hospital. There were 20 males and 27 females. The mortality rate was 40.4%. Most patients had medically oriented problems. Complications that were associated with a high mortality were infections and the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations.

Mitchel O. Okumu, James M. Mbaria, Laetitia W. Kanja DGW, Stephen G. Kiama FOO, Okumu PO. "Acute toxicity of the aqueous-methanolic Moringa oleifera (Lam) leaf extract on female Wistar albino rats." international journal of Basic and Clinical pharmacology. 2016;5(5):1856-1861.
Katz MA, Marangu D, Attia EF, Bauwens J, Bont LJ, Bulatovic A, Crane J, Doroshenko A, Ebruke BE, Edwards KM, Fortuna L, Jagelaviciene A, Joshi J, Kemp J, Kovacs S, Lambach P, Lewis KDC, Ortiz JR, Simões EAF, Turner P, Tagbo BN, Vaishnavi V, Bonhoeffer J. "Acute wheeze in the pediatric population: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data." Vaccine. 2019;37(2):392-399.
Celum C, Kiarie, J.W, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated
and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to
suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels,
suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV Daily acyclovir therapy did not reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1, despite a reduction
in plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.25 log10 copies per milliliter and a 73% reduction in the
occurrence of genital ulcers due to HSV-2. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00194519

Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2.". 2010.Website
Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WLH, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. "Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2010;362(5):427-39. Abstract

Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels, suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1.

Kathuri J, Apindi E, Olaka L, L Olago, et al. "Adaptation to Climate Change-Induced Malaria and Cholera in the Lake Victoria Region." AIACC Working Papers. 2018. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
AIACC Working Papers, published on-line by Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change (AIACC), is a series of papers and paper abstracts written by researchers participating in the AIACC project. Papers published in AIACC Working Papers have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication in the on-line series as being (i) fundamentally sound in their methods and implementation, (ii) informative about the methods and/or findings of new research, and (iii) clearly written for a broad, multi-disciplinary audience. The purpose of the series is to circulate results and descriptions of methodologies from the AIACC project and elicit feedback to the authors. The AIACC project is funded by the Global Environment Facility, the Canadian International Development Agency, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The project is co-executed on behalf of the United Nations Environment Programme by the global change SysTem for Analysis Research and Training (START) and The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS).

L MRNDOGONIKINYANJUI. "Adapting Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for a Develoing Country: Experience in Rural Uganda (co-author).". In: Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) Vol. 2. No. 2 June 2003. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
n/a
Peng B, Liu D, Lü Z, Mart{\'ı R, Ding J. "Adaptive memory programming for the dynamic bipartite drawing problem." Information Sciences. 2020;517:183-197. Abstract
n/a
Hassan R, Njoroge K, Ngure M, Otsyula R, Laboso A. "Adoption patterns and performance of improved maize in Kenya. In: R.M. Hassan, (Ed).". In: Maize Technology Development and Transfer: A GIS application for research planning in Kenya (Chapter 7). CAB International, Oxford and New York; 1998.
Obiero K, Lawrence T, Ives J, Smith S, Njaya F, Kayanda R, Waidbacher H, Olago D, Miriti E, Hecky RE. "Advancing Africa’s great lakes research and academic potential: Answering the call for harmonized, long-term, collaborative networks and partnerships." Journal of Great Lakes Research. 2020. Abstractdio.org

Abstract
The African Great Lakes (AGL) have rich fisheries and are renowned “biodiversity hotspots”. Consequently the AGLand the ecosystem services they provide, underpin the welfare and livelihoods of over 50 million people across 10 countries. Despite the recognized importance of the AGL, these vital ecosystems and their livelihood support systems are threatened by numerous anthropogenic stressors at local, regional, and global scales. Past and continued efforts to address critical challenges on these lakes are often short-term, parochial, disparate, and uncoordinated resulting in a lack of comprehensive and comparable scientific data and inadequate resources to influence evidence-based policy. Over the past two decades, several international workshops, conferences and scientific publications have identified the need for collaboration, knowledge sharing, and harmonization of research and management as key elements to enhance conservation efforts in the AGL. In this commentary, we introduce the African Center for Aquatic Research and Education (ACARE), which aims to strengthen research and provide the scientific evidence needed to make informed decisions related to sustainable fisheries and aquatic resource management in the AGL. To do this, ACARE will administer a highly collaborative network of experts with three long-term goals: (1) strengthen global and regional research partnerships; (2) establish transboundary and inter-jurisdictional lake advisory groups; and (3) build capacity of freshwater scientists through experiential education and public engagement.

Keywords
African Great Lakes Collaborative networks Transboundary lake advisory groups, educationResearch partnerships

Golden L, Chaya S, Reichmuth K, Visagie A, Ayuk A, Kwarteng Owusu S, Marangu D, Affendi N, Lakhan A, Gray D, Vanker A, Zar H, Zampoli M. "Aetiology and presentation of childhood pleural infections in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era in South Africa." Afr J Thorac Crit Care Med. 2021;27(4). Abstract

Complications of respiratory infections including pleural effusion (PE) are associated with a high morbidity. Differentiating between PE caused by (Mtb) infection and other bacterial infections in endemic areas is difficult in children, thus, impacting treatment.

Mwabu G, Arrow K, Danzon P, Gelband H, Jameson D, Laxminarayan R, Mills A, Panosian C, Peto R, White N. "Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria: killing it slowly." The Lancet. 2012;380(9857).
Sirma AJ, Senerwa DM, Lindahl. JF, D G, K M, Mtimet N, EK K’ethe. "Aflatoxin B1 occurrence in Millet, Sorghum, and maize from four agro-ecological zones in Kenya. ." African Journal of Food Nutrition and Development. 2016;16:10991-11003:10991-11003.
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Hausler T, Luy B, Kuballa T, Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW. "Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya – A health risk beyond ethanol." Food Control. 2017;79:344-348. Abstract

Samples of unrecorded opaque beers (n=58; 40 based on maize, 5 on sorghum and 13 on other plants) and recorded wines (n=8) in Kenya were screened for aflatoxins using a rapid ELISA technique followed by confirmation using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Six of the maize beers were obtained from Kibera slums in Nairobi County. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in six unrecorded beers (10%), but in none of the recorded wines. Remarkably, three of the aflatoxin positive samples were from the Kibera slums.
The concentration of aflatoxins in the positive samples had a mean of 3.5 µg/L (range 1.8–6.8 µg/L), corresponding for an average consumption of 500 mL (1 standard drink) to a margin of exposure (MOE) of 36 (range: 15–58), which is considered as risk. On the other hand, the alcoholic strength of the aflatoxin positive samples had a mean of 4.3% vol (range 3.5-4.8%) corresponding to a MOE of 2.5 (range of 2.2-3.0) for the equivalent consumption volume. While aflatoxins pose a risk to the consumer, this risk is about 10 times lower than the risk of ethanol.
The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives sets no acceptable daily intake for aflatoxins since they are genotoxic carcinogens and instead recommends for the reduction of aflatoxin dietary exposure as an important public health goal, particularly in populations who consume high levels of any potentially aflatoxins contaminated food. Nevertheless, ethanol still posed a considerably higher risk in the unrecorded beers examined. However, consumers should be informed about aflatoxins, as these are an involuntary and unknown risk to them. In addition, producers should be educated about measures to reduce aflatoxins.

Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Hausler T, Luy B, Kuballa T, Rehm J, Lachenmeier DW. "Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya–A health risk beyond ethanol." Food Control. 2017;79:344-348. Abstract
n/a
Sirma AJ, Makita K, Grace D, Senerwa D, Lindahl JF. "Aflatoxin exposure from milk in rural Kenya and contribution to the risk of liver cancer." Toxins. 2019;11:469.
Laila A, Mwangi C, Uku J, Ndirangu S. "Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2012 . 1 (1): 19-23 A KeSoBAP Publication ©2012 . All rights reserved. 19 Antimicrobial activity of various extracts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Echinoidea).". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: Marine invertebrates rely solely on innate immune mechanisms, the cellular component of which is characterized by hemocytes that phagocytize microbe s and secrete soluble antimicrobial and cytotoxic s ubstances. In this regard, marine invertebrates are a potential s ource of promising antimicrobial compounds with nov el mechanisms of action. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate extrac ts of the gut, gonad, spines and mouth parts of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla for antimicrobial and haemolytic activities in vitro . Methods: Potentially bioactive metabolites were extracted u sing methanol and chloroform and tested for activit y against Salmonella typhi , Escherichia coli , Shigella sonnei , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium spp. using the agar disc diffusion method. Toxicity was determined by a ssaying for hemolysis against human red blood cells . Results: Bioactivity against the tested bacteria was observ ed mainly with the methanol and chloroform extracts of the gonads and gut. Higher antibacterial activity was p resent in the methanol extracts compared to chlorof orm extracts. Activity against the Penicillium spp was detected only in the methanol extracts, while the chloroform extracts showed no activity. The various extracts of the sea urchin lacked any detectable hemolytic activity against h uman erythrocytes. Discussion: These research findings suggest that marine echino derms are a potential source of novel antimicrobial compounds.

Mwega F, Muga KL, Oyejide A, Lyakurwa W, Njinkeu D. "Africa and the World Trading System: The Case of Kenya." New Jersey: Third World Press; 2007.
Ong’amo G, Khadioli N, LeRu B, Mujica N, Carhuapoma P. "African Pink stemborer, Sesamia calamistis (Hampson 1910).". In: Pest distribution and risk atlas for Africa. Potential global and regional distribution and abundance of agricultural and horticultural pests and associated biocontrol agents under current and future climates. Lima (Peru).: International Potato Center (CIP).; 2016.
Bukachi F, Waldenstrom A, Mörner S, Lindqvist P, Henein MY, Kazzam E. "Age dependency in the timing of mitral annular motion in relation to ventricular filling in healthy subjects: Umea General Population Heart Study.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

AIMS:

Peak left ventricular (LV) relaxation normally precedes peak filling (E), which supports the hypothesis that LV suction contributes to early-diastolic filling. The significance of similar temporal discordance in late diastole has previously not been studied. We describe the time relationships between mitral annular motion and LV filling in early and late diastole and examine the effect of normal ageing on these time intervals.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

A total of 128 healthy subjects aged 25-88 years were studied. Transmitral and pulmonary venous flow reversals (Ar) were recorded by Doppler echocardiography. Mitral annular diastolic displacement-early (E(m)) and late (A(m))-were recorded by Doppler tissue imaging. With reference to electrocardiographic R and P-waves, the following measurements were made: R to peak E-wave (R-E) and E(m) (R-E(m)); onset P to peak A-wave (P-pA), A(m) (P-pA(m)), and Ar (P-pAr). The differences between [(R-E) and (R-E(m))] for early-diastolic temporal discordance (EDTD) and [(P-A) and (P-A(m))] for late-diastolic temporal discordance (LDTD) were calculated. Isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) was also measured. Early-diastolic temporal discordance was approximately 26 ms in all age groups. Late-diastolic temporal discordance, however, was inversely related to age (r = -0.35, P < 0.001) and IVRT (r = -0.34, P < 0.001) and therefore decreased in the elderly vs. young (13 +/- 10 vs. 23 +/- 10 ms; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, age failed to predict LDTD in the presence of IVRT. A, A(m), and Ar were simultaneous at onset, and peak A(m) coincided with peak Ar in all age groups (r = 0.97, P < 0.001). No significant differences were noted in the RR intervals.

CONCLUSIONS:

Sequential prolongation of IVRT with ageing reduces LDTD, thus converging the peaks of A(m), A, and Ar (atrial mechanical alignment)-a potential novel method to identify subjects at increased dependency on atrial contraction for late-diastolic filling

Lehmann K, Löwel S. "Age-dependent ocular dominance plasticity in adult mice." PloS one. 2008;3:e3120. Abstract

BACKGROUND Short monocular deprivation (4 days) induces a shift in the ocular dominance of binocular neurons in the juvenile mouse visual cortex but is ineffective in adults. Recently, it has been shown that an ocular dominance shift can still be elicited in young adults (around 90 days of age) by longer periods of deprivation (7 days). Whether the same is true also for fully mature animals is not yet known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We therefore studied the effects of different periods of monocular deprivation (4, 7, 14 days) on ocular dominance in C57Bl/6 mice of different ages (25 days, 90-100 days, 109-158 days, 208-230 days) using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. In addition, we used a virtual optomotor system to monitor visual acuity of the open eye in the same animals during deprivation. We observed that ocular dominance plasticity after 7 days of monocular deprivation was pronounced in young adult mice (90-100 days) but significantly weaker already in the next age group (109-158 days). In animals older than 208 days, ocular dominance plasticity was absent even after 14 days of monocular deprivation. Visual acuity of the open eye increased in all age groups, but this interocular plasticity also declined with age, although to a much lesser degree than the optically detected ocular dominance shift. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE These data indicate that there is an age-dependence of both ocular dominance plasticity and the enhancement of vision after monocular deprivation in mice: ocular dominance plasticity in binocular visual cortex is most pronounced in young animals, reduced but present in adolescence and absent in fully mature animals older than 110 days of age. Mice are thus not basically different in ocular dominance plasticity from cats and monkeys which is an absolutely essential prerequisite for their use as valid model systems of human visual disorders.

Lehmann K, Lowel S. "Age-{Dependent} {Ocular} {Dominance} {Plasticity} in {Adult} {Mice}." PLoS ONE. 2008;3. AbstractWebsite

Background Short monocular deprivation (4 days) induces a shift in the ocular dominance of binocular neurons in the juvenile mouse visual cortex but is ineffective in adults. Recently, it has been shown that an ocular dominance shift can still be elicited in young adults (around 90 days of age) by longer periods of deprivation (7 days). Whether the same is true also for fully mature animals is not yet known. Methodology/Principal Findings We therefore studied the effects of different periods of monocular deprivation (4, 7, 14 days) on ocular dominance in C57Bl/6 mice of different ages (25 days, 90–100 days, 109–158 days, 208–230 days) using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. In addition, we used a virtual optomotor system to monitor visual acuity of the open eye in the same animals during deprivation. We observed that ocular dominance plasticity after 7 days of monocular deprivation was pronounced in young adult mice (90–100 days) but significantly weaker already in the next age group (109–158 days). In animals older than 208 days, ocular dominance plasticity was absent even after 14 days of monocular deprivation. Visual acuity of the open eye increased in all age groups, but this interocular plasticity also declined with age, although to a much lesser degree than the optically detected ocular dominance shift. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that there is an age-dependence of both ocular dominance plasticity and the enhancement of vision after monocular deprivation in mice: ocular dominance plasticity in binocular visual cortex is most pronounced in young animals, reduced but present in adolescence and absent in fully mature animals older than 110 days of age. Mice are thus not basically different in ocular dominance plasticity from cats and monkeys which is an absolutely essential prerequisite for their use as valid model systems of human visual disorders.

Liech JG. Agent-Based Interoperability System In Health Insurance . Nairobi; 2014. Abstract

Abstract:
The Information Technology industry has been very dynamic in health insurance for the last couple of decades. In this health insurance firms applications have been developed using different methodologies, and technologies. These applications cannot be integrated, which becomes an issue to health insurance interoperability. Health insurance is available to both individual and groups; there are many insurance companies in Kenya and there is no central database to extract stratified information about them. Attempts by many scholars to develop an interoperable system have not been successful largely due to lack of expertise, resources and the inherent complex nature of the health insurance system. There is also difficulty in accessing the required data by different people due to the fact that the applications of these insurance firms are independent. They are designed in any manner, and can use different technologies. This study proposed an agent-based platform which allowed users to receive and exchange data and information from distributed sources. The health insurance business was used as a case study to implement multi-agents approach in this study. In this case study, different agents were used to represent different functional areas in the developed system. The reactivity, proactive, sociability characteristics of multi-agents achieved health insurance interoperability and accomplished the health insurance business requirements. In this study we reviewed pure theory, evaluated and developed an agent based system which allowed health insurance firms to share data and also data sharing platform that enabled collaboration among multiple health insurance institutions in Kenya and also the experimental results showed that the platform could be extended easily to support a large number of concurrent client connections.

Ngowi HA, Mukaratirwa S, Lekule FP, Maingi N, Waiswa C, Sikasunge C, Afonso S, Sumbu J, Ramiandrasoa S, penrith ML, Willingham AL. "Agricultural Impact of Porcine Cysticercosis in Africa: A Review.". In: Novel Aspects on Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis. Jeneza Tirdine Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH; 2013.
Muchemi, L., Lwande O. Agro-Meteorological KMS for SS Farmers. Pretoria, South Africa: CSIR International Convention Centre; 2008.
Ayuke F.A, Karanja N.K, J.J O, Wachira P.M, Mutua G.K, Lelei D. K, Gachene K.K. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health .". In: Tropical Soils of Africa. London: Soils and Food Security; 2012.
Ayuke FO, Karanja NK, Okello J, Wachira P, Mutua GK, Lelei, D., Gachene CKK. "Agrobiodiversity and potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of Africa.". In: In Hester, R.E., Harrison, R.M. (Eds)Soils and Food Security: Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, No 35, 5: 94-133 . London, United Kingdom: The Royal Society of Chemistry; 2012. Abstract

Land degradation and soil fertility decline is often cited as a major constraint to crop production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). As mineral and organic fertilisers are often limited in quantity and quality, soil
fertility research has focused on developing integrated management strategies to address soil fertility decline. Soil biotas are an essential component of soil health and constitute a major fraction of global
terrestrial biodiversity. Within the context of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM), soil biota are responsible for the key ecosystem functions of decomposition and nutrient cycling, soil organic matter
synthesis and mineralisation, soil structural modification and aggregate stabilisation, nitrogen fixation, nutrient acquisition, regulation of atmospheric composition, the production of plant growth substances
and the biological control of soil-borne pests and diseases. Soil biological processes are not as well understood as are soil physical and chemical properties, creating opportunities for breakthroughs in
biotic function to provide better services to agriculture. These services accrue through two basic approaches: indirectly, as a result of promoting beneficial soil biological processes and ecosystem services through land management, or directly, through the introduction of beneficial organisms to the soil. Because of their sensitivity to disturbance and their importance in redistributing and transforming organic inputs, some of the soil biota groups, such as earthworms and termites, represent an important indicator of soil quality. In this chapter we have highlighted the importance of soil biodiversity, especially its potential use for enhancing soil health in tropical soils of SSA.

Ndunda B, Langat MK, Wanjohi JM, Midiwo JO, Kerubo LO. "Alienusolin, a new 4α-deoxyphorbol ester derivative, and crotonimide C, a new glutarimide alkaloid from the Kenyan Croton alienus." Planta medica. 2013;79(18):1762-1766. Abstract

Description
Two novel compounds, alienusolin, a 4α-deoxyphorbol ester (1), crotonimide C, a glutarimide alkaloid derivative (2), and ten known compounds, julocrotine (3), crotepoxide (4), monodeacetyl crotepoxide (5), dideacetylcrotepoxide, (6), β-senepoxide (7), α-senepoxide (8), (+)-(2S,3R-diacetoxy-1-benzoyloxymethylenecyclohex-4,6-diene (9), benzyl benzoate (10), acetyl aleuritolic (11), and 24-ethylcholesta-4,22-dien-3-one (12) were isolated from the Kenyan Croton alienus. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, GCMS, and HRESIMS studies.

Babiaka SB, Simoben CV, Abuga KO, Mbah JA, Karpoormath R, Ongarora D, Mugo H, Monya E, Cho-Ngwa F, Sippl W, Loveridge JE, Ntie-Kang F. "Alkaloids with Anti-Onchocercal Activity from Voacanga africana Stapf (Apocynaceae): Identification and Molecular Modeling." Molecules. 2021;26(1):70. Abstract

A new iboga-vobasine-type isomeric bisindole alkaloid named voacamine A (1), along with eight known compounds—voacangine (2), voacristine (3), coronaridine (4), tabernanthine (5), ibox-ygaine (6), voacamine (7), voacorine (8) and conoduramine (9)—were isolated from the stem bark of Voacanga africana. The structures of the compounds were determined by comprehensive spec-troscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were found to inhibit the motility of both the microfilariae (Mf) and adult male worms of Onchocerca ochengi, in a dose-dependent manner, but were only moderately active on the adult female worms upon biochemical assessment at 30 μM drug concentrations. The IC50 values of the isolates are 2.49–5.49 µM for microfilariae and 3.45–17.87 µM for adult males. Homology modeling was used to generate a 3D model of the O. ochengi thioredoxin reductase target and docking simulation, followed by molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculations attempted to offer an explanation of the anti-onchocercal struc-ture–activity relationship (SAR) of the isolated compounds. These alkaloids are new potential leads for the development of antifilarial drugs. The results of this study validate the traditional use of V. africana in the treatment of human onchocerciasis.

Leucci E, Cocco M, Cleef PV, Bellan C, Rijik AV, Falco GD, Onnis A, Joshua Nyagol, Byakika B, Lazzi S, Tosi P, Kricken HV, Leoncini L. "Altered expression of mirnas in c-MYC negative Burkitt lymphoma cases." Virchows Archives. 2007;451(2):119.
Lund JF;, Carlsen K;, Thorsen BJ. "Alternative indkomster til skovbruget på Vallø Stift.". 2009. Abstract

Denne arbejdsrapport er et af produkterne fra projektet ”Alternative indkomster til skovbruget: Case- og feasibility-studier”. Projektet er finansieret af Skov- og Naturstyrelsen og bliver realiseret af Skov & Landskab, Københavns Universitet, i samarbejde med Centre for Tourism and Culture Management, Handelshøjskolen København. Vallø Stift er en af projektets case-ejendomme og nærværende rapport er et resultat bl.a. af et tæt produktudviklingssamarbejde mellem Vallø Stift, Skov & Landskab og Centre for Tourism and Culture Management. Der blev i Juni 2008 afholdt en temadag på Vallø Stift for at give et praktisk eksempel på en oplevelsesøkonomisk produktudviklingsproces. Vallø Stift har en særlig historie som Kongeligt Frøkenstift for ugifte døtre af dansk adel og med Dronning Margrethe II som nuværende protektor. Vallø Slot kan som ejendom dateres tilbage til 1200-tallet, og det nuværende slot og omkringliggende bygninger kan dateres tilbage til 1700 tallet. Med et jordtilliggende på 4 200 ha er Vallø Stift blandt landets største godser. Ejendommens primære produktion er landbrug og skovbrug. Den sekundære produktion indbefatter bl.a. salg af fødevareprodukter med et særligt Vallø brand, som indbefatter garanti for dyreetisk forsvarlige produktionsmetoder og høj kvalitet. Ejendommen ligger umiddelbart Syd for Køge, skovene har et højt besøgstal, parken, slottet og bygningerne heromkring har en række æstetiske og landskabelige kvaliteter og en spændende historie. Disse egenskaber giver mulighed for at udbyde en række oplevelser, som er særlige for Vallø Stift. Der udbydes allerede nu en række oplevelsesrelaterede produkter på ejendommen. De inkluderer udlejning af jagt, udlejning af arealer til campingplads, tilladelse til fotografering og filmoptagelser omkring hovedbygningen, større selskaber og events i parken, absolut eksklusive arrangementer på slottet, udstedelse af ridekort til skovene samt mulighed for benyttelse af betalingshundeskov. I forbindelse med dette projekt er yderligere muligheder for oplevelsesrelaterede produkter blevet analyseret og i enkelte tilfælde allerede afprøvet. Hen gengives kort en samlet konklusion for de analyserede produkter: - Sæsonmarked: Vallø Stift’s produktion og afsætning af udvalgte kvalitetsfødevarer er allerede i god gænge. Med udgangspunkt i erfaringer indsamlet i dette projekt, fx fra Løndal, vurderes det at det på sigt kan danne rygraden i fx et påskemarked (æg og lam) med fokus på kvalitetsmadvarer - Tematiserede børnefødselsdage: Vallø Stift’s beliggenhed, opland, historie og slottets og skovenes æstetiske kvaliteter er et godt grundlag for denne ydelse. Det vurderes dog, at skal det lønne sig for alvor skal der satses på ret eksklusive versioner og etableres velfungerende samarbejder med en guide/instruktør. - Hundeskove har allerede her under projektet vist sig interessante som nye betalingsydelser målrettet specielle grupper af hundeejere. Det vurderes, at kan man fastholde det gode samarbejde kan der være grundlag for udvidelser både rettet mod almindelige hundeluftere såvel som hundesportsfolk. 3 - Live Rollespil er en mulig udnyttelse af de to pladser i Skovhusvænge. Det vurderes dog, at beliggenhed og rollerspillernes efterspørgsel gør, at en rentabel brug nok primært vil kunne lade sig gøre ved at udleje arealet til enkeltstående lejre og spil. - Mountainbikere anvender ganske ofte Skovhusvænge. Størstedelen af brugerne er ikke organiserede og ikke bosiddende i det umiddelbare opland. Det betyder manglende ejerskabsfølelse og ansvar for lokaliteterne på Vallø, og mulighederne for konstruktive aftaler med og selvjustits blandt brugerne begrænsede. Det vurderes derfor der p.t. ikke er basis for rentable samarbejdsaftaler med de mountainbikere, der bruger området. Muligheden for mountainbikerute kan overvejes når/hvis mountainbikere i/omkring Køge organiserer sig. - Træklatring er en lille niche-sportsgren, der potentielt kan vokse sig større og Skovhusvænge er igen et interessant område. På grund af de store krav til sikkerhed mv. vurderes det, at aktiviteter på dette område alene kan gøres rentable gennem samarbejde med professionelle specialister, som lejer adgang til skovparten. - Eventarrangementer er en mulig videreudvikling af de eksklusive selskabsarrangementer Vallø Stift allerede har. Det vurderes dog at muligheden skal anvendes med omtanke for fortsat at sikre betalingsvilje for netop det eksklusive brand. - Nye aktiviteter omkring campingpladsen kan være med til at øge dens værdi og dermed forpagtningsindtægterne. Skovlegepladser, trætophytter og andre ting er mulige måder at differentiere campingpladsen fra andre, men det vurderes som en risikabel investering umiddelbart.

Njage PMK, Dolci S, Jans C, Wangoh J, Lacroix C, Meile L. "Ampicillin Resistance And Extended Spectrum Β-lactamases In Enterobacteriaceae Isolated From Raw And Spontaneously Fermented Camel Milk.". 2012. Abstract

The prevalence of ampicillin resistance and extended-spectrum β-lactamases(ESBL)in the dominant Enterobacteriaceae from raw and spontaneously fermented camel milk (suusac) in Kenya and Somalia was characterized both phenotypically and genotypically. Globally important SHV and CTX-M-type extended spectrum β–lactamases (ESBLs)were tested. The Enterobacteriaceaebelonged to 15 species from 10 genera. Dominant isolates wereEscherichia coli (50), Klebsiellapneumoniasubsp.pneumoniae (35) and Enterobactersakazakii (20).Salmonella arizonae, Serratia odorifera and E. coli occurred at viable counts greater than 8 log cfu/ml. ESBL was studied f or 96 E. coli, K. pneumoniasubsp. pneumoniae andE.sakazakii. Total of 61 (63% )isolates consisting of 46 (48%) ofE. coli, 45 (46%)K.pneumonia subsp.Pneumoniaand 16 (7%) E.sakazakiiwere resistant to ampicillin.blaSHV ,blaCTX-M-3-like blaCTX-M-14-like genes were detectedin 37 (60%), 25 (40%) and 11 (18%) of theEnterobacteriaceae isolates respectively.K.pneumonia subsp.pneumoniae harbored majority of these bla genes (74%)with1 strain possessing all 3 genes and 13 harbouring both bla SHV and bla CTX-M-3-like genes. Thediversity ofEnterobacteriaceae in camel milk calls for improvedhandling of camel milk.The ESBLgenes intheisolates fromremotesemi-arid regions emphasises the global antimicrobial resistanceproblemamong Enterobacteriaceae

Lissens G, Rabay K, Waweru M, Verstraete W, Morgan-Sagastume F, Aiyuk S. "Anaerobic Digestion as a core technology in sustainable management of organic matter.". 2004.Website
Epiu I, Tindimwebwa JV, Tindimwebwa JV, Mijimbi C, Chokwe T, Lugazia E, Ndarugirire F, Twagirumugabe T, Dubowitz G. "Anaesthesia in Developing countries ." Value in Health . 2015;18(7):A679.
Aketch ON, Lee L, Chou J, Huang S, Chang S, Wu Y, et al. "Analyses of the ISUAL Dancing Sprites and Secondary Sprites." American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2013. 2013. AbstractFull Text

From July 2004 to May 2012, about 1,700 sprites were recorded by ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning). Most of them were singly occurring sprites that were not followed by other sprites; while about 7% of them were multi-sprites, which typically start with a sprite and then followed by another sprite that showed a spatial displacement relative to the preceding sprites. Almost all of these events show horizontal shifts between the preceding sprites and the follow-up ones, which previously have been called the dancing sprites. In contrast to the majority cases of dancing sprites with horizontal displacements, three follow-up sprites were found to exhibit a vertical displacement relative to the preceding sprites, which are termed as the secondary sprites in in this report. These three secondary sprites exhibit similar occurring sequences and characteristics; with the preceding clustering sprite spanning the altitudes of ~60-85 km, and then 30 ms or more later, a secondary sprite appears at ~40-65 km altitudes and seems to be connected to the dimming channels of the preceding sprite. From analyzing the spectral and the ULF data, possible generating mechanisms for dancing sprites and secondary sprites are proposed in this report. Several researches [Lyons, 1994; Lyons, 1996; Lu et al., 2012] had indicated that the successive sprite production in the dancing sprites aligned with the lateral leader propagation direction of lightning. We consider that the successively occurring dancing sprites and the secondary sprites are related to the extending leaders of the cloud-to-ground lightning, which are often followed by a continuing current or even a second stroke. The dancing sprites may be induced by the subsequent leaders in the cloud extending mainly in the horizontal direction, while the secondary sprites may be triggered by the leaders extending primarily in the vertical direction. In addition, a numerical quasi-electrostatic (QE) field model is developed with the aim to validate the occurring scenario of the secondary sprites. Based on the information inferred from the associate ULF data of a secondary sprite, salient parameters, including the charge, the charge height, and the discharging time constant, are estimated and used in the QE model calculations. Through performing QE modeling with the ULF inferred parameters, we find that the electric field in the region below the preceding sprites could be enhanced by the continuing current.

Boon TRE;, Lund DH;, Buttoud G;, Kouplevatskaya I. Analysis along procedural elements.; 2008.Website
Boon TRE;, Nathan I;, Buttoud G;, Kouplevatskaya I, Lund DH;. Analysis along procedural elements.; 1998.Website
L.D.E. I. "Analysis of Census Data taking into consideration Gender Dimensions’.". In: Kenya National Seminar on Census Data Analysis,. Panafric Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.
Kamau, L., Mukabana, W.R., Hawley, W.A., Lehmann, T., Irungu, L.W., Orago AA, Collins, F.H. "Analysis of genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae using microsatelite loci. ." Insect Molecular Biology. 1999;8:287-297.
L K, WR M, WA H, T L, LW I, Orago AA, FH C. "Analysis of genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae using microsatellite loci." Insect molecular biology. 1999;8(2):287-297. AbstractPubMed link

We analysed genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae populations using microsatellite loci to determine whether the Rift Valley restricts the flow of genes. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were significant, and were most likely to be due to the high frequency of null alleles observed. An. arabiensis populations occurring between 40 and 700 km apart across the Eastern arm of the Rift Valley were not differentiated (pair-wise F(ST) range: 0.0033-0.0265, P > 0.05). Neither were An. gambiae populations from Asembo Bay and Ghana (F(ST): 0.0063, P > 0.05) despite a geographical separation of about 5000 km. In contrast, significant differentiation was observed between An. gambiae populations from Asembo Bay and Kilifi (about 700 km apart; F(ST) = 0.1249, P < 0.01), suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow.

Nwaka S, Ochem A, Besson D, Ramirez B, Fakorede F, Botros S, Inyang U, Mgone C, Adae-Mensah I, Konde V, Nyasse B, Okole B, Guantai A, Loots G, Atadja P, Ndumbe P, Sanou I, Olesen O, Ridley R, Ilunga T. "Analysis of pan-African Centres of excellence in health innovation highlights opportunities and challenges for local innovation and financing in the continent." 12. 2012;11(12):2-15.analysis_of_pan-african_centres_of_excellence_in_health_innovation_highlights_opportunities_and_challenges_for_local_innovation_and_in.pdf
Otieno AC, Carter AB, Hedges DJ, Walker JA, Ray DA, Garber R, Anders BA, Stoilova N, Laborde ME, Fowlkes JD, Huang CH, and B. Perodeau, Batzer MA. "Analysis of the human Alu Ya-lineage." Journal of Molecular Biology. 2004;342:109-118.
T A, L O, I O, I O, J O’o. "Anatomical Pattern of Dorsal Metatarsal Arteries in a black Kenyan Population." J Morphol Sci. 2019. Abstract

Introduction Knowledge of anatomical variations in the origin and in the course of the dorsal metatarsal arteries (DMTAs) is valuable for many procedures, including reconstructive surgeries and flap selection. However, there is a paucity of data on these arteries among black Africans. Materials and Methods The present study studied the origin and the location of DMTAs in 30 formalin-fixed cadaveric feet of adult black Kenyans at the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. Results Dorsal metatarsal arteries were present in all of the cases. Of the right dorsalis pedis artery (DPA), in the majority of the cases, the 1st DMTA arose as the continuation of the DPA, while the 2nd to 4th DMTAs were given off as branches from the arcuate artery (AA). On the left feet, in the majority of the cases, the 1st DMTA arose as the continuation of the DPA, while the rest were given off as branches from the AA. In relation to the dorsal interossei muscles, all of the the arteries were either within the muscle fibers (53%) or beneath them (47%), on the right side. On the left side, the 1st DMTA was above the muscles in 40% of the cases; within the muscles in 53%; and beneath the muscles in 7%. The 2nd and 3rd DMTAs were above the muscles in 57% and in 53% of the cases, respectively. Conclusion These results reveal that the DMTAs show variation in their origin and position relative to the dorsal interossei muscles. These variations display bilateral asymmetry.

Mwanyumba PM, Wahome RG, Mwang’mbe A, Lenihan E, Badamana MS. "An anaylsis of factors affecting smallholder mixed farming activities, performance and interactions in Wundanyi location, Taita District, Kenya." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2010;22.
Losovyj YB, Ruihua Cheng, J Carvell, E Ayieta. "Angle resolved photoemission study of surface states on the Pt (997) vicinal surface." Physics Letters A. 2010;374(30):3080-3083. Abstract

One-dimensional atomic chains can be synthesized on stepped surfaces and the electronic
structure of the high vicinal surface plays an essential role in determining the physical
properties of atomic chains grown on top of it. We have applied surface analysis techniques
to study the surface of a Pt (997) single crystal. The STM image of the surface showed that
the surface was uniform with a well defined distance between the terraces. Angle resolved
photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) was used to characterize the electronic states of …

Fu W, Zhao X, Wang K, Chen Z, Leng K, Fu D, Song P, Wang H, Deng L, Pennycook SJ, others. "An anomalous magneto-optic effect in epitaxial indium selenide layers." Nano Letters. 2020;20:5330-5338. Abstract
n/a
Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

Oladapo OT, Vogel JP, Piaggio G, et al. "Antenatal Dexamethasone for Early Preterm Birth in Low-Resource Countries." N Engl J Med. 2020;383(26):2514-2525. Abstract

The safety and efficacy of antenatal glucocorticoids in women in low-resource countries who are at risk for preterm birth are uncertain.

VM M, O MJ, J Z, BM G, R M, LK O, FT W, MR J, LA W, I M. "Anti-Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis activities of (-)-gossypol and derivatives from Thespesia garckeana." Natural Product Communications (NPC). 2015;10(4):613-616.masila_et_al.pdf
Musila FM, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research| Vol. 2017;11(8):1003.
Musila, F.M., Nguta, CM, Lukhoba CW, S.F. D. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research . 2017;11(8):1003-1014.
Musila FM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antibacterial and antifungal activities of 10 Kenyan Plectranthus species in the Coleus clade." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2017;Vol. 11,(Issue 8):pp 1003-1014.
Wanjala W Cornelius, Teresa Akeng'a, George O Obiero, Lutta KP. "Antifeedant Activities of the Erythrinaline Alkaloids from Erythrina latissima against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera noctuidae)." Records of Natural Products. 2009;3(2):96. Abstract

The antifeedant activities of the Erythrina alkaloids from the seeds, seed pods and flowers of Erythrina latissima were investigated in laboratory dual-choice bioassays using third-instar Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae. The new compound (+)-11β-methoxy-10-oxoerysotramidine (1) from the flowers, showed potent dose dependant activity at concentration 500≥ ppm while (+)-10, 11-dioxoerysotramidine (2) also new from the flowers showed potent dose dependant activity at concentration 100≥ ppm. Three known compounds (+)-erysotrine,(+)-erysotramidine,(+)-erythraline,(+)-11β-hydroxyerysotramidine showed potent dose dependant antifeedant activity at concentrations 100≥ ppm while (+)-10, 11-dioxoerysotrine and (+)-11βhydroxyerysotramidine also a known compounds showed potent dose dependant antifeedant activity at concentrations 300≥ ppm. Three known compounds (+)-11β-methoxyerysotramidine,(+)-8-oxoerythraline and (+)-15 (16) β-D-glucoerysodine showed no appreciable change in antifeedant activity with concentration change.

Odhiambo JA, Siboe GM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antifungal Activity of Crude Extracts of Gladiolus Dalenii van Geel (Iridaceae.". 2010.Website
Odhimabo JA, Siboe GM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antifungal activity of crude extracts of Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel (Iridaceae)." African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative medicine. 7 (1): 53-58, 2010. 2010;7(1):53-58. Abstractajtcam_publication.pdfWebsite

 
Bulb extracts of Gladiolus dalenii reportedly used in the treatment of fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in the Lake Victoria region were tested for antifungal activity using the disc diffusion assay technique. Commercially used antifungal drugs, Ketaconazole and Griseofulvin (Cosmos Pharmaceuticals) were used as standards. Dichloromethane (CH2CL2)/Methanol (MeOH) in the ratio 1:1. Soluble extracts showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger. Direct bioautography on silica gel Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and appropriate spraying agents were used to identify the active component in the extract. The activities of both the extracts were higher than that of Griseofulvin. CH2CL2 soluble extract in addition showed ability to delay sporulation in A.niger. The active group of compounds in the extracts was identified as alkaloids, which offer immense potential for development of new and valuable pharmaceutical products.
Key words: G. dalenii, Aspergillus niger, Antifungal activity

Odhiambo JA, Siboe GM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antifungal activity of crude extracts of selected medicinal plants used in combinations in Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya." Plant Product Research Journal. 2009;13:35-43. Abstractpublication_2009.pdfWebsite

Use of herbs as combinations is a common practice with many herbal practitioners. The main idea behind this usually is the synergistic action expected to take place by the traditional healer hence being able to give better results as compared to one herb and also treat more than one ailment, even those not mentioned by the patient. However, other interactions such as additive and antagonism too take place when herbs are used in combinations. In this study, anti-aspergillus and anti-candida efficacy of crude extracts of five plants used in combination to treat malaria were investigated. Toddalia asiatica (root), Rhamnus staddo (root) , Momordica foetida (shoot), Podocarpus falcatus (bark), Aloe sp (secculent leaves) used by traditional health practitioners in the Kalenjin community were extracted using water and dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) and the crude extracts tested for in vitro antifungal activity singly and in combinations against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Dichloromethane/methanol extracts of P. falcatus showed the highest activity (77.77% inhibition) against A.niger while M. foetida showed the highest activity (77.78% inhibition) against C. albicans. Aloe sp. Showed no activity against A. niger when tested singly. A.niger was more sensitive to the plants extracts than C.albicans. Aqueous extracts did not show any activity. Antagonism, additive and synergism were observed when combinations of the herbal plants were assayed. Findings in this study are a preliminary verification of the usefulness of using herbal plants in combinations as a prevalent practice among the traditional healers.

Keywords:
Traditional medicine, herbal combinations, C. albicans, A.niger.

Odhiambo JA, Siboe GM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN COMBINATIONS IN LAKE VICTORIA BASIN, KENYA." Plant Product Research Journal. 2009;13:35-43. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Use of herbs as combinations is a common practice with many herbal practitioners. The main idea behind this usually is the synergistic action expected to take place by the traditional healer hence being able to give better results as compared to one herb and also treat more than one ailment, even those not mentioned by the patient. However, other interactions such as additive and antagonism too take place when herbs are used in combinations. In this study, anti-aspergillus and anti-candida efficacy of crude extracts of five plants used in combination to treat malaria were investigated. Toddalia asiatica (root), Rhamnus staddo (root) , Momordica foetida (shoot), Podocarpus falcatus (bark), Aloe sp (secculent leaves) used by traditional health practitioners in the Kalenjin community were extracted using water and dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) and the crude extracts tested for in vitro antifungal activity singly and in combinations against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Dichloromethane/methanol extracts of P. falcatus showed the highest activity (77.77% inhibition) against A.niger while M. foetida showed the highest activity (77.78% inhibition) against C. albicans. Aloe sp. Showed no activity against A. niger when tested singly. A.niger was more sensitive to the plants extracts than C.albicans. Aqueous extracts did not show any activity. Antagonism, additive and synergism were observed when combinations of the herbal plants were assayed. Findings in this study are a preliminary verification of the usefulness of using herbal plants in combinations as a prevalent practice among the traditional healers.

Odhiambo JA, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CW, Abiy Y. "Antifungal activity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and phytochemical screening of Gladiolus watsonoides Baker (Iridaceae)." Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2014;8(9):1218-1222.gw_publication_2014.pdf
Nanteza A, Obara I, Kasaija P, Mwega E, Kabi F, Salih DA, Njahira M, Joyce Njuguna, Odongo D, Bishop RP, Skilton RA, Ahmed J, Clausen P-H, Lubega GW. "Antigen gene and variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) diversity in Theileria parva parasites from Ankole cattle in south-western Uganda: Evidence for conservation in antigen gene sequences combined with extensive polymorphism at VNTR loci." Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67 Suppl 1:99-107. Abstract

Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted apicomplexan protozoan parasite that infects lymphocytes of cattle and African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), causing a frequently fatal disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. A live vaccination procedure, known as infection and treatment method (ITM), the most frequently used version of which comprises the Muguga, Serengeti-transformed and Kiambu 5 stocks of T. parva, delivered as a trivalent cocktail, is generally effective. However, it does not always induce 100% protection against heterologous parasite challenge. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of T. parva in target cattle populations is therefore important prior to extensive vaccine deployment. This study investigated the extent of genetic diversity within T. parva field isolates derived from Ankole (Bos taurus) cattle in south-western Uganda using 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) satellite loci and the sequences of two antigen-encoding genes that are targets of CD8+T-cell responses induced by ITM, designated Tp1 and Tp2. The findings revealed a T. parva prevalence of 51% confirming endemicity of the parasite in south-western Uganda. Cattle-derived T. parva VNTR genotypes revealed a high degree of polymorphism. However, all of the T. parva Tp1 and Tp2 alleles identified in this study have been reported previously, indicating that they are widespread geographically in East Africa and highly conserved.

Nyaga PN;, Kasiiti J;, Macharia, J M;, Shimanter E;, Panshim, A;, Lipkin M. "Antigenic characterisation of Avian paramyxoviruses (APMV) Isolated in Kenya."; 1996.
Murithi CK, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, w. Lukhoba C. "Antimalarial activity and in vivo toxicity of selected medicinal plants naturalised in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(4):395-406.published_paper_june_2014.pdf
Murithi CK, Fidahusein DS, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW. "Antimalarial activity and in vivo toxicity of selected medicinal plants naturalised in Kenya." Int J Edu Res. 2014;2:395-406.
Murithi CK, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW. "Antimalarial activity and in vivo toxicity of selected medicinal plants naturalised in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(5).
Amugune BK, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, L.K.Omosa, Kibwage IO. "Antimicrobial Activity and Bioactive Constituents of Alectras sessiliflora (Vahl) Kuntze Methanol Extract." East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . 2013;16 :61-68.amugune_et_al.pdf
Kitonde CK, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of Senna didymobotry used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(No. 1):1-12. Abstractsenna_didymobotrya.pdf

Infectious diseases are prevalent and life threatening in Kenya. The majority of the sick are seeking
herbal remedies in search of effective, safe, and affordable treatments. This study aimed to
investigate the antimicrobial activity and presence of chemical compounds in different parts of
Senna didymobotrya. Results showed that, organic extracts of root with Mean inhibition zone (MIZ)
of 1.58 cm, recorded the highest activity against S. aureus than the standard antibiotic
(Streptomycin MIZ of 1.30 cm. Flavonoids were the chemical compoundshighly present. The
results of this study suggest that S. didymobotrya has significant antimicrobial properties and justify
its use in traditional herbal medicine for the management of microbial based diseases. Cytotoxicity
assays are highly recommended for S. didymobotrya in order to verify, validate and document its
safety in medicine.
Key words: Prevalent, Effective, Herbal, Senna didymobotrya.

Kitonde CK, Fidahusein DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of Senna didymobotry used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;1(2):1-12.
Kitonde CK, Fidahusein D, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of Senna didymobotry used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(1):1-12.
Kitonde* CK, Fidahusein DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Senna didymobotrya used to treat bacterial and fungal infections in Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(1):1-12.
*Kitonde, C.K., Dossaji, S. F., Lukhoba, C.W., Jumba, M.M. "Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Study of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern. in Kenya." African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines.. 2013;10(1):149-157.
Kitonde C, Dossaji SF, Lukhoba CW, Jumba M. "Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical study of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern in Kenya." Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013;10(1):149-157. Abstractkitonde_et_al._2013.pdf

Infectious diseases are prevalent and life threatening in Kenya. Majority of the sick are seeking herbal remedies in search of effective, safe, and affordable cure. This project aims to investigate the antimicrobial activity and presence of active phytochemical compounds in different parts of Vernonia glabra; a plant used by herbalists in various regions of Kenya, for the treatment of gastrointestinal problems. The plant sample was collected in January 2010 in Machakos, and different parts dried at room temperature under shade, ground into powder and extracted in Dichloromethane: Methanol in
the ratio 1:1, and water. These crude extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger for antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion technique. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for active crude extracts were done using disc diffusion technique after the failure of agar and broth dilution methods. It was observed that the organic crude extracts of flower, leaf, stem, root, and/or entire plant, showed activity against at least one of
the four micro-organisms screened, and at concentrations lower than the aqueous crude extracts. Organic crude extract of the leaf showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus (mean inhibition zone of 1.85), recording higher activity than the commercially used standard antibiotic (Streptomycin mean inhibition zone of 1.30). The organic crude extract of flower showed significant activity only against S. aureus, with the lowest MIC of 1.5625 mg/100μl, compared to streptomycin with
M.I.C of 6.25 mg/100μl. Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography Agar-Overlay showed that, flower alkaloids (50% active), root sapogenins (43.8% active), and root terpenoids (38.5% active) were identified as the potential antibacterial compounds against S. aureus. These results suggest that, V. glabra contains phytochemicals of medicinal properties and justify the use of V. glabra in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of microbial based diseases. However, research on toxicity which is missing in this study is recommended for V. glabra in order to verify, validate and document the safety
of this medicinal plant to the society.

Keywords: Vernonia glabra, Antimicrobial activity, and Phytochemicals.

Kitonde CK, F. DS, Lukhoba CW, Jumba MM. "ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF VERNONIA GLABRA (STEETZ) OLIV. & HIERN. IN KENYA." African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative medicines. 2013;10(1):149-157. Abstract

Infectious diseases are prevalent and life threatening in Kenya. Majority of the sick are seeking herbal remedies in search of effective, safe, and affordable cure. This project aims to investigate the antimicrobial activity and presence of active phytochemical compounds in different parts of Vernonia glabra ; a plant used by herbalists in various regions of Kenya, for the treatment of gastrointestinal problems. The plant sample was collected in January 2010 in Machakos, and different parts dried at room temperature under shade, ground into powder and extracted in Dichloromethane: Methanol in the ratio 1:1, and water. These crude extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger for antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion technique. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for active crude extracts were done using disc diffusion technique after the failure of agar and broth dilution methods. It was observed that the organic crude extracts of flower, leaf, stem, root, and/or entire plant, showed activity against one or four micro-organisms, and at concentrations lower than the aqueous crude extracts. Organic crude extract of the leaf showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus (mean inhibition zone 1.85), recording higher activity than the commercially used standard antibiotic (Streptomycin mean inhibition zone of 1.30). The organic crude extract of flower showed significant activity only against S.aureus , with the lowest MIC of 1.5625mg/100μl, compared to streptomycin with M.I.C of 6.25mg/100μl. Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography Agar-Overlay showed that, flower alkaloids (50% active), root sapogenins (43.8% active), and root terpenoids (38.5% active) were identified as the potential antibacterial compounds against S.aureus. These results suggest that, V.glabra contains phytochemicals of medicinal properties and justify the use of V.glabra in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of microbial based diseases. However, research on toxicity which is missing in this study is recommended for V. glabra in order to verify, validate and document the safety of this medicinal plant to the society.

Mwangi JW, Mensah IA, G.Muriuki, R.Munavu, L.W L. Antimicrobial activity of lippie grandifolia and lippa javancia. Biology and chemistry of active natural substances. Bonn: Thieme George, Thieme Verlag Strutgart, New York ; 1990.
Kaigongi MM, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Musila FM. "Antimicrobial Activity, Toxicity and Phytochemical Screening of Four Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Msambweni District, Kenya." Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(28):6-12. Abstractkagongi_et_al._2014.pdf

This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical composition of
organic and aqueous crude extracts of Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. (Rutaceae), Adansonia digitata L.
(Bombacaceae), Launaea cornuta (Hocht. ex Oliv. & Hern) C.Jeffrey (Compositae) and Grewia trichocarpa
Hochst. ex A.Rich (Tiliaceae) traditionally used by local communities of Msambweni District in Kenya.
Aqueous and organic [Chloroform: Methanol (1: 1)] crude extracts were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using broth dilution and disc diffusion methods. Toxicity was determined using Brine-shrimp larvae (Artemia salina L. nauplii) assay. The crude extracts were screened to determine the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and sesquiterpene lactones using standard techniques. It was observed that the organic crude extracts from all the species tested except L. cornuta exhibited dose dependent activity against B. cereus, MRSA, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. None of the crude extracts showed any inhibition against E. coli. Adansonia digitata and Grewia trichocarpa had LC50>1000 μg/ml and were shown to be non-toxic to Brine shrimp larvae unlike those of Z. chalybeum and L. cornuta which both had LC50<500 ug/ml and were considered to be toxic. Phytochemical screening of the crude extracts showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, sesquiterpene lactones and saponins were present in the four plants tested.The study has shown that A. digitata and Z. chalybeum possess promising antimicrobial activity against microbes of health importance and could lead to the isolation of new and potentially effective antimicrobial compounds.
Keywords: Medicinal plants; Antimicrobial activity; Brine shrimp lethality test; Phytochemical analysis;
Msambweni district; Kenya.

Kaigongi MM, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Musila FM. "Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of four medicinal plants traditionally used in Msambweni district, Kenya." Journal of Biology Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(28).
Kaigongi MM, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Musila FM. "Antimicrobial Activity, Toxicity and Phytochemical Screening of Four Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Msambweni District, Kenya." Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(28).
Chalo DM, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji, S. F. "Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of selected medicinal plants of Losho, Narok County, Kenya. ." Journal of Natural Product Biochemistry. 2017;Vol 15((1)):pp. 29-43.
Kiitonde C, Lukhoba CW, Dossaji SF. "Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Study of Vernonia glabra (Steetz) Oliv. & Hiern. in Kenya.". In: Botany 2011 . Healing the Planet Symposium in St. Louis, Missouri, USA.: C. Kiitonde, C.W. Lukhoba & S.F. Dossaji; 2011. Abstract

Infectious diseases are prevalent and life threatening. In Kenya, a majority of the sick are seeking herbal remedies in such for effective, safe, and affordable cure. This project aims to investigate the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical compounds present in different parts of Vernonia glabra, a plant used by herbalists in various regions of Kenya claimed to treat different microbial infections. The plant was collected in January, 2010 in Machakos, and the different plant parts ground into powder and extracted in Dichloromethane:Methanol (1:1) and water. These were tested against bacterial and fungal organisms using disc diffusion technique. It was observed that the organic crude extracts of the flower, leaf, stem, root and/or entire plant, showed activity against at least one of the four test micro-organisms and at concentrations lower than the water crude extracts. The organic crude extract of the leaf showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Mean inhibition, 1.83) and Aspergillus niger (mean inhibition, 1.43), and also recorded higher activity those of the standard ds. Organic crude extract of flower showed significant activity against one only organism- Staphylococcus aureus. Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography Agar Overlay, showed that saponins were eliciting over 60% of all the antimicrobial activity. These results suggest that Vernonia glabra may contain phytochemicals of medicinal properties and also justifies the use of Vernonia glabra in herbal medicine for the treatment of microbial diseases. In particular, the V. glabra leaf may contain broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agents that could be useful in the development of competent antimicrobial drugs. Further investigation to isolate, determine the pure and safe antimicrobial compounds is recommended for scientific verification and validation of the drugs from Vernonia glabra.

Yenesew A, L. K., Omosa, Beatrice, Amugune, Ndunda B, Milugo TKTK, Heydenreich M, Midiwo JO. "Antimicrobial flavonoids and diterpenoids from Dodonaea angustifolia." South African Journal of Botany. . 2014;91, :58-62. Abstractpaper_67_omosa_et_al_south_africa_jou..2014.pdf

The surface exudates of the leaves of Dodonaea angustifolia from Ngong forest population (6 km from Nairobi city center, Kenya) demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli), Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus pumilus) bacteria and the fungus Sacchromyces cerevisiae. Chromatographic separation of the exudates yielded eight methylated flavonoids; 5-hydroxy-3, 4′,7-trimethoxyflavone (1), 3,5-dihydroxy-4′,7-dimethoxyflavone (2), santin (3), kumatakenin (4), rhamnocitrin (5), isokaempferide (6), 3,4′,5,7, tetrahydroxy-6-methoxyflavone (7), pinocembrin (8); two clerodanes, dodonic acid (9) and 2β-hydroxyhardwickiic acid (10) and one labdane; (ent-3β,8α)-15,16-epoxy-13(16),14-labdadiene-3,8-diol (11) diterpenoids. The flavonoid aglycones; 6, 7 and the clerodane diterpenoids; 9 and 10 and labdane diterpenoid, 11 were isolated for the first time from this plant species. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified using ultraviolet (UV), mass spectroscopy (MS), one dimension (1D) and two dimension (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and by comparison of the spectral data with literature. The quercetin derivative, 3,4′,5-trihydroxy-3′,7-dimethoxyflavone (12) showed broad spectrum antibacterial activities against E. coli and B. pumilus with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values less than 31.25 μg/well and against S. aureus with MIC below 62.5 μg/well. This compound showed poor antifungal activity against S. cerevisiae (MIC < 500 μg/well). Good antifungal activities were observed for 5,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (13) and hautriwaic acid lactone (14) against S. cerevisiae with MIC values less than 7.8 μg/well. The most active antifungal compound was 5,7-dihydro-3,4′,6-trimethoxyflavone (3, santin) with an MIC value less than 3.9 μg/well against S. cerevisiae. The rest of the compounds exhibited weak to moderate activities. For comprehensive structure activity relationship studies (SAR), hautriwaic acid lactone (14), hautriwaic acid (15), penduletin (16) isolated from the surface exudates of D. angustifolia from Voi (200 km from Mombasa city center, Kenya) and 12 and 13 from Senecio roseiflorus isolated earlier were included in the bioassays.

Kerubo L, Midiwo JO, Derese S, Langat MK, Akala HM, Waters NC, Peter M, Heydenreich M. "Antiplasmodial activity of compounds from the surface exudates of Senecio roseiflorus." Natural Products Communications. 2013;7:1-2.kerubo_et_al_3_npc.pdf
Mark O. Nanyingi, Lagat BK, Wagate CG, Adanyi FN, Koros KB, Rono BC, Asaava LL. "Antiplasmodial Activity of Some Plants Traditionally used in Treatment of Malaria in Samburu District, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the 1st National Conference and Exhibition of Research Results and Review of Innovations.Ministry of Science and Technology. K.I.C.C. Nairobi ; 2008.
Andayi AW, Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Gitu PM, Jondiko OJI, Akala H, Liyala P. "Antiplasmodial Flavonoids from Erythrina sacleuxii.". 2006.Website
Andayi AW, Yenesew A, Derese S, Midiwo JO, Gitu PM, Jondiko OJI, Akala H, Liyala P. "Antiplasmodial Flavonoids from Erythrina sacleuxii.". 2006.Website
Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women." N. Engl. J. Med.. 2012;367(5):399-410. Abstract

Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations.

Okaru AO, Brunner TS, Ackermann SM, Kuballa T, Walch SG, Kohl-Himmelseher M, Lachenmeier DW. "Application of 19F NMR spectroscopy for content determination of fluorinated pharmaceuticals." Journal of analytical methods in chemistry. 2017;2017. Abstract
n/a
Mamadou Alieu Jallow, Weke Patrick, Lukman Abiodun Nafiu, Ogutu C. "Application of a Discrete time Semi–Markov Model to the Stochastic Forecasting of Capital Assets as Stock." Far East Journal of Theoretical Statistics, . 2021;63(1):1-18.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Application of differential equation modelsto the population dynamics of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid - Diadegma semiclausum (Helllen).". In: The 5th International Workshop on “Management of Diamondback Moth and other Crucifer Insect Pests”. Beijing, China; 2007.
Lelei JK, Kariuki CN. "Application of perational Research in Public Project Management.". In: The First ORSEA Conference held in Nairobi. African Crop Science Society; 2003. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

Lelei JK, Kariuki CN. "Application of perational Research in Public Project Management.". In: The First ORSEA Conference held in Nairobi. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 2003. Abstract

n/a

Ochanda N, EPP H;, Lantieri D, Agatsiva JL. "Application of remote sensing to earth resources monitoring in Kenya.". 1983.Website
Liqiang Sun LO, et al. "Application of the NCAR regional climate model to East Africa 1. Simulation of the short rains of 1988." Journal of Geophysical Research. 1999;104(D6):6529-6548.
MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Lagat CK. "An application of the Transportation Model in the distribution of UHT milk.". In: The African Journal of Finance and Management, vol. 8 no. 2 January. IBIMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract

This paper, using data from factories and depots of KCC that handle UHT milk, develops a model for the optimal allocation of milk from factories to the deports in various parts of Kenya. In developing of this model, the paper takes into consideration the characteristics visual depots, such as access roads, demand, storage capacities and KCC's distribution policy. By use of a case study approach, a transportation model is developed. It shows how distribution costs can be reduced through the use of operations research (OR) models. However, given the structures of the industry, the paper suggests that there should be an integrated transportation model that would analyze the allocation of products to individual depots while minimizing both transport and storage costs.

L.C. B, P.G. Mbuthia, J.M.Macharia, Mwaniki G, L.W. Njagi. "Appraisal of the village chickens potential in egg production." The Kenya Veterinarian. 2005;29:10-13.abstract-appraisal_of_village_chickens-kvaj-2005.pdf
Wanjala G, L.P O. "Appraising Teacher Creativity and Collaborative Skills in Public Primary Schools in Mumias East Sub- County, Kenya ." International Journal of Education and Research . 2019;7(6):207-218 .abstract-.pdf
Ocholla S, Jumba G, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Wadegu MO, Mukunzi S, Majanja JM, Opot B, Osuna F, Muthoni J, Njiri J, Mwangi J, Kibet K, Coldren R. The Appropriateness of WHO influenza B vaccine component to Kenya in 2011-2012. Hilton Hotel; Nairobi, Kenya; 2014. Abstract

Background: In the 1980’s, influenza B viruses were discovered to belong to two evolutionary groupings (B/Victoria/2/87-like viruses and B/Yamagata/16/88-like viruses) that continue to co-circulate globally in the human population. These viruses exist as independent lineages. Information about lineage of circulating influenza B viruses in a country is important for determination of the appropriateness of either a trivalent or a quadrivalent vaccine composition for that country.Objective: To genetically analyze the HA1 of influenza B viruses isolated in Kenya during the 2011-2012 season with reference to WHO vaccine strains recommended for Kenya.Method: Nasopharyngeal swab specimens obtained from patients meeting WHO definition criterion for ILI were screened by real-time PCR for influenza B viruses. Influenza B virus positive samples were inoculated onto MDCK cells and the lineages of the isolates determined by hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI). To confirm the lineages, HA1 gene segments of selected isolates were amplified by PCR and sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics tools.Results: Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all the 24 influenza B viruses that circulated between 2011- 2012 were closely related to B/Brisbane/60/2008 vaccine Strain. Comparison of the HA1 amino acid sequences of influenza B viruses with the reference vaccine strain (B/Brisbane/60/2008 lineage) revealed substitutions at 19 amino acid positions. FLU-MBG-11-02-010 had R188K amino acid change in the 120-loop antigenic receptor binding site relative to B/Brisbane vaccine reference strain. FLU-MBG-12-05-011 had V124I amino acid change in the 120-loop antigenic receptor binding site relative to the vaccine reference strain. The majority (87.5%) had I146V/A amino acid change in the 150-loop antigenic receptor binding site. All the Kenyan isolates had D197N amino acid change in the 190-helix antigenic receptor site. The other fifteen positions that showed polymorphisms were outside of the antigenic sites with these mutations being randomly distributed among the isolates.Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that the WHO vaccine strain recommendations for the southern hemisphere were appropriate for use in Kenya.

Kachlik D, Baca V, Stingl J, Sosna B, Lametschwandtner A, Minnich B, Setina M. "Architectonic arrangement of the vasa vasorum of the human great saphenous vein." Journal of vascular research. 2007;44:157-166. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The detailed spatial arrangement of the vasa vasorum (VV) of the human great saphenous vein (HGSV) was demonstrated in qualitative and quantitative terms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Segments of the HGSV taken from cadavers 12-24 h post mortem and from patients undergoing aortocoronary bypassing were studied by light microscopy of India-ink-injected specimens and by scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts. RESULTS: Arterial feeders were found to approach the HGSV from nearby arteries every 15 mm forming a rich capillary network within the adventitia and the outer two thirds of the media in normal HGSV, while in HGSV with intimal hyperplasia capillary meshes extended into the inner layers of the media. Within the media, capillary meshes ran circularly. Postcapillary venules drained centrifugally towards the adventitial venous vessels which finally formed venous drainers running adjacent to the arterial feeders. Three-dimensional morphometry of vascular corrosion casts of VV revealed that diameters of (i) arterial VV ranged from 11.6 to 36.6 microm, (ii) capillary VV from 4.7 to 11.6 microm and (iii) venous VV ranged from 11.6 to 200.3 microm. CONCLUSIONS: The 3D network of VV suggests these layers are metabolically highly active and therefore require a continuous blood supply. We conclude, therefore, that the VV network must be preserved during in situ bypassing.

PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO, L K, A.K VH, C S, K K, K H, H T. "Are cell lines a suitable model for studying endometriosis.". 2010.
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Lwande W, Hassanali H. "Aromatic plants of Kenya II: Volatile constituents of leaf oil of Psiadia punculata (D.C.) Vatke." J. BiochemiPhysics. 1999;8:32-33.
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Addae-Mensah I, Achenbach H, Lwande W, Hassanali. H. "Aromatic plants of Kenya III: Volatile and some non-volatile constituents of Croton sylvaticus." H. Hassanali.. 1998;1:41-43.
Chantler PD, Lakatta EG. "Arterial-{Ventricular} {Coupling} with {Aging} and {Disease}." Frontiers in Physiology. 2012;3. AbstractWebsite

Age is the dominant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Understanding the coupling between the left ventricle (LV) and arterial system, termed arterial–ventricular coupling (EA/ELV), provides important mechanistic insights into the complex cardiovascular system and its changes with aging in the absence and presence of disease. EA/ELV can be indexed by the ratio of effective arterial elastance (EA; a measure of the net arterial load exerted on the LV) to left ventricular end-systolic elastance (ELV; a load-independent measure of left ventricular chamber performance). Age-associated alterations in arterial structure and function, including diameter, wall thickness, wall stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction, contribute to a gradual increase in resting EA with age. Remarkably there is a corresponding increase in resting ELV with age, due to alterations to LV remodeling (loss in myocyte number, increased collagen) and function. These age-adaptations at rest likely occur, at least, in response to the age-associated increase in EA and ensure that EA/ELV is closely maintained within a narrow range, allowing for optimal energetic efficiency at the expense of mechanical efficacy. This optimal coupling at rest is also maintained when aging is accompanied by the presence of hypertension, and obesity, despite further increases in EA and ELV in these conditions. In contrast, in heart failure patients with either reduced or preserved ejection fraction, EA/ELV at rest is impaired. During dynamic exercise, EA/ELV decreases, due to an acute mismatch between the arterial and ventricular systems as ELV increases disproportionate compared to EA (≈200 vs. 40%), to ensure that sufficient cardiac performance is achieved to meet the increased energetic requirements of the body. However, with advancing age the reduction in EA/ELV during acute maximal exercise is blunted, due to a blunted increase ELV. This impaired EA/ELV is further amplified in the presence of disease, and may explain, in part, the reduced cardiovascular functional capacity with age and disease. Thus, although increased stiffness of the arteries itself has important physiological and clinical relevance, such changes also have major implications on the heart, and vice versa, and the manner in the way they interact has important ramifications on cardiovascular function both at rest and during exercise. Examination of the alterations in arterial–ventricular coupling with aging and disease can yield mechanistic insights into the pathophysiology of these conditions and increase the effectiveness of current therapeutic interventions.

Okoth S, Lindy J Rose, Abigael Ouko, Nakisani EI Netshifhefhe, Henry Sila, Viljoen A. "Assessing genotype-by-environment interactions in aspergillus ear rot and pre-harvest aflatoxin accumulation in maize inbred lines." Agronomy. 2017;7(4):86.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Assessing the impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella through the application of Lotka-Volterra model." Ecological Modelling . 2008;220:60-70.
Tonnang HEZ, Nedorezov LV, Ochanda H, Owino J, Löhr B. "Assessing the impact of biological control of Plutella xylostella through the application of Lotka–Volterra model." Ecological Modelling. 2009;220(1):60-70. Abstract

The Lotka–Volterra model was applied to the population densities of diamondback moth
(DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) and its exotic larval parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum
(Hellen) data that was collected earlier by icipe's DBM biological control team. The
collections were done for 15 months before the release and 36 months after release of the
parasitoid in two areas; in Werugha, Coast Province of Kenya and Tharuni, Central Province
of Kenya, respectively. For each area in pre-and post-release periods, we estimated Lotka ...

Midingoyi SG, Affognon HD, Macharia I, Ong’amo G, Abonyo E, Ogola G, H. DG, LeRu BP. "Assessing the long-term welfare effects of the biological control of cereal stemborer pests in East and Southern Africa: Evidence from Kenya, Mozambique and Zambia Agriculture." ECOSYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT . 2016;230:10-23.
Bergin P, Langat R, Omosa-Manyonyi G, Farah B, Ouattara G, Park H, Coutinho H, Laufer D, Fast P, Verlinde C, Bizimana J, Umviligihozo G, Nyombayire J, Ingabire R, Kuldanek K, Cox J, McMorrow M, Fidler S, Karita E, Gilmour J, Anzala O. "Assessment of anti-HIV-1 antibodies in Oral and Nasal Compartments of Volunteers from Three different Populations." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2016. Abstract

In this study, we assessed the feasibility of collecting standardized nasal and salivary samples at centers in Nairobi (Kenya), Kigali (Rwanda) and London (UK) using different collection devices and media (Synthetic absorptive matrices versus flocked swabs, and Salimetrics Oral swabs versus whole oral fluid collection). We detected anti Gag (p24) and envelope (gp140) antibodies in both nasal fluid and salivary collections from all HIV-infected individuals, and cross-reactive anti-p24 antibodies were detected in 10% of HIV-uninfected individuals enrolled at one site. Collections from the nasal turbinates were comparable to samples collected deeper in the nasopharyngeal tract, and the yield of anti-p24 IgA in the whole oral fluid samples was higher than in samples collected from the parotid gland. We noted a trend toward reduced levels of anti-HIV antibody in the volunteers receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Levels of antibodies were stable over multiple collection visits. Overall, this study shows that nasal and salivary samples can be collected in a standardized manner over repeated visits in both low and high resource settings. These methods may be used in support of future HIV vaccine clinical trials.

Ngigi MW;, Okello JJ;, Lagarkvist C;, Karanja N, Mburu J. "Assessment of developing-country urban consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of leafy vegetables: The case of middle and high income consumers in Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

The improvement in income in developing countries has led to emergence of middle and high income consumers in urban centers. Improvement in income usually causes the shift to consumption of non-staples including leafy vegetables. Thus in major developing country urban centers there has been rapid expansion of the grocery sections featuring leafy vegetables in leading retail stores. Specialty stores have also emerged featuring broad range vegetables. Many middle and high income consumers shop these stores. This study examines the willing of the middle and high income consumers who shop specialized stores to pay for quality of leafy vegetables and drivers of willingness to pay for quality. The study uses contingent valuation and the payment card method in eliciting consumers’ WTP. It considers a broad range of quality attributes including safety, nutrition, environmental friendliness, hygiene in handling. The study finds that mean willingness to pay for quality is higher among high income consumers (>60%). It also finds that income, age of children the consumer has, access to information of food safety are among the significant drivers of kale consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of kales. The study concludes that there is demand for quality of leafy vegetables and discusses policy implications.

Ngigi MW;, Okello JJ;, Lagarkvist C;, Karanja N;, Mburu J. "Assessment of developing-country urban consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of leafy vegetables: The case of middle and high income consumers in Nairobi, Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

The improvement in income in developing countries has led to emergence of middle and high income consumers in urban centers. Improvement in income usually causes the shift to consumption of non-staples including leafy vegetables. Thus in major developing country urban centers there has been rapid expansion of the grocery sections featuring leafy vegetables in leading retail stores. Specialty stores have also emerged featuring broad range vegetables. Many middle and high income consumers shop these stores. This study examines the willing of the middle and high income consumers who shop specialized stores to pay for quality of leafy vegetables and drivers of willingness to pay for quality. The study uses contingent valuation and the payment card method in eliciting consumers’ WTP. It considers a broad range of quality attributes including safety, nutrition, environmental friendliness, hygiene in handling. The study finds that mean willingness to pay for quality is higher among high income consumers (>60%). It also finds that income, age of children the consumer has, access to information of food safety are among the significant drivers of kale consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of kales. The study concludes that there is demand for quality of leafy vegetables and discusses policy implications.

PN R, GO O, O AE, L A, J K. "Assessment of Guideline Concordant Antibiotic Prescribing for Patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia at The Kenyatta National Hospital Medical Wards." Journal of Kenya Association of Physicians. 2022;5(1):34-42. Abstractassessment_of_guideline_concordant_antibiotic_prescribing.pdf

Background: Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity
and mortality globally. Despite the proven benefits of
guideline concordant antibiotic prescribing, research
has shown that adherence to clinical guideline
recommendations is dismal.
Objectives: The study aims to determine utilization of
Kenyatta National Hospital antibiotic guideline titled
‘The KNH guide to empiric antimicrobial therapy
2018’ in the management of community acquired
pneumonia in the Kenyatta National Hospital medical
wards and the perceived barriers towards the utilization
of this guideline.
Materials and methods: A check list derived from the
Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) guide to empiric
antimicrobial therapy 2018 was used to assess guideline
concordance based on seven quality indicators:
empiric antibiotic, dose and route of administration,
switch to oral antibiotics, duration of antibiotics (at
least 5 days), collection of microbiological samples
before initiating antibiotics, review of antibiotics at 48
hours and once the culture results are out. Online selfadministered questionnaires were used to determine
attitude and perceived barriers towards utilization
of the KNH guideline among the Internal Medicine
registrars and medical officers.
Analysis: Descriptive statistics were applied in
the representation of each of the seven quality
indicators. These were then compared with the
guideline recommendations and adherence to the
guideline for each parameter was expressed as a
percentage of the total number of patients admitted
with community acquired pneumonia. These were
then graded into the following categories based on the
level of concordance: Good >90%, Intermediate 60-
90%, poor <60%. Questions on the attitude and the
perceived barriers towards KNH guideline utilization
were answered using a 5 point Likert scale. Perceived
barrier statements that were positively formulated
were then recorded so that a lower score meant a
lower level of the perceived barriers and vice versa.
Percentages were then calculated for the total number
of doctors that agreed or strongly agreed that the
barrier was applicable. An open ended question on the
top three barriers to the KNH guideline utilization was
also included in the questionnaire.
Results: For each of the other quality indicators,
adherence to the KNH guideline for patients with
community acquired pneumonia was as follows:
empiric antibiotic choice 48%, collection of samples
for culture prior to antibiotic administration 0%, review
of antibiotics at 48 hours 26.4%, review of antibiotics
with culture results 45.8%, total duration of antibiotics
28.8% and time to switch to oral antibiotics 3.6%. The
top three barriers towards guideline utilization among
the doctors were: unavailability of drugs (52.7%),
inaccessibility of the KNH guideline (45.1%) and lack
of or delay of investigations (34.1%).
Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that the level
of adherence to the seven quality indicators from the
KNH guide is poor with the overall adherence being
35.5%. The recommendation least adhered to was
collection of microbiological samples before initiation
of empiric antibiotics. The most commonly identified
barriers to utilization of the guideline were external
and guideline related barriers.
Key words: Guide to empiric antimicrobial therapy
2018, Guideline Concordance antibiotic prescribing,
Community acquired pneumonia

Gathumbi J.K., Kanja L.W., Maitho T.E., Mbaria J.M., Nduhiu J.G., Gitau F.K., J.G. N, Lucy M.W, K. M. "Assessment of lead and copper in fish and soil sediments in Kirinyaga South District, Kenya." Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation. 2013;8 (3):145-150.
Mutero CM, Mbogo C, Mwangangi J, Imbahale S, Kibe L, Orindi B, Girma M, Njui A, Lwande W, Affognon H, Gichuki C, Wolfgang Richard Mukabana. "An assessment of participatory integrated vector management for malaria control in Kenya." Environmental health perspectives. 2015;123(11):1145.
Luvai AK, Obiero JPO, Omuto CT. "Assessment of Soil Loss in a Typical Ungauged Dam Catchment using RUSLE Model (Maruba Dam, Kenya)." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2021;Vol 11(No. 16):56-68.
L. Fusilli, M. O. Collins, G. Laneve, A. Palombo, Pignatti S, and Santini F. "Assessment of the abnormal growth of floating macrophytes in Winam Gulf (Kenya) by using MODIS imagery time series." International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 2013;20:33-41.
S.Senda T, Lance W. Robinson, K.K.Gachene C, Kironchi G, Doyo J. "An assessment of the implications of alternative scales of communal land tenure formalization in pastoral systems." Land use Policy. 2020;94.
Baden LR, Karita E, Mutua G, Bekker L-G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, Page-Shipp L, Walsh SR, Nyombayire J, Anzala O, Roux S, Laher F, Innes C, Seaman MS, Cohen YZ, Peter L, Frahm N, McElrath JM, Hayes P, Swann E, Grunenberg N, Grazia-Pau M, Weijtens M, Sadoff J, Dally L, Lombardo A, Gilmour J, Cox J, Dolin R, Fast P, Barouch DH, Laufer DS. "Assessment of the Safety and Immunogenicity of 2 Novel Vaccine Platforms for HIV-1 Prevention: A Randomized Trial." Ann. Intern. Med.. 2016;164(5):313-22. Abstract

A prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is a global health priority.

Liavoga B. A., V. M. Kathumo OKORNGN. "Assessment of Trends in Land Cover and Crop Type Change Over Two Decades in Yatta Sub County, Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2014;Vol. 2, ( No. 3):46-52.
Liavoga BA, Kathumo VM, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN, Onyango CM. "Assessment of trends in land cover and crop type change over two decades in Yatta sub county,Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2014;Vol. 2(No. 3):46-52.
Lokken EM, Manguro GO, Abdallah A, Ngacha C, Shafi J, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Srinivasan S, Fiedler TL, Munch MM, Fredricks DN, McClelland SR, Balkus JE. "Association between vaginal washing and detection of by culture and quantitative PCR in HIV-seronegative Kenyan women: a cross-sectional analysis." Sex Transm Infect. 2019. Abstract

Vaginal washing has been associated with reductions in cultivable and an increased risk of both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. The effect of vaginal washing on the quantity of individual species is not well characterised. This analysis tested the hypothesis that vaginal washing would be associated with a lower likelihood of spp. detected by both culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR).

RJ M, LW G, AM K. "Association of fever and diarrhea with infant teething among mothers attending two health centres in Nairobi." J Kenya Dent Assoc. 2015;2015; 6(2): 265-272(2015; 6(2): 265-272):2015; 6(2): 265-272.
Hassan WM, Lavreys L, Chohan V, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Holmes KK, McClelland SR. "Associations between intravaginal practices and bacterial vaginosis in Kenyan female sex workers without symptoms of vaginal infections." Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34(6):384-8. Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is highly prevalent among African women and has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV-1.

Faxon DP, Fuster V, Libby P, Beckman JA, Hiatt WR, Thompson RW, Topper JN, Annex BH, Rundback JH, Fabunmi RP, Robertson RM, Loscalzo J. "Atherosclerotic {Vascular} {Disease} {Conference} {Writing} {Group} {III}: {Pathophysiology}." Circulation. 2004;109:2617-2625. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Bose S, Yap L-F, Fung M, Starzcynski J, Saleh A, Morgan S, Dawson C, Chukwuma MB, Maina E, Buettner M, Wei W, Arrand J, Lim PVH, Young LS, Teo SH, Stankovic T, Woodman CBJ, Murray PG. "The ATM tumour suppressor gene is down-regulated in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma." J. Pathol.. 2009;217(3):345-52. Abstract

A micro-array analysis using biopsies from patients with EBV-positive undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and from cancer-free controls revealed down-regulation of tumour suppressor genes (TSG) not previously associated with this disease; one such gene was the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. Q-PCR confirmed down-regulation of ATM mRNA and ATM protein expression in tumour cells was weak or absent in almost all cases. In NPC cell lines, however, ATM was down-regulated only in the EBV-positive line, C666.1, and in none of five EBV-negative lines. In vitro infection of EBV-negative NPC cell lines with a recombinant EBV was followed by the down-regulation of ATM mRNA and protein, and only EBV-positive cells showed a defective DNA damage response following gamma-irradiation. Our data suggest that loss of ATM function could be an important step in the pathogenesis of NPC, and may have implications for the treatment of this disease.

Murray PG, Woodman CB, Stankovic T, Teo SH, Young LS, Lim PV, Arrand J, Wei W, Buettner M, Maina E, others. "The ATM Tumour Suppressor Gene Is Down-regulated In EBV-associated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.". 2009. Abstract
n/a
Mulrennan JA, Lamdin JM, Bolton HT, Hammond CL. "Atmospheric levels of propoxur aboard submarines after residual spraying." J. Econ. Entomol.. 1975;68(6):755-60.

UoN Websites Search