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Lom B, Cohen-Cory S. "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor differentially regulates retinal ganglion cell dendritic and axonal arborization in vivo." The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1999;19:9928-9938. Abstract

Expression of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor trkB in the ganglion cell layer of the Xenopus retina during retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendritic arborization indicates that BDNF is spatially and temporally available to influence RGC morphological differentiation (; ). BDNF promotes RGC axon arborization in vivo by acting as a target-derived trophic factor (). To determine whether BDNF also acts locally to regulate RGC dendritic development in vivo, we altered retinal neurotrophin levels at the onset of dendritic arborization and assessed the resulting arbor morphologies of RGCs retrogradely labeled with fluorescent dextrans. Injecting neurotrophins or BDNF function-blocking antibodies coupled to microspheres provided local alterations of retinal neurotrophin levels. BDNF significantly decreased RGC dendritic arbor complexity, whereas neutralizing endogenous BDNF levels with function-blocking antibodies significantly increased dendritic arbor complexity. RGCs exposed to other neurotrophins, as well as RGCs in retinae treated with BDNF but in areas not directly exposed to the neurotrophin, developed dendritic arbors that were indistinguishable from controls, indicating that exogenous BDNF acts specifically and locally. In the tectum, where RGC axons arborize, BDNF had opposite effects. BDNF significantly increased RGC axon arbor complexity and anti-BDNF reduced RGC arborization. Thus, BDNF reduces RGC dendritic arborization within the retina and increases axon arborization in the tectum. These results indicate that BDNF can differentially modulate axonal and dendritic arborization within a single neuronal population in opposing manners and raise the possibility that differential modulation by a neurotrophic factor finely tunes the morphological differentiation program of a neuron.

Lolly Patrick Osendo, Wanjala UAOG &. "Influence of teacher performance appraisal on job performance in public primary schools in Mumias East sub county, Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2019;6(5).
Lolgisoi LB, Kimani EK, Ayah R, Jama HH. "Improving the Prototyping Manufacturing Processes: The Development of an Assembly Manual for Suction Machine.". In: 1 st Annual Architecture and Engineering Conference 2018. Nairobi, Kenya; 2018.
Lokken EM, Manguro GO, Abdallah A, Ngacha C, Shafi J, Kiarie J, Jaoko W, Srinivasan S, Fiedler TL, Munch MM, Fredricks DN, McClelland SR, Balkus JE. "Association between vaginal washing and detection of by culture and quantitative PCR in HIV-seronegative Kenyan women: a cross-sectional analysis." Sex Transm Infect. 2019. Abstract

Vaginal washing has been associated with reductions in cultivable and an increased risk of both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and HIV infection. The effect of vaginal washing on the quantity of individual species is not well characterised. This analysis tested the hypothesis that vaginal washing would be associated with a lower likelihood of spp. detected by both culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR).

Lokken EM, Richardson BA, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Mwinyikai K, Abdalla A, Jaoko W, Mandaliya K, Shafi J, Scott McClelland R. "A Prospective Cohort Study of the Association Between Body Mass Index and Incident Bacterial Vaginosis." Sex Transm Dis. 2019;46(1):31-36. Abstract

Some studies suggest that higher body mass index is associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial vaginosis (BV), but results are conflicting.

Lokken EM, Balkus JE, Kiarie J, Hughes JP, Jaoko W, Totten PA, McClelland SR, Manhart LE. "Recent bacterial vaginosis is associated with acquisition of Mycoplasma genitalium." Am. J. Epidemiol.. 2017. Abstract

We assessed the association between recent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and incident Mycoplasma genitalium, a sexually transmitted bacterium associated with adverse female reproductive health outcomes. Female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya completed a monthly sexual behavior interview and clinical examination. During February 2005-February 2006, vaginal fluid specimens collected from women every other month were tested for M. genitalium by nucleic acid amplification testing. Vaginal microbiota was assessed monthly and categorized by Nugent score (0-3 normal, 4-6 intermediate microbiota, 7-10 BV). A discrete time failure analysis for multiple events using logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of incident M. genitalium infection at follow-up visits in women with BV versus normal microbiota at the preceding visit. Among the 280 women, 54.3% were HIV positive. At baseline, 16.1% had prevalent M. genitalium infections and 40.4% had prevalent BV. There were 59 incident M. genitalium infections among 50 women for an incidence rate of 34.6 per 100 person-years. Following adjustment for age, HIV status, and time, prior BV was associated with a 3.5-fold increase in odds of incident M. genitalium (adjusted odds ratio = 3.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.86, 6.56). This strong association suggests that BV may enhance susceptibility to M. genitalium infection.

Loiselle S, zar A´s C´, Adgo E, Ballatore T, Chavula G, Descy JP, Harper DM, Kansiime F, Kimirei I, Langenberg V, Ma R, Sarmento12 H, Odada E. "Decadal Trends and Common Dynamics of the Bio- Optical and Thermal Characteristics of the African Great Lakes." PLOS ONE. 2014;9(4):1-6. Abstract

The Great Lakes of East Africa are among the world’s most important freshwater ecosystems. Despite their importance in providing vital resources and ecosystem services, the impact of regional and global environmental drivers on this lacustrine system remains only partially understood. We make a systematic comparison of the dynamics of the bio-optical and thermal properties of thirteen of the largest African lakes between 2002 and 2011. Lake surface temperatures had a positive trend in all Great Lakes outside the latitude of 0u to 8u south, while the dynamics of those lakes within this latitude range were highly sensitive to global inter-annual climate drivers (i.e. El Nin˜o Southern Oscillation). Lake surface temperature dynamics in nearly all lakes were found to be sensitive to the latitudinal position of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. Phytoplankton dynamics varied considerably between lakes, with increasing and decreasing trends. Intra-lake differences in both surface temperature and phytoplankton dynamics occurred for many of the larger lakes. This inter-comparison of bio-optical and thermal dynamics provides new insights into the response of these ecosystems to global and regional drivers.

Lois Muiva-Mutisya, Bernard Macharia MHAKHASDLOAMK. "6α-Hydroxy-α-toxicarol and (+)-tephrodin with antiplasmodial activities from Tephrosia species." Phytochemistry Letters. 2014;10:179-183. Abstract

6α-Hydroxy-α-toxicarol and (+)-tephrodin with antiplasmodial activities from Tephrosia species

Lois Muiva-Mutisyaa, Bernard Machariaa, Matthias Heydenreichb, Andreas Kochb, Hoseah M. Akalac, Solomon Deresea, Leonidah K. Omosaa, Amir O. Yusufa, Edwin Kamauc, Abiy Yenesew
Phytochemistry Letters, Volume 10, December 2014, Pages 179–183

Abstract
The CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Tephrosia villosa showed good antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 3.1 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.3 μg/mL, respectively. Chromatographic separation of the extract yielded a new rotenoid, 6α-hydroxy-α-toxicarol, along with five known rotenoids, (rotenone, deguelin, sumatrol, 12a-hydroxy-α-toxicarol and villosinol). Similar treatment of the extract of the stem of Tephrosia purpurea (IC50 = 4.1 ± 0.4 and 1.9 ± 0.2 μg/mL against D6 and W2 strains of P. falciparum, respectively) yielded a new flavone having a unique substituent at C-7/C-8 [trivial name (+)-tephrodin], along with the known flavonoids tachrosin, obovatin methyl ether and derrone. The relative configuration and the most stable conformation in (+)-tephrodin was determined by NMR and theoretical energy calculations. The rotenoids and flavones tested showed good to moderate antiplasmodial activities (IC50 = 9 − 23 μМ). Whereas the cytotoxicity of rotenoids is known, the flavones (+)-tephrodin and tachrosin did not show significant cytotoxicity (IC50 > 100 μМ) against mammalian African monkey kidney (vero) and human larynx carcinoma (HEp2) cell lines.

Lohman-Payne B, Slyker JA MS, Maleche-Obimbo E, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha D, Farquhar C O, Overbaugh J J-SG. "Breast milk cellular HIV-specific interferon γ responses are associated with protection from peripartum HIV transmission." AIDS. 2012 Oct 23;26(16):2007-16. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328359b7e0.. 2012. Abstract

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
Breast milk is a major route of infant HIV infection, yet the majority of breast-fed, HIV-exposed infants escape infection by unknown mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the role of HIV-specific breast milk cells in preventing infant HIV infection.
DESIGN:
A prospective study was designed to measure associations between maternal breast milk HIV-specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) responses and infant HIV-1 detection at 1 month of age.
METHODS:
In a Kenyan cohort of HIV-infected mothers, blood and breast milk HIV-gag IFN-γ ELISpot responses were measured. Logistic regression was used to measure associations between breast milk IFN-γ responses and infant HIV infection at 1 month of age.
RESULTS:
IFN-γ responses were detected in breast milk from 117 of 170 (69%) women. IFN-γ responses were associated with breast milk viral load, levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1α, MIP-1β, regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted and stromal-cell derived factor 1 and subclinical mastitis. Univariate factors associated with infant HIV infection at 1 month postpartum included both detection and breadth of breast milk IFN-γ response (P = 0.08, P = 0.04, respectively), breast milk MIP-1β detection (P = 0.05), and plasma (P = 0.004) and breast milk (P = 0.004) viral load. In multivariate analyses adjusting for breast milk viral load and MIP-1β, breast milk IFN-γ responses were associated with an approximately 70% reduction in infant HIV infection [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.092-0.91], and each additional peptide pool targeted was associated with an approximately 35% reduction in infant HIV (aOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97).
CONCLUSION:
These data show breast milk HIV-gag-specific IFN-γ cellular immune responses are prevalent and may contribute to protection from early HIV transmission. More broadly, these data suggest breast milk cellular responses are potentially influential in decreasing mother-to-child transmission of viruses.

Lohman-Payne, B; Slyker RBA; FMM-OM-NDA; ORJA; C;. "Infants with late breast milk acquisition of HIV-1 generate interferon-gamma responses more rapidly than infants with early peripartum acquisition.". 2009. Abstract

Infants infected with HIV-1 after the first month of life have a lower viral set-point and slower disease progression than infants infected before 1 month. We investigated the kinetics of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte secretion of interferon (IFN)-g in infants infected before 1 month of life compared with those infected between months 1 and 12 (late infection). HIV-1 infection was assessed at birth and at months 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 and timing of infection was determined by HIV-1 gag DNA from dried blood spots and verified by plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. HIV-1 peptide-specific IFN-g responses were measured by enzyme-linked immunospot at months 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12. Timing of development of IFN-g responses was compared using the log–rank test and Kaplan–Meier survival curves. Infants infected late developed HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses 2·8 months sooner than infants infected peripartum: 2·3 versus 5·1 months after HIV-1 infection (n = 52, P = 0·04). Late-infected infants had more focused epitope recognition than early-infected infants (median 1 versus 2 peptides, P = 0·03); however, there were no differences in the strength of IFN-g responses. In infants infected with HIV-1 after the first month of life, emergence of HIV- 1-specific CD8+ IFN-g responses is coincident with the decline in viral load, nearly identical to what is observed in adults and more rapid than in earlyinfected infants.

Lohman BL, Slyker J, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Bosire R, Farquhar C, Obimbo E, Otieno P, R W Nduati, Rowland-Jones S, John-Stewart G. "Prevalence and magnitude of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-specific lymphocyte responses in breast milk from HIV-1-seropositive women.  .". 2003. Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-specific cell-mediated immunity of breast milk may influence the likelihood of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 via breast-feeding. In breast-milk specimens collected during the first month postpartum from HIV-1-seropositive women in Nairobi, HIV-1 gag-specific cellular responses were detected in 17 (47%) of 36, and env-specific cellular responses were present in 20 (40%) of 50. Peripheral blood lymphocyte responses against either gag or env were detected in 35 (66%) of the 53 subjects, 18 (51%) of whom had positive gag or env responses in their breast milk. In paired analyses of blood and breast milk, the mean magnitude of responses to env or gag stimulation in breast milk was significantly higher than that in blood and remained higher in breast milk after normalization of responses according to CD8+ lymphocyte count. These results suggest that CD8+ lymphocytes present in breast milk have the capacity to recognize HIV-1-infected cells and may be selectively transported to breast milk to reduce either viral replication or transmission in breast milk

Loh TP, Saw S, Sethi SK. "Bedside monitoring of blood ketone for management of diabetic ketoacidosis: proceed with care." Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association. 2012;29:827-828. Abstract
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Loewenson R, Mathai MA, Obondo A, Mburu J, Kitazi N, Othieno CJ. "Use of participatory, action and research methods in enhancing awareness of mental disorders in Kariobangi, Kenya.". 2009.
Lodge, D. M., Rosenthal1, S. K., Mavuti, Muohi, W., Ochieng, P., Stevens, S. S., Mungai BN, Mkoji GM. "Louisiana crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) (Crustacea: Cambaridae) in Kenyan ponds: non-target effects of a potential biological control agent for schistosomiasis." African Journal of Aquatic Science. 2005;30(2):119-124.
Lockwood NM, Lypen K, Shalabi F, Kumar M, Ngugi E, Diener L, GW. H. "'Know that You are not Alone.' Influences of Social Support on Youth Newly Diagnosed with HIV in Kibera, Kenya: A Qualitative Study Informing Intervention Development." Int J Environ Res Public Health.. 2019; 4;(16(5):. pii: E775. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16050775.
Lobo N, Moulton KD, Lobo C, Rothschild LJ, Mwaura F, Kabaru JM, Duboise SM. "Ultrastructure and biochemical analysis of in vitro and in vivo capsid assembly of alkaliphilic Phage Ф1N2-2 for application in nanomedicine." Microscopy and Microanalysis. 2012;18(2):110.
Lobo N, MOULTON, J.E., Lobo, C., Rothschild, L.J., Mwaura, F., Kabaru JM, and Duboise SM. "Ultrastructural and Biochemical Analysis of In Vivo and In Vitro Capsid Assembly of the Alkaliphilic Phage Φ1N2-2 for Applications in Nanomedicine." Microscopy & Microanalysis . 2012;Vol 18, S2:110.
mungai lnw. "diabetes ketoacidosis.". In: paediatric diabetes . ISPAD; 2014.
LN K, van den LW S, E D, NHJ C, MAW M, FF S, van der AJAM V. "High level drug resistance in patients on chronic anti-retroviral treatment presenting with oropharyngeal candidiasis in Kenya." Oral Diseases. 2015.
LM. M, Ombui JN, FK M. "Prevalence and risk factors for campylobacter infection of chicken in peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya." J. Dairy, Veterinary and Animal Research . 2018;7: (1)00184.((1)):00184.
LM Ngesu, S Gunga LNWENK. "Some determinants of students’ performance in Biology Kcse: A case of Central Division of Machakos District." International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies. 2014.
LM Ngesu, S Gunga LNWKMCB. "Youth Violence in Secondary Schools in Kenya: Prevalence, Manifestations and Prevention." International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies. 2013.
de Llano-Pérula C, Kihara E, Thevissen P, Nyamunga D, Fieuws S, Kanini M, Willems G. "Validating dental age estimation in Kenyan black children and adolescents using the Willems method. ." Medicine, Science and the Law. . 2020;(https://doi.org/10.1177/0025802420977379).
LL A, M KP, PB G, MO N, Muchemi G, Muchemi G, A SE. "A survey of bovine cysticercosis/human taeniosis in Northern Turkana District, Kenya." Prev Vet Med. 2009;1(89):197-204.
LK O, O MJ, VM M, R M, V K, T E. "Cytotoxicity of 91 Kenyan indigenous medicinal plants towards human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016;179:177-196.omosa_et_al_ethnopharmacology.pdf
Liza L, mwaura F. "The Variability in the Generation, Disposal and Recycling of Mobile Phone E-waste According to Social Classes in Lang’ata Area, Nairobi, Kenya." Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2016;Vol. 4(No. 2):42-51.
Livoi A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E. "Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast." Agricultural Science. 2021;3(1):7-14.
Livoi A, Mwang’ombe AW, E.Nyaboga, Kilalo D, Obutho E. "Prevalence and Distribution of Cassava Bacterial Blight in the Kenyan Coast." Agricultural Science. 2021;3(1):7-14.
Liu Z-P, Zhang J, Özdemir ŞK, Peng B, Jing H, Lü X-Y, Li C-W, Yang L, Nori F, Liu Y-xi. "Metrology with $$\backslash$mathcal $\{$PT$\}$ $-symmetric cavities: Enhanced sensitivity near the $$\backslash$mathcal $\{$PT$\}$ $-phase transition." arXiv preprint arXiv:1510.05249. 2015. Abstract
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Liu Y, Xie J, Luo M, Peng B, Xu C, Deng L. "The synthesis and optical properties of Al/MnO2 composite pigments by ball-milling for low infrared emissivity and low lightness." Progress in Organic Coatings. 2017;108:30-35. Abstract
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Liu Z, Guo K, Hu G, Shi Z, Li Y, Zhang L, Chen H, Zhang L, Zhou P, Lu H, others. "Observation of nonreciprocal magnetophonon effect in nonencapsulated few-layered CrI3." Science advances. 2020;6:eabc7628. Abstract
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Liu S, Gao Y, Ma Y, Meng T, Yi C, Xu Z, Peng B, Deng Z. "Ultrasonication-Assisted Waterborne Synthesis of Self-Restorable Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Prolonged Lifespan in Oil Collection." Advanced Materials Interfaces. 2021;8:2001886. Abstract
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Liu Y, Gureya D, Al-Shishtawy A, Vlassov V. "OnlineElastMan: Self-Trained Proactive Elasticity Manager for Cloud-Based Storage Services.". In: 2016 International Conference on Cloud and Autonomic Computing (ICCAC). Augsburg, Germany; 2016:. Abstract

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Liu Z, Deng L, Peng B. "Ferromagnetic and ferroelectric two-dimensional materials for memory application." Nano Research. 2021;14:1802-1813. Abstract
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Liu Y, Xie J, Luo M, Peng B, Deng L. "Synthesis and characterization of magnetic Al/NiO composite pigments with low infrared emissivity.". In: Materials Science Forum. Vol. 898. Trans Tech Publ; 2017:. Abstract
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Liu F, Gu F, Ball AD, Zhao Y, Peng B. "The validation of an ACS-SSI based online condition monitoring for railway vehicle suspension systems using a SIMPACK model.". In: 2017 23rd International Conference on Automation and Computing (ICAC). IEEE; 2017:. Abstract
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Liu Z, Yang L, Edwards P, Janisch C, Peng B, Ozdemir S. Resonator enhanced raman spectroscopy. Google Patents; 2017. Abstract
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Liu Y, Edmond KV, Curran A, Bryant C, Peng B, Aarts DGAL, Sacanna S, Dullens RPA. "Core–shell particles for simultaneous 3D imaging and optical tweezing in dense colloidal materials." Advanced Materials. 2016;28:8001-8006. Abstract
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Liu Z, Guo K, Hu G, Shi Z, Li Y, Zhang L, Chen H, Zhang L, Zhou P, Lu H, others. "Observation of nonreciprocal magneto-optical scattering in nonencapsulated few-layered CrI3." arXiv preprint arXiv:2008.12896. 2020. Abstract
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Liu Y, Gureya D, Al-Shishtawy A, Vlassov V. "OnlineElastMan: self-trained proactive elasticity manager for cloud-based storage services." Cluster Computing. 2017:1-18. AbstractWebsite

The pay-as-you-go pricing model and the illusion of unlimited resources in the Cloud initiate the idea to provision services elastically. Elastic provisioning of services allocates/de-allocates resources dynamically in response to the changes of the workload. It minimizes the service provisioning cost while maintaining the desired service level objectives (SLOs). Model-predictive control is often used in building such elasticity controllers that dynamically provision resources. However, they need to be trained, either online or offline, before making accurate scaling decisions. The training process involves tedious and significant amount of work as well as some expertise, especially when the model has many dimensions and the training granularity is fine, which is proved to be essential in order to build an accurate elasticity controller. In this paper, we present OnlineElastMan, which is a self-trained proactive elasticity manager for cloud-based storage services. It automatically evolves itself while serving the workload. Experiments using OnlineElastMan with Cassandra indicate that OnlineElastMan continuously improves its provision accuracy, i.e., minimizing provisioning cost and SLO violations, under various workload patterns.

Liu Y, Xie J, Luo M, Jian S, Peng B, Deng L. "The synthesis and characterization of Al/Co3O4 magnetic composite pigments with low infrared emissivity and low lightness." Infrared Physics & Technology. 2017;83:88-93. Abstract
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Liu Z, Guo Y, Chen Z, Gong T, Li Y, Niu Y, Cheng Y, Lu H, Deng L, Peng B. "Observation of intrinsic crystal phase in bare CrI3 ferromagnetism." arXiv preprint arXiv:2204.13312. 2022. Abstract
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Liu Y, Xie J, Luo M, Peng B, Deng L. "Preparation and angle-dependent optical properties of brown Al/MnO 2 composite pigments in visible and infrared region." Nanoscale Research Letters. 2017;12:1-5. Abstract
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k litondo, Ntale F. "INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES AND MARKETING DECISIONS AMONG SMALL SCALE FARMERS IN KENYA: REVIEW OF EVIDENCE." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management United Kingdom. 2016;4(4):1167-1180.information_communication.pdf
LITONDO KO. ""Data Processing and Computers - Introduction to Business: A Kenyan Perspective" edited by Prof. F.N. Kibera.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau,. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1996. Abstract

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

LITONDO KO. "Edited the report on the proceedings of the workshop on"Faculty of Commerce" University of Nairobi.". In: Machakos. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2003. Abstract

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

LITONDO KATEOYIELA. "E-commerce: A Review of Indicators and Theories." A paper presented to 11th International Conference (ICAESB) on Business Environment and SMEs; 2010. Abstract
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k litondo, Ntale F, Kato C. "Women Micro and Small Enterprises as a Platform for Human Development in Kenya: A Case of Kisumu City." Strategic Management Quarterly. 2016;3(4):23-37.women_micro.pdf
LITONDO KO. "Computer Vendors and users expectations as a contributing towards curriculum development for training managers and supervisors in Kenya. This was an initiative of the Kenya Government.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau,. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1990. Abstract

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

Litondo KO, Ntale JF. "Determinants of Mobile Phone Usage for E-Commerce among Micro and Small Enterprises in the Informal Sector of Kenya." International Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2013;3(6). Abstractdeterminants_of_mobile_phone_usage_for_e-commerce_among_micro_and_small_enterprises_in_the_informal_sector_of_kenya.pdf

Studies done on the usage of Information and Commutation Technologies (ICTs) for e-commerce in the informal sector have mostly concentrated on the roles of computers and internet usage, and give contradicting results on the determinants and benefits of using these technologies. Evidence on factors leading to the mobile phones usage for business among Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Kenya is lacking. This paper investigates determinants of mobile phone usage among informal MSEs in Kenya. Primary data was collected from a survey of 384 MSEs in Nairobi County. Linear probability model, logit and probit models were used to estimate the determinants of mobile phone usage in e-commerce. The results of the study show that education level is the prime determinant of mobile phone usage for e-commerce. Number of employees and gender of MSEs also have a significant effect on the mobile phone usage for e-commerce. The study recommends the training of MSEs in the mobile phones applications for business and the government should create an enabling environment for MSEs to use mobile phone for e-commerce.
Key words: Mobile phone usage, e-commerce, informal sector, MSEs, and Education

LITONDO KO. "Computerization of SACCOS for the Ministry of Co-operatives.". In: Machakos. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2000. Abstract

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

LITONDO KATEOYIELA. "Mobile Phones and E-commerce among Micro and Small Enterprises in the Informal Sector:." An Empirical Investigation of Entrepreneurship in Nairobi ; 2010. Abstract
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k litondo, Omwansa T, Njenga K. "A Theoretical Review of Mobile Commerce Success Determinants." Journal of Information Engineering and Applications. 2016;6(5):13-23.a_theoretical_review.pdf
LITONDO KO. "Recurrent Cost of Public Investment and Rationalisation in Kenya",. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1988. AbstractWebsite

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

Litondo KO. "Mobile Phones and Employment among Informal and Small Enterprises in Nairobi." African Casebook: Synergies in African business and management practices.. 2013;1:72-87.
Litondo, kato, Ntale. "Women Micro and Small Enterprises as a Platform for Human Development in Kenya: A Case of Kisumu City." Strategic Management Quarterly. 2015;vol.3( No. 4):23-37. Abstractwomen_micro_and_small_enterprises_as_a_platform_for_human_development_in.pdf

Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) are contributing a lot to the Kenyan national
development in general and human development in particular. However, it was observed
that many of the women MSEs in the informal sector of Kisumu city are performing
poorly. Nevertheless, limited use of strategic management practices has been cited as one
of the main causes of poor business performance. This study therefore investigated the
best strategic management practices of women MSEs and their effect on human
development. Best strategic management practices investigated were: closing time, locus
of planning, planning horizon, change in government regulations, and possession of a
business plan, stock, change in technology, creditors, sales, debtors, competitors, profits
and opening time. A cross sectional survey design was used and systematic random
sampling employed to collect data from the women MSEs in Kisumu city. Descriptive
statistics, correlation analysis and linear probability model were used to analyze the
collected data. The results revealed that most of the women in Kisumu city are literate
and have at least attained primary level of education. The study established that strategic
management practices of women MSEs have a significant effect on human development.
However, few women MSEs apply best strategic management practices. The study also
shows that the women who keep records of their business transactions and involve their
employees in their business planning process have high chances of improving their
livelihoods by buying land, building permanent houses, getting business premises, and
joining Savings and Credit Co-operative Societies (SACCOs). The study recommends
that the Kisumu County government, church leaders, civil society groups and NonGovernmental
Organizations should organize workshops and seminars to sensitize
women entrepreneurs on the best strategic management practices. Microfinance
institutions should be prevailed over to give loans at reasonable interest rates to
prospective women entrepreneurs.

LITONDO KO. "Integrated Management Information Systems, Project Planning, Management and Evaluation for Intergovernmental Informatics program for Kenya." Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1998. Abstract

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

LITONDO KO. "Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence.". In: ORSEA conference, 2008. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2008. Abstract

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

LITONDO KATEOYIELA. "Mobile Phones and Employment,." A Paper presented to African international Business and Management (AIBUMA) Conference; 2010. Abstract
n/a
LITONDO KO. "Edited the report on the proceedings of a follow-up workshop on the"Role of Co-operatives in Development of Kenyan Economy",.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau,. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1986. Abstract

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

Lissens G, Rabay K, Waweru M, Verstraete W, Morgan-Sagastume F, Aiyuk S. "Anaerobic Digestion as a core technology in sustainable management of organic matter.". 2004.Website
LISHENGA JL. " "Profitability of Momentum Strategies in Emerging Markets: Evidence From Nairobi Stock Exchange".". In: The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, . White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania : Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1996. Abstract

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This paper tests the profitability of momentum strategies in Kenya, an emerging market for the period 1995 to 2007. Analysis revealed that Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) exhibit medium term return continuation over the entire sample period and the sub-periods. We used RSS results to evaluate the influence of transaction costs, calendar effects, risk factors and other reported momentum characteristics on momentum profitability. We employ WRSS results to discriminate between the two diametrically opposed causes for the profitability of momentum strategies:.  Our results show that, consistent with the evidence elsewhere, momentum is an anomaly; being driven by continuation in the idiosyncratic component of individual-security, rather than by cross-sectional differences in expected return and risks.

LISHENGA JL, Barasa JL, Magutu PO, Onsongo CO. "Profitability of Momentum Strategies in Emerging Markets: Evidence from Nairobi Stock Exchange." IBIMA Publishing. 2011. Abstractprofitability_of_momentum_strategies_in_emerging_markets-_evidence_from_nse.pdf

This paper tests the profitability of momentum strategies in Kenya, an emerging market for the period 1995 to 2007. Both relative strength strategies (RSS) and (weighted relative strength strategies (WRSS) are employed to implement momentum-based trading strategies. Analysis revealed that Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) exhibit medium term return continuation over the
entire sample period and the sub-periods. We used RSS results to evaluate the influence of transaction costs, calendar effects, risk factors and other reported momentum characteristics on momentum profitability. We employ WRSS results to discriminate between the two diametrically opposed causes for the profitability of momentum strategies: behavioral factors (time-series continuation in the firm-specific component of returns), and risk factors (cross-sectional variation in expected returns and systematic risks of individual securities). Our results show that, consistent with the evidence elsewhere, momentum is an anomaly; the evidence is consistent with momentum being driven by continuation in the idiosyncratic component of individual-security, rather than by cross-sectional differences in expected return and risks.

Keywords: Profitability, Momentum Strategies Emerging Markets, Nairobi Stock Exchange

Liqiang Sun LO, et al. "Application of the NCAR regional climate model to East Africa 1. Simulation of the short rains of 1988." Journal of Geophysical Research. 1999;104(D6):6529-6548.
Liniger H;, Mbuvi JP;, Kironchi G. "The need to protect Mt. Kenya area soils with permanent cover.".; 1993.
Liniger H;, Mbuvi JP;, Kironchi G. "The need to protect Mt. Kenya area soils with permanent cover.".; 1993.
Linguya KS, Moraa OC, Wangai KJ, Chao KD. "POTENTIAL OF INTERCROPPING FOR MANAGEMENT OF SOME ARTHROPOD AND NEMATODE PESTS OF LEAFY VEGETABLES IN KENYA." Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2015;Vol. 60(3):301-314.
Lingappa JR, Petrovski S, Kahle E, Fellay J, Shianna K, McElrath JM, Thomas KK, Baeten JM, Celum C, Wald A, de Bruyn G, Mullins JI, Nakku-Joloba E, Farquhar C, Max Essex, iDidier K. Ekouevi, Donnell D, Kiarie J, Haynes B, Goldstein D. "Genomewide association study for determinants of HIV-1 acquisition and viral set point in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with quantified virus exposure." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(12):e28632. Abstract

Host genetic factors may be important determinants of HIV-1 sexual acquisition. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for host genetic variants modifying HIV-1 acquisition and viral control in the context of a cohort of African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. To minimize misclassification of HIV-1 risk, we quantified HIV-1 exposure, using data including plasma HIV-1 concentrations, gender, and condom use.

Lingappa JR, Lambdin B, Bukusi EA, Ngure K, Kavuma L, Makhema J, Kiarie JN, Allen S, Kanweka W, Inambao M. "Regional Differences in Prevalence of HIV-1 Discordance in Africa and Enrollment of HIV-1 Discordant Couples into an HIV-1 Prevention Trial.". 2008. Abstract

Most HIV-1 transmission in Africa occurs among HIV-1-discordant couples (one partner HIV-1 infected and one uninfected) who are unaware of their discordant HIV-1 serostatus. Given the high HIV-1 incidence among HIV-1 discordant couples and to assess efficacy of interventions for reducing HIV-1 transmission, HIV-1 discordant couples represent a critical target population for HIV-1 prevention interventions and prevention trials. Substantial regional differences exist in HIV-1 prevalence in Africa, but regional differences in HIV-1 discordance among African couples, has not previously been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings The Partners in Prevention HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Trial (“Partners HSV-2 Study”), the first large HIV-1 prevention trial in Africa involving HIV-1 discordant couples, completed enrollment in May 2007. Partners HSV-2 Study recruitment data from 12 sites from East and Southern Africa were used to assess HIV-1 discordance among couples accessing couples HIV-1 counseling and testing, and to correlate with enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples. HIV-1 discordance at Partners HSV-2 Study sites ranged from 8–31% of couples tested from the community. Across all study sites and, among all couples with one HIV-1 infected partner, almost half (49%) of couples were HIV-1 discordant. Site-specific monthly enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into the clinical trial was not directly associated with prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, but was modestly correlated with national HIV-1 counseling and testing rates and access to palliative care/basic health care (r = 0.74, p = 0.09). Conclusions/Significance HIV-1 discordant couples are a critical target for HIV-1 prevention in Africa. In addition to community prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, national infrastructure for HIV-1 testing and healthcare delivery and effective community outreach strategies impact recruitment of HIV-1 discordant couples into HIV-1 prevention trials.

Lingappa JR, Baeten JM, Wald A, Hughes JP, Thomas KK, Mujugira A, Mugo N, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Kidoguchi L, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L, Celum C. "Daily acyclovir for HIV-1 disease progression in people dually infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. 2010;375(9717):824-33. Abstract

Most people infected with HIV-1 are dually infected with herpes simplex virus type 2. Daily suppression of this herpes virus reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations, but whether it delays HIV-1 disease progression is unknown. We investigated the effect of acyclovir on HIV-1 progression.

Lingappa JR, Thomas KK, Hughes JP, Baeten JM, Wald A, Farquhar C, de Bruyn G, Fife KH, Campbell MS, Kapiga S, Mullins JI, Celum C. "Partner characteristics predicting HIV-1 set point in sexually acquired HIV-1 among African seroconverters." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2013;29(1):164-71. Abstract

Plasma HIV-1 RNA set point is an important predictor of HIV-1 disease progression. We hypothesized that inoculum size and HIV-1 exposure prior to HIV-1 transmission may modulate set point. We evaluated predictors of set point among 141 African HIV-1 seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected study partners. We compared characteristics of seroconverters and their HIV-1-infected partners and HIV-1 set point. Data were from a clinical trial of genital HSV-2 suppression with acyclovir to reduce HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with HIV-1 transmission linkage assigned through virus sequencing. Our analysis includes data from all transmissions including those with transmission linkage to the HIV-1-infected "source partner" and those that were not linked to their HIV-1-infected study partner. In multivariable analysis, higher plasma HIV-1 in source partners was associated with higher seroconverter set point ( + 0.44 log10 copies/ml per log(10) source partner plasma HIV-1, p < 0.001). In addition, bacterial vaginosis (BV) among female source partners near the time of infection was associated with higher set point in their male seroconverters ( + 0.49 log(10), p = 0.04). Source partner characteristics associated with lower set point included male circumcision ( - 0.63 log(10), p = 0.03) and assignment to acyclovir ( - 0.44 log10, p = 0.02). The proportion of variation in set point explained by plasma HIV-1 RNA of the source partner, after controlling for other factors, was 0.06. Source partner plasma HIV-1 level is the most significant predictor of seroconverter set point, possibly reflecting characteristics of the transmitted virus. Acyclovir use, BV among women source partners, and circumcision among male source partners may alter the set point by affecting transmitted virus inoculum in the source partners' genital compartment.

Lingappa JR, Lambdin B, Bukusi EA, Ngure K, Kavuma L, Inambao M, Kanweka W, Allen S, Kiarie JN, Makhema J, Were E, Manongi R, Coetzee D, de Bruyn G, Delany-Moretlwe S, Magaret A, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Ndase P, Celum C. "Regional differences in prevalence of HIV-1 discordance in Africa and enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into an HIV-1 prevention trial." PLoS ONE. 2008;3(1):e1411. Abstract

Most HIV-1 transmission in Africa occurs among HIV-1-discordant couples (one partner HIV-1 infected and one uninfected) who are unaware of their discordant HIV-1 serostatus. Given the high HIV-1 incidence among HIV-1 discordant couples and to assess efficacy of interventions for reducing HIV-1 transmission, HIV-1 discordant couples represent a critical target population for HIV-1 prevention interventions and prevention trials. Substantial regional differences exist in HIV-1 prevalence in Africa, but regional differences in HIV-1 discordance among African couples, has not previously been reported.

Lingappa JR, Petrovski S, Kahle E, Fellay J, Shianna K, McElrath JM, Thomas KK, Baeten JM, Celum C, Wald A, de Bruyn G, Mullins JI, Nakku-Joloba E, Farquhar C, Max Essex, iDidier K. Ekouevi, Donnell D, Kiarie J, Haynes B, Goldstein D. "Genomewide association study for determinants of HIV-1 acquisition and viral set point in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples with quantified virus exposure." PLoS ONE. 2011;6(12):e28632. Abstract

Host genetic factors may be important determinants of HIV-1 sexual acquisition. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for host genetic variants modifying HIV-1 acquisition and viral control in the context of a cohort of African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. To minimize misclassification of HIV-1 risk, we quantified HIV-1 exposure, using data including plasma HIV-1 concentrations, gender, and condom use.

Lingappa JR, Kahle E, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Magaret A, Baeten J, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife K, de Bruyn G, Glenda Gray, Hoosen M. Coovadia, McIntyre J, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington W, Corey L, Wald A, Celum C. "Characteristics of HIV-1 discordant couples enrolled in a trial of HSV-2 suppression to reduce HIV-1 transmission: the partners study." PLoS ONE. 2009;4(4):e5272. Abstract

The Partners HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Study (Partners Study) is a phase III, placebo-controlled trial of daily acyclovir for genital herpes (HSV-2) suppression among HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected persons to reduce HIV-1 transmission to their HIV-1 susceptible partners, which requires recruitment of HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. We describe the baseline characteristics of this cohort.

Lingappa JR, Hughes JP, Wang RS, Baeten JM, Celum C, Gray GE, Stevens WS, Donnell D, Campbell MS, Farquhar C, Essex M, Mullins JI, Coombs RW, Rees H, Corey L, Wald A. "Estimating the impact of plasma HIV-1 RNA reductions on heterosexual HIV-1 transmission risk." PLoS ONE. 2010;5(9):e12598. Abstract

The risk of sexual transmission of HIV-1 is strongly associated with the level of HIV-1 RNA in plasma making reduction in HIV-1 plasma levels an important target for HIV-1 prevention interventions. A quantitative understanding of the relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 transmission risk could help predict the impact of candidate HIV-1 prevention interventions that operate by reducing plasma HIV-1 levels, such as antiretroviral therapy (ART), therapeutic vaccines, and other non-ART interventions.

Linet Nyatichi Mangare, Omondi L, Antony Ayieko, Wakasiaka S, Omoni G, Dalton Wamalwa. "Factors influencing implementation of the nursing process in Naivasha District Hospital, Kenya." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2016;10(2):67-71. AbstractWebsite

The nursing process (NP) is a framework that is applicable in all clinical settings to provide quality nursing care. Training curricula for nurses and midwives in Kenya have incorporated the NP as a framework for nursing care. However, nurses and midwives find it difficult to implement it. This contributes to poor-quality care.

This study was aimed at determining factors influencing implementation of the NP in Naivasha District Hospital.

A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted between May–June 2012 on 83 nurses and midwives selected using quota sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data then analysed using the statistical package for social sciences. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the data and Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to establish correlation between variables.

Training, practical experience, adequate time, reference materials, administrative support, supplies and adequate staffing were the major factors influencing implementation of the NP.

Implementation of the NP can be promoted through focusing on beneficial factors such as adequate staffing, training, administrative support, and providing resources.
Keywords: Nursing process, Health care, Nurses, Midwives, Training, Support, Barriers, Implementation

Linet LK, K’Obonyo PO. A survey of strategic human resource and practices and performance of commercial banks in Nairobi, Kenya. London: LA MBERT Academic Publishing; 2013.
Lindqvist KJ, Arimi SM, Kaburia HFA, Kayihura M. "Staphylococcal enterotoxin Ä in raw and pasteurized milk.". 1987.
Lindley RI;, Amayo EO;, Marshall J;, Sandercock PA;, Dennis M;, Warlow CP. "Hospital services for patients with acute stroke in the United Kingdom: the Stroke Association Survey of consultant opinion.". 1995. Abstract

A national postal survey of all UK hospital consultant geriatricians, general physicians and neurologists was performed in 1992/3 in order to describe the provision of hospital stroke services in the United Kingdom and to assess whether the recommendations of the King's Fund consensus conference on stroke had been widely implemented. Of 3478 survey forms, 2923 (84%) were returned and, of these 1953 (67%) consultants indicated that they routinely cared for patients with acute stroke. On their stated estimates, the survey respondents had admitted approximately 107,000 patients with acute stroke in the previous year, 40% of whom were cared for by geriatricians. Sixty-three per cent (1239/1953) worked in District General Hospitals. Few (5%) had access to an acute stroke unit, and a majority (51%) of consultants were uncertain of the benefits of such units. Less than half (44%) had access to a specialized stroke rehabilitation unit, but a majority (68%) were certain of the benefits of stroke rehabilitation units. Although a majority of consultants had on-site CT scanning, about a third of all UK stroke patients were admitted to a hospital without on-site CT facilities. Most (90%) consultants would want a CT scan themselves if they had a stroke. Only about a third of consultants were aware of a recent audit of stroke care in their hospital, or had a hospital policy for the implementation of minimum standards of stroke care, and less than half routinely provided written information for patients or carers. This survey illustrated that five years after the publication of the King's Fund consensus statement on the treatment of patients with acute stroke UK hospital stroke services are still poorly organized. Access to CT scanning for stroke patients is improving, but is still insufficient

Linden ML, Heynen AJ, Haslinger RH, Bear MF. "Thalamic activity that drives visual cortical plasticity." Nature neuroscience. 2009;12:390-392. AbstractWebsite

Manipulations of activity in one retina can profoundly affect binocular connections in the visual cortex. Retinal activity is relayed to the cortex by the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). We compared the qualities and amount of activity in the dLGN following monocular eyelid closure and monocular retinal inactivation in awake mice. Our findings substantially alter the interpretation of previous studies and define the afferent activity patterns that trigger cortical plasticity.

Linda GM;, Ogara W;, Maingi, N; Mbithi PMF, Maingi, N; Mbithi PMF. "Capture and sampling of Thompson’s Gazelles for gastrointestinal parasites in Marula ranch in Kenya."; 2004. Abstract

Thompson’s gazelles are an important part of wildlife in Kenya and their meat is utilised for human consumption. Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites however, may be a limiting factor to their management and utilisation. A survey of the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites in Thompson’s gazelles was conducted on a game ranch in October 2003. 31 male and female gazelles were captured using net screens. Fecal samples were collected directly from their rectum. Nematode EPG, presence of fluke eggs, cestode eggs and coccidial oocyts were determined on each sample using a modified McMaster technique. All the 31 captured gazelles were shedding strongyle-type nematode eggs and coccidial oocyts. Trichuris eggs were found in only 1 out of 3 fecal samples from the young males and in none of the samples from 6 young females and 22 adult gazelles. Fluke and cestode eggs were not found in any of the samples. Fecal cultures revealed predominance of Haemonchus, Gazellostrongylus and Trichostronglus in fecal samples from the captured gazelles.

Linda GM;, Ogara W;, Maingi N;, Mbithi PMF. "Capture and sampling of Thompson’s Gazelles for gastrointestinal parasites in Marula ranch in Kenya."; 2004. Abstract

Thompson’s gazelles are an important part of wildlife in Kenya and their meat is utilised for human consumption. Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites however, may be a limiting factor to their management and utilisation. A survey of the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites in Thompson’s gazelles was conducted on a game ranch in October 2003. 31 male and female gazelles were captured using net screens. Fecal samples were collected directly from their rectum. Nematode EPG, presence of fluke eggs, cestode eggs and coccidial oocyts were determined on each sample using a modified McMaster technique. All the 31 captured gazelles were shedding strongyle-type nematode eggs and coccidial oocyts. Trichuris eggs were found in only 1 out of 3 fecal samples from the young males and in none of the samples from 6 young females and 22 adult gazelles. Fluke and cestode eggs were not found in any of the samples. Fecal cultures revealed predominance of Haemonchus, Gazellostrongylus and Trichostronglus in fecal samples from the captured gazelles.

Linda GM;, Ogara W;, Maingi N;, Mbithi PMF. "Capture and sampling of Thompson’s Gazelles for gastrointestinal parasites in Marula ranch in Kenya."; 2004. Abstract

Thompson’s gazelles are an important part of wildlife in Kenya and their meat is utilised for human consumption. Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites however, may be a limiting factor to their management and utilisation. A survey of the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites in Thompson’s gazelles was conducted on a game ranch in October 2003. 31 male and female gazelles were captured using net screens. Fecal samples were collected directly from their rectum. Nematode EPG, presence of fluke eggs, cestode eggs and coccidial oocyts were determined on each sample using a modified McMaster technique. All the 31 captured gazelles were shedding strongyle-type nematode eggs and coccidial oocyts. Trichuris eggs were found in only 1 out of 3 fecal samples from the young males and in none of the samples from 6 young females and 22 adult gazelles. Fluke and cestode eggs were not found in any of the samples. Fecal cultures revealed predominance of Haemonchus, Gazellostrongylus and Trichostronglus in fecal samples from the captured gazelles.

Lin K-Q, Ong CS, Bange S, Junior PFE, Peng B, Ziegler JD, Zipfel J, Bäuml C, Paradiso N, Watanabe K, others. "Bright excitons with negative-mass electrons." arXiv preprint arXiv:2006.14705. 2020. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Faria Junior PE, Bauer JM, Peng B, Monserrat B, Gmitra M, Fabian J, Bange S, Lupton JM. "Twist-angle engineering of excitonic quantum interference and optical nonlinearities in stacked 2D semiconductors." Nature communications. 2021;12:1-7. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Parzefall P, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-Scale Mapping of Moiré Superlattices by Hyperspectral Raman Imaging." Advanced Materials. 2021;33:2008333. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-scale mapping of moir$\backslash$'e superlattices by Raman imaging of interlayer breathing mode and moir$\backslash$'e phonons." arXiv preprint arXiv:2012.13820. 2020. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Ong CS, Bange S, Faria Junior PE, Peng B, Ziegler JD, Zipfel J, Bäuml C, Paradiso N, Watanabe K, others. "Narrow-band high-lying excitons with negative-mass electrons in monolayer WSe2." Nature communications. 2021;12:1-8. Abstract
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Lin J, Xia Y-J, Tang C, Yin K, Zhong G-Y, Ni G, Peng B, Hou X-Y, Gan F-X, Huang W. "The colour-tuning effect of 2, 9-dimethyl-4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline in blue–red organic light-emitting devices." Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2007;40:4442. Abstract
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Lin K-Q, Holler J, Bauer JM, Parzefall P, Scheuck M, Peng B, Korn T, Bange S, Lupton JM, Schüller C. "Large-Scale Mapping of Moiré Superlattices by Hyperspectral Raman Imaging (Adv. Mater. 34/2021)." Advanced Materials. 2021;33:2170267. Abstract
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Limo AK, Rugutt-Korir A, Gichana JO, Dimba EA, Chindia ML, Mutuma GZ. "Occurance of head and neck cancers at the Nairobi Cancer Registry in Kenya 2000-2002.". 2008. Abstract
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Limo PJ, William Okelo-Odongo, Opiyo ETO. "Cloud Computing Opensource Iaas Platforms.". 2012. Abstract
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Limo A, Gichana J, Korir A, Dimba E, Wakoli K, Awange D, Mutuma G. "Incidence rates of head and neck cancers in Nairobi Kenya.". 2006. Abstract
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Limo AK, Rugutt-Korir A, Gichana JO, Dimba EA, Chindia ML, Mutuma GZ. "Occurance of head and neck cancers at the Nairobi Cancer Registry in Kenya 2000-2002.". 2008. Abstract
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Limo AK, Wakoli KA, Awange DO, Chindia ML. "Rhabdomyosarcoma of the oral and maxillofacial region.". 2003. Abstract
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Lily B, Portas O, William O, Samuel O, Maurice O, Rubina A. "Survey of bacterial and parasitic organisms causing disease and lowered production in indigenous chickens in Southern Nyanza, Kenya.". 2013. Abstractabstract2.pdfWebsite

A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify bacteria and parasites that caused disease and lowered productivity in indigenous chickens in Rachuonyo and Migori districts in Southern Nyanza, Kenya. A total of 21 chickens from 11 randomly-selected homesteads, within a group that was recruited into the African Institute of Capacity building and Development (AICAD) project, were used in the study. The chicken-keepers routinely vaccinated their birds against Newcastle disease and were recovering from an outbreak of Gumboro disease which had caused high mortalities. Picking of the chickens for postmortem examination was by random selection at household level and also geared towards picking those that showed signs of disease. Bacterial isolations were done from pooled oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and swabs from liver and/or other organs showing pathology. Parasitological isolations were done from skins and gastro-intestinal tracts. Pasteurella and Klebsiella were isolated from cases that were showing respiratory signs, while Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated from liver and spleen of a few birds showing signs of mild peritonitis. Other bacteria isolated, from oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs, included: Staphylococcus, Bacillus, E. coli, and Enterobacter. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from a case of skin wounds and defeathering. Parasitological isolations included: ascarids, tape worms, flukes, pin worms, tetrameres, stick-tight fleas and scaly-leg mites. These organisms were associated with various pathological lesions. Since they indirectly cause stress that is associated with increased susceptibility to other diseases and reduction in productivity of the birds, it was found advisable that, in addition to vaccination against the viral diseases, the poultry-keepers exercised regular deworming and dusting of the birds with acaricides, as well as treating the birds whenever they appear sick.

Likimani T. Chemistry and its applications.; 2001. Abstract

PREFACE To reap the full benefit of any product available in the market, consumers should know the types of raw materials in the products, the way in which the products perform their job, and the precautions that need to be taken when using the products. With some basic knowledge of chemistry, the small print on the label becomes important to the consumer and may lead to a better selection and use of the product purchased. The first chapter of this book deals primarily with the chemical nature of both living and non-living things. Chapter Two places emphasis on the innate curiosity of man and his use of experimentation in the evolution of important chemical transformation processes that bring about changes in matter. These reaction processes are employed in the chemical industries discussed in the subsequent chapters; their inclusion therefore seeks to bring the study of chemistry into focus in the student's life. The rest of the text material, which can be built on a very thoughtful analysis of chemical theory or a simple notion of atoms, molecules and a few molecular geometries and interactions, enlightens the student on the many ways in which chemical knowledge has been applied to solve practical problems. An innovative approach to the problem of teaching students something about the chemical processes which touch upon their daily lives is discussed under various chemical aspects including: isolation of metals from their ores and salts and their uses, nuclear processes and their applications, the manufacture of soaps and detergents, synthetic fibres and surface-coating products, beauty aids, perfumes and flavouring agents, foods, agrochemical and animal health products, fermentation reaction products and medicines, environmental chemical pollution, chemical poisons and their basis of toxicity, the role of chemistry in industrial and economic development (with a discussion on some critical industries) and, finally, safety precautions against chemical hazards. Although some of the exercises provided at the end of each chapter are meant to test the reader's understanding of concepts, a few open-ended questions have been added to stimulate the bright student and to involve him or her in some of the inevitable controversies of chemical science. A few references have been provided to encourage the enthusiastic student to develop a taste for studying in depth a particular point of interest.

Likhayo P, Olubayo F., Ngatia C. "Methyl Bromide Alternatives for Maize Grain Storage in Kenya. ." International Journal of Science and Research.. 2014;3(7):2348-2352.
Liech JG. Agent-Based Interoperability System In Health Insurance . Nairobi; 2014. Abstract

Abstract:
The Information Technology industry has been very dynamic in health insurance for the last couple of decades. In this health insurance firms applications have been developed using different methodologies, and technologies. These applications cannot be integrated, which becomes an issue to health insurance interoperability. Health insurance is available to both individual and groups; there are many insurance companies in Kenya and there is no central database to extract stratified information about them. Attempts by many scholars to develop an interoperable system have not been successful largely due to lack of expertise, resources and the inherent complex nature of the health insurance system. There is also difficulty in accessing the required data by different people due to the fact that the applications of these insurance firms are independent. They are designed in any manner, and can use different technologies. This study proposed an agent-based platform which allowed users to receive and exchange data and information from distributed sources. The health insurance business was used as a case study to implement multi-agents approach in this study. In this case study, different agents were used to represent different functional areas in the developed system. The reactivity, proactive, sociability characteristics of multi-agents achieved health insurance interoperability and accomplished the health insurance business requirements. In this study we reviewed pure theory, evaluated and developed an agent based system which allowed health insurance firms to share data and also data sharing platform that enabled collaboration among multiple health insurance institutions in Kenya and also the experimental results showed that the platform could be extended easily to support a large number of concurrent client connections.

at the of Library ZMLUN-, at University EYLAN–, at University MWLAN–. "Corporate Social Responsibility legal framework, policies and practices in Kenya: a strategic approach to enhancing the image of libraries.". In: Kenya Library Association Conference. Nairobi Safari Club; 2015.
Libby JM, Stuart-Shor E, Patankar A. "The implementation of a clinical toolkit and adolescent depression screening program in primary care." Clinical pediatrics. 2014;53:1336-1344. Abstract
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Liavoga B. A., V. M. Kathumo OKORNGN. "Assessment of Trends in Land Cover and Crop Type Change Over Two Decades in Yatta Sub County, Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2014;Vol. 2, ( No. 3):46-52.
Liavoga BA, Kathumo VM, Onwonga RN, Karuku GN, Onyango CM. "Assessment of trends in land cover and crop type change over two decades in Yatta sub county,Kenya." International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2014;Vol. 2(No. 3):46-52.
Liang X, Zhu Y, Peng B, Deng L, Xie J, Lu H, Wu M, Bi L. "Influence of interface structure on magnetic proximity effect in Pt/Y3Fe5O12 heterostructures." ACS applied materials & interfaces. 2016;8:8175-8183. Abstract
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Liang H, Crewther SG, Crewther DP, Junghans BM. "Structural and {Elemental} {Evidence} for {Edema} in the {Retina}, {Retinal} {Pigment} {Epithelium}, and {Choroid} during {Recovery} from {Experimentally} {Induced} {Myopia}." Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 2004;45:2463-2474. AbstractWebsite

purpose. The purpose of this study was to monitor temporal changes in the retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and choroid of chick eyes using biometric, ultrastructural, and elemental microanalysis techniques as a means of visualizing more detailed signs of the physiological processes underlying choroidal expansion and refractive normalization during recovery from form deprivation. methods. Axial dimensions and refractions were measured on form-deprived and fellow eyes of 117 experimental chickens reared with monocular translucent occlusion from days 1 to 15 and given different lengths of visual experience (T = 0–144 hours) before death. Tissue was analyzed ultrastructurally by electron microscopy and relative sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) ion abundances, by using x-ray microanalysis to determine changes in the presence of these indicators of tissue hydration. results. Refractive error decreased from more than 20 D of myopia almost linearly over the first 144 hours after occlusion. Concurrent changes in thickness in the retina, RPE, and choroid were seen as a series of thickness increases and edema, which returned to normal thickness, first in the retina, and did not reach maximum until 3 days after occluder removal in the choroid. In freeze-dried tissue, Na and Cl ion concentrations were greatest in the RPE photoreceptor outer segments and extravascular choroid at T = 0, decreasing toward fellow eye levels by T = 48 in the RPE and choroid. Na and Cl ion abundances in the frozen lymph of choroidal lymphatics were nearly at control levels (T = 0) and increased later as the vessels became more distended after the extravascular edema became significant. conclusions. The results suggest that occluder removal induces edema across the retina and choroid and that this fluid may be the vector eliciting choroidal expansion during recovery from form deprivation possibly driven by the hyperosmolarity in the choroid, RPE, and photoreceptor outer segments that accompanies deprivation.

Liang X, Deng L, Huang F, Tang T, Wang C, Zhu Y, Qin J, Zhang Y, Peng B, Bi L. "The magnetic proximity effect and electrical field tunable valley degeneracy in MoS 2/EuS van der Waals heterojunctions." Nanoscale. 2017;9:9502-9509. Abstract
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Liang X, Shi G, Deng L, Huang F, Qin J, Tang T, Wang C, Peng B, Song C, Bi L. "Magnetic Proximity Effect and Anomalous Hall Effect in Pt/Y 3 Fe 5- x Al x O 12 Heterostructures." Physical Review Applied. 2018;10:024051. Abstract
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Li Qun He, Njambi L MNMHDKMEM. "Developing Clinical Cancer Genetics." Public Health Genomics. 2014;(DOI: 10.1159/000363645). Abstract

Abstract
Background/Aims: Clinical cancer genetics is an integral part
of cancer control and management, yet its development as an
essential medical service has been hindered in many low-andmiddle-
income countries. We report our experiences in developing
a clinical cancer genetics service for retinoblastoma in
Kenya. Methods: A genetics task force was created from within
the membership of the existing Kenyan National Retinoblastoma
Strategy group. The task force engaged in multiple inperson
and telephone discussions, delineating experiences,
opinions and suggestions for an evidence-based, culturally
sensitive retinoblastoma genetics service. Discussions were recorded
and thematically categorized to develop a strategy for
the design and implementation of a national retinoblastoma
clinical genetics service. Results: Discussion among the retinoblastoma genetics task force supported the development of a
comprehensive genetics service that rests on 3 pillars: (1) patient
and family counseling, (2) community involvement, and
(3) medical education. Conclusions: A coordinated national
retinoblastoma genetics task force led to the creation of a
unique and relevant approach to delivering comprehensive
and accurate genetic care to Kenyan retinoblastoma patients.
The task force aims to stimulate innovative approaches in cancer
genetics research, education and knowledge translation,
taking advantage of unique opportunities offered in the African
context

Key Words
Africa • Cancer • Clinical genetics • Genetic counseling •
Genetic testing • Retinoblastoma

Li WM, Li Z, Luvembe AMO, Yang C. "Influence maximization algorithm based on Gaussian propagation model." Information Sciences. 2021;568:Pages 386-402. AbstractScience Direct

The influence of each entity in a network is a crucial index of the network information dissemination. Greedy influence maximization algorithms suffer from time efficiency and scalability issues. In contrast, heuristic influence maximization algorithms improve efficiency, but they cannot guarantee accurate results. Considering this, this paper proposes a Gaussian propagation model based on the social networks. Multi-dimensional space modeling is constructed by offset, motif, and degree dimensions for propagation simulation. This space’s circumstances are controlled by some influence diffusion parameters. An influence maximization algorithm is proposed under this model, and this paper uses an improved CELF algorithm to accelerate the influence maximization algorithm. Further, the paper evaluates the effectiveness of the influence maximization algorithm based on the Gaussian propagation model supported by theoretical proofs. Extensive experiments are conducted to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of a series of influence maximization algorithms. The results of the experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm shows significant improvement in both effectiveness and efficiency.

Li Q, Zhao X, Deng L, Shi Z, Liu S, Wei Q, Zhang L, Cheng Y, Zhang L, Lu H, others. "Enhanced valley Zeeman splitting in Fe-doped monolayer MoS2." ACS nano. 2020;14:4636-4645. Abstract
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Li X, Perissi V, Liu F, Rose DW, Rosenfeld MG. "Tissue-specific regulation of retinal and pituitary precursor cell proliferation." Science. 2002;297:1180-1183. AbstractWebsite
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Li D, Zhang Y, Guo Q, Sun X, Zhang H, Wang S, Birech Z, Hu J. "An efficient LSPR method to quantitatively detect dimethoate: Development, characterization and evaluation. ." Plos one. 2020;15(9):e0239632.
Li Y, Li J, Huang T, Huang F, Qin J, Bi L, Xie J, Deng L, Peng B. "Active macroscale visible plasmonic nanorod self-assembled monolayer." Photonics Research. 2018;6:409-416. Abstract
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Li Z, Wu C, Zhao K, Peng B, Deng Z. "Polydopamine-assisted synthesis of raspberry-like nanocomposite particles for superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surfaces." Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. 2015;470:80-91. Abstract
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Li Z, Peng B, Lin M-L, Leng Y-C, Zhang B, Pang C, Tan P-H, Monserrat B, Chen F. "Light-driven bandgap renormalization and terahertz atomic oscillations in few-layer PdSe2." arXiv preprint arXiv:2007.02034. 2020. Abstract
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Li Z, Peng B, Lin M-L, Leng Y-C, Zhang B, Pang C, Tan P-H, Monserrat B, Chen F. "Phonon-assisted electronic states modulation of few-layer PdSe2 at terahertz frequencies." npj 2D Materials and Applications. 2021;5:1-8. Abstract
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Li X, Price MA, He D, Kamali A, Karita E, Lakhi S, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Amornkul PN, Allen S, Hunter E, Kaslow RA, Gilmour J, Tang J. "Host genetics and viral load in primary HIV-1 infection: clear evidence for gene by sex interactions." Hum. Genet.. 2014;133(9):1187-97. Abstract

Research in the past two decades has generated unequivocal evidence that host genetic variations substantially account for the heterogeneous outcomes following human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In particular, genes encoding human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have various alleles, haplotypes, or specific motifs that can dictate the set-point (a relatively steady state) of plasma viral load (VL), although rapid viral evolution driven by innate and acquired immune responses can obscure the long-term relationships between HLA genotypes and HIV-1-related outcomes. In our analyses of VL data from 521 recent HIV-1 seroconverters enrolled from eastern and southern Africa, HLA-A*03:01 was strongly and persistently associated with low VL in women (frequency = 11.3 %, P < 0.0001) but not in men (frequency = 7.7 %, P = 0.66). This novel sex by HLA interaction (P = 0.003, q = 0.090) did not extend to other frequent HLA class I alleles (n = 34), although HLA-C*18:01 also showed a weak association with low VL in women only (frequency = 9.3 %, P = 0.042, q > 0.50). In a reduced multivariable model, age, sex, geography (clinical sites), previously identified HLA factors (HLA-B*18, B*45, B*53, and B*57), and the interaction term for female sex and HLA-A*03:01 collectively explained 17.0 % of the overall variance in geometric mean VL over a 3-year follow-up period (P < 0.0001). Multiple sensitivity analyses of longitudinal and cross-sectional VL data yielded consistent results. These findings can serve as a proof of principle that the gap of "missing heritability" in quantitative genetics can be partially bridged by a systematic evaluation of sex-specific associations.

Li Z, Peng B, Deng Z. "Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate films on bioinspired polydopamine matrices." Journal of Coatings Technology and Research. 2017;14:1095-1105. Abstract
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LF Uwimbabazi Ruganzu, Moindi SK, Pokhariyal GP, Katende J. "η-ricci solitons defined with W8− curvature tensor and cyclic ricci tensor on para-kenmotsu manifolds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2019;4(5):80-84. AbstractWebsite

In this Paper η- Ricci solitons are considered on Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0 and
(ξ,.)W8.S = 0. The results of Blaga [1] for W2 have motivated us to use the same conditions on W8. We have
proved that the Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)W8.S = 0. Are quasi- Einstein Manifolds and
those satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0, are Einstein Manifolds. At the end of the paper it has been proven that the
para- Kenmotsu manifolds with cyclic Ricci tensor and η− Ricci soliton structure are quasi-Einstein
manifolds.

LF Uwimbabazi Ruganzu, Moindi SK, Pokhariyal GP, Katende J. "η-ricci solitons defined with W8− curvature tensor and cyclic ricci tensor on para-kenmotsu manifolds." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics 2. 2019;4(5):80-84. AbstractWebsite

In this Paper η- Ricci solitons are considered on Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0 and
(ξ,.)W8.S = 0. The results of Blaga [1] for W2 have motivated us to use the same conditions on W8. We have
proved that the Para- Kenmotsu manifolds satisfying (ξ,.)W8.S = 0. Are quasi- Einstein Manifolds and
those satisfying (ξ,.)S.W8 = 0, are Einstein Manifolds. At the end of the paper it has been proven that the
para- Kenmotsu manifolds with cyclic Ricci tensor and η− Ricci soliton structure are quasi-Einstein
manifolds.

Lewis Muli Ngesu, Samson Gunga LWENKN. "Some determinants of students’ performance in Biology Kcse: A case of Central Division of Machakos District." International Journal of Innovative Research and Studies. 2014.
Lewis M, Gunga SO, Gakuru A, Kahigi C. "Factors Affecting the Management of Women Income Generating Projects in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District." IJERN. 2014;vol.2 No.4(April 2014):1-8.
Lewis P, Nduati R, Kreiss JK, John GC, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha D, Ndinya-Achola J, Overbaugh J. "Cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in breast milk." J Infect Dis. Jan;177. 1998;(1)::34-9.Website
Lewis T, Daphne M. "Multiple {Sensitive} {Periods} in {Human} {Visual} {Development}: {Evidence} from {Visually} {Deprived} {Children}." Dev Psychobiol. 2005;46:163-183. Abstract

Psychophysical studies of children deprived of early visual experience by dense cataracts indicate that there are multiple sensitive periods during which experience can influence visual development. We note three sensitive periods within acuity, each with different developmental time courses: the period of visually-driven normal development, the sensitive period for damage, and the sensitive period for recovery. Moreover, there are different sensitive periods for different aspects of vision. Relative to the period of visually driven normal development, the sensitive period for damage is surprisingly long for acuity, peripheral vision, and asymmetry of optokinetic nystagmus, but surprisingly short for global motion. A comparison of results from unilaterally versus bilaterally deprived children provides insights into the complex nature of interactions between the eyes during normal visual development.

Lewis BA, Walia RR, Terribilini M, Ferguson J, Zheng C, Honavar V, Dobbs D. "PRIDB: a protein–RNA interface database.". 2011. AbstractPRIDB: a protein–RNA interface database

The Protein–RNA Interface Database (PRIDB) is a comprehensive database of protein–RNA interfaces extracted from complexes in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). It is designed to facilitate detailed analyses of individual protein–RNA complexes and their interfaces, in addition to automated generation of user-defined data sets of protein–RNA interfaces for statistical analyses and machine learning applications. For any chosen PDB complex or list of complexes, PRIDB rapidly displays interfacial amino acids and ribonucleotides within the primary sequences of the interacting protein and RNA chains. PRIDB also identifies ProSite motifs in protein chains and FR3D motifs in RNA chains and provides links to these external databases, as well as to structure files in the PDB. An integrated JMol applet is provided for visualization of interacting atoms and residues in the context of the 3D complex structures. The current version of PRIDB contains structural information regarding 926 protein–RNA complexes available in the PDB (as of 10 October 2010). Atomic- and residue-level contact information for the entire data set can be downloaded in a simple machine-readable format. Also, several non-redundant benchmark data sets of protein–RNA complexes are provided.

Lewis TL, Maurer D. "Multiple sensitive periods in human visual development: {Evidence} from visually deprived children." Developmental Psychobiology. 2005;46:163-183. AbstractWebsite

Psychophysical studies of children deprived of early visual experience by dense cataracts indicate that there are multiple sensitive periods during which experience can influence visual development. We note three sensitive periods within acuity, each with different developmental time courses: the period of visually-driven normal development, the sensitive period for damage, and the sensitive period for recovery. Moreover, there are different sensitive periods for different aspects of vision. Relative to the period of visually driven normal development, the sensitive period for damage is surprisingly long for acuity, peripheral vision, and asymmetry of optokinetic nystagmus, but surprisingly short for global motion. A comparison of results from unilaterally versus bilaterally deprived children provides insights into the complex nature of interactions between the eyes during normal visual development. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 46: 163–183, 2005.

Lewallen S, Williams TD, Dray A, c Stock B, Mathenge W, Oye J, Nkurikiye J, Kimani K, Muller A, Courtright P. "Estimating Incidence of Vision-Reducing Cataract in Africa-A New Model With Implications For Pogram Targets." Archives of Ophthalmology. 2010;128(12):1584-1589.
Lewa, A. K., Munyua, W.K., Ngatia, T.A., Maingi N. "The common internal parasites encountered in donkeys in Kiambu District and the pathological lesions associated with them.". In: The Kenya Veterinary Association Scientific Conference. Embu Kenya; 1998.
Lewa AK;, Munyua W k;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi N;, Weda EH. "Dictyocaulosis In Donkeys In Kiambu District Of Kenya."; 1997.
Lewa AK;, Ngatia TA;, Munyua W k;, Maingi NE. "Comparison of haematological changes and strongyle faecal egg counts in donkeys in Kiambu district of Kenya."; 1999. Abstract

Haematological data were obtained through analysis of blood samples taken from sixteen donkeys randomly selected from a donkey population in Kiambu District, Kenya. Nine out of sixteen of the donkeys examined were anaemic, with low RBC counts (ranging between 3.2 - 4.18 x 106/ml) and low Hb concentrations (ranging between 6.6 - 9.7 gm%). Seven out of nine of these donkeys in addition, had relatively low PCV values (18% - 28.7%). The epg counts in the anaemic donkeys ranged between 0 and 3100. The total protein levels in all the sixteen donkeys were slightly elevated. The differential leucocyte counts were within the normal range in twelve out of sixteen donkeys. Two donkeys had leucocytosis, with WBC counts ranging between 18.6 and 24.8, and epg counts ranging between 100 and 200

Lewa, A. K., Munyua, W.K., Ngatia, T.A., Maingi N, Weda EH. "Dictyocaulosis in Donkeys in Kiambu District of Kenya.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA-funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. Na1robi, Kenya; 1997.
Lewa AK;, Munyua W k;, Ngatia TA;, Maingi N;, Weda EH. "Dictyocaulosis In Donkeys In Kiambu District Of Kenya."; 1997.
Lewa AK;, Ngatia TA;, Munyua W k;, Maingi NE. "Comparison of haematological changes and strongyle faecal egg counts in donkeys in Kiambu district of Kenya."; 1999. Abstract

Haematological data were obtained through analysis of blood samples taken from sixteen donkeys randomly selected from a donkey population in Kiambu District, Kenya. Nine out of sixteen of the donkeys examined were anaemic, with low RBC counts (ranging between 3.2 - 4.18 x 106/ml) and low Hb concentrations (ranging between 6.6 - 9.7 gm%). Seven out of nine of these donkeys in addition, had relatively low PCV values (18% - 28.7%). The epg counts in the anaemic donkeys ranged between 0 and 3100. The total protein levels in all the sixteen donkeys were slightly elevated. The differential leucocyte counts were within the normal range in twelve out of sixteen donkeys. Two donkeys had leucocytosis, with WBC counts ranging between 18.6 and 24.8, and epg counts ranging between 100 and 200.

Levin AG, Jones M, Kirkham DM, Shah T, Peters TJ, Hill ID, Wasunna A, Brubaker G. "Lymphocyte enzyme activities in East African blacks: decrease in 5'nucleotidase and possible relation to immunosuppression." Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.. 1983;77(6):840-4. Abstract

Microanalysis of subcellular organelle marker enzymes was applied to cryopreserved lymphocytes (obtained and processed in the field) from East African blacks with moderate to severe malnutrition and subject to locally endemic parasitic and infectious diseases. An initial study demonstrated that activities of these enzymes, with the partial exception of catalase, were stable to cryopreservation. Cryopreserved and thawed lymphocyte specimens (1 to 3 X 10(6) viable cells) from 26 Africans and 20 Caucasian controls were studied. There was a highly significant decrease in 5'nucleotidase activity in these African subjects. Activity of another plasma membrane enzyme, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and of marker enzymes for other intracellular organelles, was not significantly different between the two groups, indicating that the nucleotidase alteration is highly specific. 5'Nucleotidase activity in a group of 17 East African blacks of high socio-economic status lay between the values obtained in the other two groups and was not significantly different from either. Further studies on 5'nucleotidase showed no evidence that the enzyme is functionally different in Africans. The differences in activity of this enzyme in Africans may reflect the known immuno-suppressive effects of infectious disease and malnutrition or may have a genetic basis which may in turn be associated with the pathogenesis of secondary immunodeficiency.

Lever E, Jaspan JB. "Sodium bicarbonate therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis." The American Journal of Medicine. 1983;75:263-268. Abstract

Rates of recovery of plasma glucose and bicarbonate levels, arterial pH, and level of consciousness were determined in a retrospective analysis of 95 episodes of severe diabetic ketoacidosis in patients treated with conventional regimens including low-dose insulin, saline, and potassium administration. No significant differences were found between 73 episodes in 52 patients treated with sodium bicarbonate and 22 episodes in 21 patients not undergoing such treatment. In view of these observations, the potential hazards of sodium bicarbonate replacement therapy, and the fact that sodium bicarbonate is still frequently given, the use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate treatment in patients with severe diabetic ketoacidosis requires reevaluation.

Levelt CN, Hübener M. "Critical-{Period} {Plasticity} in the {Visual} {Cortex}." Annual Review of Neuroscience. 2012;35:309-330. AbstractWebsite

In many regions of the developing brain, neuronal circuits undergo defined phases of enhanced plasticity, termed critical periods. Work in the rodent visual cortex has led to important insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the timing of the critical period. Although there is little doubt that the maturation of specific inhibitory circuits plays a key role in the opening of the critical period in the visual cortex, it is less clear what puts an end to it. In this review, we describe the established mechanisms and point out where more experimental work is needed. We also show that plasticity in the visual cortex is present well before, and long after, the peak of the critical period.

Leucci E, Onnis A CDFIACCMMGFG. "‘ B cell." Int J Cancer.. 2009;15(126):1316-1326.b-cell_differentiation_in_ebv-positive_burkitt_lymphoma_is.pdf
Leucci E, Cocco M, Cleef PV, Bellan C, Rijik AV, Falco GD, Onnis A, Joshua Nyagol, Byakika B, Lazzi S, Tosi P, Kricken HV, Leoncini L. "Altered expression of mirnas in c-MYC negative Burkitt lymphoma cases." Virchows Archives. 2007;451(2):119.
LETURA DRKISIPANMOSIANY, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW, ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "The morphology and morphometry of the male reproductive system of the rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens).". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2009.
LETURA DRKISIPANMOSIANY, A.N DRMAKANYA, ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC, D.W DRONYANGO. "Testicular blood supply pattern in the rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens): Any significance in testicular thermoregulation?". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 6th Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibitions, 2008.; 2008. Abstract

Sengis are testicondid endemic african mammals that constitute the order Macroscelidae. The epididymides of five male rufous sengis (Elephantulus rufescens) were studied both macroscopically and microscopically to describe the structure and possible features or adaptations making it a suitable site for sperm maturation and storage in testicondas. The epididymis had three distinct topographic regions; the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis. The caput and cauda epididymis were placed further apart; the former occuring as a longitudinal mass on dorsolateral border of the tesis while the latter occurred as a pear-shaped mass placed laterally between the rectum and the pelvic urethra, the two being connected by a slender corpus epiddidymis. The epithelium comprised of principal and basal cells with the former exhibiting numerous secretory granules and apical blebing in the caput. In the cauda, principal cells had numerous vacuoles and its lumen was densely packed with spermatozoa and occasional masses that appeaed to engulf spermatozoa. This study demonstrates that the pricipal cells of the caput of sengi produces materials either through merocrine or apocrine secretion, the latter being shown by apical blebs that are shed off as epididymosomes, which in turn transfers epididymis-secreted proteins to the plasma membrane of spermatozoa. Additionally, the study has shown that the cauda epididymis remarkably descends to a site probably cooler than the core body temperature for optimal sperm storage, and the numerous vacuoles indicating its involvement in fluid reabsortion and phagocytosis of residual bodies and damaged spermazoa.

LETURA DRKISIPANMOSIANY, NDEGWA DRMAKANYAANDREW,. DRONYANGODANIELW, ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "The morphology and morphometry of the male reproductive system of the rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens).". In: MSc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kisipan, M.L.; 2009.
Letting, Aosa E, Machuki VN. "Board Diversity and Performance of Companies Listed in Nairobi Stock Exchange." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 2(11) pp. 172-182; 2012. Abstract
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Letamo, G. and Oucho JO. "Contributions of Family Planning Programmes to Fertility Decline in Botswana." Demography India. 2002;31(1):79-91.
Lester RT, Yao X-D, Ball BT, McKinnon LR, Kaul R, Wachihi C, Jaoko W, Plummer FA, Rosenthal KL. "Toll-like receptor expression and responsiveness are increased in viraemic HIV-1 infection.". 2008. Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLR) are important in pathogen recognition and may play a role in HIV disease. We evaluated the effect of chronic untreated and treated HIV-1 infection on systemic TLR expression and TLR signalling.Together, these data indicate that chronic viraemic HIV-1 is associated with increased TLR expression and responsiveness, which may perpetuate innate immune dysfunction and activation that underlies HIV pathogenesis, and thus reveal potential new targets for therapy.

Lesan WR, Kisumbi BK, Wakiaga JM. "Some Optical properties of Resin Composite Veneer materials.". 2008. Abstract
n/a
Lesan WR. Some Aspects Of Solubility Of Silicate And Glass Ionomer Cements A Laboratory Study.; 1982. Abstract

Three aspects of the in-vitro solubility of silicate and glassionomer
dental cements were studied.
a) The solubility of silicate cements was studied using the "weight
of evapourated eluate method. It was shown that the dissolution
of these cements depends on the volume of solution in which they
are immersed and also the frequency in which this was changed.
It was seen that these cement~ were capable of taking up fluoride
ions from concentrated solutions while releasing the same ions
in more dilute solutions. Studies with samples of varying surface
area:volume ratios confirm that dissolution is not only dependent
on the surface area but that matter is also lost from the bulk
of the specimen.
b) The release of organic materials from glass ionomer cements
immersed in water or phosphate solution was studied using a total
organic content (T.O.C) analyser. It was seen that upto 0.l0mg
of organics could be detected in such solutions. The concentration
of detected organic species rises with increasing time, then
falls off again. This is explained in terms of re-adsorption
of the organic species by the cement.
c) Thermogravimetric analysis studies glass ionomer cement samples
"
with various histories were made. Weight loss (presumably of
water) was shown to be related to the history of the samples
as well as to the thermogravimetric conditions. The thermogravimetric
conditions used in this study were air and Nitrogen
atmospheres. The results are used to assess the merits of the

sample-weight loss" method for investigating solubility.
This method, in view of the simultaneous water loss or uptake
by the sample, is not recommended.

Lesan WR, Kisumbi BK, Wakiaga JM. "Some Optical properties of Resin Composite Veneer materials.". 2008. Abstract

To evaluate the optical properties of some specimen materials with a view to establishing its behaviour under dry-storage and wet-storage conditions. The transmission of light through translucent composite materials used in veneering/masking procedures in dentistry may be affected by a number of factors including the storage conditions. Material and methods: The absorbency of refracted light was determined from the understanding of Beer-Lambert's Law. Results: Dry-storage over 9 months had little effect on absorbency, significant changes were observed after 3 months of wet storage. While this offers a vital trade-off between cost effectiveness and initial aesthetics, it still remains of interest to investigate whether the achieved colour at baseline stabilises over time and whether further deterioration in terms of colour and aesthetics diminishes

LeRu BP, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Conlong D, Pallangyo B, den Berg JOHNNIEV, Ong’amo G, Kergoat GJ. "A revision of the genus Conicofrontia Hampson (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Apameini, Sesamiina), with description of a new species: new insights from morphological, ecological and molecular data." Zootaxa. 2015;3925(1):056-074.
LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Moyal P, Ngala L, Musyoka B, Abdullah Z, Cugala D, Defabachew B, Hailei TA, Kauma TM, Lada VY, Negassi B, Ravolonandrianina KJ, Sidumo A, Omwega C, Schulthess F, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Diversity of lepidopteran stem borers in eastern Africa revisited." Bulletin of Entomological Research. 2006;96:555-563.
LeRu BP, Ong'amo G, Moyal P, Muchungu E, Ngala L, Musyoka B, Abdullahi Z, Matama KT, Lada VY, Pallangyo B, Omwega C, Schulthess F, Calatayud P-A, Silvain J-F. "Major ecological characteristics of East African noctuid stem borers." Annales de la Société entomologique de France. 2006;42(3-4):353-361.
LeRu BP, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Musyoka BK, Pallangyo B, Njaku M, Mubenga O, Chipabika G, Ndemah R, Bani G, Molo R, Ong’amo GO, Kergoat GJ. "Phylogenetic analysis and systematics of the Acrapex unicolora Hampson species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini), with the description of five new species from the Afrotropics ." EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF TAXONOMY . 2017;270:1-36.
LeRu B, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Toussaint EFA, Conlong D, Van-den-Berg J, Pallangyo B, Ong’amo G, Chipabika G, Molo R, Overholt WA, Cuda JP, Kergoat GJ. "Molecular phylogenetics and systematics of Acrapex stem borers (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Apameini). ." Invertebrate Systematics. 2014.
Leonard M. Nderitu, John Gachohi FO, Eddy G. Mogoa, Mathew Muturi AM, Eric M. Osoro, Isaac Ngere, Peninah M. Munyua, Harry Oyas ON, Eric Lofgren, Thomas Marsh M-AW, Bernard Bett KNM. "Spatial clustering of livestock Anthrax events associated with agro-ecological zones in Kenya, 1957–2017." BMC Infectious Diseases . 2021;21(191).
Leo S. "Semiotic Survey of Kivumba Superstitions." International Journal of Innovative Research And Knowledge (IJIRK). 2020;5(5).
Lenze D, Leoncini L, Hummel M, Volinia S, Liu CG, Amato T, Falco DG, Githanga J, Horn H, Nyagol J, Ott G, Palatini J, Pfreundschuh M, Rogena E, Rosenwald A, Siebert R, Croce CM, Stein H. "The different epidemiologic subtypes of Burkitt lymphoma share a homogenous micro RNA profile distinct from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma." Leukemia. 2011:1-8.
Lens L, Muchai M, Bennun LA, Duchateau L. "Conservation planning in an agricultural landscape: the case of Sharpe's Longclaw." Ostrich. 2000;71:300-303. Abstract
n/a
Lengoiboni M, Katcho Karume, Siriba D, Ssengendo R, Potel J, Lemmen C, Zevenbergen J. "Strengthening the Eastern Africa Land Administration Network (SEALAN) project in enhancing inter-university Collaboration in land administration Eastern Africa." African Journal on Land Policy and Geospatial Sciences . 2021;4(1):143-161.
Lengarite MI, Mbugua PN, Gachuiri CK, Kabuage LW. "Mineral Status of Sheep and Goats Grazing in the Arid Rangelands of Northern Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

A study was conducted in dry and wet season to determine macro and micro mineral status of growing sheep and goats in arid rangelands of northern Kenya. Forty four, 22 each of sheep and goats (1-2 year old), randomly purchased from three herds/flocks in study area, were sacrificed for whole liver and 12th right and left ribs. Homogenized liver samples pooled from all the lobes and defatted bone ash from whole left and right 12th ribs were used for determination of Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn status. Liver mineral analysis, showed that in sheep Cu (303 vs. 184 mg/kg DM), Zn (94.1 vs. 83 mg/kg DM) and Mn (13.2 vs. 7.5 mg/kg DM) were higher (p<0.05) in wet than dry season. In goats, season had no effect on Cu (274.28 vs. 236 mg/kg DM) and Fe (183 vs. 171 mg/kg DM), but had significant influence on Zn (102 vs. 126 mg/kg DM) and Mn (13.6 vs. 6.8 mg/kg DM). Sheep grazing in different pastures showed variation (p<0.05) in hepatic Zn, Cu and Mn contents, while goat varied (p<0.05) in hepatic Cu, Fe and Mn concentrations. Rib analysis indicated that season had significant effect (p<0.05) on sheep and goats DFF% ash. The rib Ca (359 vs. 362 mg/g), P (157 vs. 147 mg/g) and Mg (9.56 vs. 8.54 mg/g) contents of sheep was not influenced by season and grazing area (p<0.05), whereas goats rib Ca (360 vs. 326 mg/g), P (142 vs. 165 mg/g) content was affected by season and grazing area (p<0.05), but Mg showed no seasonal variation. In the wet season, liver and bone tissue of sheep and goats indicated adequate body status of Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. However, in the dry season, sheep showed deficient levels of Zn, goats in Cu, while both species suffered from low liver Mn and rib Zn reserves. With the exception of P which was marginal in all seasons, mineral deficiencies affected animals mostly in the dry season. The liver and rib bone of sheep and goats has demonstrated seasonal fluctuation in tissue mineral reserve. Evaluation of specific minerals in different periods and body pools can be useful in the diagnosis of mineral status of animals. It can be concluded that, sheep and goats would benefit from P, Cu, Zn and Mn supplementation, particularly in the dry season.

Lengai GMW, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Wagacha M. "Efficacy of Plant Extracts and Antagonistic Fungi in Managing Tomato Pests and Diseases under Field Conditions." Journal of Agriculture and Life Sciences. 2017;4(2):20-27.

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