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AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "River Pollution profile: A case Study of Thika River. Proceedings of National Seminar on Technological Solutions for Economic Development in Kenya now and in the 21st Century,.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Upflow Filters in Direct Filtration of High Turbidity Waters; Aqua Fennica, Vol 17, No. 1,.". In: Tampere University of Technology, Finland, . University Publication No. B 60). Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1987. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Anaerobic Treatability of Sugarcane Mill Wastewater.". In: Paper submitted to Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice JCERP (under review awaiting publication). Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2004. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Human Resources Development for the Water Sector in the Next Decade.". In: Proceedings of 4th African Water Technology Conference,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Canadian and International Education Journal. VOL: 19, No:1'1990. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Selection of Drifts or Bridges in Semi-Desert Areas of Flash Floods;.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, Tampere University of Technology,Finland. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 1981. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, B DRSINGHCHANDRA. "Upflow Filters in Direct Filtration of High Turbidity Waters; Aqua Fennica, Vol 17, No. 1,.". In: International Journal of Biochemiphysics, Vol. 5 (Nos 1& 2). Materials Research Society; 1987. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Development of Parametric Numbers in Filter-bed Flocculation.". In: JKUAT Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 7,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2002. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Pollution Profile of Thika River.". In: Proceedings of 17th WEDC International Conference on Infrastructure, Environment, Water and People. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal in the Removal of Organic Matter in Water Treatment". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: East African Journal of Engineering. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM, K. MRNGARISAMUEL. ""Application of Ground Charcoal as a Coarse Medium in Dual Media Filtration of Water". East African Journal of Engineering.". In: Jadini Beach Hotel, Mombasa. IBIMA Publishing; Submitted. Abstract
Joint exhibition of paintings and sculptures
AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Computer Simulation of Orthokinetic Flocculation in a Filterbed.". In: JKUAT Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 7,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2002. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Performance of Crushed Coconut Shell Dual Media Filter Paper.". In: Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice (under review awaiting publication). Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2004. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

AKUMU PROFODIRAPATTSM. "Upflow Filters in Flocculation and Direct Filtration of Waters of High Turbidity; Ph.D. Thesis,.". In: Tampere University of Technology, Finland,. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; Submitted. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

Akunda EM, Kumar B. "Using internal plant water status as a criterion for scheduling irrigation in coffee in east of rift valley Kenya.". In: Kenya coffee vol. 47. No. 560, 281- 284. Kisipan, M.L.; Submitted. Abstract

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Akundabweni LSM. "Research on indigenous Food Plants.". 1993.
Akundabweni LSM;, Chweya JA. "Indigenous Plants in agriculture."; 1995.
Akunga ND, Keraka M, Anyango SO. 2Burden of Childhood Diarrhea from Water sanitation and hygiene: The case of Nairobi City, Kenya. . Bonn: Verlag Dr. Muller (VDM). ISBN978-3-639-27847-7 .; 2010.
AKUON MRPETERODERO. "Path reduction factor modelling for terrestrial links based on rain cell growth,IEEE.Africon,Zambia, 2011,.". In: IEEE. IEEE; 2011. Abstract
Suggested prediction for Rain attenuation in Terrestrial links based on growth modelling of the rain cell is validated from measurements.
AKUON MRPETERODERO. "Optimized hybrid green power model for remote telecom sites,.". In: PowerAfricaIEEE. IEEE; 2012. Abstract
Site Installation results of a hybrid green power model are discussed to assist power solution design engineers in proper implementation of various components.
Akuon P, Xu H. Polar coded MQAM with no noise variance estimation for capacity and soft decision metric. Ile Maurice, Mauritius: IEEE Africon 2013; 2013.
Akuon P, Xu H. "Polar coded spatial modulation." IET Journal. 2014;vol. 8(no.9): pp.1459-1466.
Akuon P, Xu H. Rate and reliability implementation scheme for Polar Codes,SATNAC2012,EastLondon,SA. George, Western Cape, South Africa; 2012. Abstract

 Communications channel coding that achieves capacity is implemented and solution suggested for selection of the optimal design parameter to achieve capacity:Rate or reliability of channels.

Akuon P, Afullo TTJO. Rain cell size statistics from rain gauge data for site diversity planning and attenuation prediction. SATNAC 2011,East London, South Africa: SATNAC 2011; 2011.
Akuon P, Xu H. Optimal bit error analysis of Nr-branch EGC under Rayleigh fading channels. Addis Ababa, Ethipia: IEEE Africon; 2015.
Akuon P, Afullo TJO. "Rain cell sizing for the design of high capacity radio link systems in South Africa,PIERJournalB,2011." PIERS. 2011;35:263-285, . AbstractWebsite

Full report on the derivation of rain characteristics and consequential application to microwave linkk designs.

Akuon P, Afullo TJO. "Negative power law attenuation estimation for rainy earth-space radio links,Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia.". In: PIERS . Kuala Lampur, Malaysis: PIERS; 2012. Abstract

Attenuation prediction for satelite links s derived and validated from measurements all over tropical zones in the world. The power law model is based on the modelling of the stochastic nature of rain drops over an average rain field area. Best performig for the tests.

Akuon P, Xu H. Layered baud-space modulation. Cape Town, South Africa: SATNAC 2015; 2015.
Akuon P, H X. "Secure signal and space Alamouti scheme." SAIEE. 2016;1(1):1-5.
Akusala KG, Aagaard-Hansen J, Isaac NK, Simiyu W. "Attitudes to Body Image among the Rural Luo of Bondo sub-County, Western Kenya.". 2015.
Akwale WS, Ongore D, Kimani VN, Njoroge FK. "Use of insecticide treated bed nets among pregnant women in Kilifi District, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Malaria is one of the most serious public health problems in Kenya. Pregnant women are among the groups with the highest risk of malaria. Use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) is a cost-effective method of controlling malaria. Despite this, there is low utilisation of ITNs among pregnant women in Kilifi district which is an endemic malaria zone. To determine knowledge, attitude and practice on the use of ITNs in the prevention of malaria among pregnant women in Kilifi district. A descriptive cross-sectional study. The district hospital and the five health centres in Kilifi district Two hundred and twenty pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) between October and December 2007. Knowledge on malaria illness and ITNs was high with majority of pregnant women having adequate level of knowledge (86.9%). There was significant association between level of education and adequate knowledge (P-value = 0.010). Good attitude on ITNs use was low. There was no association between good attitude and any of the socio-demographic variables. The majority of pregnant women attending ANC owned ITNs (75.4%). ITNs usage was high (70.5%). There was significant association between religion and good practice (p-value = 0.050). Although adequate level of knowledge on malaria and protective role of ITNs was high, there was no association between knowledge with practice and attitude. Before any malaria preventive intervention is implemented in an area, different socio-cultural factors must be considered when behavioural interventions for malaria control are designed and implemented. Targeted health education should be disseminated to the community to remove stigma and misconceptions associated with ITNs. Community concerns and fears should be addressed.

Akweya BA, Gitao CG. "The acceptability of camel milk and milk products from north eastern province in some urban areas of Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

A total of 138 households were interviewed on various aspects of camel milk and camel milk products using a single-visit multiple-subject diagnostic survey in Garisa, Wajir and Eastleigh the main urban centres with high camel milk consumption. 75% of the respondents generally take camel milk or milk products every day. Raw and sour milk are the most popular products. The most important purchasing criterion for raw camel milk was taste (19 and18%) while packaging was more important for pasteurized milk (18, 18 and 16%) for Wajir, Garisa and Eastleigh respectively. For Yoghurt, the most important purchasing criteria were taste (18%) and aroma (19%). The taste of sour milk is the most important attribute in both Garisa (30%) and Eastleigh (24%). To enhance marketing of camel milk, the appropriate attributes demanded by customers needs to be seriously addressed. Promotion of camel milk and products to non conventional consumers should be done in order to increase their consumption.

Akweya BA. Prevalence of streptococcus agalactiae and staphylococcus aureus in camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk in Garissa and Wajir districts of Kenya, their sensitivity to antibiotics and acceptability of camel milk and its products. Wangoh J, Gitau P, eds. University of Nairobi; 2010. Abstract

Abstract
Camel milk is commonly consumed raw by pastoralists in arid areas who may
be unaware of the risks posed by such milk. It was therefore very important to
determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae, which are some of the most common pathogens in such milk.
Camel milk samples from Garissa and Wajir were analyzed to determine the
prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The
antibiotic resistance of the bacteria was also studied. Milk samples (n =207)
were aseptically obtained from primary marketing agents. Samples were
analyzed for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae. The confirmed Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae were subjected to diffusion sensitivity test. Resistance was
determined by measuring the diameter of the zone cleared by the antibacterial
and the isolates were reported as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant.
Questionnaires were administered to evaluate camel milk and milk product
acceptability.
The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in the
two districts differed with Garissa having higher percent incidence both for
Staphylococcus aureus (34.95%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (37.79%).
Wajir, had lower prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (10.58%) and
Streptococcus agalactiae (7.69%). Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae were resistant to most of the antibiotics except Gentamicin.
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Although camel milk and milk products were acceptable, each had different
quality parameters that attracted customers. The most important purchasing
criterion for raw camel milk was taste (27%, 19% and 18%) for Wajir, Garissa
and Nairobi respectively. While packaging (18%, 18% and 16%) was more
important for pasteurized milk also in the same order. For yoghurt the most
important purchasing criteria were taste (18%) and aroma (19%). The taste of
sour camel milk is the most important attribute in both Garissa (30%) and
Nairobi (24%).
The results indicate the potential health risk of consuming raw camel milk and
increasing incidences of resistance of mastitis organisms to the common
antibiotics. There is need to educate camel milk producers on hygienic milk
production as well as inform the raw camel milk consumers on dangers
involved. Marketing of camel milk and products can be enhanced using the
attributes appropriate for each product in the respective district.

Akyıldız Hızır, Biri I, Akcan A, Küçük C, Sözüer E, others. "Ileal lipoma: case report." Erciyes Med J. 2011;33:83-6. AbstractWebsite
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AL S, T DR, M C, J L, P P, A K, J C, W P. "Mitigating Global Oral Health Inequalities: Research Training Programs in Low- and Middle-Income Countries." Annals of Global Health.. 2020;2020; 86(1): 141, 1–5.(2020; 86(1): 141, 1–5.):2020; 86(1): 141, 1-5.
Al H, Nguta J, Musila F, Ole-Mapenay I, Matara D, Mailu J. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, Cytotoxicity, and Phytochemical Composition of Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicin. 2022;2022:11.
al FME. "Flood Forecasting over Lower Nzoia Sub-Basin in Kenya." Africa Journal of Physical Sciences. 2014;1-1 2014.jos.pdf
Al-Azawi A, Cenev Z, Tupasela T, Peng B, Ikkala O, Zhou Q, Jokinen V, Franssila S, Ras RHA. "Tunable and Magnetic Thiol–ene Micropillar Arrays." Macromolecular Rapid Communications. 2020;41:1900522. Abstract
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Al-Qahtani S, Gudinchet F, Laswed T, Schnyder P, Schmidt S, Osterheld M-C, Alamo L. "Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas in children: typical radiological findings and pathological correlation." Clinical imaging. 2010;34:152-156. AbstractWebsite
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Alade K, Windapo A, Wachira-Towey IN. "• Rethinking leadership in the fourth industrial revolution :lessons for construction business organizations." Journal Of Leadership Studies. 2021;Volume 15(1).
ALANDO MRSOMONDIESTHER. "Nationalism in Africa and Other Third World Countries.". In: journal. BEP Electronic Press; 2000. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
ALANDO MRSOMONDIESTHER. "History of Kenya.". In: journal. BEP Electronic Press; 2006. Abstract
Two groups of 6 rats each received subcutaneous injections of 2.3 mg/kg or 5.0 mg/kg of quinuronium, respectively, on two consecutive days, while 5 rats injected with physiological saline served as controls. Clinical signs of muscular tremors, jumps, enlarged and hyperemic eyeballs, lacrimation, depression and anorexia were observed following administration of quinuronium. One rat receiving 5 mg/kg died before termination of the study. When killed 48 h after the first injection, the quinuronium-treated rats had a higher liver weight/body weight ratio compared to the controls. Quinuronium resulted in hepatic centrilobular fatty degeneration, but no depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH). The present findings suggest that glutathione depletion does not seem to be involved in quinuronium hepatotoxicity.
Alasow KB. Efficiency of light curing units in Dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya.; 2010. Abstract

Background: To achieve adequate cure, a resin composite restoration must be
exposed for a specified duration of time to a light of sufficient intensity and the right
wavelength. However, some commonly used light curing units (LCUs) may yield
inadequately cured restorations due to their insufficient light intensity output.
Furthermore, the efficiency of light curing units in dental clinics and the extent to which
dentists practice the recommended maintenance techniques is largely unknown.
Objective: To determine the efficiency of Light Curing Units (LCUs) in dental clinics in
Nairobi, Kenya.
Study design: A laboratory-based, cross-sectional analytical study.
Study area: The study was set in private and public dental clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. A
total of 83 light curing units selected through a convenient sampling procedure were
used.
Materials and methods: The light intensity output of light curing units in dental clinics
was measured using a digital dental radiometer and the result entered in a data
collection form. Each light curing unit was then used to polymerise two cylindrical resin
composite specimens made using custom-made split brass moulds; one measuring
4mm in diameter and 6mm in thickness used to determine the depth of cure (DOC) and
the other 8mm in diameter and 3mm in thickness used to determine the surface
hardness by using a Vickers Hardness tester. Within 6-7 hours of fabrication, the depth
of cure specimens were immersed in a capsule containing 99%- acetone solvent which
was then vibrated in a mixing device. The DOC was calculated from the undissolved
length of the specimen. The surface Vickers Hardness was evaluated by making three
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surface indentations with a diamond indenter using a load of 200g and a dwell time of
15-seconds. A conversion table was used to convert measurements from the diamond
indentations into hardness numbers. The light intensity output and the depth of cure and
surface micro-hardness numbers of the resin composite specimens were then used to
assess the efficiency of each dental light curing unit. Three main components of the
maintenance history of the light curing units, as well as the age and type of the light
curing unit were also recorded.
The data was entered into a computer using SPSS version 12. The independent sample
t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Post Hoc test and Chi-square tests
were used for data analysis. The results were summarized in tables and figures.
Results: Of the 83 LCUs studied, 43(51.8%) were LED and 39(47.0%) were OTH and 1
(1.2%) was PAC light.
LCU type and light intensity output, DOC and hardness: Mean light intensity for OTH
and LED lights was 526.59mW/cm2 and 493.67mW/cm2 respectively (p=0.574), while
the mean DOC for OTH lights was 1.71mm and LED was 1.67mm (p=0.690). Mean
VHN for LED was 57.44 and for OTH was 44.14 (p=0.713). Light curing unit type had no
statistically significant effect on DOC, surface hardness and the intensity of the light.
Effect of age of LCU on light intensity output, hardness and DOC: Mean light intensity
for LCUs ::;5years was 596.03mW/cm2 and 363.17mW/cm2 for units> 5years old. Age
showed a significant effect on light intensity (p=O.024). The mean DOC for the two age
groups was 1.74mm and 1.57mm respectively (p=O.073). For surface micro-hardness,
the ::; 5years and > 5years age groups gave a mean VHN of 58.81 and 51.46
respectively (p=O.1)
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Efficiency of the LCUs: when intensity was used to measure efficiency, 48 (57.8%)
LCUs were efficient and 35 (42.2%) were inefficient. Only the LCU age significantly
affected efficiency by light intensity output (p=O.008). Only 24 (28.9%) LCUs gave
sufficient DOC as opposed to 59 (71.1%), which gave insufficient DOC. Of the units
tested for surface micro-hardness, 15 (25.9%) had adequate surface micro-hardness
while the rest (43 or 74.1%) had inadequate surface micro-hardness. The type of LCU
and its age did not significantly influence efficiency as measured using depth of cure
and surface micro-hardness of the resin restoration.
On the whole, 11 (19%) of the LCUs which had all the three tests of efficiency done
were satisfactory in all the 3 aspects.
Conclusions: Eleven (19%) of the light curing units used in Nairobi dental clinics were
efficient when subjected to a combined light intensity, and composite resin depth of cure
and surface hardness evaluation, and that the type and maintenance history of a LCU
had no significant influence on its efficiency. Age had a significant influence on the light
intensity of the curing units - there was a decrease in light intensity output with increase
in age of the units. There was a non-linear relationship between the light intensity output
of a LCU and the depth of cure and surface micro-hardness of the cured composite.

Albert O. Mala, Lucy W. Irungu, Josephat I.Shililu, Ephantus J. Muturi, Charles C. Mbogo, Joseph K. Njagi, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Githure JI. "Plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: a Kenyan experience from the dry lands of Baringo and its implications for Anopheles arabiensis control." Malaria Journal. 2011;10:121.
Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry. 2017;144:1-8. AbstractFull text

Four previously undescribed diterpenoids including two crotofolanes, crotodichogamoin A and B, and two halimanes, crothalimene A and B, a new sesquiterpenoid, and fifteen previously reported compounds, including the crotofolane, crotohaumanoxide, the casbane, depressin, a further seven furanohalimane diterpenoids, three patchoulane and two further cadinane sesquiterpenoids and aleuritolic acid were isolated from the root of Croton dichogamus. Crotodichogamoin B is an important biosynthetic intermediate of the crotofolane class and this is the first report of patchoulene sesquiterpenoids from the genus. Compounds were tested at one concentration, 1 × 10−5 M, in the NCI59 cell one-dose screen but did not show significant activity snd were also evaluated for their cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cell lines using the neutral red assay. 10-epi-Maninsigin D reduced Caco-2 cell viability at 10, 30 and 100 μM, with values of decreased viability of 28%, 48% and 43% respectively. None of the other tested compounds showed significant activity.
Keywords
Croton dichogamusEuphorbiaceaeCrotofolaneCrotodichogamoin BCrothalimene ACrothalimene BPatchoulaneCaco-2 cell viability

Aldhaher A, Langat M, Ndunda B, Chirchir D, Midiwo JO, Njue A, Schwikkard S, Carew M, Mulholland D. "Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton dichogamus Pax." Phytochemistry . 2017;144(2017):1-8.
Alekseenko SV, Shkorbatova YP, Toporova SN. "Effects of {Strabismus} and {Monocular} {Deprivation} on the {Sizes} of {Callosal} {Cells} in {Cortical} {Fields} 17 and 18 in the {Cat} {Brain}." Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology. 2014;44:101-106. AbstractWebsite

Structural changes in the visual cortex were studied in conditions of deranged binocular experience by assessing the sizes (body areas) of callosal cells in fields 17 and 18 in monocularly deprived cats and in cats with convergent strabismus. These cells were detected by injection of horseradish peroxidase into columns in cortical fields 17 and 18 and the fields 17/18 transitional zone. In both groups, the mean size of callosal cells in field 17 was greater than normal, though this difference in field 18 was seen only in monocularly deprived cats. Differences in the mean sizes of field 17 and 18 cells in cats of the study groups were found to be due to the number of large cells. In cats with strabismus, callosal cells of size greater than 200 μm2 accounted for 58% of cells in field 17 and 8% in field 18. In monocularly deprived cats, there was no difference in the proportions of large callosal cells in these fields (28% and 26%, respectively). These data provide evidence that cytoarchitectonic changes occurred in layers of the visual cortex, serving as sources of interhemisphere connections, in conditions of early derangement of binocular experience.

Alekseenko SV, Shkorbatova YP, Toporova SN. "Effects of {Strabismus} and {Monocular} {Deprivation} on the {Sizes} of {Callosal} {Cells} in {Cortical} {Fields} 17 and 18 in the {Cat} {Brain}." Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology. 2014;44:101-106. AbstractWebsite

Structural changes in the visual cortex were studied in conditions of deranged binocular experience by assessing the sizes (body areas) of callosal cells in fields 17 and 18 in monocularly deprived cats and in cats with convergent strabismus. These cells were detected by injection of horseradish peroxidase into columns in cortical fields 17 and 18 and the fields 17/18 transitional zone. In both groups, the mean size of callosal cells in field 17 was greater than normal, though this difference in field 18 was seen only in monocularly deprived cats. Differences in the mean sizes of field 17 and 18 cells in cats of the study groups were found to be due to the number of large cells. In cats with strabismus, callosal cells of size greater than 200 μm2 accounted for 58% of cells in field 17 and 8% in field 18. In monocularly deprived cats, there was no difference in the proportions of large callosal cells in these fields (28% and 26%, respectively). These data provide evidence that cytoarchitectonic changes occurred in layers of the visual cortex, serving as sources of interhemisphere connections, in conditions of early derangement of binocular experience.

Alekseeva IG, Lapina GP, Tulovskaia ZD, Izmaĭlova VN. "[Structure formation in interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid boundaries]." Biofizika. 1975;20(4):566-9. Abstract

In connection with the modelling of biomembranes regularities of the formation and development of interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid borders under different conditions and depending on the nature of carbohydrate phase were investigated by the determination of mechanical characteristics of such layers. The investigations carried out showed that the most solid layers appeared under the conditions which assured the formation of the maximum number of intermolecular bonds (which in a common case is performed with maximum disorderlinesss of the macromolecules which get at the interphase).

Alekseeva IG, Lapina GP, Tulovskaia ZD, Izmaĭlova VN. "[Structure formation in interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid boundaries]." Biofizika. 1975;20(4):566-9. Abstract

In connection with the modelling of biomembranes regularities of the formation and development of interphase adsorption layers of lysozyme at liquid borders under different conditions and depending on the nature of carbohydrate phase were investigated by the determination of mechanical characteristics of such layers. The investigations carried out showed that the most solid layers appeared under the conditions which assured the formation of the maximum number of intermolecular bonds (which in a common case is performed with maximum disorderlinesss of the macromolecules which get at the interphase).

Alemayehu F, Richard O, James KM, Wasonga OV. "Assessment of mangrove covers change and biomass in mida creek, Kenya." Open Journal of Forestry. 2014;2014. Abstract
n/a
Aleri JW, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Animal welfare is defined as the ability of an animal to interact comfortably with its environment through its physiological, psychological and behavioural systems. About 70% of dairy production in Kenya is from the smallholder production systems. These production systems are negatively impacted by a number of factors including poor nutrition, substandard husbandry and management practices, lack of appropriate farm inputs, diseases and low incomes. These factors influence the welfare of dairy cattle, hence their importance for its evaluation. This study was therefore designed with the following objectives: 1. to determine the welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units in Nairobi and its environs, 2. to determine the risk factors contributing to poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 3. to determine the indicators of poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 4. to determine the farmers’ and stockmen’s perspectives of animal welfare. These objectives were achieved through a cross-sectional study carried out in 80 smallholder dairy units purposively selected in Nairobi and its environs, in which 306 dairy cows were examined. The welfare of cattle in these dairy units was evaluated through several methods which included: visual observations for animal- and farm-level factors that indicate poor welfare of cattle; taking measurements of dairy housing unit dimensions such as cubicle, walk-alley, kerb and feeding bunk; and using a structured questionnaire to interview farmers and stockmen on nutritional regimes and other management practices such as removal of slurry, milking techniques, record keeping and disease control. These factors were recorded and later analyzed. Analyses included descriptive statistics, and simple associations using chi-square at p< 0.05 significance level. Over 80% of these smallholder units had factors that contributed to poor welfare of dairy cattle. These factors included under-size cubicles, small walk-alleys, too high feeding bunks with traumatic edges, too low positioning of neck rails at the feed bunks, sharp objects and edges within the housing units and dilapidated housing structures. The main evidence of poor welfare was injuries on the animals. The body condition score (BCS) of the cows was the main indicator of welfare relating to feeding. Presence of injuries or scars on the skin at various parts of the body was considered a positive indicator of poor welfare either associated with housing structures, management practices or animal interactions. Other causes of poor welfare of the cows were hind-limb tying during milking, teat pulling during hand-milking, more than 24-hour delay before sick cows were treated, and mixing of cattle of different age-groups in the same compartment. Cow-human interaction was poor as evidenced by fearful response and long avoidance distance. This study concludes that poor welfare of dairy cattle exists in all the smallholder units evaluated, which is mainly caused by improper housing and management. Training of farmers and stockmen on animal welfare issues would therefore be a prerequisite to the improvement of dairy cattle welfare. Research on the physiological response to poor welfare of dairy cows in the smallholder units needs to be carried out to enhance the understanding of the impact of these risk factors on smallholder dairy animals.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Entrenching Animal welfare in Policy and Legislations Frameworks: Is Africa ready? (2010). Mogoa, E.M. and Aleri, J.W.". In: Africa Animal Welfare Action (AAWA) Conference 2010 . AAWA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Kipyegon AN, Mande JD, Mulei CM, Karanja DN. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Due to Babesiosis in a Dog: Case Report.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: A case of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to babesiosis is reported in a 5 years old male Japanese sptiz. The patient was noticed to have developed sudden dyspnoea. The main presenting clinical signs included laboured breathing, broad-base stance but preferred recumbency, pallour and seizures. Blood smears from the ear tips revealed presence of multiple Babesia parasites in the erythrocytes. Hematology results showed slight leucocytosis, severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. Additionally, urinalysis revealed renal pathology and presence of leucocytes in urine. Despite aggressive measures to stabilize the patient, it died within an hour. Autopsy results also confirmed Babesiosis with generalized icterus.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Retrospective study on Reproductive conditions in Bitches in Nairobi (2010). Aleri, J.W., Mutembei, H.K., C.M. Mulei., Gakombe, J.W. and Mbugua, S.M.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian 34: 29-31. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/kenvet/article/view/68400. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Abuom TO, Kitaa JM, Kipyegon AN, Mulei CM. "An overview of Rabbit conditions presented to the Small Animal Clinic University of Nairobi Kenya.". In: 45th Annual Scientific Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Kisumu Hotel, Kisumu Kenya; 2011.
Aleri JW, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mulei CM. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs.". 2012. Abstract

Animal welfare is defined as the ability of an animal to interact comfortably with its environment through its physiological, psychological and behavioural systems. About 70% of dairy production in Kenya is from the smallholder production systems. These production systems are negatively impacted by a number of factors including poor nutrition, substandard husbandry and management practices, lack of appropriate farm inputs, diseases and low incomes. These factors influence the welfare of dairy cattle, hence their importance for its evaluation. This study was therefore designed with the following objectives: 1. to determine the welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units in Nairobi and its environs, 2. to determine the risk factors contributing to poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 3. to determine the indicators of poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 4. to determine the farmers’ and stockmen’s perspectives of animal welfare. These objectives were achieved through a cross-sectional study carried out in 80 smallholder dairy units purposively selected in Nairobi and its environs, in which 306 dairy cows were examined. The welfare of cattle in these dairy units was evaluated through several methods which included: visual observations for animal- and farm-level factors that indicate poor welfare of cattle; taking measurements of dairy housing unit dimensions such as cubicle, walk-alley, kerb and feeding bunk; and using a structured questionnaire to interview farmers and stockmen on nutritional regimes and other management practices such as removal of slurry, milking techniques, record keeping and disease control. These factors were recorded and later analyzed. Analyses included descriptive statistics, and simple associations using chi-square at p< 0.05 significance level. Over 80% of these smallholder units had factors that contributed to poor welfare of dairy cattle. These factors included under-size cubicles, small walk-alleys, too high feeding bunks with traumatic edges, too low positioning of neck rails at the feed bunks, sharp objects and edges within the housing units and dilapidated housing structures. The main evidence of poor welfare was injuries on the animals. The body condition score (BCS) of the cows was the main indicator of welfare relating to feeding. Presence of injuries or scars on the skin at various parts of the body was considered a positive indicator of poor welfare either associated with housing structures, management practices or animal interactions. Other causes of poor welfare of the cows were hind-limb tying during milking, teat pulling during hand-milking, more than 24-hour delay before sick cows were treated, and mixing of cattle of different age-groups in the same compartment. Cow-human interaction was poor as evidenced by fearful response and long avoidance distance. This study concludes that poor welfare of dairy cattle exists in all the smallholder units evaluated, which is mainly caused by improper housing and management. Training of farmers and stockmen on animal welfare issues would therefore be a prerequisite to the improvement of dairy cattle welfare. Research on the physiological response to poor welfare of dairy cows in the smallholder units needs to be carried out to enhance the understanding of the impact of these risk factors on smallholder dairy animals.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Risk factors for body injuries and poor welfare in cattle within smallholder units in periurban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2011). Aleri, J.W., Nguhiu-Mwangi, J., Mogoa, E.M and Mulei, C.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Housing-design as a predisposing factor for injuries and poor welfare in cattle within smallholder units in periurban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2011). J W Aleri, J Nguhiu-Mwangi and E M Mogoa.". In: Livestock research for rural development 23 (3) 2011. Livestock research for rural development 23 (3) 2011; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Mutembei HM, Mulei CM, Gakombe JW;, MBUGUA SM. "A Retrospective Study of Reproductive Conditions in Bitches in Nairobi.". 2010. Abstract

A twenty year retrospective study was carried out in the Small Animal Clinic, University of Nairobi, Kenya and in a private Small Animal Clinic in Nairobi between the years 1988 to 2008. A total of 6548 bitches had been presented with reproductive problems. The cases were categorically grouped according to the type of infertility diagnosed. Non-infectious infertilities were sixty nine percent and infectious types were thirty one percent. Only two percent of the latter were confirmed in one clinic. 23.20 % of non-infectious infertility were managerial, 29.1% anatomical and 7.80% physiological types while 39.80 % were unclassified miscellaneous cases. The cases classified under infectious infertility consisted of; vaginitis/endometritis/metritis (36.3%), pyometra (25.3%), abortions (21.5%), vaginal discharges (11.7%) and miscarriages (5.1%). The incidence of infertilities was highly common in breeds of German shepherd (39%), Doberman (6%), Rottweiler (12%) and their crosses (43%). The percentage of the reproductive cases presented in both clinics had no statistical difference at (p<0.05). It was evident from the results of this study that infectious infertility exists among the bitches in Kenya and it would be beneficial to do further studies to establish the causative agents to avert any possible outbreaks of zoonotic diseases.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "The Status of Animal welfare in Kenya. Departmental Seminar .". In: Department of Clinical Studies University of Nairobi 2008. Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome due to Babesiosis in a dog (2012). Aleri, J. W., Kipyegon, A.N., Mande, J.D., Mulei, C.M. and Karanja, D.N.". In: Departmental seminar. Departmental seminar; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "An Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome due to Babesiosis in a dog (2010). Aleri, J. W., Kipyegon, A.N., Mande, J.D., Mulei, C.M. and Karanja, D.N.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW;, Nguhiu JM;, Mogoa, E.M; Mulei CM, Mogoa, E.M; Mulei CM. "Challenges In The Smallholder (zero - Grazing) Production Systems Of Nairobi And Its Environs: A Welfare Perspective.".; 2012.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Clinical presentation, treatment and management of some rabbit conditions in Nairobi (2012). Aleri J W, Abuom T O, Kitaa J M, Kipyegon A N and Mulei C M.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr (2012) 60. 149 - 152. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr (2012) 60. 149 - 152; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Major Causes of Calf Mortality in Peri-urban areas of Nairobi, (2010). Gitau, G.K., Aleri, J.W., Mbuthia, P.G. and Mulei, C.M.". In: Kenya. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Abuom TO, Mulei CM. "A typical actinobacillosis in an adult friesian cow.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Actinobacillosis due to Actinobacillus lignieresi, has been reported in domestic animals including cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo, horses and dogs (Carmalt et al., 1999; Kennerman et al., 2006; Muhammad et al., 2006; Brown et al., 2007). The causative agent is a gram-negative aerobic rod and a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants (Radostits et al., 2007; Smith, 2009). The most frequent clinical presentation is granulomatous or pyogranulomatous lesion of the tongue or subcutaneous tissues in the head and neck region. A typical manifestation of the disease have been reported affecting other body tissues / organs usually associated from lacerations, dehorning, nose-rings, intravenous injections and lymphadenitis (Aslani, et al., 1995; Holzhauer and Roumen, 2002). Outbreaks of the disease have also been reported (Campbell et al., 1975; Nakazawa and Azuma 1977). This paper outlines an atypical case of actinobacillosis of soft tissue swelling of the head in a cow without any exudation from the lesion, which is a challenge to confirming the etiological agent and treatment.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Causes of Calf Mortality in Peri-urban areas of Nairobi, Kenya (2010). Gitau, G.K., Aleri, J.W., Mbuthia, P.G. and Mulei, C.M.". In: Journal of Tropical Animal Health and Production. 42: 1643 . KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Mogoa EM, Mulei CM. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs.". 2012. Abstract

Animal welfare is defined as the ability of an animal to interact comfortably with its environment through its physiological, psychological and behavioural systems. About 70% of dairy production in Kenya is from the smallholder production systems. These production systems are negatively impacted by a number of factors including poor nutrition, substandard husbandry and management practices, lack of appropriate farm inputs, diseases and low incomes. These factors influence the welfare of dairy cattle, hence their importance for its evaluation. This study was therefore designed with the following objectives: 1. to determine the welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units in Nairobi and its environs, 2. to determine the risk factors contributing to poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 3. to determine the indicators of poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 4. to determine the farmers’ and stockmen’s perspectives of animal welfare. These objectives were achieved through a cross-sectional study carried out in 80 smallholder dairy units purposively selected in Nairobi and its environs, in which 306 dairy cows were examined. The welfare of cattle in these dairy units was evaluated through several methods which included: visual observations for animal- and farm-level factors that indicate poor welfare of cattle; taking measurements of dairy housing unit dimensions such as cubicle, walk-alley, kerb and feeding bunk; and using a structured questionnaire to interview farmers and stockmen on nutritional regimes and other management practices such as removal of slurry, milking techniques, record keeping and disease control. These factors were recorded and later analyzed. Analyses included descriptive statistics, and simple associations using chi-square at p< 0.05 significance level. Over 80% of these smallholder units had factors that contributed to poor welfare of dairy cattle. These factors included under-size cubicles, small walk-alleys, too high feeding bunks with traumatic edges, too low positioning of neck rails at the feed bunks, sharp objects and edges within the housing units and dilapidated housing structures. The main evidence of poor welfare was injuries on the animals. The body condition score (BCS) of the cows was the main indicator of welfare relating to feeding. Presence of injuries or scars on the skin at various parts of the body was considered a positive indicator of poor welfare either associated with housing structures, management practices or animal interactions. Other causes of poor welfare of the cows were hind-limb tying during milking, teat pulling during hand-milking, more than 24-hour delay before sick cows were treated, and mixing of cattle of different age-groups in the same compartment. Cow-human interaction was poor as evidenced by fearful response and long avoidance distance. This study concludes that poor welfare of dairy cattle exists in all the smallholder units evaluated, which is mainly caused by improper housing and management. Training of farmers and stockmen on animal welfare issues would therefore be a prerequisite to the improvement of dairy cattle welfare. Research on the physiological response to poor welfare of dairy cows in the smallholder units needs to be carried out to enhance the understanding of the impact of these risk factors on smallholder dairy animals.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "An overview of rabbit conditions presented to the Small Animal Clinic, University of Nairobi (2011). Aleri, J.W., Abuom, T.O., Kitaa, J.M., Kipyegon, A.N and Mulei, C.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW;, Mutembei HK;, Mulei CM;, Mbugua SM;, Gakombe JW. "Retrospective Study On Canine Infertility In Nairobi And Its Environs (2010)."; 2010.
Aleri JW, Mogoa EM, Mulei CM. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs.". 2012. Abstract

Animal welfare is defined as the ability of an animal to interact comfortably with its environment through its physiological, psychological and behavioural systems. About 70% of dairy production in Kenya is from the smallholder production systems. These production systems are negatively impacted by a number of factors including poor nutrition, substandard husbandry and management practices, lack of appropriate farm inputs, diseases and low incomes. These factors influence the welfare of dairy cattle, hence their importance for its evaluation. This study was therefore designed with the following objectives: 1. to determine the welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units in Nairobi and its environs, 2. to determine the risk factors contributing to poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 3. to determine the indicators of poor welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production units, 4. to determine the farmers’ and stockmen’s perspectives of animal welfare. These objectives were achieved through a cross-sectional study carried out in 80 smallholder dairy units purposively selected in Nairobi and its environs, in which 306 dairy cows were examined. The welfare of cattle in these dairy units was evaluated through several methods which included: visual observations for animal- and farm-level factors that indicate poor welfare of cattle; taking measurements of dairy housing unit dimensions such as cubicle, walk-alley, kerb and feeding bunk; and using a structured questionnaire to interview farmers and stockmen on nutritional regimes and other management practices such as removal of slurry, milking techniques, record keeping and disease control. These factors were recorded and later analyzed. Analyses included descriptive statistics, and simple associations using chi-square at p< 0.05 significance level. Over 80% of these smallholder units had factors that contributed to poor welfare of dairy cattle. These factors included under-size cubicles, small walk-alleys, too high feeding bunks with traumatic edges, too low positioning of neck rails at the feed bunks, sharp objects and edges within the housing units and dilapidated housing structures. The main evidence of poor welfare was injuries on the animals. The body condition score (BCS) of the cows was the main indicator of welfare relating to feeding. Presence of injuries or scars on the skin at various parts of the body was considered a positive indicator of poor welfare either associated with housing structures, management practices or animal interactions. Other causes of poor welfare of the cows were hind-limb tying during milking, teat pulling during hand-milking, more than 24-hour delay before sick cows were treated, and mixing of cattle of different age-groups in the same compartment. Cow-human interaction was poor as evidenced by fearful response and long avoidance distance. This study concludes that poor welfare of dairy cattle exists in all the smallholder units evaluated, which is mainly caused by improper housing and management. Training of farmers and stockmen on animal welfare issues would therefore be a prerequisite to the improvement of dairy cattle welfare. Research on the physiological response to poor welfare of dairy cows in the smallholder units needs to be carried out to enhance the understanding of the impact of these risk factors on smallholder dairy animals.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Tick-borne diseases a threat in the kennels (2011). Aleri, J.W. and Muiruri, M.N.". In: Kennel club Annual Newsletter March 2011. Kennel club; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Challenges in the Smallholder (zero-grazing) Production Systems of Nairobi and its Environs: A Welfare Perspective (2012). J.W. Aleri., J.M. Nguhiu., E.M. Mogoa and C.M. Mulei.". In: Faculty of veterinary medicine 8th Biennal scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual Scientific conference 25 . KVA; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "The Impact of Customized Lectures on Knowledge and Perceptions of Veterinary Students on Animal Welfare and Related Legislations (2009). Aleri, J.W., Mogoa, E.G.M., Mulei, C.M. and Mande, J.D.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian 33: 23 - 30. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/kenvet/article/view/55770. KVA; 2009. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Mogoa EGM, Mulei CM, Mande JD. "Animal Welfare The Impact of Customized Lectures on Knowledge and Perceptions of Veterinary Students on Animal Welfare and Related Legislations.". 2009. Abstract

A study was designed to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of animal welfare and related legislations among graduating Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine students from the University of Nairobi, Kenya. A questionnaire was designed and administered to assess understanding, poor attributes, good provisions, legislations’, knowledge and sources of general information on animal welfare. The percentage responses to the questions before and after the customized lecture series were determined and differences compared using a paired t test. The level of awareness of animal welfare issues among students before and after the customized lectures was 33.11% and 68.03% respectively. Significant differences at p ≤ 0.05 on all the attributes assessed was observed. p=0.0056 on the understanding of animal welfare, p=0.0232 on what constitutes poor animal welfare and p=0.025 on conditions necessary to ensure a state of good animal welfare. A 50% increase in awareness of legislations on animal welfare was recorded after the lecture series. The major source of information on animal welfare was from the lecture series offered. This study confirms that inclusion of the customized lectures on animal welfare in training veterinary students was effective in promoting awareness on animal welfare. The contents of these lectures should be included in relevant subjects taught to students at the Faculties of Veterinary Medicine.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs (2012). J W Aleri, J Nguhiu-Mwangi, E M Mogoa and C M Mulei.". In: Livestock research for rural development 24 (9) 2012. Livestock research for rural development 24 (9) 2012; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "The Impact of Customized Lectures on Knowledge and Perceptions of Veterinary Students on Animal Welfare and Related Legislations (2010). Aleri, J.W., Mogoa, E.G.M., Mulei, C.M. and Mande, J.D.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Garissa 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, Thaiyah AG, Abuom TO, Mulei CM. "A typical actinobacillosis in an adult friesian cow.". 2011.
Aleri JW, Kipyegon AN, Mulei CM, Karanja DN. "Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Due to Babesiosis in a Dog: Case Report.". 2011. AbstractWebsite

Abstract: A case of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to babesiosis is reported in a 5 years old male Japanese sptiz. The patient was noticed to have developed sudden dyspnoea. The main presenting clinical signs included laboured breathing, broad-base stance but preferred recumbency, pallour and seizures. Blood smears from the ear tips revealed presence of multiple Babesia parasites in the erythrocytes. Hematology results showed slight leucocytosis, severe anemia and thrombocytopenia. Additionally, urinalysis revealed renal pathology and presence of leucocytes in urine. Despite aggressive measures to stabilize the patient, it died within an hour. Autopsy results also confirmed Babesiosis with generalized icterus.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Traumatic Diaphragmatic Hernia in 3 Canines, a Challenge to Management (2010). Kipyegon, A.N., Abuom, T.O., Aleri, J.W. and Mulei, C.M.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Rabies and Population Control of Stray Dogs and Cats in Nairobi Slums. WVS-CSD Initiative (2011). Muraya, J., Aleri, J.W. Mutembei, H.M and Mulei, C.M.". In: Rabies Workshop 26th September,2011 held in Machokas. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Aleri JW, T.O. A, Kitaa JM, Kipyegon AN, Mulei CM. "Clinical presentation, treatment and management of some rabbit conditions in Nairobi ." Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr . 2012;60:149-152.
Aleri JW;, Mutembei HK;, Mulei CM;, Mbugua SM;, Gakombe JW. "Retrospective Study On Canine Infertility In Nairobi And Its Environs (2010)."; 2010.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Promoting Animal and Human Welfare in Disasters: The Role of Veterinary Professionals (2011). Aleri, J.W and Mogoa, E.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Welfare of Dairy Cattle in the Smallholder (Zero-grazing) Production Systems of Nairobi and its Environs (2011). Aleri, J.W.". In: Faculty of veterinary medicine 8th Biennal scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual Scientific conference 25 . University of Nairobi Thesis; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Situational Analysis of Canine Infertility in Nairobi and its Environs. Departmental Seminar 2008.". In: Departmental Seminar . Departmental seminar; 2008. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "A Typical Actinobacillosis in an Adult Friesian Cow (2012). AG Thaiyah, JW Aleri, TO Abuom, CM Mulei.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa > Vol 60, No 1 (2012). Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa > Vol 60, No 1 (2012); 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Retrospective Study on Canine Infertility in Nairobi and its Environs (2010). Aleri, J.W., Mutembei, H.K., Mulei, C.M., Mbugua, S.M. and Gakombe, J.W.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine 7th Biennial Scientific Conference 2010. KVA; 2010. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Alex Awuor Ogacho, Ajuoga P, Aduda BO. "International Journal for Innovation Education and Research." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2015;3(6):140-146. AbstractJournal Article Website

The effects of niobium doping (for doping concentrations: 0.02 – 0.06 at. % Nb5+) on the crystal structure of
TiO2 prepared by high temperature diffusion method were investigated. The samples were characterized using
energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X- ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy to investigate the
chemical compositions, phase compositions and crystallinity of the thin films respectively. Despite the expected
high reutilization at high temperatures (>600oC), XRD results confirmed a significant suppression of anatase to
rutile phase transformation at even a higher synthesis (850oC) temperature. Grain growth retardation was also
observed in niobium doped TiO2, results which were attributed to Nb5+ substitution of lattice Ti4+.
Key words: Anatase, rutile, phase transformation, grain growth

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Justification for senior environmental health specialists in Kenya.". In: International Seminar on "Environmental,Sustainable Development and Human Health". Banaras, Hindu University,India. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1995. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. The Role of Employers and Stakeholders in Control of Occupational Hazards. Submitted in January 2010 to African Journal for Community Health and Development.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2010. Abstract
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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Omutanyi, M and Mwanthi, M.A. Determinants of Immunization Coverage in Butere-Mumiasi District. East African Medical Journal, 82:(10). 501-505, 2005.". In: East African Medical Journal, 82:(10). 501-505, 2005. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Occurrence of three pesticides in community water supplies, Kenya.". In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60:601-608, 1998. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1989. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "A Community Health Worker Program for the Prevention of Malaria in Eastern Kenya.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Stromberg DG, Frederiksen J, Hruschka J, Tomedi A, Mwanthi M.; 2011. Abstract
Objective: To assess whether the development and implementation of a community health worker (CHW) project in rural Kenya was associated with an increase in knowledge about malaria and the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in children under five years of age.Methods: A baseline knowledge and behavior questionnaire, adopted from the Kenyan Demographic Health Survey, was conducted in August 2007 by Kenyan health officials in 75 villages. Two CHWs were chosen from each village and trained in appropriate use of ITNs. The CHWs provided educational sessions and ITNs to mothers in their respective villages. A follow-up survey was conducted in March 2008 of all families with children less than five years of age within randomly selected villages. The main questions addressed during the follow-up survey included knowledge about malaria and the practice of correctly using ITNs.Findings: There were 267 surveys compiled for knowledge assessment before the intervention and 340 in the post-intervention analysis with an approximate 99% family participation rate. Of the families surveyed, 81% correctly knew the cause for malaria before the study and 93% after the CHW intervention (p < 0.01). Of those surveyed before the intervention, 70% owned and correctly used mosquito nets compared with 88% after the CHW intervention (p < 0.01).Conclusions: There was a significant increase in knowledge about malaria and use of ITNs after the implementation of the CHW program. Keywords: Community health aides, insecticide-treated bednets, malaria/diagnosis, malaria/prevention andcontrol, Kenya, rural health services, infant, child/preschool, questionnaires
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. The Status and Future of Applied Epidemiology Course for Anglophone (African) countries.". In: Benin. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Kimani, V.N. and Mwanthi, M.A. Agrochemicals exposure and health implications in Githunguri Location, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):531-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Aug;72(8):531-5. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1995. Abstract
A study conducted in a rural agricultural community (Githunguri location) in Kenya between 1987 and 1990 investigated the extent of use of agrochemicals, especially pesticides, by the farmers; their level of awareness of the dangers posed by these chemicals and their attitudes towards agricultural chemicals in general. The findings showed that more than 95% of the farmers used pesticides extensively. More women than men were found to be at risk of agrochemicals exposure, while babies and children were at more risk of agrochemicals exposure than the women. In this community, knowledge and awareness regarding safety in handling and storage of agrochemicals was to some extent limited. For instance, many had no knowledge of an antidote in case of accidental poisoning. Additionally, suicidal attempts by ingestion of agrochemicals was prevalent. Improper handling of the agrochemicals by the community members was implicated to have adverse health effects. These health effects were reported in form of complaints. They ranged from acute to chronic conditions. Consequently, an intervention programme was launched with the women as the key players. It is envisaged that community participation in the on going intervention programme is saving babies, children, women and the community at large from agrochemicals hazards.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, N.V. Pesticides hazards.". In: An International Journal of Health Development WHO; Geneva, 11:430, 1990. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1990. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

Alexander RM;, Maloiy GMO. "Locomotion of African mammals."; 1989.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "MPH Curriculum and Health Promotion Course.". In: Promotion Course, Dares-Salaam, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A., Essien, E.J., Muchunga, E., Austin, J. and El Gamal, Y.Emerging effects of industrialization on health and environment in developing countries. Health Line:.". In: A Journal of Health, 5: (2). 26-29, 2001. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. A Proposal for Senior Manpower Development in Environmental Science in Kenya, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Africa: The changing Environment and Health. International.". In: Journal of Environmental Health Research, 2:84-88, 1992. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1992. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Odindo MA, Mwanthi MA.Role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among HIV/AIDS persons in Kibera, Kenya.East Afr J Public Health. 2008 Apr;5(1):1-5.". In: East Afr J Public Health. 2008 Apr;5(1):1-5. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
Alexander RMN, Jayes AS, Maloiy GMO, Wathuta EM. "Allometry of the leg muscles of mammals.". 2010. Abstract

Measurements have been made of the leg muscles of mammals ranging from shrews Sorex to an elephant Loxodonta. Allometric equations based on body mass have been calculated for muscle masses, fibre lengths and moment arms and the thickness of a tendon, in several groups of mammals. Departures from geometric similarity in mammals in general (excluding bipedal hoppers) are noted and discussed. Differences between primates; fissipedes, bovids and bipedal hoppers are also demonstrated.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Elizabeth Ngugi, Violet Kimani, Mutuku Mwanthi and Joyce Olenja, Community Based Care in Resource Limited Settings:.". In: A Framework for Action,WHO (Book publication ). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A; Nyabola, L. O; Tenambergen, T. Solid Waste Management in Nairobi City: Knowledge and Attitudes.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 60:23-29, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Agrochemicals pose health risks to coffee factory workers in Githunguri, Kenya.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 3:73-81, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

Alexander RMN, Maloiy GMO. "Stride lengths and stride frequencies of primates.". 2009. Abstract

Stride lengths and stride frequencies of primates have been observed or collected from the literature. Data for Galago, various monkeys and apes, and man have been collected. The quadrupedal primates take longer strides, at any particular speed, than would be predicted for non-primates. When they gallop they use lower stride frequencies than non-primates of equal mass.

Alexander RMN, Maloiy GMO, Ker RF, Jayes AS, Warui CN. "The role of tendon elasticity in the locomotion of the camel (Camelus dromedarius).". 2009. Abstract

Several ofthe distal leg muscles ofcamels have very short or even rudimentary muscle fibres. This makes it possible to calculate the elastic extensions of tendons that occur in running, from the leg positions observed in films. A series of experiments have been performed for this purpose on the dissected legs of a camel. The initial conclusions derived from them are modified in the light of estimates of the forces that act on the tendons, and of measurements of the elastic properties of one tendon. Evidence for movement at the intertarsal and tarso-metatarsal joints. and the corresponding joints of the fore leg, is examined. The importance of the various tendons as elastic energy stores in running is assessed.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "BloodLead Levels and Potential Environmental Exposures Among Children under five years in Kibera, Nairobi. Olewe T, Mwanthi. M, Wang.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences, (2009), Vol. 13:688-694. ISSN 1997-5902:. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract
.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Elizabeth, N., Kimani, V.N., Mwanthi, M.A. and Joyce O.Community Based Care in Resource Limited Settings: A Framework for Action, WHO (Book Publication).". In: A Framework for Action, WHO (Book Publication). 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Occurrence of three pesticides in community water supplies, Kenya. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60:601-608, 1998.". In: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60:601-608, 1998. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1998. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Agrochemicals: Potential health hazards in Africa.". In: Africa Health,6:18-19, 1994. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1994. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Hruschka, JA, Tomedi AJ, Broudy BW, Frederickson J, Stromberg DG, Schmitt, C L and Mwanthi, MA. Effectiveness of Community Health Care Workers in the Prevention of Diarrhea in Rural Kenya. Journal of Investigative Medicine, Vol.58. NO.1, Jan 2010.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2010. Abstract
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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Determinants of Immunization Coverage in Butere-Mumiasi District. Omutanyi, M and Mwanthi, M.A.". In: East African Medical Journal, 82:(10). 501-505, 2005. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Feasibility and effectiveness of supplementation with locally available foods in prevention of child malnutrition in Kenya.". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Angelo Tomedi, Felisha Rohan-Minjares, Kate McCalmont, Rebecca Ashton, Rose Opiyo, Mutuku M; 2011.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Role of Governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations in Mitigation of Stigma and Discrimination Among HIV/AIDS Persons in Kibera, Kenya,.". In: Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Control of spread of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Burns Units. Muthotho JN, Waiyaki PG, Mbalu M, Wairugu A, Mwanthi B, Odongo B. Afr J Health Sci. 1995 Feb;2(1):232-235.". In: Afr J Health Sci. 1995 Feb;2(1):232-235. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1995. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Environmental Pollution and its Impact on Eastern Africa.". In: Dar-es Salaam, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1989. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Challenges on Attaining the Millennium Development Goals in Africa at the African management Communication.". In: Hilton Hotel, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
Alexander RMN, Maloiy GMO, Njau R, Jayes AS. "Mechanics of running of the ostrich (Struthio camelus).". 2009. Abstract

Ostriches have been filmed running fast in their natural habitat. A female ostrich has been dissected and the principal bones, muscles and tendons in a leg have been measured. It is calculated that stresses up to 240 kN m−2 and 40 MN m−2, respectively, act in the digital flexor muscles and their tendons during running. Tensile and compressive stresses up to about 70MNm−2 and 110 MNm−2 act in the tibiotarsus. A large proportion of the energy which would otherwise be required for running is probably saved by elastic storage in tendons. Comparisons are made with the legs of flying birds and of antelopes

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Presence of three pesticides in rural drinking water sources in Kenya.(.". In: A doctoral dissertation, April 1996) School of Public Health Library, The University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. "Kenya: An Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Pesticide Handling at community level,".". In: International Family Health Seminars at The University of Texas, School of Public Health, USA. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1992. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Evaluation of a Portable Blood Lead Analyzer as an Alternative to Graphite Furnace AtomicAbsorption SpectrophotometerTom M. Olewe*; Mutuku A. Mwanthi; Joseph K. Wang.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences, (2008), Vol. 10:483-487. ISSN 1997-5902:. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Pesticides as Occupational Health Hazards in the Kenya Flower Industry.". In: Workshop Organized by the International Labor Organization, Kenya Human Rights Commission and The Workers Rights Organization, Pan Afric Hotel, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A; Nyabola, L. O; Tenambergen, T. The present and future status of municipal solid waste management in Nairobi.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:345-353, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Patterns of agrochemical handling and community response in Central Kenya.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 55:11-16, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

Alexander RMN, Maloiy GMO, Ker RF, Jayes AS, Warui CN. "The role of tendon elasticity in the locomotion of the camel (Camelus dromedarius).". 2009. Abstract

Several ofthe distal leg muscles ofcamels have very short or even rudimentary muscle fibres. This makes it possible to calculate the elastic extensions of tendons that occur in running, from the leg positions observed in films. A series of experiments have been performed for this purpose on the dissected legs of a camel. The initial conclusions derived from them are modified in the light of estimates of the forces that act on the tendons, and of measurements of the elastic properties of one tendon. Evidence for movement at the intertarsal and tarso-metatarsal joints. and the corresponding joints of the fore leg, is examined. The importance of the various tendons as elastic energy stores in running is assessed.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A.Factors Contributing to Recurrent Water Shortages in Nairobi City.". In: University of Aberdeen International Seminar, June 2009. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract
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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. The Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization on Kenya.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 21: (1).15-17, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A; Nyabola, L.O.; Tenambergen, T. Solid Waste Management in Nairobi City: Knowledge and Attitudes. Journal of Environmental Health, 60:23-29, 1997.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 60:23-29, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Agrochemicals pose health risks to coffee factory workers in Githunguri, Kenya. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 3:73-81, 1993.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 3:73-81, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

Alexander O’o J, Shitandi OB, Kerubuo MM, Ngure KB. "Pattern of stroke in a rural Kenyan hospital." Malawi Medical Journal . 2019;31(1):50-55. Abstractpattern_of_stroke_in_a_rural_kenyan_hospital.pdfCC BY-NC-ND

Background
The pattern of stroke in rural population differs from that in urban ones. Although there are many studies on this condition in sub-Saharan Africa, few studies about stroke pattern in a Kenyan rural area exist.. This study therefore aims at describing the characteristics of stroke in a rural Kenyan hospital.
Patients and Methods
The study was conducted on 227 consecutive patients admitted with a World Health Organization (WHO) diagnosis of stroke in Kangundo Hospital, a level IV facility in Machakos, Eastern Kenya, between April 2015 and September 2016. The sub-type and anatomical distribution of stroke as well as the age, gender of the patients were recorded prospectively. Diagnosis was made through physical neurological examination and confirmed by Computerized Tomography (CT) scan imaging. Only those with complete bio-data, past medical and social history, clinical and physical findings of the patients and imaging results were included. The data were entered into a pre-formatted questionnaire, analysed for means, standard deviations and frequencies, and are presented in tables and bar charts.
Results
Out of 3200 medical admissions, 227 (7.09%) had a confirmed diagnosis of stroke. Ischaemic stroke was more common (67.4%) than haemorrhagic stroke (32.6%). It affected mainly the anterior circulation, especially the middle cerebral artery (39%). The mean age of patients was 68.8 years, (Range 32 – 96). It was more common in females (62%) than in males (38%). Hypertension was the most common (74%) risk factor followed by alcohol abuse (63%), tobacco smoking (48%) and diabetes mellitus (42%).
Conclusion
Ischaemic stroke was the more common major cause of morbidity in the rural hospital studied in Kenya. It occurred most commonly among elderly females, with the most frequent comorbidities being hypertension. In addition, modifiable lifestyle factors like alcohol abuse and cigarette smoking contributed to the prevalence; hence we recommend the control of blood pressure and glucose as well as lifestyle modification to reduce the scourge in our studied population.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Blood Lead Levels and Potential Environmental Exposures Among Children under five years in Kibera, Nairobi. Olewe T, Mwanthi. M, Wang.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences, (2009), Vol. 13:688-694. ISSN 1997-5902:. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract

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ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Omutanyi, M. and Mwanthi, M.A. Determinants of Immunization Coverage in Butere-Mumias District. East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):501-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Oct;82(10):501-5. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Occupational Diseases and Other Related Health conditions.". In: Workshop Organised by Kenya Medical Association, Serena Hotel, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Kimani, V.N. and Mwanthi, M.A. Agrochemicals exposure and health implications in Githunguri Location, Kenya.". In: East African Medical Journal, 72:531-535, 1995. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1995. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "What is the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in a survey to estimate the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis?". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2011.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. .". In: UNIDO-RENPAP Workshop, BOGOR, INDONESIA, 18-20 Sept.2006. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2006. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "The Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization on Kenya.". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 21: (1 ).15-17, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1989. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Simth, WCS and Mwanthi, MA: Tick borne disease .". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009).; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. MPH Curriculum and Health.". In: Promotion Course, Dares-Salaam, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
Alexander RMN, Maloiy GMO, Hunter B, Jayes AS, Nturibi J. "Mechanical stresses in fast locomotion of buffalo (Syncews coffer) and elephant (Loxodonta africana).". 2009. Abstract

Films of buffalo and elephant running, and detailed measurements on dissected legs, have been used to estimate the maximum stresses which occur in locomotion, in certain muscles, tendons and bones. These stresses are similar to stresses previously determined for some other, smaller mammals.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. Exposure to pesticides through drinking water in a rural community in Kenya.". In: International& Family Health Seminar, School of Public Health, The University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Health hazards of pesticides. Mwanthi MA, Kimani VN. World Health Forum. 1990;11(4):430.". In: World Health Forum. 1990;11(4):430. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1990. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Prevalence of Intestinal Worm Infections Among Primary School Children in Nairobi City. Mwanthi, M.A., Kinoti .M; et al.". In: East African Journal of Public Health, Vol. 5. NO. 2. 2008. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. RESULTS: More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. CONCLUSION: Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A., Essien, E.J., Muchunga, E., Austin, J. and El Gamal, Y. Emerging effects of industrialization on health and environment in developing countries. Health Line: A Journal of Health, 5: (2). 26-29, 2001.". In: Health Line: A Journal of Health, 5: (2). 26-29, 2001. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. A Proposal for Senior Manpower Development in Environmental Science in Kenya, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:315-330, 1996. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. Emerging effects of industrial revolution on 29 1993 Health and environment in developing countries.". In: Tanzania Public Health Association & the East Southern and Central Africa Public Health Association, Arusha, Tanzania. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. MBChB Community Health Diagnosis Programme Perspective.". In: University of Aberdeen International Seminar, June 2009. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2009. Abstract
.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Proposed Procedures for Management of Waste Generated by Health Care Facilities. .Mwanthi, M. A. and Mutua, G. N.". In: African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, 4: (1). 39-45, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A and Nyabola, L.O.; Tenambergen, T. The present and future status of municipal solid waste management in Nairobi. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:345-353, 1997.". In: International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7:345-353, 1997. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1997. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. and Kimani, V.N. Patterns of agrochemical handling and community response in Central Kenya. Journal of Environmental Health, 55:11-16, 1993.". In: Journal of Environmental Health, 55:11-16, 1993. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1993. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Rose O. Opiyo, Mutuku A. Mwanthi, Mary K. Kinoti, Prescilla S. Migori. Intestinal Worm Infections and Nutritional Status of School Children in Nairobi Province, Kenya.". In: African Journal for Community Health and Development. Vol. 1; NO.1. 52-56, 2009. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2010. Abstract

.Helminthic infections among children are subtle and insidious constraints on normal physical development. They impact negatively on children's genetic potential growth, with clinical consequences of iron.deficiency anaemia and other nutritional deficiencies (Awasthi et al., 2003). School-age children are particularly at risk of parasitic infections and under-nutrition, yet they have not been the focus of nutritional surveys. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Nairobi among school children 5-14 years in early 2006 from 39 randomly selected schools. 32 were public, five were private and two were informal schools. Stool samples from 1632 pupils were microscopically examined (Katz et a!. 1972) to establ ish the presence or absence of soil transmitted helminthic eggs and Schistosoma manson; while nutritional status data were analysed for 1574 pupils because their anthropometry data were correctly recorded. i, The prevatenceof .chton ic malnutrition .. (stunting) among the children was determined using Height-for-Age nutrition status indicator while being underweight or overweight was determined using the BMI-for-Age indicator. 12.8% of the children were infected by at least one of the three soil transmitted helminths (STHs) and S. mensoni. 33% were underweight while 10.7% were stunted. Children with parasitic infections were three times more likely to be underweight than those without infections (p>O.OS). Children with over one parasitic infections were 1.6 times more likely to be underweight than those exposed to one type. Exposure to parasitic infection contributes to both underweight and stunting among school children ..

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M. A. and Mutua, G. N. Proposed Procedures for Management of Waste Generated by Health Care Facilities. African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, 4: (1). 39-45, 2002.". In: African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, 4: (1). 39-45, 2002. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Mwanthi, M.A. A safe adequate water supply and basic sanitation.". In: Health for All at The Year 2000: Wishful Thinking or Realistic Goal, 5-7 April 2000, Silver Springs, Nairobi. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2000. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Butere-Mumias district is one of the districts which performs poorly on immunisation coverage, as observed from the Kenya Expanded Programme of Immunisation reports. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that contribute to the low level of immunisation coverage in the district among children under the age of five years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Butere-Mumias district. RESULTS: Out of the 293 mothers who were sampled, 238 (80%) had attained primary level of education while, 55 (20%) attained secondary level and above. Immunisation coverage was found to be 35% in this district. Long distances to health facilities, poor states of the roads, age, attitude and knowledge regarding immunisation among mothers were significant factors that determined immunisation coverage. CONCLUSION: Low levels of education, long distances to the nearest health facilities, lack of knowledge on immunisations and lack of staff were responsible for the low coverage. There is therefore, need to act on these factors which hamper the immunisation coverage in order to reduce child mortality rate which are attributable to non-immunisation.
Alexandra Hiscox, Tobias Homan, Collins K Mweresa, Nicolas Maire, Pasquale AD, Masiga D, Oria PA, Jane Alaii. "Mass mosquito trapping for malaria control in western Kenya: study protocol for a stepped wedge cluster-randomised trial." Trials. 2016;17(1):356.
Alexandra Hiscox, Nicolas Maire, Ibrahim Kiche, Mariabeth Silkey, Tobias Homan, Prisca Oria, Collins Mweresa, Bruno Otieno, Margaret Ayugi, Teun Bousema, Patrick Sawa, Jane Alaii, Thomas Smith, Cees Leeuwis, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Takken W. "The SolarMal Project: innovative mosquito trapping technology for malaria control." Malaria Journal. 2012;11(1):O45 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-S1-O45.
Alexandra Hiscox, Bruno Otieno, Anthony Kibet, Collins K Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Martin Geier, Andreas Rose, Wolfgang R Mukabana, undefined. "Development and optimization of the Suna trap as a tool for mosquito monitoring and control." Malaria journal. 2014;13(1):257.
Alexandra Hiscox, Nicolas Maire IKMSTHPOCMBOM. "The SolarMal Project: innovative mosquito trapping technology for malaria control." Malaria Journal 2012. 2012;11(1):O45 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-S1-O45.
Alexandra Hiscox, Tobias Homan, Corné Vreugdenhil, Bruno Otieno, Anthony Kibet, Collins K Mweresa, Ron van Lammeren, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Takken W. "Spatial heterogeneity of malaria vectors and malaria transmission risk estimated using odour-baited mosquito traps." Malaria journal. 2014;13(S1):P41.
Alfred A, Musembi RJ, Waita SM, Mwabora JM. Effects of Oxygen Partial Pressure and Substrate Temperature on Optical Properties of Sputter Deposited Thin Films. United Kenya Club; 2013. Abstract

The effects of oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperature on optical properties of CuCrO_2 thin films deposited on float glass substrate by reactive DC magnetron sputtering system using CuCr alloy targets have been studied. The sputtering was performed in Argon (Ar) and Oxygen (O_2) atmosphere and the substrate temperature varied up to 263 °C. The optical constants: refractive index, n, extinction coefficient, k, dielectric constant, ε, and absorption coefficient, α, at different oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperatures were determined from measured transmittance and reflectance data fitted in SCOUT software for wavelength range 200-2247 nm. The optical studies gave energy band gap of about 2.47 eV at 0.153 μbar Po2 and 3.7 eV at 263 °C substrate temperature. The values obtained for Urbach energy were 0.27-0.31 eV for samples prepared at Po2 between 0.153-0.187 μbar and 0.81-1.45 eV for those prepared at substrate temperature of 263 °C and as-grown film, respectively.

Alfred Mitema. Genetic Diversity of the Deadly Kenyan Aspergillus flavus Population. Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2019.
Alhasan H, abuaffan A, AM K. "MIH prevalence, pattern and distribution in Sudanese children." BMC Oral Health. 2020;2021, 21:9.(2021, 21:9.):2021, 21:9.
Ali RT, Kunyanga CN, Ngugi K. "In-Vitro protein digestibility, physico-chemical properties and nutritional quality of sorghum-green gram cookies supplemented with mango powder." International Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2021;5(39).
Ali H, Nguta J, Musila F, Ole-Mapenay I, Matara D, Mailu J. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity, Cytotoxicity, and Phytochemical Composition of Ocimum americanum L. (Lamiaceae)." Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2022;2022:11.

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