Musalia, AW, Mutungi A, Gachuno O, Kiarie J.  2010.  Adherence to national guidelines in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. AbstractWebsite

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) contributes to over 90% of the paediatric HIV infections. The national PMTCT guidelines make recommendations for specific interventions to reduce perinatal transmission. Data on adherence to the guidelines by caregivers and quality of PMTCT care is however limited.

To evaluate the extent to which PMTCT care offered to HIV positive women admitted for delivery at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Pumwani Maternity Hospital (PMH) adheres to National Guidelines in order to reduce vertical transmission of HIV during labour and delivery.

A cross-sectional study.

Kenyatta National Hospital and Pumwani Maternity Hospital from January to April 2009.

All consenting HIV positive women admitted to the labour wards at the two facilities and planned for delivery.

A total of 370 women were enrolled, 266 at Pumwani Maternity Hospital and 104 at Kenyatta National Hospital. Among the enrolled women 357 (96.4%) had been counselled on vertical transmission and 205 (55.4%) had HIV disease staging by CD4 cell count. There were no significant differences between the two study sites in the proportion of women counselled on MTCT (p = 0.398) and receiving HIV disease staging by CD4 testing (p = 0.28). Three hundred and forty nine (94.3%) women were offered varied ARV regimens for PMTCT. 101(27.3%) received HAART, 94 (26.9%) were given single dose nevirapine and 130 (37%) received AZT+NVP combination prophylaxis. Twenty one women received no ARV prophylaxis. Overall, 268 women (72.5%) had spontaneous vertex delivery. An episiotomy rate of 7% was observed and no vacuum delivery was recorded. A Caesarean section rate of 27.5% was recorded with PMTCT as an indication in almost half of the cases. Women delivered at KNH were more likely to receive HAART (p < 0.001) and to be delivered by elective caesarean (p < 0.001).

A great majority of HIV positive women admitted for delivery received counseling on vertical transmission and were offered ARVs for PMTCT. Many women did not get CD4 measurement and clinical staging as recommended in the National guidelines.


Mfinanga, GS;, Kimaro GD;, Ngadaya E;, Massawe S;, Mtandu R;, Shayo EH;, Kahwa, A;, Achola O;, Mutungi A;, Knight R;, Armbruster D;, Sintasath D;, Kitua A;, Stanton C.  2009.  Health facility-based Active Management of the Third Stage of Labor: findings from a national survey in Tanzania.. Abstract

Hemorrhage is the leading cause of obstetric mortality. Studies show that Active Management of Third Stage of Labor (AMTSL) reduces Post Partum Hemorrhage (PPH). This study describes the practice of AMTSL and barriers to its effective use in Tanzania. A nationally-representative sample of 251 facility-based vaginal deliveries was observed for the AMTSL practice. Standard Treatment Guidelines (STG), the Essential Drug List and medical and midwifery school curricula were reviewed. Drug availability and storage conditions were reviewed at the central pharmaceutical storage site and pharmacies in the selected facilities. Interviews were conducted with hospital directors, pharmacists and 106 health care providers in 29 hospitals visited. Data were collected between November 10 and December 15, 2005. Correct practice of AMTSL according to the ICM/FIGO definition was observed in 7% of 251 deliveries. When the definition of AMTSL was relaxed to allow administration of the uterotonic drug within three minutes of fetus delivery, the proportion of AMTSL use increased to 17%. The most significant factor contributing to the low rate of AMTSL use was provision of the uterotonic drug after delivery of the placenta. The study also observed potentially-harmful practices in approximately 1/3 of deliveries. Only 9% out of 106 health care providers made correct statements regarding the all three components of AMTSL. The national formulary recommends ergometrine (0.5 mg/IM) or oxytocin (5 IU/IM) on delivery of the anterior shoulder or immediately after the baby is delivered. Most of facilities had satisfactory stores of drugs and supplies. Uterotonic drugs were stored at room temperature in 28% of the facilThe knowledge and practice of AMTSL is very low and STGs are not updated on correct AMTSL practice. The drugs for AMTSL are available and stored at the right conditions in nearly all facilities. All providers used ergometrine for AMTSL instead of oxytocin as recommended by ICM/FIGO. The study also observed harmful practices during delivery. These findings indicate that there is a need for updating the STGs, curricula and training of health providers on AMTSL and monitoring its practice.


KARIMI, DRMUTUNGIALICE.  2005.  Samuel R, Almedom AM, Hagos G, Albin S, Mutungi A. Promotion of handwashing as a measure of quality of care and prevention of hospital-acquired infections in Eritrea: the Keren study. Afr Health Sci. 2005 Mar;5(1):4-13.. Afr Health Sci. 2005 Mar;5(1):4-13.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract

A complex interplay of cognitive, socio-economic and technical factors may determine hand-washing practice among hospital-based health workers, particularly doctors, regardless of the location of the country or hospital they work in. OBJECTIVES: To assess quality of care with respect to handwashing practice as a routine measure of infection prevention in Keren hospital, a provincial referral hospital, second largest in Eritrea; with a view to putting in place quality standards and effective means of monitoring and evaluation. DESIGN: Qualitative study with a participatory and iterative/dynamic design. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were held with 34 members of the hospital staff; and a total of 30 patients in the medical, surgical and obstetric wards were interviewed. Direct observation of handwashing practice and facilities were also employed. RESULTS: Although only 30% of health workers routinely washed their hands between patient contact, the study revealed genuine interest in training and the need to reward good practice in order to motivate health workers. Educational intervention and technical training resulted in significant improvements in health workers' compliance with hospital infection prevention standards. Patient satisfaction with health workers' hygiene practices also improved significantly. CONCLUSION: Hospital-based health workers' handwashing practice needs to improve globally. There is no room for complacency, however, in Eritrea (as indeed in other African countries) where public health services need to keep patients' welfare at heart; particularly with respect to women in childbirth, as mothers continue to bear the lion's share of post-war rebuilding of lives, livelihoods, and the country as a whole.


KARIMI, DRMUTUNGIALICE.  2003.  Weeks AD, Alia G, Ononge S, Mutungi A, Otolorin EO, Mirembe FM. Introducing criteria based audit into Ugandan maternity units. BMJ. 2003 Dec 6;327(7427):1329-31.. BMJ. 2003 Dec 6;327(7427):1329-31.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
PROBLEM: Maternal mortality in Uganda has remained unchanged at 500/100 000 over the past 10 years despite concerted efforts to improve the standard of maternity care. It is especially difficult to improve standards in rural areas, where there is little money for improvements. Furthermore, staff may be isolated, poorly paid, disempowered, lacking in morale, and have few skills to bring about change. DESIGN: Training programme to introduce criteria based audit into rural Uganda. SETTING: Makerere University Medical School, Mulago Hospital (large government teaching hospital in Kampala), and Mpigi District (rural area with 10 small health centres around a district hospital). STRATEGIES FOR CHANGE: Didactic teaching about criteria based audit followed by practical work in own units, with ongoing support and follow up workshops. EFFECTS OF CHANGE: Improvements were seen in many standards of care. Staff showed universal enthusiasm for the training; many staff produced simple, cost-free improvements in their standard of care. LESSONS LEARNT: Teaching of criteria based audit to those providing health care in developing countries can produce low cost improvements in the standards of care. Because the method is simple and can be used to provide improvements even without new funding, it has the potential to produce sustainable and cost effective changes in the standard of health care. Follow up is needed to prevent a waning of enthusiasm with time.


Mutungi, AK, Karanja JG, Kimani VN, Rogo KO, Wango EO.  1999.  Abortion: knowledge and perceptions of adolescents in two districts in Kenya. AbstractWebsite

Pregnancy among adolescents is unplanned in many instances. Although some pregnant adolescents carry the pregnancy to term, abortion, in many instances unsafely induced, is a commonly sought solution in Kenya.
To determine adolescents' perceptions of induced abortion.
A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out between July 1995 and June 1996.
An urban and a rural district in Kenya.
Adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools in Nairobi and Kiambu districts, and a group of immediate post-abortion adolescent girls in some health facilities in Nairobi.
The number of health programmes formulated and put into use, which are adolescent-friendly and providing information, education and communication on abortion issues.
One thousand eight hundred and twenty adolescents were subjected to a self-administered questionnaire that collected demographic and health data as well as perceptions of induced abortion. Focus group discussions on perceptions of abortion were held with 12 groups of adolescents in schools and the information obtained recorded on paper and in a tape-recorder.
One thousand nine hundred and fifty two adolescents, comprising of 1048 school girls (SG), 580 boys (SB), 192 post-abortion girls (PA) and 132 adolescents in the focus group discussions, formed the study sample. More than 90% were aware of induced abortion (IA). Knowledge of IA correlated positively with level of education (P < 0.01). Seventy one per cent of SG, 84% of PA and 40% of SB were aware of abortion-related complications, the most common being infections, death and infertility. Eighty three per cent of PA felt that complications were preventable by seeking care from a qualified doctor compared to one quarter each for the SB and SG. 56% PA, 69% SB and 72% SG felt that abortions were preventable. However, less than 40% proposed abstinence as a primary strategy. The most important source of information on abortion was the media followed by friends and teachers.
Adolescents are aware of abortion and the related complications, but there is more variability in their knowledge and preventive measures.

Mutungi, AK, Wango EO, Rogo KO, Kimani VN, Karanja JG.  1999.  Abortion: behaviour of adolescents in two districts in Kenya. AbstractWebsite

In Kenya the reported high rates of unwanted pregnancies (more than 90%), among adolescents have subsequently resulted in unsafely induced abortions with the associated high morbidity and mortality rates.
To evaluate the adolescents' behaviour regarding induced abortion.
A cross-sectional, prospective study done from July 1995 to June 1996.
Schools and health facilities in Kiambu and Nairobi districts in Kenya.
Interviews were conducted among adolescents aged 10-19 years in schools at the two districts and selected using a multi-stage random sampling procedure, as well as adolescent girls at two hospitals and two clinics in the immediate post-abortion period.
The number of adolescents health programmes, aimed at reducing the dangers of unsafely induced abortion, which are designed and subsequently implemented.
Demographic and health data, as well as data on behaviour regarding induced abortion were collected using a self-administered questionnaire.
The study sample comprised 1820 adolescents. These were 1048 school girls (SG), 580 school boys (SB) and 192 post-abortion (PA). Many adolescents were aware of abortion dangers, with the awareness being significantly lower among the SB whose girlfriends (GF) had aborted than those whose GF had not (p < 0.01). The practice of abortion was reported among 3.4% SG, 9.3% SBs' GF and 100% PA. Direct and indirect costs of abortion were heavy on the girls. Knowledge of the abortion dangers had no influence on the choice of the abortionist. Abortion encounter positively influenced approval by the adolescents, of abortion for pregnant school girls (p < 0.01).
Despite the costs and awareness of abortion dangers by adolescents, they will take risks


Ojwang, SBO, Mutungi AK, Sinei SK, Kigondu CS, Ndavi PM.  1998.  Post Abortive Acceptence Among Post-abortion in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi,Kenya.

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