Bio

PROF. KANYARI PAUL W N

Personal Information

Areas Of Specialization

Veterinary Entomology and Protozoology

Publications


2012

Kanyari.P.W.N, Kagira J.M, MPOJRL.  2012.  Parasitic causes of liver and heart Condemnation and their economic effects in the Lake Victoria Basin. Scientia Parasitologica . 13(4):139-143.
Gachohi, JW, Ng’ang’a JC, Maingi N, Githigia SM, Kanyari PN, Kagira JM.  2012.  Risk factors associated with occurrence of nematodes in free range pigs in Busia District, Kenya.

2011

Kagira, JM, Kanyari PWN, Mhoma JRL.  2011.  The prevalence of gastro-intestinal parasites in goats in urban and peri-urban areas of Mwanza City, Tanzania. Abstract

Gastrointestinal parasites are among the major causes of severe losses to livestock industry worldwide, especially in small ruminants. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats kept by small holders in the urban and peri-urban areas of Mwanza City in Tanzania. Randomly, 36 farmers from urban areas, with a total of 280 goats and 22 farmers from peri-urban areas with a total of 205 goats were identified for sampling. Faecal samples were collected from each goat and direct smears, floatation and sedimentation techniques were employed to identify parasite types. The prevalence of different endoparasites among urban Mwanza City goats was: Fasciola gigantica (4.2%); Strongyles (68%) and Entamoebae (3.2%). In peri-urban Mwanza City the prevalence of parasite infections was: Entamoebae (6.3%); Paramphistomum (7.3%), Strongyle eggs (47.3%) coccidia oocysts (2.4%), F. gigantica (8.2%), and Balantidium coli (4.8%). The present study showed that the prevalences of coccidia and strongyle parasites were significantly (p<0.05) higher in urban compared to peri-urban areas. However, there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the prevalence of other parasites between two areas. The differences observed in the prevalence of aforementioned parasites are partly related to the variance in the animal management systems in the two areas, these being extensive and intensive in the peri-urban and urban areas, respectively. The challenges brought about by the prevalence of these parasites, some being zoonotic in nature validate the need to bring awareness to the farmers and the public in both areas and develop control strategies.

2010

Kanyari, PW, Kagira JM.  2010.  Occurrence of risk factors for zoonoses in kisumu city, kenya: a questionnaire survey. Abstract

Objective: To determine the occurrence of risk factors amongst farmers keeping livestock in Kisumu municipality, Kenya. Methods: Thirty four contact house-holds involved in livestock keeping constituted the study group. The head of the household was interviewed using a structured questionnaire relating to public health issues affecting water, food and sanitation Results: The water consumed at the household level originated from the taps (56%), bore holes (18%), local rivers (15%) and wells (15%). The wells were shallow and open to contamination. Fourty one percent (41%) of the households consumed water without boiling or any other form of treatment. Farmers had a history of slaughtering cattle (79%) and pigs (66%) at their homes and these animals were not inspected by legalized government officers. During the last five years, porcine cysticercosis and taeniosis (9%) were reported to occur amongst the homesteads. Although toilets were found in most homes, some were overflowing (27%), while children below 4 years (mean) of age defaecated in the bushes/grass within the neighbourhood. Most farmers (62%) disposed the manure next to the animal boma resulting in creation of small manure ‗hills‘ that were a nuisance and breeding ground for vector flies. Other risk factors for disease transmission included consumption of unwashed raw food (48%), dried raw fish (21%) and failure to wash cows‘ udder before milking (29%). Conclusion: The study shows that risk factors for transmission of zoonoses are common in house holds keeping livestock in the study area and highlights the need for public health education to raise awareness of these factors. Further studies should be conducted to determine the possibilities of zoonoses occurrences among the human population.

Kanyari, PWN, Kagira JM, Mhoma JRL.  2010.  Prevalence of endoparasites in cattle within urban and peri-urban areas of Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya with special reference to zoonotic potential. Abstract

The growing human population and the tendency to keep livestock in urban settlements in developing countries in particular has caused concern due to the unplanned nature of such developments and the constraints they cause. A study was carried in six sites within Kisumu urban and peri-urban areas, focused on the cattle endoparasites. Feces were sampled from three different age groups for determination of the prevalence and infection levels of various helminths and protozoans, with focus on those with zoonotic potential. Associations and correlations between different variables were determined using computer software. The prevalence of various parasite types was 51% strongyles, 2% Strongyloides papillosus, 2% Toxocara vitulorum, 2% Trichuris spp. Others were Fasciola 64.2%; Paramphistomum 31.3%, Moniezia spp (16%) and Entamoeba 83%; Eimeria spp. 30%; Giardia spp. 14% and Balantidium coli 6.6%. The correlations in prevalence and intensity between age, breed, different parasite types and area of origin are discussed. Strongyles were the most common nematodes especially among the under-one-year olds. Trematodes were significantly more frequent and intense in young stock and adults compared to the calves. Majority of cattle had 2 to 3 parasite types while very few had none, single or multiple infections involving 4 parasite types. The zoonotic potential for these parasites is discussed in relation to the possible human infections.

Mhoma, JRL, Kanyari PWN, Kagira JM.  2010.  The prevalence of helminths, haemoparasites and ectoparasites in cattle in urban and peri-urban areas of Mwanza city, Tanzania. Abstract

Parasitism is among the causes of continuous ill-health and lowered productivity in livestock in Tanzania and sub-Saharan Africa as a whole. The present study was carried out at urban and pre-urban of Mwanza city in Tanzania to determine the prevalence of parasite infection in cattle kept by livestock smallholders. A random sample of 27 urban farmers with a total 175 diary cattle and 29 peri-urban farmers with a total of 283 mainly zebu cattle were selected and faecal, ectoparasites and blood samples were collected from each catlle. Direct smear floatation and sedimentation methods were employed to detect protozoa and helmiths in the faeces while Giemsa stain was used for the identification of haemoparasites. In all areas management system was assesed. The prevalence of different types of helminths, protozoa, haemoparasites and ectoparasites in diary cattle of urban Mwanza city were Strongylid nematodes 12%, Fasciola 5.1% Entomoeba ssp 18.2%, Guardia spp 4.6%, Anaplasma marginale 4.2%, Anaplasma centrale 3.4% and Theilaria piroplasma 2.5% respectively. No ectoparasites were found in urban areas. In the peri-urban areas the parasites found were Strongylid nematodes 28.6%, Fasciola 44.2%, Paramphistomum 6.4%, Entomoeba spp 42.4% Giardia spp 15.2%, Schistosoma bovis 0.35%, Anaplasma marginale 6%, Theileria piroplasms 2.5%. Ectoparasites found were, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus 12.4% Amblyomna variegatum 9.5% and Boophilus decoloratus 4.2%. The difference in the livestock management system in the two areas clearly explains the observed high prevalence of parasite infection in the peri-uban areas compared to the urban areas of city. The negative impact of these parasites on livestock productivity and their public health importance since some of them are zoonotic in nature cannot be overemphasized. The study validates the need to bring awareness to the farmers and the public at large so that they may embark on development of control strategies.

Kagira, JM, Kanyari PW.  2010.  Questionnaire survey on urban and peri-urban livestock farming practices and disease control in Kisumu municipality, Kenya. Abstract

To characterise the urban livestock keeping practices and constraints in Kisumu municipality, Kenya, a questionnaire survey was carried out. Thirty-four contact farmers were interviewed on general farm characteristics and production constraints. The farming activities were categorised as either livestock only (41%), or mixed crops and livestock (59%). The surveyed farmers kept mainly cattle (100%), chickens (82%) and goats (74%). Most (94%) of the farmers had kept livestock for prolonged periods mainly for income generation (97%) and domestic consumption (59%). These data show that livestock keeping was popular and could be harnessed to increase food security, although the farmers kept mainly low-producing indigenous cattle (98%) which were grazed on unutilised land. The main production constraints mentioned by farmers included diseases (100%), poor fertility (68%) and lack of feed (56%). The diseases varied with species of ruminants and included lumpy skin disease (71%), diarrhoea (65%) and helminthosis (62%). The source of advice on management and treatment of the livestock was almost equally from private and government veterinary personnel. To improve livestock productivity, it is recommended that key stakeholders address the constraints mentioned in this study and in particular that the occurrence of diseases should be investigated with a view to developing sustainable control strategies

Kagira, JM, Kanyari PWN.  2010.  The role of veterinary and medical personnel in the control of zoonoses in urban settlements on the shores of Lake Victoria, Kenya. Abstract

Rapid urbanization and livestock keeping in urban and periurban areas especially in the developing countries pose great challenges to the management of human and animal health. The role played by relevant stakeholders in the control of zoonoses in urban areas has not been well evaluated. A questionnaire survey was undertaken in Kisumu municipality, Kenya, to assess the common zoonoses encountered, their management and role played by veterinary and medical personnel in zoonoses control. Fifteen veterinary and nine medical personnel participated in the study. The main zoonoses encountered by the personnel included rabies, brucellosis, hydatidosis, cysticercosis and toxoplasmosis. A significantly (p<0.05) higher number of veterinary than medical personnel reported hydatidosis, cysticercosis and rabies as being more common. The opposite was true for toxoplasmosis. The animals with the highest zoonoses risks according to the veterinary and medical personnel were dogs (71%) and cattle (78%) respectively. There were a significantly higher (p<0.05) proportion of medical (88%) than veterinary personnel (73%) who gave advice to immune-compromised patients regarding the zoonotic risks. Minimal communication existed between the two professions regarding zoonoses occurrence and control. In conclusion, the study found that there were differences on the perception on the occurrence and control of zoonoses in the municipality. It is recommended that an inter-disciplinary approach should be used for the control of zoonoses in the study area.

Kagira, JM, Maingi N, Kanyari PWN, Githigia SM, Ng’ang’a JC, Gachohi JM.  2010.  Seroprevalence of Cysticercus cellulosae and associated risk factors in free-range pigs in Kenya. Abstract

Porcine cysticercosis is an emerging zoonosis with public health and economic importance. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate the disease in free-range pigs on 182 smallholder farms in Busia District, Kenya. The survey households were selected using a snowballing technique. Serum samples were obtained from 284 pigs of all ages at farm level and 37 pigs from slaughter slabs in the study area. The samples were analysed for the presence of cysticercus antigen using an antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A structured questionnaire was administered to determine the risk factors for porcine cysticercosis on the study farms. At pig level, the total number of pigs testing positive were 11, resulting in a seroprevalence of 4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9–6.2%), while the farms with a positive pig were 9% (95% CI: 3.9–14.1%). All pigs examined in the slaughter slab survey were seronegative. The distribution of possible risk factors for porcine cysticercosis that were observed at farm level was as follows: free-range pig keeping (100%), history of human taeniosis infection in a family (51%), slaughtering of pigs at home (20%), lack of meat inspection (15%) and absence of latrines (15%). The only significant (x2 ¼ 4.4, P ¼ 0.034, odds ratio (OR) ¼ 3.8) risk factor associated with the occurrence of cysticercosis was lack of latrines at household level. The study shows that porcine cysticercosis is prevalent in free-range pigs in Busia District, Kenya and thus control measures need to be instituted.

2009

Kanyari, PWN, Kagira JM, Mhoma RJ.  2009.  Prevalence and intensity of endoparasites in small ruminants kept by farmers in Kisumu Municipality, Kenya. Abstract

The keeping of small ruminants is a common practice in most urban and peri-urban areas in Africa, despite its illegality. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of endoparasites in sheep and goats kept by farmers in Kisumu Municipality, Kenya. Faecal samples were collected from 66 sheep and 60 goats, from different areas in the municipality. The helminth and coccidia species were identified and the level of infection compared between age, sex, body condition and area of origin. The prevalence of various types of parasites in sheep and goats were respectively: strongyles 80%, 90%; Strongyloides spp 5%, 13%; Trichuris spp 0%, 2%; Fasciola spp 37%, 36%; Paramphistomum spp 30%, 12%; Moniezia spp 21%, 16%; Coccidia 35%, 48%; Entamoeba spp 87%, 77%; Balantidium coli 2%, 3%; and Giardia spp 10%, 10%. Majority of animals excreted either 2 or 3 parasite types, while only a few sheep had 4 different parasite types. A relatively higher number of animals had heavy infections with strongyles (mean EPGs of 1253 and 1108 in sheep and goats, respectively), while for other helminths and coccidia most animals had light infections. Although the adults had higher levels of infections with trematodes, young animals had higher infections of the other types of parasites. Apart from trematodes and coccidia, male animals had higher prevalence and intensity of the other parasites. Sheep with poor body condition were significantly associated with higher mean EPGs of strongyles while in goats it was Moniezia spp. The association between the prevalence and intensity of the parasites and the independent factors are discussed. The occurrence of parasites with zoonotic significance (Fasciola spp, Entamoeba spp, Balantidium coli, and Giardia spp) is also discussed in the light of livestock farming in urban areas.

2006

Ng'ang'a, CJ, Maingi N, Kanyari PWN, Munyua WK.  2006.  Seasonal patterns of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep in a semi-arid Kajiado District of Kenya. Abstract

The seasonal patterns of trichostrongylid nematode infections in Dorper yearlings in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District, Kenya were investigated by analysis faecal egg output, herbage infectivity and post-mortem worm recovery. Rectal faecal samples from 60 animals as well as herbage samples from their grazing fields were collected at three weeks intervals between May 1999 and December 2001. Fecal egg counts and herbage larval counts closely followed the rainfall distribution pattern. Major peaks in egg output occurred between December and August as a result of increased pasture infectivity and minor peaks between September and November following maturation of hypobiotic larvae of Haemonchus. Self-cure occurred in August/ September and November/ December. From September 2000 to July 2001, post-mortem worm counts conducted on 24 yearlings permanently on pastures during the dry and wet seasons showed mixed infections where Trichostrongylus, Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum occurred in 91.7%, Cooperia in 83.3%, Trichuris and Strongyloides in 4.1% of the animals. Adult and immature worms co-existed in proportions that varied with seasons, where Haemonchus survived the dry season mainly as hypobiotic larvae and Trichostrongylus species as an adult worm population. The mean wet season worm counts in both seasons were considered moderate, usually associated with sub-clinical helminthosis and decreased productivity. There is need, therefore, to control such infections in sheep within the study area in order to achieve higher productivity.

2005

Kanyari, PW, Wandaka FK.  2005.  A Qualitative Risk Assessment of Kenya for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) for Purposes of Exportation of Cooked Pork Frankfurters to USA. Abstract

Kenya like other developing countries requires foreign exchange to meet the many challenges facing it and relies heavily on agriculture for this. The pig population in Kenya constitutes 5% of livestock contributing less than 1.0% Agricultural domestic product. The pig industry provides employment and supplies pork and pork products to the tourist sector, exports to other African countries, Middle East- Bahrain & South Arabia. Export to the world markets is encouraged and to this end, Farmer\'s Choice a private company produces and processes pork and its products for both domestic and export markets. Therefore, in order to comply with the World Trade Organization [WTO] Sanitary Phytosanitary [SPS] regulations, this Risk Analysis was conducted in response in order to assure USDA-APHIS and FSIS that export of smoked and cooked pork frankfurters from Kenya will not introduce Foot and Mouth Disease [FMD] to USA. The risk factors considered were: Authority, structure/Organization and infrastructure of Kenya's Veterinary Services; Policy, Law and Infrastructure of Disease Control; Disease outbreak history and prevalence status; Diagnostic Laboratory capabilities; Active disease control Programmes; Surveillance: Type and extent; Vaccination Status. Livestock Demographics and Marketing practices; Disease outbreak history and Prevalence in adjacent regions; Control of the movement of animals from regions of high risk. A critical analysis of all the risk factors determined that, the likelihood of infected meat from a pig carcass being exported to the United States was minimal. Further, it is prudent to conclude that, pork frankfurters processed through the Farmers Choice farms and facilities and exported to the United States pose minimal risk.

N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2005.  The Kenya Veterinarian Vol 28: 6-10.[2005] Some Causes of Poor performance and chick mortality in farmed ostriches in Alabama[USA] and Kenya. P.W.N Kanyari1, T.A. Ngatia1, P.M. Mathiu1, A. Oyejide2, K.K. Srivastava2. 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Unive. East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Commercial ratite farming is rapidly becoming a desirable alternative source of profitable meat production among small holder farmers. However, ratite ranching particularly ostrich production is severely constrained by a very high chick mortality rate(up to 40%). To help rural farmers including those in the developed countries such as United States gain a successful foothold in this potentially lucrative farming enterprise, the causes of chick mortality must be identified and controlled. The present collaborative study was designed to characterize and compare disease causes of mortality in chicks in small holder ratite farms in Macon and adjoining Counties of Alabama and some selected localities in Kenya between 1997 and 2000, a four-year period. The study established that, in both Alabama[USA] and Kenya, ostrich farmers incur losses of considerable magnitude from a wide range of causes, some of which could not be established. Losses are experienced right from the embryonic stages whereby embryos may develop poorly causing death before hatching. In USA, hatchability was 72% while in Kenya, hatchability was 56% on average. In Kenya, a high mortality rate in the early weeks of life (<3 weeks) [27-40%] was noted. Pathogens isolated at post-mortem from inflamed tissues and septic yolk sacs were mainly common bacteria such as Enterobacter sp; Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus sp, Streptococcus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Corynebacterium sp. and Clostridium sp. Other causes of death were impaction, dehydration, generalized oedema, joint infection and non-specific peritonitis. Limb deformities constituted the main cause of culling among chicks. Histopathological lesions were observed in virtually all organs examined including abdominal, thoracic and even the brain tissue. Lesions associated with circulatory disturbances were common. Bacteriological analysis of feeds in Kenya showed that bacterial contamination of feed was quite possibly a cause of infections and especially fish meals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2005.  The Kenya Veterinarian Vol 28: 11-15.[2005] Oedema(exudative diathesis) in Ostriches in Kenya. T.A. Ngatia1, P.W.N Kanyari1, P.M. Mathiu1, P.M. Gathumbi,1, K.K. Srivastava2. Wilson, S.T.2 , A. Oyejide2 . 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nair. East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.

2004

N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2004.  NG. East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2004.  NG. East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2004.  NG. East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2004.  T.A. NGATIA, P.W.N. KANYARI, P.M. MATHIU, K.K. SRIVASTAVA, S.T. WILSON and A. OYEJIDE. (2004). Post-mortem Observations on Ostrich Chicks in a Commercial Farm in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 52:59-62. East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2004.  G.O. MATETE, P.W.N. KANYARI, T.A. NGATIA, D.P. KARIUKI and S.G. NDUNG. East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2004.  NG. East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.

2003

N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2003.  J.M. KAGIRA, R.M. WARUIRU, W.K. MUNYUA. and P.W.N. KANYARI. ( 2003). Resistance to anthelmintics in commercial pig herds in Thika District, Kenya. Israel Journal of 20 Veterinary Medicine 58(1): 31-36. East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2003.  J. G. KAGIRA, P. W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, and R.M. WARUIRU (2003). "The control of parasitic nematodes in commercial piggeries in Kenya reflected by a questionnaire survey on management practices". Tropical Animal Health and Production. 35: 79-84. East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.

2002

Donnelly, TM, Srivastava KK, Oyejide A, Kanyari PW, Ngatia TA, Mbaabu-Mathiu P.  2002.  Oozing ostrich egg: omphalitis caused by Enterobacter sp..
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2002.  J. M. KAGIRA, P. W. N. KANYARI ( 2002). An analysis of intensity of nematode infections in commercial pig farms in Thika District.. Annual Scientific Meeting of the Kenya Veterinary Association Held at Kakamega; April 2002. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2002.  J.M. KAGIRA, R.M. WARUIRU, W.K. MUNYUA, P.W.N. KANYARI (2002). Anthelmintic resistance survey in commercial pig herds in Thika District, Kenya.. 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI. 11th - 15th November, Nairobi.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2002.  T.A. NGATIA, P.W.N. KANYARI, M. MATHIU and A. OYEJIDE. (2004). Some post-mortem observations on unhatched ostrich embryos in a selected locality in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian, 26: 55-58. East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2002.  TYLOR, W.D., SRIVASTAVA, K.K., OYEJIDE, A., KANYARI, P.W.N., NGATIA T.A., MBAABU- MATHIU, P. ( 2002). Evaluation of causes of chick mortality in small holder ostrich farms in Alabama. School of Veterinary Medicine Annual Symposium,. Kellog's Conference Centre, Alabama USA March 6th to 9th.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2002.  P.W.N. KANYARI, A. OYEJIDE, J. ALAK, D. ANDERSON, S.T. WILSON and K.K. SRIVASTAVA ( 2002). "Cryptosporidium parvum: experimental transmission in murine hosts". Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 57(2): 70 - 75. East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2002.  J. G. KAGIRA, P. W. N. KANYARI ( 2002). " The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in commercial chicken. East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2002.  J.G. KAGIRA, P. W. N. KANYARI, W.K. MUNYUA, and R.M. WARUIRU (2002). "The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in commercial pig farms in Thika District, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 50: 1-11. East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2002.  K. SRIVASTVA, A. OYEJIDE, P.W.N. KANYARI, T.A. NGATIA, P. MBAABU-MATHIU ( 2002). " What is your diagnosis? Oozing ostrich egg". Lab Animal 31:23-24 East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.

2001

N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2001.  P.W.N. KANYARI, Weda E. and Otieno, R. ( 2001). Use of medicated urea molasses blocks [ MUMB] to control gastro-intestinal nematodosis in calves in a semi-arid environment. The 10th International Conference of the Association for Tropical Veterinary Medicine [ AITVM]. 20th - 23rd August, Copenhagen, Denmark.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2001.  P.W.N. KANYARI, et. al. ( 2001). Cryptosporidiosis: Transplacental Transmission in Immunosuppressed mice and Possible Relation to AIDS in Humans.. The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2001.  P. W. N. KANYARI ( 2001). "Efficacy of alphamethrin (Dominex. 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI. 11th - 15th November, Nairobi.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2001.  J.M. KAGIRA, R.M. WARUIRU, W.K. MUNYUA. and P.W.N. KANYARI (2001). Worm control practices and 19 implications for the development of anthelmintic resistance on commercial pig herds in Thika District, Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Afri. 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI. 11th - 15th November, Nairobi.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2001.  J. G. KAGIRA and P. W. N. KANYARI, ( 2001). " The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in small ruminants in a high potential area of Central Kenya". Journal of South African Veterinary Association, 72 (3): 147 - 149.. 8th Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI. 11th - 15th November, Nairobi.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.

2000

N, PROFKANYARIPAULW.  2000.  P. W. N. KANYARI and J.G. KAGIRA ( 2000). "The role of parasitic diseases as causes of mortality in cattle in a high potential area of Kenya: A quantitative analysis". Ondersterpoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 67:157 - 161.. The 18th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology [WAAVP], 26th - 30th August , Stresa, Italy.. : Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.

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