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Prof. Anna Kagure Karani

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Submitted

2013, PMK; PS; LM-V; JK; AKADEK &.  Submitted.  Missed Opportunities for early HIV Diagnosis: Critical insights from the stories of Kenyan women living with HIV. International Journal of health Promotionand Education. (10/3/2013)
KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe, Mr. Johannes Njagi, Njoka ,Media Resources in Medical Education: Critical issues and factors to consider in instructional media development in the training of health professionals. African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. : Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka Abstract

 Media resources are critical component in teaching and learning process. Studies indicate that media resources provide the substitute for direct learning experiences during instruction and enable educators to present the learners with the requisite experience necessary for the acquisition of appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes.The researchers set out to explore the philosophical, psychological and educational basis that provides guidelines on the development of media resources in the effective education and training of health professionals. Methodology was a historical critique of information from books, journals,magazines and internet on media resources in Medical education.  The findings indicate that the process of media resources development and administration is highly creative venture according to Mason (1977).plan, prepare, present, preview and follow up activities after use of equipment. Therefore educators must be able to demonstrate these issues when developing and administering them. 

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  Clinical competence of Nursing Graduates in Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. : 1. Margaret Njambi Chege, Ephantus W. Kabiru, Anna Karani and Anseline Derese Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  Ms Grace Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege THE ROLE OF CLINICAL PLACEMENT ON KRCHN GRADUATES PERFORMANCE IN THE NCK REGISTRATION EXAMINATION. Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. : Ms Grace Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege Abstract

The study sought to establish the factors affecting the diploma graduates performance in the Nursing registration examination. Necessitated by poor performance recorded in recent years, this study was aimed at seeking to establish the reasons why. This was a descriptive study. Quantitative data was collected using self-administered semi structured questionnaires from 75 KRCHN graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital. The study areas were purposively selected and the study subjects selected through simple random sampling. Qualitative data was collected using a study from lecturers

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  Prof. Anna K. Karani RE - DISCOVERING THE CHRISTIAN NURSE. Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. : Prof. Anna K. Karani Abstract

The old nurse was there during the colonial  era. They were trained mainly by missionaries who were Christians. Therefore, they had the discipline and the Christian foundation principles. The joy of a Christian institution like Kijabe is that it still has that foundation. So all is not lost. We have to make sure that the lost PASSION, LOVE & CARE are back in the nursing profession. We have to restore that passion. That idea or feeling

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  Ms Grace Wangechi Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege IMPACT OF STUDENTS AND TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS ON PERFORMANCE OF DIPLOMA NURSE GRADUATES. Kenya Nursing Journal June, Vol. 39(1) 57-61. : Ms Grace Wangechi Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege Abstract

Necessitated by poor performance recorded in recent years, this descriptive study sought to establish the impact of students and teacher characteristics on performance in the Nursing registration examination. The study combined both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative data was collected using self-administered semi structured questionnaires from 75 KRCHN graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital. The study areas were purposively selected and the study subjects selected through simple random sampling. Qualitative data was collected using a study guide from lecturers

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  Ms Gichigi Esther, Prof. Anna Karani Dr Margaret Chege . Kenya Nursing Journal June, Vol. 39(1) 57-61. : Ms Gichigi Esther, Prof. Anna Karani Dr Margaret Chege Abstract

Mentorship programs are offered to support students in program completion, confidence building and transitioning to further education or the work force. However mentoring relationships have been faced by challenges such as inadequate knowledge and negative attitude. This study aimed at evaluating knowledge, attitude and perceived benefits on mentorship among the nursing students in Kenyan universities. The study was conducted in September, 2009.  A descriptive cross sectional survey  used both qualitative and quantitative methods to gather information. The study participants were students from University of Nairobi (U.O.N) and Kenya Methodist University (K.E.M.U). A sample of 188 students was selected from a total population of 403 in both universities. The data were coded, entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Presentation of data was done in form of descriptive statistics, frequency distribution and graphs. Pearsons chi square tests were used to compare the two groups. The tests level of significance was set at 5%. Results showed that there was a significance difference between mentorship programmes in the two institutions ( χ 2= 17.02,  d.f=1 , p < 0.001)           . Fourty four (72%) of the students at K.E.M.U felt that the program had positive impact on students

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  Prof. Anna Karani Facing Today. Paper presented at Safari Park Hotel STTI Conference on 3rd July, 2010. : Prof. Anna K. Karani Abstract

A leader is one who has the  Vision to see, Faith to believe, Will to learn, Humility to serve, Courage to do, Resilience to rise up in times of knock downs. What  is leadership? The ability to get things done through people.  What challenges have you encountered in leadership as you work? How have you overcome these challenges? What sets you apart from everybody else? What is it that you do differently from the nurse of to-day? It is your leadership. The way you do things for the community you serve. The commitment to serve selflessly. The way you are disciplined. It is not just money.  We all want to learn how to become more effective leaders in providing health care to the  community. We have to prepare for many challenges with the advanced technology, rapid development, and fast changing health systems, emerging diseases, rising poverty, hard economic times, changing social systems, Education , political , environment, climate among many others that affect the communities we serve. Facing Today

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  : PERCEPTION OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING (BScN) ON THEIR ROLE ON NURSING IN A HOSPITAL SETTING Prof. Anna K. Karani University of Nairobi, Stephen Kainga,(MScN) University of Nairobi Prof. Simon Kangethe Moi University. Diana Mwarania BScN (graduate. Kenya Nursing Journal: Dec. KNJ Vol. 41(2) 23-33. : Impress Communications Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the clinical Competence of Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital in March 2011. The objective was to assess the perceptions of graduate nurses about the nursing profession and the implications on the development of BScN undergraduates from the University of Nairobi and other Universities with a view to improving their perception about the profession  through continuing education and curriculum review. It was a cross sectional study with a sample size of 50 nurses, total population selected on purpose. A supervised questionnaire and focus group discussion tools were used for data collection.  The findings indicated that majority of the Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  Utrasound findings; Their Importance and their Nursing and Medical Education Implication- The Case of Ectopic Pregnancies.. Kenya Nursing Journal, 38 (1) 55-59. : Dr. Onditi Elias G.D, Prof. Anna K. Karani & Prof. Simon Kangethe Abstract

Background: Utrasound  technology continues advancing in techniques and diagnosis. It remains a field of specialists where nurses and other health workers are uneducated on it. Objectives: Determine pattern of ultrasound findings in ectopic pregnancy, involvement of nursing staff, determine medical education implications.Design: Retrospective, prospective and on-going study over 8 year period. Focus group discussions with nursing and medical education analysts. Setting: Memorial Hospital Eldoret, Kenya.Participants - 81 patients with ectopic pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasound.Results: Age range 19-39 years - 34.6% Unruptured ectopic pregnancy - 44.5%, Ruptured 43.2%, chronic leaking 2.3%.Conclusion: Ultrasound aids diagnosis and can grade type of pregnancy. Need to demystify science to nurses, clinical officers and other health workers.Recommendation: Medical education to include ultrasound to existing curriculaspecifying roles by health workers. Use participatory teaching methods for ultrasound technology. 

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  Dr. Peninnah M. Kako, Prof. Anna K. Karani, Prof.Patricia E. Stevens Reactions to HIV Diagnosis from Women Living with HIV in Kenya. Paper presented at Safari Park Hotel STTI Conference on 3rd July, 2010. : Dr.Peninnah M.Kako, Prof. Anna K. Karani, Prof.Patricia E. Stevens Abstract

Background: HIV prevalence in Kenya stands at 7.8%, with women being most affected with infection rates being 2-3 times higher than that of their male counterparts.  Studies that focus on health needs of HIV-infected women in Kenya are needed and necessary. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of the reactions of 40 urban and rural HIV-infected Kenyan women to HIV diagnosis. Methods: Narrative inquiry principles were employed to guide this qualitative cross-sectional study. We conducted in-depth interviews using open-ended questions in April and May 2006.  Findings: Participants

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  Challenges in Accessing HIV-related Healthcare in Resource Limited Communities: Lessons from HIV-infected Women in Kenya.. Kenya Nursing Journal, 38(1) 24-31.. : Dr. Peninnah M. Kako,Univ.W1; Prof. Anna K. Karani,UoN & Prof. Patricia E. Stevens, Univ.W1 Abstract

 Background: Increasing access to HIV-related health care is very important in access resource limited countries. In Kenya HIV prevalence increased in 2008 to 7.8 from 6.7 in 2003. Women are mostly affected with infection rates 2-3 times more than men. Challenges women face attempting to access HIV care is urgent.Purpose: Study sought to identify health needs of HIV infected women in Kenya grapple with.Method: Forty Urban (Nairobi) and rural (Eastern Province) infected women participated in the study. A cross sectional qualitative narrative study eilicited life stories of health needs. Unstructured in-depth interviews,tape recorded, transcribed and translated to English. Data analysis used N-vivo qualitative analysis soft ware. Multistage narrative analysis was used to explore emergent themes.Findings: Women of mean age 37 years and 3 years since diagnosis described prolonged illnesses sufferred by spouses, themselves and children burdened by inadequate HIV care.Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment Interventions are necessary for wellbeing and long life.

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  S. Kangethe, A. Karani, J. Njagi, E Kamaara, C, Syallow, J.M. Ole Kiu, Mengich, Gladys. ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS . KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. : Impress Communications Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Pediatricians, for example spend most of their time catering to the needs of children, while nurses, pharmacists and dentists in their own areas. Medical Educators, however, spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  Prof. Anna K. Karani ; Stephen Kainga; Prof. Simon Kangethe; Diana Mwarania - PERCEPTION OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING (BScN) ON THEIR ROLE ON NURSING IN A HOSPITAL SETTING.. KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. : Impress Communications Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the clinical Competence of Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital in March 2011. The objective was to assess the perceptions of graduate nurses about the nursing profession and the implications on the development of BScN undergraduates from the University of Nairobi and other Universities with a view to improving their perception about the profession  through continuing education and curriculum review. It was a cross sectional study with a sample size of 50 nurses, total population selected on purpose. A supervised questionnaire and focus group discussion tools were used for data collection.  The findings indicated that majority of the Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  Nyangena, E., Mutema, A. & Karani, A. Evaluation of clinical training in nursing in Kenya.. Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal - Dec. 2011 1(2) 22-30. : Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal Abstract

 The  research evaluated clinical training provided by the academic institutions that offer Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) program. The purpose of the study was to describe the adequacy of clinical training and the graduates preparedness for nursing practice. The study was conducted from Sept. 2008 to March 2010. Design was cross sectional using questionnaires and focus group interviews (FGI) methods to collect data. The sample comprised of 232 subjects including pre-service BScN graduates and nursing supervisors at four teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya. Results revealed that clinical training provided by academic institutions was adequate but quality of training varied widely among the training institutions. The conclusion was that clinical training provided by BScN programs in Kenya was of high quality. The study recommends that urgent attention was required by nurse educators to address identified gaps in clinical training especially clinical instruction and supervision.   

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  S. Kangethe, A. Karani, J. Njagi, E Kamaara, C, Syallow, J.M. Ole Kiu, Mengich, Gladys. ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS . KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. : Impress Communications Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Pediatricians, for example spend most of their time catering to the needs of children, while nurses, pharmacists and dentists in their own areas. Medical Educators, however, spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS . Kenya Nursing Journal - KNJ Vol. 41(2) 65-67. : Impress Communications Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Medical Educators,  spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  Ms Emma Matheka, Prof. Anna Karani, Mr. L.P.Oteba, Mr. M.F. Otieno, Prof. Simon Kangehte THE ROLE OF HORMONAL CONTRACEPTIVES IN HIV INFECTION AMONG ANTENATAL MOTHERS IN MACHAKOS DISTRICT HOSPITAL. Kenya Nursing Journal, vol. 40:1: 6-13. : Ms Emma Matheka, Prof. Anna Karani, Mr. L.P.Oteba, Mr. M.F. Otieno, Prof. Simon Kangehte Abstract

This study was done at Machakos District Hospital in the Eastern province of Kenya between May and August 2007.Aim was to find out the role of hormonal contraceptives in HIV infection among antennal mothers. Analytical cross- sectional study design was used. Methodology. The sample size consisted of 144 antenatal mothers visiting the MCH clinic for PMTCT services among other services. The simple random sampling technique included every 8th antenatal mother visiting the PMTCT clinic who had no history of consisted condom use. All antenatal mothers who had not used condoms consistedly both contraceptive and non-contraceptive users who fell in the sampling frame acted as study subjects. This was on condition that they consented to participate in the study. A self

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  1. Naruse Kazuko, Tashiro Junko, Sankyo Yumi, Ichikawa Wakako, Karani Anna Stakeholders. Annual Scientific Conference of National Nurses Association of Kenya on 5th - 7th October, 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College in Nyeri, Kenya.. : Blackwell Publishing Co. Abstract

After the World Health Assembly approved WHA 45.5 in 1992 addressing the nursing shortage by refocusing nurses and midwifes to meet community health needs, community demands for educated nurses and the needs of higher nursing education in developing countries increased.  Therefore in Kenyan a major university school of nursing initiated a collaborative study with a well established Japanese nursing college to determine the service-providers

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  Ms Chore Jane Njambi; Prof. Anna Karani Dr. Margaret Chege. Assessment of Challenges Facing Preceptors at Kenyatta National Hospital Specialized Units. Kenya Nursing Journal, vol. 40:1: 6-13. : Impress Communication Printers and Stationers Abstract

The main aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to assess challenges faced by preceptors at Kenyatta National Hospital specialized units. The study was conducted among preceptors with more than one year experience at Kenyatta National Hospital specialized units and combined both quantitative and qualitative methods. Data was collected using a self administered semi-structured questionnaire distributed to 113 randomly sampled preceptor nurses and an interview guide was used to collect qualitative data from five unit managers. The data was coded, computed and analyzed by SPSS version 17 (qualitative data was analyzed manually).Commonly reported challenges by preceptors included; heavy patient workload 85.71%, lack of adequate resources 59.52% and a high number of students attached to a preceptor 59.52%. Chi square was used to establish relationships between variables. Motivation to serve as a preceptor was strongly associated with the number of years a participant had served as a nurse. (X=11.30; p=0.01).

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  Prof. Karani Anna : NURSE. Annual Scientific Conference of National Nurses Association of Kenya on 5th - 7th October, 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College in Nyeri, Kenya.. : National Nurses Association of Kenya Abstract

Authentic Leadership focus on impact of integrity so that leadership is better prepared to face the toughest challenges, inspire transparency and trust. It requires building in mind the customers served. Behaviour change is essential for long term growth and it avoids peripheral vision. Focused leadership identifies the missing link, addresses priority issues and information that is accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, simple, timely, and verifiable. Nurses have a purpose, a destiny and need to accomplish things. They are trained to make a difference in peoples

KAGURE, PROFKARANIANNE.  Submitted.  NURSE. Annual Scientific Conference on 5th-7th Oct. 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College - Nyeri, Kenya. : National Nurses Association of Kenya Abstract

 Prof. Anna Karani on - Authentic Leadership focus on impact of integrity so that leadership is better prepared to face the toughest challenges, inspire transparency and trust. It requires building in mind the customers served. Behaviour change is essential for long term growth and it avoids peripheral vision. Focused leadership identifies the missing link, addresses priority issues and information that is accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, simple, timely, and verifiable. Nurses have a purpose, a destiny and need to accomplish things. They are trained to make a difference in peoples

2017

Gitonga, P, Karani A, Kimani S.  2017.  Explore Best Practices in Family Nursing in Kenya: Empathy as a Value in Caring. http://www.opastonline.com/journal-of-nursing-healthcare/. 2(2):1/4.

2016

Gervasioh, GP, Kagure KA, Samuel K.  2016.  “ Physiological Basis of Empathy and Emotionality in Nursing Practice”. . International Journal for Innovation Education and Research -Research www.ijier.net . 5(7 ):2016.

2015

Muchira, J, Stuart-Shor E, Kariuki J, Mukuna A, Ndigirigi I, Gakage L, Mutuma V, Karani A.  2015.  Distribution and Characteristics of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular-Metabolic Disease in a Rural Kenyan Community. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. Available online 21 September 2015.. 21(8/2015)
Kyalo, M, Karani A, Kigondu C.  2015.  Research Utilization among Nurses at a Teaching Hospital in Kenya” Journal of Caring Sciences,. doi:10.15171/jcs.2015.010 http:// journals.tbzmed.ac.ir/ JCS. 4(2):95-104.

2014

Kipturgo, MK, Kivuti-Bitok LW, Karani AK, Muiva MM.  2014.  Attitudes of nursing staff towards computerisation: a case of two hospitals in Nairobi, Kenya., 2014 Apr 29. BMC medical informatics and decision making. 14:35. Abstract

The health sector is faced with constant changes as new approaches to tackle illnesses are unveiled through research. Information, communication and technology have greatly transformed healthcare practice the world over. Nursing is continually exposed to a variety of changes. Variables including age, educational level, years worked in nursing, computer knowledge and experience have been found to influence the attitudes of nurses towards computerisation. The purpose of the study was to determine the attitudes of nurses towards the use of computers and the factors that influence these attitudes.

Gervasioh, PG, Gatere R, Karani A.  2014.  Professional Ethics Among Nurse Educators in Diploma Nursing Training Colleges, Meru County. University of Nairobi. International Journal of Health Professions (IJHP) . 2 (1):49–52.
Priscilla, N, Karani A, Waithera M.  2014.  Reciprocal Relationship between Cancer Pain and Performance of Activities of Living.. International Journal of Health Professions (IJHP) . 2(1):53–57.
M.Mwamisi, J, F.O B, Karan A, Kangathe S, Muthwii S.  2014.  A Comparative Approach to Different Methods for Determining Readerbility in Science and Medical Education and Textbooks: Strengths and Weaknesses and most Preferred Methodology /Strategy and Why. . International Journal of Health Professions (IJHP). 2(1):23–26.
9. Lucy W. Macharia, Anna Karani, EO.  2014.  Quality Structures and Processes in the prevention on Secondary Traumtic Brain Injury at Accident Emergency and Critical Care Unit in Kenyatta National Hospital. International Journal of Health Professions (IJHP). 1 (1) (38):38–44.

2013

Karani, A, Kigondu C, Karani A.  2013.  Research Activities in teaching and referral Hospital in a Developing Country, Kenya. International Journal of Health Professions (IJHP). 1(1):21-24.

2012

Stuart-Shor, EM, Kariuki JK, Chateauneuf J, Kimani S, Karani AK.  2012.  PCNA Annual Symposium Abstracts. Abstract

Global risk assessment has become an important part of comprehensive CV evaluation and guides treatment. Most global risk tools require laboratory measurement of lipids, a test not readily available in resource-constrained countries. The Gaziano Risk Score (GRS) is a non-lab based model which includes age, gender, diabetes, smoking, systolic BP and substitutes BMI for cholesterol. In comparative effectiveness analysis the GRS has similar predictive value compared to the Framingham score. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to add risk stratification using clinical estimations of the number of CV risk factors (CVRF) and the GRS to our community-based CV screenings.

S, K, A K, J N, E K, C S, J.M OK, Mengich G.  2012.  Roles Of Medical Educators In The Advancement Of Health Professions. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Pediatricians, for example spend most of their time catering to the needs of children, while nurses, pharmacists and dentists in their own areas. Medical Educators, however, spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

J.;Ganga-Limando, CKMSMM; K.  2012.  Descriptive Characteristics of Psychoactive Substance Dependent Patients in Nairobi,Kenya. Kenya Nursing Journal. 42 (1)(June, 2012):1-4.
A., NMKE; A;.  2012.  Performance of Bachelor of Science in Nursing Graduates in Nursing Practice in Kenya. Kenya Nursing Journal. 41 (1)(December, 2012):9-15.
A., KSPE;KAK;LMV;BPM;.  2012.  Grappling With HIV Transmission Risks: Narratives of Rural Women in Eastern Kenya Living with HIV . Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. 23 (5)(Sept/Oct. 2012):442-453.

2011

De Vuyst, H, Parisi MR, Karani A, Mandaliya K, Muchiri L, Vaccarella S, Temmerman M, Franceschi S, Lillo F.  2011.  The prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Mombasa, Kenya. Abstract

A human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence survey was done in Mombasa, Kenya, to improve the knowledge of HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in sub-Saharan African countries overall, and in women of different ages. METHODS: HPV prevalence was assessed using PCR in women older than 15 years attending family planning and mother-child care services. RESULTS: Among 496 women, HPV prevalence was high (42.3%; 95% CI: 37.9-46.8; world age-standardized). Moreover, 46% of HPV-positive women harbored multiple-type infections. The most common types were HPV58 (10.5% of women), HPV16 (7.7%), HPV53 (6.7%), HPV18 (4.6%), and HPV6 (4.4%), and the prevalence of any high-risk HPV type was 28.8%. HPV prevalence was elevated among all age-groups (range 36.4-45.7%). Independent associations with HPV positivity were found for being in a polygamous marriage (OR = 1.7) and lifetime number of sexual partners (OR for ≥ 3 vs. 1 = 1.5), although they were of only borderline statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: These findings differ from other world regions, showing a high HPV burden in all age-groups with a high proportion of multiple-type infections. Our data strengthen the urgency of HPV vaccination in Kenya but also highlight the elevated number of women who would have positive results in an HPV-based screening program in the country.

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