Publications


2010

  2010.  Short term clinical outcome of children with rotavirus infection at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Abstract

Rotavirus infection is the single most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. Rotavirus gastroenteritis has a high morbidity and mortality in children in Kenya. To determine the short term clinical outcome for children admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis and the correlates of poor outcome. Short longitudinal survey. Kenyatta National Hospital from February to May 2008. Five hundred children were screened using a rapid antigen detection kit and ELISA. Of the 191 children who tested positive for rotavirus in stool; 172 children were recruited into the study. Eighty eight per cent of the patients were discharged within one week, 8.1% stayed for more than seven days while 4.1% died. Children who had co-morbidities such as malnutrition, rickets and pneumonia had worse outcomes. Rotavirus gastroenteritis has a long hospital stay and a high mortality. Children in shock on admission and those with co-morbid conditions should get priority for they have a poor outcome

2005

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  2005.  F.M Thuita, R K Mwadime, JK Wang. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 82, No 4, pp 209-215, 2005. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.

2004

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  2004.  Joseph Wang. University of Nairobi Press, Chapter 22, pp 371- 383, 2004. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  2004.  Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe, Bejamin Nganda and Octavian Gakuru, Financing Medical Care Through Insurance: Results from a Facility and Household Survey in Kenya, in Improving Health Policy in Africa, Ed. Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang. University of Nairobi Press, Chapter 12, pp 181-195, 2004.. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  2004.  Rachel Gesami, Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe and Aloys Ayako, The Effects of Cost-Sharing on Health Services Utilization in Kenya: Evidence from Panel Data, in Improving Health Policy in Africa, Ed. Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang. University of Nairobi Press, Chapter 8, pp 133-143, 2004.. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  2004.  Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe, Benjamin Nganda, The demand for medical care in Kenya: An application of quantile regression, in Improving Health Policy inAfrica, Ed. Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang. University of Nairobi Press, Chapter 7, pp 121-132, 2004.. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  2004.  Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe and Tania Zaman, Linking Research to Health Policy, in Improving Health Policy in Africa, Ed. Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang. University of Nairobi Press, Chapter3, pp 43-54. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  2004.  Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe and Tania Zaman, Introduction, to Improving Health Policy in Africa, Ed. Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang. University of Nairobi Press, Chapter 1, pp 1-12, 2004.. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.

2003

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  2003.  Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang. African Development Bank, Vol 15, No 2/3, 2003 pp 439-543.. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  2003.  B Nganda, J Wang. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 7(9), 2003, pp 14 - 20. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.

2002

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  2002.  Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe, Benjamin Nganda and Octavian Gakuru, Financing Medical care through insurance: Policy lessons from Household-and Community-Level Analysis in Kenya, in African Development Review, African Development Bank, Vol. 14, No 1, 20. African Development Bank, Vol. 14, No 1, 2002, pp 75-97. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.

1998

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1998.  Joseph K. Wang. Consultancy report presented to the Health Sector Support Programme, Ministry of Health, Kenya, Nov. 1998.. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.

1997

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1997.  Germano Mwabu & Joseph Wang. Population Research and Policy review, 17, 1998, pp55-70,. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1997.  Urban Environment and City Health Crisis in Kenya, Planning and Resource allocation Question, in Environment and Development, Public Lecture Series, Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, 1997, pp 112-126. Public Lecture Series, Kenya National Academy of Sciences, Nairobi, 1997, pp 112-126. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1997.  Germano Mwabu and Joseph Wang'ombe, Health Services pricing reform in Kenya, in International Journal of Social Economics, Vol 24, No 1/2/3, 1997, pp 282-293. International Journal of Social Economics, Vol 24, No 1/2/3, 1997, pp 282-293. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1997.  Cost Recovery Strategies, The Sub-Saharan Africa Experience, in Innovations in Health Care Financing, Proceedings of a World Bank Conference, Washington DC, March 1997.. Sustainable Health Care Conference, World Bank/EDI, USAID/REDSO/ECA, Nairobi, February 1997. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1997.  Sustainable Financing and the Non-Governmental Delivery of Health Care in Sub-Sahara Africa: An overview, Presented at the Sustainable Health Care Conference, World Bank/EDI, USAID/REDSO/ECA, Nairobi, February 1997. Sustainable Health Care Conference, World Bank/EDI, USAID/REDSO/ECA, Nairobi, February 1997. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.

1996

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1996.  Mathew Roberts, Joseph Wang'ombe, Steven Forsythe; Business Responses to HIV/AIDS in the African Formal Sector Workplace: Findings of a Kenya Needs Assessment; in AIDS IN KENYA; Social Economic Impact and Policy Implications, Family Health International, . Family Health International, 1996. Chapter 6, pp 87-110. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1996.  Germano Mwabu and Joseph Wang'ombe,Black Market Trade: An Example from a rural hospital in Kenya,1996 Applied Economics Letters, 3, pp 213- 215.. Applied Economics Letters, 3, pp 213- 215.. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.

1995

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1995.  Assessing business responses to HIV / AIDS in Kenya. Roberts M, Wangombe J. AIDS STD Health Promot Exch. 1995;(2):13-5.. AIDS STD Health Promot Exch. 1995;(2):13-5.. : SITE Abstract
PIP: A consulting firm conducted interviews with managers of 16 businesses in 3 Kenyan cities, representatives of 2 trade unions, focus groups with workers at 13 companies, and an analysis of financial/labor data from 4 companies. It then did a needs assessment. The business types were light industry, manufacturing companies, tourism organizations, transport firms, agro-industrial and plantation businesses, and the service industry. Only one company followed all the workplace policy principles recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. Six businesses required all applicants and/or employees to undergo HIV testing. All their managers claimed that they would not discriminate against HIV-infected workers. Many workers thought that they would be fired if they were–or were suspected to be–HIV positive. Lack of a non-discrimination policy brings about worker mistrust of management. 11 companies had some type of HIV/AIDS education program. All the programs generated positive feedback. The main reasons for not providing HIV/AIDS education for the remaining 5 companies were: no employee requests, fears that it would be taboo, and assumptions that workers could receive adequate information elsewhere. More than 90% of all companies distributed condoms. 60% offered sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. About 33% offered counseling. Four companies provided volunteer HIV testing. Almost 50% of companies received financial or other external support for their programs. Most managers thought AIDS to be a problem mainly with manual staff and not with professional staff. Almost all businesses offered some medical benefits. The future impact of HIV/AIDS would be $90/employee/year (by 2005, $260) due to health care costs, absenteeism, retraining, and burial benefits. The annual costs of a comprehensive workplace HIV/AIDS prevention program varied from $18 to $54/worker at one company.
K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1995.  Wang'ombe JK.Public Health Crises of Cities in Developing Countries, Soc. Sc. & Med. Vol. 41, No. 6, 1995, pp 857-862. Soc. Sc. & Med. Vol. 41, No. 6, 1995, pp 857-862. : SITE Abstract
During the decade and a half after Alma Ata hundreds of projects were started in developing countries to implement the principles of PHC and start community based health care programs in the rural areas of developing countries. Until the past five years urban health was not seen as a special health problem. Population pressure in the rural areas has created shortages of land, food and employment opportunities. These forces have generated major population movements to the urban centres. The population movements have encouraged unprecedented expansion of urban centres. This sudden concentration of large populations in small geographical areas has resulted in the urban health crises of the developing world. The poor who live in the slum areas have no access to adequate health services, they experience frequent epidemics of communicable diseases like cholera, they live within a heavily polluted environment, and their children have very poor health because they are not immunized and are malnourished. The paper agrees with approaches which have been championed by development agencies to address the urban health crises. These approaches propose the reorientation of urban health systems to include adoption of PHC for urban health programs, intersectoral collaboration and extra budgetary support. The paper argues for further strengthening of the reorientation approach by adjusting the development planning model. It is proposed that the urban plan be integrated into the national development plan so that emerging urban health crises can receive special attention in resource allocation.
K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1995.  The Permanent Project syndrome: A counter productive consequence of philanthropy Soc. Sc. & Med., Vol. 41, No.5, 1995, pp 604-605. Soc. Sc. & Med., Vol. 41, No.5, 1995, pp 604-605. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.
K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1995.  Germano Mwabu and Joseph Wang'ombe,Health Services Pricing Reforms in Kenya: 1989-93, Working Paper Series, International Health Policy Program, Washington D.C., February 1995.. International Health Policy Program, Washington D.C., February 1995. : SITE Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between maternal factors and child nutritional status among children aged 6-36 months. DESIGN: Cross sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Urban slum settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: This study included a random sample of 369 households of mothers with children aged 6-36 months at the time of the study. RESULTS: Maternal factors which showed a positive significant association with at least one of the three child nutritional status indicators (height for age, weight for age and weight for height) were birth spacing, parity, maternal education level and mothers marital status. Child spacing and parity emerged as the most important predictors of stunting among study children. Maternal nutritional status was also shown to be positively associated with child nutritional status. Maternal ill health had a negative effect on child nutritional status. CONCLUSION: Maternal factors are an underlying cause of childhood malnutrition.

1994

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1994.  Health Insurance in Kenya: A case study, by Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe, Gerishon Ikiara, Lawrence Muthami, Mutsembi Manundu, Dr. Simon Kiugu, ABT ASS, Washington, Consultancy report, August 1994. AIDS STD Health Promot Exch. 1995;(2):13-5.. : SITE Abstract
PIP: A consulting firm conducted interviews with managers of 16 businesses in 3 Kenyan cities, representatives of 2 trade unions, focus groups with workers at 13 companies, and an analysis of financial/labor data from 4 companies. It then did a needs assessment. The business types were light industry, manufacturing companies, tourism organizations, transport firms, agro-industrial and plantation businesses, and the service industry. Only one company followed all the workplace policy principles recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. Six businesses required all applicants and/or employees to undergo HIV testing. All their managers claimed that they would not discriminate against HIV-infected workers. Many workers thought that they would be fired if they were–or were suspected to be–HIV positive. Lack of a non-discrimination policy brings about worker mistrust of management. 11 companies had some type of HIV/AIDS education program. All the programs generated positive feedback. The main reasons for not providing HIV/AIDS education for the remaining 5 companies were: no employee requests, fears that it would be taboo, and assumptions that workers could receive adequate information elsewhere. More than 90% of all companies distributed condoms. 60% offered sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. About 33% offered counseling. Four companies provided volunteer HIV testing. Almost 50% of companies received financial or other external support for their programs. Most managers thought AIDS to be a problem mainly with manual staff and not with professional staff. Almost all businesses offered some medical benefits. The future impact of HIV/AIDS would be $90/employee/year (by 2005, $260) due to health care costs, absenteeism, retraining, and burial benefits. The annual costs of a comprehensive workplace HIV/AIDS prevention program varied from $18 to $54/worker at one company.

1993

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1993.  Financing and Sustainability of FP Programs: Kenya Case Study, Consultancy Report submitted to UNFPA-Nairobi, May 1993.. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.. : SITE Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1993.  Wang'ombe JK, Mwabu GM.Agricultural Land Use Patterns and Malaria Conditions in Kenya, Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.. : SITE Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

1992

Ohito, FA, Opinya GN, Wang'ombe J.  1992.  Traumatic dental injuries in normal and handicapped children in Nairobi, Kenya. Abstract

Two thousand, seven hundred and ninety one normal and handicapped children aged 5-15 years were examined for traumatic dental injuries. Twelve percent had traumatised teeth while three percent had soft tissue injuries. More handicapped children (18%) than normal children (11%) had injuries. This study indicates that children need to be educated on preventive measures regarding traumatic dental injuries.

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1992.  Health Care Financing in Kenya: Policy Issues and Potential for Social Financing, in Proceedings of The First Social Science and Medicine Africa Network International Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, Aug 1992, SOMA-Net, 1993, pp 209.. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.. : SITE Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1992.  Ohito F A, Opinya G N, Wang. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.. : SITE Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

1991

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1991.  Health Services Pricing Reforms and Health Care demand in Kenya, June 1989 to March 1991, Paper Presented at the Fourth Annual Meeting of the International Health Policy Program, Nyon, Switzerland, November 1991.. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.. : SITE Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1991.  Book Review: Estimating costs for cost effectiveness analysis: guidelines for managers of diarrhoeal diseases, CDD-WHO, Geneva, 1988, appearing on Health Policy and Planning: A Journal In Health in Development, Vol. 6 #1, March 1991.. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.. : SITE Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1991.  Essential National Health Research in Kenya: A situational Analysis, Germano Mwabu, Dr. Simon Kiugu, Joseph Wang'ombe, Francis Mworia, Prepared for Ministry of Health and Ministry of Research Science and Technology, April 1991.. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.. : SITE Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

1990

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1990.  Cost-Effective Provision of Non-Clinical Services in a Government District Hospital in Kenya, Paper presented at the Third Annual Meeting of the International Health Policy Program, Washington DC, 8-14 Oct. 1990.. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.. : SITE Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1990.  Utilization of Maternal and Child Health Services: Results from two Rural Community Surveys in Kenya, Joseph K. Wang'ombe, Violet Kimani, Germano Mwabu, paper presented at the Technical Workshop on Demand Studies, International Health Policy Program, Lago. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.. : SITE Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

1989

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1989.  Cost-Sharing: Issues Relating to the Financing of Health Services in Kenya, in Report of Proceedings of the workshop on COST-SHARING IN KENYA, UNICEF, Kenya Country Office, Nairobi, April 1989.. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.. : SITE Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1989.  Financial information at district level: experience from five countries, (with others) Health Policy and Planning, Volume 4, 3 September 1989, pp 207.. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.. : SITE Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1989.  Demand For Health Services in Rural Kenya, Germano M. Mwabu, Joseph K. Wang'ombe, and Violet Kimani, Paper presented at the Second Annual Meeting of Participants to the International Health Policy Program, Manila, Philippines, July/August 1989.. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.. : SITE Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

1988

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1988.  Choice Between The Human Capital Approach and Willingness To Pay Approach in Evaluation of Primary Health Care Programmes -A Kenyan Example, in Economics, Health and Tropical Diseases, ed. A.N. Herrin, P.L. Rosenfield, University of the Philippines, Schoo. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.. : SITE Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

1987

K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1987.  Wang'ombe JK, Mwabu GM. Economics of essential drug schemes : The perspectives of Developing countries, Soc Sci Med. 1987;25(6):625-30.. Soc Sci Med. 1987;25(6):625-30.. : SITE Abstract
Essential drug schemes in the Third World countries face many problems. These include dependency on imported drugs in the face of chronic shortages of foreign exchange, inadequate manpower and technical capability for selection and procurement of drugs, competition between generic and brand drugs, weak local drug procurement and distribution systems and inability to commence local manufacturing even in situations where there may exist comparative advantage. Many of these problems relate to each other and are compounded by the domination of the pharmaceutical industry by multinational firms. Third World countries are in a very weak position in the international pharmaceutical industry. It is suggested that the essential drug situation would improve in Third World countries if certain strategies and policies were adopted. These include: intensification of personnel training in pharmaceuticals, deliberate use of generic drugs rather than brand name drugs, the involvement of the public sector in the procurement and distribution of drugs, buying drugs in bulk, changing drug prescription and consumption practices through continuous education, changing or instituting regulations to guard against unfavourable patents and commencing domestic production of essential drugs where this is not in conflict with the principle of comparative advantage.
K., PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH.  1987.  Agricultural and Land Use Patterns in Relation to Changing Malaria Conditions in Kenya (with Germano M. Mwabu), Paper presented at the WHO/TDR Meeting on Social Economic Determinants and Consequences of Malaria and its Control under Changing Conditions, S. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.. : SITE Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

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