Bio

Dr.julius Okello

Dr Okello joined the Department of Agricultural Economics as a Tutorial Fellow in 1995.  He obtained his PhD from Michigan State University, USA, in 2005 where he did a major in International Agricultural Development and a minor in Agricultural markets and marketing and Resource and Environmental Economics.  He obtained his MSc in Agricultural Economics from the University of Nairobi in 1994 and a BSc in Agriculture in 1991 from the same University.  Dr Okello is currently a Senior Lecturer at the Department where he teaches and su

Publications


Submitted

2013

Okello, JJ;, Ofwona-Adera, Edith; Mbatia, L.E; O, Okello RM.  2013.  Using ICT to Integrate Smallholder Farmers into Agricultural Value Chain: The Case of DrumNet Project in Kenya. AbstractWebsite

This article examines an ICT-based intervention (known as the DrumNet project) that has succeeded in integrating smallholder-resource and poor farmers into a higher value agricultural chain. The article assesses the design of the project, and how it resolves the smallholder farmers’ idiosyncratic market failures and examines member-farmers’ marketing margins. The article finds that the design of the DrumNet project resolves smallholder farmers’ credit, insurance and information market failures and enables them to overcome organizational failure. The article concludes that successful ICT-based interventions for integrating farmers into higher value agricultural value chains require an integrated approach to tackling smallholder farmers’ constraints. The findings have implications for the design of future ICT-based interventions in agriculture.

2012

Okello, JJ;, Lagervisk CJ;, Ngigi M;, Karanja N.  2012.  Role of Farmers’ Personal Values in Soil Fertility Management Decisions: Evidence from Means-End Chain Analysis of Peri-urban Leafy Vegetable Production in Kenya. Abstract

Peri-urban areas play a major role in the supply of vegetables consumed in urban areas. In order to meet high demand for aesthetic quality characteristics, peri-urban farmers use intensive production practices characterized by use external inputs. This paper uses Means-End Chain analysis approach to examine the role farmers’ personal values play in the decision to use soil fertility improvement inputs namely, animal manures (organic fertilizer) and inorganic fertilizers. It found that use of animal manures and inorganic fertilizers was driven by the need to earn higher profit margins thus making more money in order to meet family needs. This in turn met farmers’ personal values relating to, among others, happiness, leading a comfortable life, independence and healthy life. The major implication of these findings was that farmers’ private goals could, with the urging of the market that demands unique aesthetic quality characteristics, promote intensive applications of both the organic and inorganic inputs with potential negative environmental consequences.

Kirui, OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA.  2012.  Impact of Mobile Phone-based Money Transfer Services in Agriculture: Evidence from Kenya. Abstract

The recent introduction of mobile phone-based money transfer (MMT) services in developing countries has generated a lot of interest among development partners. It facilitates transfer of money in a quick and cost effective way. It also offers an easy and secure platform for small savings to majority of rural populations with no access to formal financial services. However, the impact of MMT services on smallholder agriculture has not been documented. This study therefore contributes to pioneering literature on the impact of MMT, especially in agriculture. It provides information regarding financial intermediation to the excluded through the use of new generation Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools especially the mobile phone. The study employs propensity score matching technique to examine the impact of MMT services on household agricultural input use, agricultural commercialization and farm incomes among farm households in Kenya. It uses cross-sectional data collected from 379 multi-stage randomly selected households in Central, Western and Nyanza provinces of Kenya. The study found that use of MMT services significantly increased level of annual household input use by $42, household agricultural commercialization by 37% and household annual income by $224. We conclude that MMT services in rural areas help to resolve an idiosyncratic market failure that farmers face; access to financial services. We therefore recommend that other developing countries should follow the Kenyan model and provide an enabling environment that would facilitate entry and survival of MMT initiatives.

Mensah, ER;, Karantininis K;, Adégbidi A;, Okello JJ.  2012.  Determinants of Commitment to Agricultural Cooperatives: Cashew Nuts Farmers in Benin. Abstract

Forming and using cooperatives as marketing channel is usually advised to African smallholder farmers for overcoming the constraint of market access. However, limited evidence of cooperative behavior in marketing has been observed. In this paper, we estimate a two-stage model of commitment to cooperatives by cashew nut farmers in Benin, West Africa. In the first stage, we use data on 109 non-members and 168 members and estimate a binary Logit model of farmer’s discrete choice with respect to committing to membership. In the second stage, we use the members’ data to estimate a Tobit model of the proportion of produce delivered to the cooperative, after controlling for the endogeneity of the proportion of presales. Empirical results reveal that the commitment to membership depends on the assessment of prices offered by the marketing channels, the farmer’s preferences for the specific attributes of the channels, the total farm size, and some psycho-sociological factors; the commitment to business depends on prices and transaction costs in the channels. Our findings call cooperatives for improving commitment by considering the subjective and economic reasoning of the farmers, and setting formal contracts between members and their organization.

Okello, JJ, Kirui OK, Gitonga Z.  2012.  A Triple Hurdle Analysis of the Use of Electronic-Based Agricultural Market Information Services: The Case of Smallholder Farmers in Kenya. Abstract

Smallholder farmers’ access to markets has traditionally been constrained by lack of market information. The need to facilitate farmers’ access to markets has seen the emergence of many projects that employ electronic tools in the provision of market information services (MIS). This study used a triple hurdle analysis to examine the factors influencing farmer awareness of electronic based (e-based) MIS projects, the decision by smallholder farmers in Kenya to participate in such projects and the use of services they provide. It finds that the drivers of awareness, decision to participate in e-based projects and use of the use of e-based MIS various farmer, farm and location-specific characteristics as well as endowments with physical, financial, human, and social capital. It specifically finds that education, distance to market, membership to farmer organizations, household income and cell phone ownership affect both the decision to participate in e-based projects and the use of MIS services such projects offer. The study concludes that transaction costs and social, financial and human capital endowments play an important role in smallholder farmer participation in e-based projects and the use of e-based MIS. The study discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2012.  Bacteria contamination of Kale (Brassica Oleracea Acephala) along the value chain in Nairobi and its environs. Eastern Africa Medical Journal. : The Kenya Medical Association Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2012.  Drivers of use of information and communication services by farm households: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Science. : The Kenya Medical Association Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2012.  The role of varietal crops in the adoption of improved dryland crop varieties. African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. : The Kenya Medical Association Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2012.  Anchored vs. relative best-worst scaling and latent class vs. hierarchical Bayesian analysis of best-worst choice data: Investigating the importance of food quality attributes in a developing country. Food Quality and Preference. : The Kenya Medical Association Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2012.  Means-end chain approach to understanding farmers. Crop Protection. : The Kenya Medical Association Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2012.  Awareness of Mobile Phone-Based Money Transfer Services in Agriculture by Smallholder Farmers in Kenya. International Journal of ICT Research and Development in Africa. : The Kenya Medical Association Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2012.  Choice of fresh vegetable retail outlets by developing-country urban consumers: The case of kale consumers in Nairobi, Kenya. European Journal of Development Research. : The Kenya Medical Association Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2012.  The role of Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) in the attainment of household food security in Kenya: A policy and organization review. Food Security. : The Kenya Medical Association Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.

2011

Lagerkvist, Carl Johan; Hess, Hess, Sebastian; Ngigi MOJJW;, Ngigi MW;, Okello JJ.  2011.  Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Food Safety in Nairobi: The Case of Fresh Vegetables. Abstract

Large urban areas in developing countries represent currently the most dynamically growing markets for food products. This study investigates the willingness to pay of consumers in Nairobi for safer leafy vegetables. We survey individuals’ perceived food safety across four major market categories, while also considering the explanatory role of trust and behavioral, psychological, and socio-demographic covariates. Results show that willingness to pay is market-specific and multi-faceted, with trust and perceived risks as important drivers, while income plays only a subordinate role. We conclude that policy makers should aim to reduce asymmetric information within the value chain without raising food prices such that safer vegetables would become unaffordable for the poor.

Otieno, Z, Okello JJ, Nyikal R, Mwang'ombe AW, Clavel D.  2011.  The role of varietal traits in the adoption of improved dryland crop varieties: The case of pigeon pea in Kenya. Abstract

This study uses a multivariate probit model and the Poisson regression to examine the role of varietal attributes in farmers’ adoption of improved pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) varieties in Taita District, Kenya. It is based on data collected from 200 households stratified by adoption of improved pigeon pea varieties between April and May 2009. The study finds correlation in the decisions made by farmers to adopt different varieties, implying that using simple probit analysis could yield biased and inefficient results. The results further indicate that the major pigeon pea varietal traits driving rapid adoption are drought tolerance, pest tolerance, yield, ease of cooking, taste and price. Early maturity, a major focus of recent research, has no effect on farmers’ adoption decisions. These findings imply that developers of improved crop varieties should pay attention to consumption and market characteristics in addition to production traits to increase technology uptake and satisfy farmers’ multiple needs.

Okello, JJ.  2011.  Use of information and communication tools and services by rural grain traders: The case of Kenyan maize traders. Abstract

Poor access to agricultural market information is a major factor constraining the performance of agricultural markets in developing countries. The search for new strategies for resolving this constraint has led to several ICT-based market information service (MIS) projects in developing countries. At the same time, the rapid penetration of new generation ICT tools (especially mobile phones) has resulted in wider application of these tools in agriculture. This paper examines the use of ICT tools and ICT-based services by rural grain traders in Kenya. It is based on data collected from 204 traders in Western and Rift Valley regions of Kenya. The study finds widespread use of ICT tools by grain traders. It also finds that the tools are used by grain traders to obtain market information, including information on price, volume, and where to source and sell grains, among others. The implications of these findings are that market development agents must focus on removing constraints limiting the use of ICT tools in rural areas. Spurring greater use of ICT tools has the potential to reduce transaction costs and improve the performance of rural agricultural markets.

J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2011.  International food safety standards and the use of pesticides in fresh export vegetable production in developing countries: Implications for farmer health and the environment. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. : INTECH Publishers Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2011.  Stimulating smallholder investment in sustainable land management: Overcoming market, policy and institutional challenges. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. : 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2011.  Effect of social capital on performance of smallholder producer organizations in western Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. : 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2011.  The role of ICT-based market information services in spatial food market integration: The case of Malawi Agricultural Commodity Exchange. International Journal of ICT Research and Development in Africa. : 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2011.  Urban consumers. International Journal of Business and Social Science. : 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2011.  . Factors influencing awareness and use of ICT-based market information services for farming business in Malawi. International Journal of Economic Research. : 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2011.  Challenges facing smallholder farmers. International Journal of Economic Research. : 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS, J MROKELLOJULIUS.  2011.  The role of collective action in overcoming the challenges of European food safety standards: The case of Kenya. Agricultural Science Research Journal. : 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2011.  Export standards, market institutions and smallholder farmer exclusion from fresh export vegetable high value chains: Experiences from Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia. Journal of Agricultural Sciences. : 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2011.  Choice of fresh vegetable retail outlets by developing-country urban consumers: The case of kale consumers in Nairobi, Kenya. European Journal of Development Research. : 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
J, MROKELLOJULIUS.  2011.  Export standards, market institutions and smallholder farmer exclusion from fresh export vegetable high value chains: Experiences from Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia. Journal of Agricultural Sceince. : Julius J. Okello Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.

2010

Okello, J.J; Gitonga, MOARZ; J; R.  2010.  Value chain analysis of the Kenyan poultry industry: The case of Kiambu, Kilifi, Vihiga, and Nakuru Districts. Abstract

The Kenyan poultry industry is characterized by dualism, comprised of both smallholder and large-scale poultry producers. The industry is characterized by two main production systems namely (i) the commercial hybrid poultry production system and (ii) the indigenous poultry production system. This study examines the poultry industry in Kenya with the aim of identifying the actors, assessing poultry and poultry product flows, and highlighting some of the policies and regulations relevant to potential outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Kenya. Specific aims included: i) Characterizing the structure of the value chain; ii) Assessing the relative importance of specific flows of poultry and poultry products; iii) Identifying the various actors involved in the poultry trade and their linkages; iv) Providing insights on potential pathways of HPAI introduction in the value chain The study was conducted in Kikuyu and Ndeiya Divisions in Kiambu District, Vihiga and Sabatia Divisions in Vihiga District, Nakuru and Rongai Divisions of Nakuru District, and Kikambala and Ganze Divisions of Kilifi District. The study areas were selected based on their relative density of poultry populations. A value chain approach was employed that entailed the use of semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with various stakeholders including hatcheries, farmers, input sellers, processors, retailers and other intermediaries in four different value chains: commercial broilers, commercial layers/eggs, indigenous chicken, and guinea fowl/ducks.

Okello, JJ, Al-Hassan R, Okello RM.  2010.  A framework for analyzing the role of ICT on agricultural commercialization and household food security. Abstract

Lack of agricultural information has been attributed to the inability of smallholder farmers to transition from subsistence to commercial agriculture. Recent efforts to improve smallholder access to agricultural information have seen increased application of ICT technologies in developing agriculture. These efforts use ICT-based market information to reduce transaction costs of smallholder participation in markets, promote commercialization, and improve household food security. Emerging studies document the benefits of such ICT-based applications in agriculture, including increased incomes and improved performance of agricultural markets. Unfortunately these studies have been context specific and the link between provision of ICT-based market information, smallholder commercialization and household security remains unclear. This paper develops a framework that can be used to analyze the link between ICT application in smallholder agriculture, household commercialization, and food security. The paper generates testable hypotheses relating ICT application in agriculture and reduction in transactions costs, smallholder farmer commercialization, and household food security. It then provides illustrative cases where ICT application in agriculture has benefited smallholder production and improved market performance. However, more research must be done to test the generated hypotheses. The paper discusses the implications of the framework for practitioners.

Julius Juma, O.  2010.  Does use of ICT-based market information services (MIS) improve welfare of smallholder farm households: Evidence from Kenya. Abstract

The need to provide agricultural information to farmers has led to emergence of numerous ICT-based MIS projects in developing country. These projects aim at promoting commercialization of smallholder agriculture and subsequently their welfare. This study examines the welfare effects of one such project in western Kenya. It uses household food security and access to medical health services as proxies of welfare. The study finds that farmers that use ICT-based market information are more food secure and have better access to medical health services than their counterpart. It highlights policy implications of these findings.

Ondieki-Mwaura, FN;, Njoroge LM;, Okello JJ;, Bahemuka JM.  2010.  Can Smallholders Continue To Effectively Participate In Global Commodity Chains? The Case Of French Bean Production In Kirinyaga Region Of Kenya Abstract

The participation of smallholders in global commodity chains such as export horticulture has often been characterised as problematic given the high transaction costs that these farmers face. The involvement of small holders in Kenya’s export sector has therefore been hailed as an exception rather than the rule success story especially given the fact that it has developed largely under the private sector. However, changes in certain standards in export markets such food safety standards have posed a threat to these farmers’ participation. For example, there is increasing evidence that exporters of fresh produce prefer to work with larger farmers or even engage in production rather than work with small farmers. If smallholders are going to continue participating in export horticulture value chains, they will have to among other things develop and participate in institutional arrangements that reduce the increasing transaction costs brought about by international food safety standards. This study aims to describe the various institutional arrangements that small farmers use to participate in export horticulture and the challenges and constraints they face within these arrangements. In addition, it will determine factors that affect farmers’ choice of alternative institutional arrangements that exist. A survey of 240 farmers was carried out in Kirinyaga to obtain household data and 4 focus group discussions were held in each of the four districts in Kirinyaga. The case study methodology was used to gather in-depth information on the key institutional arrangements used by farmers. The study found that the most dominant institutional arrangements were selling individually to brokers, followed by selling as part of a group to an exporter. Some farmers were involved in more than one arrangement perhaps as a strategy to overcome the inherent disadvantages found in some arrangements.

Kirui, OK;, Okello JJ;, Nyikal RA.  2010.  Awareness and use of m-banking services in agriculture: The case of smallholder farmers in Kenya. Abstract

Smallholder farmer access to agricultural finance has been a major constraint to agricultural commercialization in developing countries. The ICT revolution in Africa has however brought an opportunity to ease this constraint. The mobile phone-based banking services that started in Kenya urban centers have spread to rural areas and even other countries. Using these services farmers could receive funds invest in agriculture finance transactions. This study examines the awareness and use of m-banking services among rural farmers in Kenya. It also assesses the factors conditioning the use of such services. The study finds high awareness of m-banking services among the smallholder farmers. It also finds that education, distance to a commercial bank, membership to farmer organizations, distance to the m-banking agents, and endowment with physical and financial assets affect the use of m-banking services. It discusses the implications of these findings for policy and practice.

Ngigi, MW;, Okello JJ;, Lagarkvist C;, Karanja N, Mburu J.  2010.  Assessment of developing-country urban consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of leafy vegetables: The case of middle and high income consumers in Nairobi, Kenya. Abstract

The improvement in income in developing countries has led to emergence of middle and high income consumers in urban centers. Improvement in income usually causes the shift to consumption of non-staples including leafy vegetables. Thus in major developing country urban centers there has been rapid expansion of the grocery sections featuring leafy vegetables in leading retail stores. Specialty stores have also emerged featuring broad range vegetables. Many middle and high income consumers shop these stores. This study examines the willing of the middle and high income consumers who shop specialized stores to pay for quality of leafy vegetables and drivers of willingness to pay for quality. The study uses contingent valuation and the payment card method in eliciting consumers’ WTP. It considers a broad range of quality attributes including safety, nutrition, environmental friendliness, hygiene in handling. The study finds that mean willingness to pay for quality is higher among high income consumers (>60%). It also finds that income, age of children the consumer has, access to information of food safety are among the significant drivers of kale consumers’ willingness to pay for quality of kales. The study concludes that there is demand for quality of leafy vegetables and discusses policy implications.

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