Publications

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2013
Mwangi JW, Rode C, Colditz F, Haase C, Braun HP, Winkelmann T. "Proteomic and histological analyses of endosperm development in Cyclamen persicum as a basis for optimization of somatic embryogenesis.". 2013. Abstract

The endosperm plays an important role for the development of zygotic embryos, while somatic embryos lack a seed coat and endosperm and often show physiological disorders. This study aims at elucidating the cellular and physiological processes within the endosperm of the ornamental species Cyclamen persicum Mill. Histological analyses were performed from 0 to 11 weeks after pollination (WAP). At 3WAP, a syncytium was clearly visible with a globular zygotic embryo. From 4WAP, cellularization of the endosperm, at 5WAP a small torpedo shaped embryo, and from 7WAP cell expansion was observed. By 11WAP the endosperm appeared fully differentiated. Total soluble proteins were extracted from the endosperm at 4, 5, 7, 9 and 11WAP and resolved using two dimensional isoelectric focussing/sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D IEF/SDS-PAGE). A shift from high-molecular-mass proteins to low-molecular-mass proteins during endosperm development was observed. A total of 1137proteinspots/gel were detected in the three protein fractions extracted at 7, 9 and 11WAP. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 48 predominant protein spots in endosperm at 7, 9 and 11WAP resulted in the identification of 62 proteins, ten of which were described for the first time in Cyclamen. Additionally, 186 proteins were identified using the C. persicum embryo proteome reference map. Proteins involved in abscisic acid signalling and oxidative stress responsive proteins were found to be important for seed development in Cyclamen. The new insights into endosperm physiology including storage compounds are discussed.

2012
Mitei K, Bulimo W, Achilla R, Majanja J, Mwangi J, Njiri J, Wurapa E. "A review of laboratory-confirmed cases of human parainfluenza viruses in Kenya (2007-2011).". 2012.
2011
Njogu PM, Thoithi, G.N., J.W. M, et al. "Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae)." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2011;14 (3):89-94.
2010
J.S. D, M.P. Z, A.G. L, H.R. R, J.A. Z, J.W. M, et al. "Essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L and Ocimum gratissimum L from Kenya and their inhibitory effects on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium veritcilliodes. ." Innovative Food Science and emerging Technologies . 2010;11(2):410-414.
2009
Mukundan L, Odegaard JI, Morel CR, Heredia JE, Mwangi JW, Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Goh YP, Eagle AR, Dunn SE, Awakuni JU, Nguyen KD, Steinman L, Michie SA, Chawla A. "PPAR-delta senses and orchestrates clearance of apoptotic cells to promote tolerance.". 2009. Abstract

Macrophages rapidly engulf apoptotic cells to limit the release of noxious cellular contents and to restrict autoimmune responses against self antigens. Although factors participating in recognition and engulfment of apoptotic cells have been identified, the transcriptional basis for the sensing and the silent disposal of apoptotic cells is unknown. Here we show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta) is induced when macrophages engulf apoptotic cells and functions as a transcriptional sensor of dying cells. Genetic deletion of PPAR-delta decreases expression of opsonins such as complement component-1qb (C1qb), resulting in impairment of apoptotic cell clearance and reduction in anti-inflammatory cytokine production. This increases autoantibody production and predisposes global and macrophage-specific Ppard(-/-) mice to autoimmune kidney disease, a phenotype resembling the human disease systemic lupus erythematosus. Thus, PPAR-delta has a pivotal role in orchestrating the timely disposal of apoptotic cells by macrophages, ensuring that tolerance to self is maintained.

Ongarora DSB, Thoithi GN, Kamau FN, Abuga KO, Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO. "Triterpenoids From the Stem Bark of Blighia unijugata Bak. (Sapindaceae).". 2009. Abstract

Two pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated, for the first time, from the stem bark of Blighia unijugata Bak. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data as friedelin and epifriedelinol.

2008
Smith DH, Wanyama L, Abinya A, Mbwabi D, Asenti A, Mwangi J, Reardon MJ, Chumo DA, Wellde BT. "Presenting features of Rhodosian sleeping sickness patients in the Lambwe Vallel in Kenya.". 2008. Abstract

During a recent outbreak of Rhodesian sleeping sickness in the Lambwe Valley no asymptomatic Rhodesian sleeping sickness patients were found although 54% of the primary patients had mild symptoms and 9% were stuporous or comatose at presentation. The duration of symptoms was three months or less in 90% of the patients. Headache, weakness, joint and back pains and weight loss were claimed by at least 75% of the patients, while 82% of the females reported amenorrhoea and 70% of the males claimed impotency. Physical examination revealed lymphadenopathy in 86% but fever in only 36% of the patients, while chancres were found in only 16%. Patients had significantly lower levels of haemoglobin and thrombocytes than controls and their erythrocyte sedimentation rates were elevated. A comparison of both blood group and haemoglobin type between patients and controls yielded no significant differences. Fifty-seven per cent of the primary patients reporting mild symptoms had abnormal levels of leucocytes in their CSF. All relapse patients had abnormal CSF parameters. Levels of serum urea nitrogen were significantly elevated in patients, but SGOT, SGPT and total bilirubin were not. Levels of albumin and beta-globulin in patients were significantly lower than controls while gamma-globulin was elevated. Mean serum IgM levels in patients were elevated to nearly three-fold those of controls, but 35% of the individual patient values fell within the 95% range of control values. Some patients had extended prothrombin and thrombin times while fibrinogen levels were significantly elevated. No patients reported haemorrhage, and none was seen.

2007
Malele RS, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, et al. "Essential oil of Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt from Tanzania: Composition and Antimicrobial Activity." J. Essent. Oil-Bearing Plants. 2007;10(1):83-87.
Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN. "Quality control of herbal medicines.". 2007. Abstract

The use of traditional and herbal medicines is gaining recognition globally. To safeguard the patient, there are legitimate demands that all medicines be safe, efficacious and of good quality. The required parameters for their quality evaluation include assessment for inorganic matter(dust),absence of adulteration microbial load, identification and profile of contents and where possible quantitation of the active compound or marker compounds. Also of importance are heavy metals, pesticides and product stability. The mixture of portions of herbs in traditional medicines complicates the quality control tests of these preparations. The content profile becomes difficult to replicate from batch to batch, while quantification of the active compound(s) in such multi-component products would require prior processing to isolate and identify the chemical compounds

2005
Ndwigah SN, Thoithi, G.N., J.W. M, Kibwage IO. "Constituents of the stem bark of Dombeya rotudifolia Hochst ." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2005;8(2):40-42.
J.W. M, Thoithi, G.N., KIBWAGE. "Essential oil of Rynchosia minima D.C. from Kenya: Composition and antibacterial properties." J. Essent. Oil Res. . 2005;17:230-231.
Kibwage IO, J.W. M. "Quality Control of Herbal Medicines." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2005;8(2):27-30.
J.W. M, Mungai NN, Thoithi, G.N., Kibwage IO. "Traditional Herbal Medicine in National Healthcare in Kenya." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2005;8(2):22-6.
2004
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "Crosslinked gelatin matrices: release of a random coil macromolecular solute.Mwangi JW, Ofner CM 3rd.Int J Pharm. 2004 Jul 8;278(2):319-27.". In: Int J Pharm. 2004 Jul 8;278(2):319-27. The Kenya Medical Association; 2004. Abstract
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of matrix crosslinking and solute size on release of a random coil macromolecular solute from crosslinked gelatin matrices. Gelatin hydrogel matrices crosslinked with different molar ratios of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC):epsilon-amino groups on gelatin (1:1, 4:1, and 10:1) were prepared containing dextran of molecular weights 12, 20, and 77 kDa, and hydrodynamic diameters 54, 74, and 133 A, respectively. The extent of matrix crosslinking was determined quantitatively and used to calculate the molecular weight between crosslinks (Mc). The Mc parameter and equilibrium swelling ratio (Qm) were used to calculate an estimated matrix mesh size (xi). The in vitro release of incorporated dextran was evaluated at 37 degrees C in PBS at pH 7.4 for approximately 80 h. The one-, four- and 10-fold molar ratios of crosslinking agent EDC yielded 24, 41, and 78% of gelatin matrix crosslinking, respectively. The calculated average matrix mesh size ranged from 338 to 90 A. The effect of matrix crosslinking varied with solute size, from retarding diffusional release of the dextran to completely entrapping it inside the crosslinked matrices. These results support the threshold concept of solute size relative to matrix mesh size for release of a flexible, random coil macromolecular solute from a hydrogel.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "Integration of herbal medicine in national health care of developing countries.Mwangi JW. East Afr Med J. 2004 Oct;81(10):497-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 2004 Oct;81(10):497-8. The Kenya Medical Association; 2004. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
2003
Malele RM, Mutayabarwa CK, J.W. M, et al. "Antimicrobial activity and composition of Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. essential oil from Tanzania,." J. Essential Oil Research . 2003;15:438-440.
Oliva MM, Demo MS, Malele RS, MCK, Mwangi JW, et al. "Essential oil of Brachylaena hutchinsii Hutch from Tanzania: Antimicrobial Activity and composition." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2003;6(3):61-63.
2002
Thoithi, G.N., Maingi N, Karume D, Gathuma PK, J.W. M, Kibwage IO. "Anthelmintic and other pharmacological activities of the root bark extracts of Albizia anthelmintica Brongn. ." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2002;5(3):60-66.
Okalebo FA, Rabah HA, Guantai AN, C.K. M, Kibwage IO, J.W. M, Masengo W. "The antimalarial and antimicrobial and Brine shrimp toxicity of Clematis brachiata extract. ." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2002;5:15-18.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "Analgesic and antipyretic effects of Myrica salicifolia (Myricaceae). Njung'e K, Muriuki G, Mwangi JW, Kuria KA. Phytother Res. 2002 Mar;16 Suppl 1:S73-4.". In: Phytother Res. 2002 Mar;16 Suppl 1:S73-4. The Kenya Medical Association; 2002. Abstract
Myrica salicifolia Hoechst (Myricaceae) root extract was found to have analgesic activity in mice. In rats there was antipyretic but no antiinflammatory activity. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "Toxicity of chloroform extract of prunus africana stem bark in rats: gross and histological lesions.Gathumbi PK, Mwangi JW, Mugera GM, Njiro SM.Phytother Res. 2002 May;16(3):244-7.". In: Phytother Res. 2002 May;16(3):244-7. The Kenya Medical Association; 2002. Abstract
Chloroform extract of Prunus africana (Hook f. (Rosaceae) did not cause clinical signs or pathology in rats at daily oral doses of up to 1,000 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The extract caused marked clinical signs, organ damage and a 50% mortality rate at a dose of 3.3 g/kg for 6 days. The main lesions observed at this dose were marked centrilobular hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, diffuse nephrosis, myocardial degeneration, lymphocytic necrosis and neuronal degeneration. The morphological damage in these tissues caused a corresponding rise in blood biochemical parameters namely, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen. The target organs of toxicity of this extract are the liver, kidney and heart. Overt toxicity occurred only after the administration of multiple doses of 3.3 g/kg body weight. These findings confirm the suitability of this extract for therapeutic use, since the doses used in the therapy of prostate gland are much lower than those used in this study and would therefore not be expected to cause pathological changes.
2001
Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, Juliani HR, Zygadlo JA. "Composition of the essential oil of microglossa pyrrhopappa (A. Rich) agnew var. pyrrhopappa from Kenya composition of the essential oil of microglossa pyrrhopappa (A. Rich) Agnew var. pyrrhopappa from Kenya.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

The essential oil of Microglossa pyrrhopappa var. pyrrhopappa (A. Rich) Agnew (Compositae) from Kenya has been studied for the first time. Analysis of the oil by GC and GC/MS reveals that the major compounds were β-caryophyllene (20.3%), γ-gurjunene (11.5%), limonene (8.5%) and δ-cadinene (6.1%)

J.W. M, Thoithi, G.N.,(Jr.) JHR, Zygadlo JA. "Composition of the essential oil of Microglossa pyrrhopappa var. pyrrhopappa. ." J. Essent. Oil Res.. 2001;13:229-230.
J.W. M, Thoithi, G.N., Kibwage IO, et al. "Constituents of essential oil of Cymbopogon afronardus Staff. ." East Cent. Afri. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2001;4:43-47.
Gathumbi PK, J.W. M, Mugera GM, Njiro SM. "Toxicity of chloroform extract of Prunus africana stem-bark in rats: Gross and histopathological lesions." Phytotherapy Research . 2001;15:1-4.
2000
J.W. M, Gathumbi PK, Kibwage IO, et al. "Alternative medicines and prostate enlargement-Prunus africana emphasis." Pharmaceutical J. Kenya. 2000;12(1):26-30.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "J.W. Mwangi (2000). MUPAL.". In: Pharmaceutical J. Kenya 11: (30) 35-38. The Kenya Medical Association; 2000. Abstract
Myrica salicifolia Hoechst (Myricaceae) root extract was found to have analgesic activity in mice. In rats there was antipyretic but no antiinflammatory activity. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "A new antiplasmodial coumarin from Toddalia asiatica roots.Oketch-Rabah HA, Mwangi JW, Lisgarten J, Mberu EK.Fitoterapia. 2000 Dec;71(6):636-40.". In: Fitoterapia. 2000 Dec;71(6):636-40. The Kenya Medical Association; 2000. Abstract

A new antiplasmodial coumarin, 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(3'-hydroxy-3'methyl-1'-butene)-coumarin (1), has been isolated from the roots of Toddalia asiatica. This finding supports the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of malaria.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "P.K. Gathumbi, J.W. Mwangi, S.M. Njiro and G.M Mugera (2000). Biochemical and hematological changes in rats administered an aqueous extract of Prunus africana stem-bark at various dosage levels. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Research 67: 123-128.". In: Onderstepoort J. Vet. Research 67: 123-128. The Kenya Medical Association; 2000. Abstract
An aqueous extract of Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkm. (syn. Pygeum africanum) (Hook. f.) (Rosaceae) was administered daily at dosage rates of 10, 100 and 1,000 mg/kg body mass to randomized groups of Sprague Dawley rats. The extract caused a moderate rise in plasma alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase mainly at rates of 1,000 mg/kg body mass, but it did not cause any significant variations in haematological parameters or in plasma levels of total proteins, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen at the dosage levels used.There were no overt clinical signs in any of the rats. It was concluded that the extract may contain components that are mildly toxic to the liver and heart of rats after repeated daily oral administrations of 1,000 mg/kg body mass.
1999
Malele RS, Moshi MJ, Mwangi JW, Achola KJ, Munenge RW. "Pharmacological properties of extracts from the stem bark of Syzygium, guineense on the ileum and heart of laboratory rodents.". 1999. Abstract

A methanol extract of syzygium guineense bark inhibited intrinsic contractions of rabbit isolated ileum. The inhibition, at bath concentrations of 0.5 - 2.0 mglml, was dose-related but non-linear. It produced sustained hypotension in anaesthetized rats. A dose of 5 ~g lowered systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure by 16%, 22% and 17%, respectively below the pre¬drug levels. Maximum effect was obtained at a dose of 40 ~gwhen the systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures fell by 23%,36% and 28%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. The greater fall in blood pressure was in diastolic than systolic blood pressure. The extract caused a weaker but similar effect to isoprenaline on rabbit isolated heart. While the effect on" rabbit isolated ileum supports tbe folkloric use of the plant as an antispasmodic, further work is required to confirm and categorize the observed pharmacological activities

Mwangi JW, Masengo W, Thoithi GN, Kibwage IO. "Screening Of some Kenyan medicinal plants using the brine shrimp lethality test.". 1999. Abstract

The latex of two plants and the methanol and petroleum ether extracts of thirty four plants from twenty one families were screened for their biological activity using the brine shrimp lethality test. The plants were selected on the basis of their traditional medicinal uses in Kenya. Thirty six of the seventy eight samples showed toxicity to the brine shrimp (LCso < 1000 ug/ml). The most active extracts (LCso < 250 Ilg/ml) were from Bridelia micrantha, Brucea antidysenterica, Croton megalocarpus, Engleromyces goetzi, Euclea schimperi, Mondia whitei, Persea americana, Phytolacca dodecandra, Salvia nilotica, Tagetes min uta, Teclea simplifolia and Toddalia asiatica. The results could be useful in the search for new compounds with pesticidal, antitumour and other pharmacological actions.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "HIV-associated lymphoma: report of three cases.Mwangi JW.East Afr Med J. 1999 Mar;76(3):176-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Mar;76(3):176-7. The Kenya Medical Association; 1999. Abstract

Persons with congenital or acquired immunosuppression have long been known to have an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders. Unsurprisingly, therefore, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. Three cases with HIV-associated lymphoma aged 30, 32 and 35 years respectively are presented. Two had cutaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while one had Hodgkin's lymphoma. Standard chemotherapy for lymphoma was given with good tumour regression. Two of the patients died within six months of lymphoma diagnosis due to other complications of HIV.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "J. W. Mwangi. (1999). Essential oils. East and Central Afri. J. Pharm. Scie. , 1: (1) 2-4.". In: East and Central Afri. J. Pharm. Scie. , 1: (1) 2-4. The Kenya Medical Association; 1999. Abstract

A new antiplasmodial coumarin, 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(3'-hydroxy-3'methyl-1'-butene)-coumarin (1), has been isolated from the roots of Toddalia asiatica. This finding supports the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of malaria.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "Viral markers in a blood donor population.Mwangi JW. East Afr Med J. 1999 Jan;76(1):35-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 1999 Jan;76(1):35-7. The Kenya Medical Association; 1999. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The viral safety of blood depends on donor selection and screening of the blood for viruses. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in a population of donors. DESIGN: Retrospective study including all blood donations at a hospital-based transfusion unit between January 1995 and August 1998. RESULTS: A significant declining trend in the frequency of the human immunodeficiency virus from 4.5% in 1995 to 3.0% in 1998 was noted. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) decreased from 4.2% in 1995 to 3.9% in 1998, while hepatitis C (HCV) increased from 1.5% in 1996 to 1.8% in 1998. The changes for both HBV and HCV were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The safety of blood and blood products with respect to HIV, HBV and HCV is very high. It is important to educate donors regarding transfusion transmitted infections. It is recommended that HCV screening be implemented as a standard test for all donations.
1998
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "J.W. Mwangi and H.A.Okech-Rabah (1998). Traditional Herbal Medicine in Kenya. The Pharmaceutical J. Kenya 9:22-24.". In: The Pharmaceutical J. Kenya 9:22-24. The Kenya Medical Association; 1998. Abstract

Persons with congenital or acquired immunosuppression have long been known to have an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders. Unsurprisingly, therefore, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. Three cases with HIV-associated lymphoma aged 30, 32 and 35 years respectively are presented. Two had cutaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while one had Hodgkin's lymphoma. Standard chemotherapy for lymphoma was given with good tumour regression. Two of the patients died within six months of lymphoma diagnosis due to other complications of HIV.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "J.W. Mwangi, K.J. Achola, W. Lwande and A. Hassanali (1998). Aromatic plants of Kenya: Volatile constituents of leaf oils of Sphaeranthus suaveolens (Forsk) D.C. and S. bullatus Mattf. East and Central Afri. J. Pharm. Scie. I: (1) 24-26.". In: East and Central Afri. J. Pharm. Scie. I: (1) 24-26. The Kenya Medical Association; 1998. Abstract

Persons with congenital or acquired immunosuppression have long been known to have an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders. Unsurprisingly, therefore, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. Three cases with HIV-associated lymphoma aged 30, 32 and 35 years respectively are presented. Two had cutaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while one had Hodgkin's lymphoma. Standard chemotherapy for lymphoma was given with good tumour regression. Two of the patients died within six months of lymphoma diagnosis due to other complications of HIV.

1997
Achola KJ, Mwangi JW, Sinei KA, Munenge RW, Mwaura AM. "Pharmacological activities of gutenburgia cordifolia.". 1997. Abstract

A methanol extract of Gutenburgia cordifolia showed a greater fall in diastolic than systolic blood pressure in anaesthetised rats. The plant extract produced cardiodepressant activity on isolated rabbit heart and caused contraction on isolated rabbit ileum. The contraction was re¬duced but not abolished with atropine. On isolated guinea pig ileum, the contraction was abolished by atropine, the presence of an acetylcholine-like compound in the plant extract is indicated.

1996
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "K.J. Achola, J.W. Mwangi and R.W. Munenge (1996). Pharmacological activities of Vernonia glabra. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 34: (2) 141-144.". In: International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 34: (2) 141-144. The Kenya Medical Association; 1996. Abstract

Persons with congenital or acquired immunosuppression have long been known to have an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders. Unsurprisingly, therefore, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. Three cases with HIV-associated lymphoma aged 30, 32 and 35 years respectively are presented. Two had cutaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while one had Hodgkin's lymphoma. Standard chemotherapy for lymphoma was given with good tumour regression. Two of the patients died within six months of lymphoma diagnosis due to other complications of HIV.

1995
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "24. J.W. Mwangi, K. J. Achola, K.A. Sinei, W. Lwande and R. Laurent (1995). Essential oil constituents of Artemisia afra Willd. J. Essential Oil Research. 7: 97-99.". In: J. Essential Oil Research. 7: 97-99. The Kenya Medical Association; 1995. Abstract

Persons with congenital or acquired immunosuppression have long been known to have an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders. Unsurprisingly, therefore, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. Three cases with HIV-associated lymphoma aged 30, 32 and 35 years respectively are presented. Two had cutaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while one had Hodgkin's lymphoma. Standard chemotherapy for lymphoma was given with good tumour regression. Two of the patients died within six months of lymphoma diagnosis due to other complications of HIV.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "J.W. Mwangi, K.J. Achola, R. Laurent, W. Lwande and A. Hassanali (1995). Essential oil constituents of Sphaeranthus cyathuloides. J. Essential Oil Research. 7: 177-178.". In: J. Essential Oil Research. 7: 177-178. The Kenya Medical Association; 1995. Abstract

Persons with congenital or acquired immunosuppression have long been known to have an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders. Unsurprisingly, therefore, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. Three cases with HIV-associated lymphoma aged 30, 32 and 35 years respectively are presented. Two had cutaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while one had Hodgkin's lymphoma. Standard chemotherapy for lymphoma was given with good tumour regression. Two of the patients died within six months of lymphoma diagnosis due to other complications of HIV.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "K.J. Achola, J.W. Mwangi and R. Munenge (1995). Pharmacological activity of Oxalis corniculata. International Journal of Pharmacognosy 33: (3) 247-249.". In: International Journal of Pharmacognosy 33: (3) 247-249. The Kenya Medical Association; 1995. Abstract
A methanol extract of Syzygium guineense bark inhibited intrinsic contractions of rabbit isolated ileum. The inhibition, at bath concentrations of 0.5 - 2.0 mg/ml, was dose-related but non-linear. It produced sustained hypotension in anaesthetized rats. A dose of 5 ug lowered systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure by 16%, 22% and 17%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. Maximum effect was obtained at a dose of 40 ug when the systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures fell by 23%, 36% and 28%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. The greater fall in blood pressure was in diastolic than systolic blood pressure. The extract caused a weaker but similar effect to isoprenaline on rabbit isolated heart. While the effect on rabbit isolated ileum supports the folkloric use of the plant as an antispasmodic, further work is required to confirm and categorize the observed pharmacological activities.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "K.J. Achola, R.W Munenge and J.W Mwangi (1995). Pharmacological activities of Gardenia jovis-tonantis. International Journal of Pharmacognosy 33: (3) 250-252.". In: International Journal of Pharmacognosy 33: (3) 250-252. The Kenya Medical Association; 1995. Abstract
A methanol extract of Syzygium guineense bark inhibited intrinsic contractions of rabbit isolated ileum. The inhibition, at bath concentrations of 0.5 - 2.0 mg/ml, was dose-related but non-linear. It produced sustained hypotension in anaesthetized rats. A dose of 5 ug lowered systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure by 16%, 22% and 17%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. Maximum effect was obtained at a dose of 40 ug when the systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures fell by 23%, 36% and 28%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. The greater fall in blood pressure was in diastolic than systolic blood pressure. The extract caused a weaker but similar effect to isoprenaline on rabbit isolated heart. While the effect on rabbit isolated ileum supports the folkloric use of the plant as an antispasmodic, further work is required to confirm and categorize the observed pharmacological activities.
1994
Mwangi JW, Achola KJ, Sinei KA, Munenge RW. "Pharmacological acitivities of Synadenium Compactum.". 1994.
Achola KJ, Mwangi JW, Munenge RW. "Pharmacological activities of gardenia jovis-tonantis.". 1994. Abstract

A methanol extract derived from Gardenia jovis-tonantis showed bronchodilator activity isolated guinea pig trachea. The extract also showed cardiorelaxant activity isolated rabbit heart and caused a rapid fall ill diastolic pressure ill anaesthetised rats

Mwangi JW, Achola KJ, Lwande W, HASSANALI A, Laurent R. "Volatile Components of Heteromorpha trifoliata (Wendl.) Eckl. & Zey.". 1994. Abstract

The essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from Heteromorpha trifoliata (Wendl.) Eckl. & Zey. was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Sixty compounds constituting about 96% of the oil were identified. The major constituents were a-pinene (22.2%), germacrene-D (17.9%) and sabinene (12.3%).

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "J.W. Mwangi, W. Alwande and A.Hassanali (1994). Composition of the Essential oil of Ocimum keniense Ayobangira. Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 75-76.". In: Flavour and Fragrance J. 9: 75-76. The Kenya Medical Association; 1994. Abstract
A methanol extract of Syzygium guineense bark inhibited intrinsic contractions of rabbit isolated ileum. The inhibition, at bath concentrations of 0.5 - 2.0 mg/ml, was dose-related but non-linear. It produced sustained hypotension in anaesthetized rats. A dose of 5 ug lowered systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure by 16%, 22% and 17%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. Maximum effect was obtained at a dose of 40 ug when the systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures fell by 23%, 36% and 28%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. The greater fall in blood pressure was in diastolic than systolic blood pressure. The extract caused a weaker but similar effect to isoprenaline on rabbit isolated heart. While the effect on rabbit isolated ileum supports the folkloric use of the plant as an antispasmodic, further work is required to confirm and categorize the observed pharmacological activities.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "K.A. Sinei, J.W. Mwangi, K.J. Achola, A.M. Mwaura and R.W. Munenge (1994). Potential of uterine stimulatory action of Adenia globosa Engl. by oxytocin in vitro. African J. of Health Sciences. I (4): 191-3.". In: African J. of Health Sciences. I (4): 191-3. The Kenya Medical Association; 1994. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
1993
Mwangi JW, Lwande W, HASSANALI A. "Composition of essential on of plectranthus tenuiBorus (Vatke) agnew.". 1993. AbstractWebsite

The essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation from leaves of Plectranthus tenuiftorus (Vatke) Agnew was analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 17 compounds accounting for 72.3% of the oil were identified. Carvacrol (14.3%), a-terpinene (10.2%) and p-cymene (10.9%) were the major constituents. The oil had low quantities of oxygenated

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "W. Lwande, A. Hassanali, O.B. Wanyama, S. Ngola and J.W. Mwangi (1993). Constituents of the essential oil of Helichrysum odoratissimum. J. Ess. Oil Research 5: 93-95.". In: J. Ess. Oil Research 5: 93-95. The Kenya Medical Association; 1993. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
1991
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "J.W. Mwangi, I. Addae-Mensah, R.M Munavu and W. Lwande (1991). Essential oil of Kenyan Lippia species. Part III: Flavour and Fragrance Journal 6 (3): 221-224.". In: International Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. The Kenya Medical Association; 1991. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
1990
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "J.W. Mwangi, I. Addae-Mensah, R.M Munavu and W. Lwande (1990). Essential oils of Lippia ukambensis chemotypes and Lippia somalensis in Kenya. Journal Essential Oil Research 3 (6) : 413-417.". In: Journal Essential Oil Research 3 (6) : 413-417. The Kenya Medical Association; 1990. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
1988
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "J.W. Mwangi, G. Muriuki, A.N. Guantai and W. Lwande (1988). Volatile constituents of Ocimum fischeri Guerke. Kenya J. Sci. B.9: 119-121.". In: Kenya J. Sci. B.9: 119-121. The Kenya Medical Association; 1988. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
1985
Sinei KA;, Mwangi JW;, Munenge RM;, Mwaura AM. "An In Vitro Study On The Oxytocic Action Of Adenia Globosa Engl.". 1985.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "J.W. Mwangi, A.N. Guantai and Gichuru Muriuki (1985) Eucalyptus citriodora .". In: E. Africa Agric. For. J. 46: 89-96. The Kenya Medical Association; 1985. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
1982
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "J.W. Mwangi, C.K. Maitai, and Talalaj (1982). Essential oil content of Eucalyptus citriodora (Hooker) growing in Kenya. Kenya J. Sci. Tech. 3: 55-56.". In: Kenya J. Sci. Tech. 3: 55-56. The Kenya Medical Association; 1982. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
1981
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "C.K. Maitai, A.N. Guantai and J.W. Mwangi (1981). Self-medication in management of minor health problem in Kenya. E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600.". In: E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600. The Kenya Medical Association; 1981. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "K.A. Sinei and J.W. Mwangi (1995). Effect of tuber of Adenia globosa Engl. On isolated rat uterus preparation. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 33: 346-347.". In: E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600. The Kenya Medical Association; 1981. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.

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