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Mukelabai, N. O. Bwibo M(E)& R. "Accidents and Poisoning. In Kenya .". In: Accidents and Poisoning. In Kenya . UNICEF; 2010.
Opiyo RO. Accommodating Africa.; 2011.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "Accommodating the Youth in Africa's Development Agenda: Examination of Reforms in Sports and Entertainment Sector.". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. College Des Benardins Paris, France : Kenya Met Soc; 2011. Abstract

Detailed information on the situation of youth in Africa is not available. There is increasing concern that large sections of young people have become marginalized or are excluded from education, healthcare, housing, leadership and even promotion of talent based activities such as arts and sports which has great potential in shaping up their livelihood status and their dignity.

For the poor youth in Africa, doing nothing is not an option at times of acute basic needs such as food, housing and clothing. Capitalistic nature and lack of supportive welfare systems in urban areas is compounding the survival of the youth. Most Government are now recognizing the important role played by youth. Sports and entertainment sector is becoming a beacon of hope for alleviating challenges facing the youth.

The Paper uses ethnographic approach- whose intent is provision of a detailed, in-depth description of youth in everyday life and practice.

Paper Presented in College Des Benardins in Paris, France on 23rd/8/2011. Proceedings of Paris 2011-Homeless World Cup Symposium.

Wahome RG, Gitau PK. "An account of a recent outbreak of Marek's Disease in Kenya.". 2001. AbstractWebsite

Data was collected from a number of flocks following an outbreak of Marek's disease in Thika, Kiambu and Nairobi, in 1997. Clinically, the disease presented as a rapid emaciation and depression followed by death. Weekly point and cumulative mortalities were calculated in two of the flocks. Postmortem examination revealed, initially, an atrophy of the bursa of Fabricious. Later, there were turmours in a proportion of the birds. The tumours were observed in the heart muscle, the liver, intestines, and bursa of fabricious. Later, there were tumours in a proportion of birds. The tumours were observed in heart muscles, the liver, intestines, bursa of Fabricious and the skin. There was swelling, oedema and frequently ulceration of the proventriculus. The spleen was usually spotted and enlarged. Microscopically, lesions consisted of a mixture of both proliferative and necrotic lesions the suspected contributory causative factors were high field infections pressure, failure to vaccinate, vaccination failure and lack of quarantine and other disease control measures. Failure to institute effective control measures against the disease is likely to seriously affect the poultry industry in the country.

atthew Harsh M, aul Mbatia P, esley Shrum W. "Accountability and Inaction: NGOs and Resource Lodging in Development." Development and Change. 2010;41(2):253-278.
Lund LH;, Boon TE. "Accountability of experts in the Danish national park process.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

In 2002 the Danish Minister of Environment initiated a process to investigate the possibilities of establishing national parks in Denmark. For this purpose experts were mobilised to investigate the status and potentials of the areas in question. The national park process was extensive in scope and complex, and in theory such complexity is assumed to make it difficult for non-experts to understand all the relevant aspects of policy. This exclusion of non-experts may lead to scientification of politics. Furthermore politicisation of science might occur as experts might advocate political interests disguised as objective science, and policy-makers might select results that further their own interests. As a result policy-makers risk losing a source of legitimacy, scientists risk losing credibility and the citizens risk losing the possibility to hold policy-makers accountable for their decisions, which puts democracy at risk. This paper examines the accountability relationships that experts were a part of in the national park process. These include accountability towards the employer, towards the buyer and towards the general public. The purpose is to determine if these relationships were adequate to circumvent the problems associated with scientification of politics and to discuss how accountability relationships and thereby democracy could be strengthened. The empirical analysis shows that in the national park process experts were mainly accountable towards the National Forest and Nature Agency. There were formal accountability relationships between the experts and the local steering committees and the national advisory group, but these relationships were less significant. Moreover, despite the fact that the process was deemed unusually open to the public by the participants, the relationship between experts and the public cannot be characterised as an accountability relationship and could have been improved by including experts in the deliberative fora of the process.

Byskov J., Bloch P. BHFKKKMMDKMAA-KK. "Accountable priority setting for trust in health systems - the need for research into a new approach for strengthening sustainable health action in developing countries." Health Research Policy and Systems. 2009;7(1 ):23-10. AbstractAccountable_priority_setting_for_trust_in_health_systems-the_need_for_research_into_a_new_approach_for_strengthening_sustainable_health_action_in_developing_countries.pdf

Despite multiple efforts to strengthen health systems in low and middle income countries, intended sustainable improvements in health outcomes have not been shown. To date most priority setting initiatives in health systems have mainly focused on technical approaches involving information derived from burden of disease statistics, cost effectiveness analysis, and published clinical trials. However, priority setting involves value-laden choices and these technical approaches do not equip decision-makers to address a broader range of relevant values - such as trust, equity, accountability and fairness - that are of concern to other partners and, not least, the populations concerned. A new focus for priority setting is needed. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an explicit ethical framework for legitimate and fair priority setting that provides guidance for decision-makers who must identify and consider the full range of relevant values. AFR consists of four conditions: i) relevance to the local setting, decided by agreed criteria; ii) publicizing priority-setting decisions and the reasons behind them; iii) the establishment of revisions/appeal mechanisms for challenging and revising decisions; iv) the provision of leadership to ensure that the first three conditions are met. REACT - "REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems" is an EU-funded five-year intervention study started in 2006, which is testing the application and effects of the AFR approach in one district each in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. The objectives of REACT are to describe and evaluate district-level priority setting, to develop and implement improvement strategies guided by AFR and to measure their effect on quality, equity and trust indicators. Effects are monitored within selected disease and programme interventions and services and within human resources and health systems management. Qualitative and quantitative methods are being applied in an action research framework to examine the potential of AFR to support sustainable improvements to health systems performance. This paper reports on the project design and progress and argues that there is a high need for research into legitimate and fair priority setting to improve the knowledge base for achieving sustainable improvements in health outcomes.

ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Accountable priority setting for trust in health systems - the need for research into a new approach for strengthening sustainable health action in developing countries. Health Research Policy and Systems 2009, 7:23.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Kwani Trust; 2009. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accountancy - The Making of Professional Accountants." Part II, by J.D. Newtron ad N.D. Nzomo. This article continues the analysis and discussions started in Part 1 above.It presents data on citizenship, age, education and projects into the future of the.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 24-25). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accountancy - The Making of Professional Accountants." Part II, by J.D. Newtron ad N.D. Nzomo. This article continues the analysis and discussions started in Part 1 above.It presents data on citizenship, age, education and projects into the future of the.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management, (pages 24-25).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Accounting and Record Keeping" Chapter 13 in Introduction to Business:A Kenyan Perspective: Edited by Prof. F.N. Kibera.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi,. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1996. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Accounting and Record Keeping" Chapter 13 in Introduction to Business:A Kenyan Perspective: Edited by Prof. F.N. Kibera.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi,.; 1996. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Accounting and the Political Process 1. This article delineates the relationship between the discipline of accoutning in its delineate specialization and the political process in its various phases and settins as deined by its manifestatons in managing or.". In: "The Student Accountant, Issue No. 14. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 2001. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. "Accounting and the Political Process II. This article is an abridged version of the paper presented to the 7th seminar of the Accounting Students Association to advance exposition of the conceptual framework covered by the article in issue No. 14.". In: the Student Accountant, Issue No. 16. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 2003. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting for Harambee" This article presents the rationale for auditing harambee funds, discusses practical procedures for doing so and then calls for legislation to regulate authorization, safe custody, management and reporting as aspects of national .". In: Journal of the Accounting Students Association, Faculty of Commerce, University of Nairobi, pages 3 & 4. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting for Harambee" This article presents the rationale for auditing harambee funds, discusses practical procedures for doing so and then calls for legislation to regulate authorization, safe custody, management and reporting as aspects of national .". In: Journal of the Accounting Students Association, Faculty of Commerce, University of Nairobi, pages 3 & 4.; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting for Stock-Devidends" . This article discusses the theoretical inconsistencies in the Accounting treatment of stock dividends and the commensurate capitalization of Retained Earnings.". In: National Association of Black Accountants, USA Spectrum, Vol. 7, , New York, (pages 8-10). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
No abstract available
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting Versus Accountability." This article highlights the need for financial accountability in our economy. It cites the collapsing financial institutions and the costly mismanagement exposed by the likes of "the multi-billion Bura Irrigation Scheme.". In: Journal for the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 4-6). RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; Submitted. Abstract
Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)
N PROFNZOMODAUDI. ""Accounting Versus Accountability." This article highlights the need for financial accountability in our economy. It cites the collapsing financial institutions and the costly mismanagement exposed by the likes of "the multi-billion Bura Irrigation Scheme.". In: Journal for the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 4-6).; Submitted. Abstract

Journal of the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya. (pages 13-15)

N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Accumulation of DDT residues in aquarium fish, sediment, plant and water," Accepted, J. Environment International.". In: Submitted to Journal of Electrochimica Acta. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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", L.W. Njenga and D.N. Kariuki. "Accumulation of Fluoride by Plants and Vegetables." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 1994.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH, N PROFKARIUKIDAVID, W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "Accumulation of fluoride in plants and vegetables'.". In: International Journal of BioChemiPhysics, 3, 23 - 25. UoN; 1994. Abstract

Fluoride in plant and vegetable samples has beendetermined using the ion selective electrode.The analysis was carried out after ashingthe samples onan open flame, adding perchloric acid and allowing the hydrogen fluoride to diffuse into a sodium hydroxide layer. The results obtained show that kale and pumpkins can accumulate more than ten times their normal values of fluoridewhile plants were found to accumulate upto 100 ug/g fluoride when exposed to high levels of fluoride in water or soil.

Otieno A, Karuku G, Raude J, Koech O. "Accumulation Of Nitrogen And Phosphorous By Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon Zizanioides) In A Model Constructed Wetland Treatment System For Polishing Municipal Wastewater." International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies . 2018;22(4):291-298 .
I.O JUMBA, S.O W, D.M.K O, L MBUVI, J.O L, I.O JUMBA. "Accumulation, distribution and Metabolism of 14C-1, 1-Trichloro-2, 2- bis-(p-Chlorophyenly) ethane (ppDDT) residues in model tropical marine ecosystem.". In: Environmental Technology (U.K.) 23, 1285-1292. Association of Africa Universities; 2002. Abstract

Accumulation, distribution and metabolism of ring labelled, "C-1,1,1, - trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) in a model marine aquatic ecosystem consisting of sea water, sediment, oysters (Isognomonon alatus) and Humbug fish (Dascillus aruanus) were studied in the laboratory. "C-p,p'-DDT distributes rapidly in the ecosystem immediately after application on the water surface with reduction of its concentration in the water phase from 1.18 ng g"1 to 0.71 ng g'after 2 hours and an increase in its content in the sediment and oysters. The bioconcentration factor reached a maximum of 19x 10* in oysters, and 1657 in Humbug fish after 24 hours. The sediment concentration reached 117 ng g"1 after 168 hours from start of application. A peak bioconcentration factor of 111 x 103 was calculated after 120 hours when 0.24 mg kg"1 of '^>p,p'-DDT was maintained through dosing every 24 hours with 0.002 mg kg' of a mixture of labelled and non-labelled pesticide. The rate of depuration of accumulated "C-p,p'-DDT sediment residues was up to 78.3% after 24 hours while oysters lost only 14.0% during the same period. The loss in Humbug fish was only 22.2% in three days. Volatilisation and sorption losses from seawater alone (without sediment/biota) were found to be very high in the range of 73.8 - 91.5% over 24 h for p,p'-DDT in aerated and non-aerated ecosystem. Gas chromatograph and TLC analysis of water, sediment and oyster samples revealed presence of p,p'-DDT and substantial amounts of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD three days after pesticide dosage.

ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Accumulation, distribution and Metabolism of 14C-1, 1-Trichloro-2, 2- bis-(p-Chlorophyenly) ethane (ppDDT) residues in model tropical marine ecosystem.". In: Environmental Technology (U.K.) 23, 1285-1292. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2002. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Ejlertsen M, Thamsborg SM, Githigia SM. "Accuracy of an anaemia scoring chart applied on goats in sub-humid Kenya and its potential for control of Haemonchus contortus infections.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

We tested the practical application of an anaemia scoring chart (the FAMACHA© chart) as a method for controlling Haemonchus contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions in a sub-humid area of Central Kenya. The objectives were: (1) to test the accuracy of the FAMACHA© chart in identifying anaemic goats (PCV ≤ 18); (2) to quantify the proportion of goats left untreated at farm level when using the chart. On each of two farms, Small East African goats of various ages were allocated to two treatment groups; a FAMACHA© group (F1 (n = 34) and F2 (n = 31) on farms 1 and 2, respectively) and a control group (C1 (n = 34) and C2 (n = 30)). In F1 and F2 goats with a FAMACHA© score of 3, 4 or 5 were treated with anthelmintic after scoring. In C1 and C2 goats were treated every 4 weeks from 15 February to 20 July. Every 2 weeks all goats were scored with the FAMACHA© chart and weighed. Furthermore, faecal samples were collected for faecal egg counts (FEC) and blood samples were collected for packed cell volume (PCV) determination. H. contortus was found to be the predominant nematode on both farms. The mean FECs were higher on farm 1 compared to farm 2, while in contrast the mean PCV levels were lowest on farm 2. The latter was most likely due to the presence of Fasciola spp., flea and tick infections on farm 2. The accuracy of the chart was evaluated by using PCV as the gold standard for anaemia (PCV ≤ 18%). The mean percentage of false-negative scorings per sampling was 0.7% on farm 1 and 1.6% on farm 2, while the mean percentage of false-positive scorings was 9.7% and 21.4%, respectively. It is most likely that the accuracy of the chart was negatively affected by the concurrent parasite infections on farm 2. The mean proportion of untreated goats per sampling was 89% and 77% on farm 1 and farm 2. It was concluded that the FAMACHA© chart can be a valuable tool for decision-making in control of H. contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions, without morbidity or mortality unacceptable to the farmer. The application may further reduce the risk of development of anthelmintic resistance by increasing refugia. However, caution should be taken under conditions where other anaemia-causing parasites are present (e.g. Fasciola spp. and ecto-parasites), since this possibly decreases the accuracy of the FAMACHA© chart

MAINA DRGITHIGIASAMUEL. "Accuracy of an anaemia-scoring chart applied on goats in sub-humid Kenya and its potential for control of Haemonchus contortus infections. Ejlertsen, M.; Githigia, S.M.; Otieno, R.O. Thamsborg, S.M." Veterinary Parasitology . 2006;141(3 -4):291-301. AbstractWebsite

Abstract:
We tested the practical application of an anaemia scoring chart (the FAMACHA© chart) as a method for controlling Haemonchus contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions in a sub-humid area of Central Kenya. The objectives were: (1) to test the accuracy of the FAMACHA© chart in identifying anaemic goats (PCV ≤ 18); (2) to quantify the proportion of goats left untreated at farm level when using the chart. On each of two farms, Small East African goats of various ages were allocated to two treatment groups; a FAMACHA© group (F1 (n = 34) and F2 (n = 31) on farms 1 and 2, respectively) and a control group (C1 (n = 34) and C2 (n = 30)). In F1 and F2 goats with a FAMACHA© score of 3, 4 or 5 were treated with anthelmintic after scoring. In C1 and C2 goats were treated every 4 weeks from 15 February to 20 July. Every 2 weeks all goats were scored with the FAMACHA© chart and weighed. Furthermore, faecal samples were collected for faecal egg counts (FEC) and blood samples were collected for packed cell volume (PCV) determination. H. contortus was found to be the predominant nematode on both farms. The mean FECs were higher on farm 1 compared to farm 2, while in contrast the mean PCV levels were lowest on farm 2. The latter was most likely due to the presence of Fasciola spp., flea and tick infections on farm 2. The accuracy of the chart was evaluated by using PCV as the gold standard for anaemia (PCV ≤ 18%). The mean percentage of false-negative scorings per sampling was 0.7% on farm 1 and 1.6% on farm 2, while the mean percentage of false-positive scorings was 9.7% and 21.4%, respectively. It is most likely that the accuracy of the chart was negatively affected by the concurrent parasite infections on farm 2. The mean proportion of untreated goats per sampling was 89% and 77% on farm 1 and farm 2. It was concluded that the FAMACHA© chart can be a valuable tool for decision-making in control of H. contortus in goats kept under smallholder conditions, without morbidity or mortality unacceptable to the farmer. The application may further reduce the risk of development of anthelmintic resistance by increasing refugia. However, caution should be taken under conditions where other anaemia-causing parasites are present (e.g. Fasciola spp. and ecto-parasites), since this possibly decreases the accuracy of the FAMACHA© chart.

"Accuracy of pastoralists' memory-based kinship assignment of Ankole cattle: a microsatellite DNA analysis." Anim Breed Genet. . 2012;129(1):30-40. Abstract

This study aimed to estimate the level of relatedness within Ankole cattle herds using autosomal microsatellite markers and to assess the accuracy of relationship assignment based on farmers' memory. Eight cattle populations (four from each of two counties in Mbarara district in Uganda) were studied. Cattle in each population shared varying degrees of relatedness (first-, second- and third-degree relatives and unrelated individuals). Only memory-based kinship assignments which farmers knew with some confidence were tested in this experiment. DNA isolated from the blood of a subsample of 304 animals was analysed using 19 microsatellite markers. Average within population relatedness coefficients ranged from 0.010 ± 0.005 (Nshaara) to 0.067 ± 0.004 (Tayebwa). An exclusion probability of 99.9% was observed for both sire-offspring and dam-offspring relationships using the entire panel of 19 markers. Confidence from likelihood tests performed on 292 dyads showed that first-degree relatives were more easily correctly assigned by farmers than second-degree ones (p < 0.01), which were also easier to assign than third-degree relatives (p < 0.01). Accuracy of kinship assignment by the farmers was 91.9% ± 5.0 for dam-offspring dyads, 85.5% ± 3.4 for sire-offspring dyads, 75.6% ± 12.3 for half-sib and 60.0% ± 5.0 for grand dam-grand offspring dyads. Herd size, number of dyads assigned and length of time spent by the herder with their cattle population did not correlate with error in memorizing relationships. However, herd size strongly correlated with number of dyads assigned by the herder (r = 0.967, p < 0.001). Overall, we conclude that memorized records of pastoralists can be used to trace relationships and for pedigree reconstruction within Ankole cattle populations, but with the awareness that herd size constrains the number of kinship assignments remembered by the farmer.

P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "An accurate Epidemiological Model.". In: Applied Maths and Computation, 53:pp 1 - 12. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1993. Abstract
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P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "An accurate epidemiological model.". In: Applied Mathematics & Computation. 1993. Vol. 53 pp. 1-12. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1993. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH, J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "An accurate Epidemiological Model.". In: Applied Maths and Computation, 53:pp 1 - 12. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1993. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
Sulway MJ, Malins JM. "Acetone in diabetic ketoacidosis." Lancet. 1970;2:736-740. Abstract
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Reichard GA, Skutches CL, Hoeldtke RD, Owen OE. "Acetone metabolism in humans during diabetic ketoacidosis." Diabetes. 1986;35:668-674. Abstract

Plasma acetone turnover rates were measured with the primed continuous infusion of 2-[14C]acetone in patients with moderate to severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Plasma acetone turnover rates ranged from 1.52 to 15.9 mumol X kg-1 X min-1 (108-1038 mumol X 1.73 m-2 X min-1) and were directly related to the plasma acetone concentrations that ranged from 0.47 to 7.61 mM. The average acetone turnover rate was 6.45 mumol X kg-1 X min-1 (533 mumol X 1.73 m-2 X min-1), a value twice that obtained in a similar group of diabetic ketoacidotic patients via the single-injection technique of 2-[14C]acetone administration. Degradation of urine glucose revealed that 14C from administered 2-[14C )acetone was principally located in carbons 1, 2, 5, and 6 of the glucose molecule in five of six patients. This distribution is similar to that expected from 2-[14C]pyruvate, suggesting that acetone was converted to glucose through pyruvate. In one patient, label was located predominantly in glucose carbons 3 and 4, indicating that acetone metabolism may be different in some patients. Acetol (1-hydroxyacetone) and 1,2-propanediol (PPD), two possible metabolites of acetone, were detected in plasma of the patients. The concentrations of Acetol ranged from 0 to 0.48 mM and of PPD ranged from 0 to 0.53 mM. The concentrations of each metabolite were directly related to the plasma acetone concentrations. During the continuous infusion of 2-[14C]acetone, the specific activities of plasma glucose and PPD rose continuously but did not reach constant values. Estimates of the minimal percent plasma glucose and PPD derived from plasma acetone averaged 2.1 and 74%, respectively.

D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Acetylation status using hydralazine in African hypertensives at Kenyatta National Hospital:East Afr Med J. 1992 Jul;69(7):406-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Jul;69(7):406-8. UN-HABITAT; 1992. Abstract
In this study, the investigation of hydralazine acetylator phenotype was undertaken for the first time in African hypertensives at Kenyatta National Hospital. A total of 25 randomly selected patients with moderate to severe hypertension (diastolic pressure 105-130 mmHg), participated in the phenotyping study. The phenotyping was done by administering oral standard hydralazine dose of 150 mg/day in three divided doses. The 24 hour urinary MTP/hydralazine ratio was used to categorize patients into slow and fast acetylators. Of the patients studied 69.9% were slow acetylators while 30.4% were fast acetylators. The mean 24 hour urinary MTP/hydralazine ratio for slow acetylators was 1.01 +/- 0.95. This was significantly different from the fast acetylators where the mean 24 hour urinary MTP/hydralazine ratio was 10.6 +/- 4.4 (P < 0.001). The acetylator phenotyping divided the patients into two distinct populations and no further arbitrary method was required to divide the patients into either group.
Hutchinson MJ, Saxena. PK. "Acetylsalicylic acid enhances and synchronizes thidiazuron-induced somatic embryogenesis in geranium (Pelargoniumx hortorum Bailey) tissue cultures." Plant Cell Reports . 1996; 512-515.: 512-515. Abstract4.acetylsalicylic_acid_enhances_and_synchronizes_thidiazuron-induced_somatic_embryogenesis_in_geranium.

Thidiazuron (TDZ) effectively induced somatic embryogenesis in cultured hypocotyl explants of geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey) during only a 3-day period of induction. The presence of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) during this period caused a two-fold increase in the number of somatic embryos and enhanced synchronization of embryo development compared to the TDZ treatment alone. Salicylic acid was ineffective in modulating similar embryogenic responses as ASA. The ASA-induced enhancement and synchronization of somatic embryogenesis could possibly be used as an experimental system to study the interplay of growth regulators in somatic embryogenesis

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Achapa C.O., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Lequin R.M., Mati J.K.G., Njoroge J.K. Dynamic study follow up of pituitary reserve function in patients who had suffered postpartum haemorrhage J. Obstet Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 2:166, 1983.". In: J. Obstet Gynaecol. E. and Central Afr. 2:166, 1983. uon press; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Balwinder S, Padhee AK, Nijhawan S, Tandon BN.Large volume paracentesis and intravenous dextran to treat tense ascites.J Clin Gastroenterol. 1992 Jan;14(1):31-5.". In: J Clin Gastroenterol. 1992 Jan;14(1):31-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
Forty patients with cirrhosis of the liver and tense ascites were randomized to receive either aldactone 400 mg/day and furosemide 80 mg/day (n = 20) or repeated large volume paracentesis (LVP) and infusion of low molecular weight dextran (n = 20). Both treatment groups were similar in clinical and laboratory parameters. Complete mobilization of the ascitic fluid was achieved in all receiving LVP and dextran therapy within 1 week of the treatment, in contrast to the minimal mobilization of the ascitic fluid in patients receiving diuretics even after 2 weeks of therapy. Renal function, the clinical parameters of systemic hemodynamics, serum electrolytes, and hepatic function remained stable in patients receiving LVP and dextran and were similar to those in the diuretic-treated patients. We found no deterioration of these functions in the nonedematous patients treated by LVP and dextran even though the protective effect of edema against LVP was lacking in them. Plasma volume estimation in six nonedematous cirrhotic patients treated by LVP and dextran did not reveal any hypovolemia after complete mobilization of ascites. The frequency of complications and death were similar in the two groups. Dextran infusion is a safe, effective, and low-cost replacement therapy in patients with cirrhotic ascites treated by LVP.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Batra Y, Hazari S, Choudhury V, Panda SK, Dattagupta S.Etiopathogenesis of acute hepatic failure: Eastern versus Western countries.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002 Dec;17 Suppl 3:S268-73.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002 Dec;17 Suppl 3:S268-73. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002. Abstract
Etiopathogenesis of acute hepatic failure (AHF) in Eastern and Western countries is distinct. In the East hepatitis viruses cause AHF in more than 95% of such cases, while causes of AHF in the West are quite heterogenous. Hepatitis E virus is the major etiological agent of AHF in countries like India where the virus is hyperendemic. Occult HBV infection may also be causing AHF in a sizable proportion of cases in areas where chronic HBV infection frequency is high. Paracetamol causes AHF in about 70% cases in the UK and about 20% cases in USA, whereas in France and Denmark, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are more frequently associated with AHF. Hepatitis B virus causes AHF in about one-third of cases in the latter two countries. Copyright 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Batra Y, Saraya A, Hazari S, Dixit R, Kaur K, Bhatkal B, Ojha B, Panda SK.Vaccination for hepatitis A virus is not required for patients with chronic liver disease in India.Natl Med J India. 2002 Sep-Oct;15(5):267-8.". In: Natl Med J India. 2002 Sep-Oct;15(5):267-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination is recommended worldwide for patients with chronic liver disease to prevent decompensation due to superinfection with HAV. India being endemic for HAV, the prevalence of pre-existing antibodies against HAV due to subclinical exposure to the virus in childhood among patients with chronic liver disease may be high and, therefore, vaccination may not be needed. However, data are lacking on the prevalence of HAV antibody among patients with chronic liver disease in India. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-four patients attending the Liver Clinic at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi during the past 5 years and diagnosed to have either chronic hepatitis due to the hepatitis B virus (n = 76), hepatitis C virus (n = 84) or cirrhosis of the liver due to the hepatitis B (n = 47) or C (n = 47) virus were tested for the presence of IgG anti-HAV antibody in their sera (using a commercial ELISA kit). RESULTS: Two hundred forty-eight (97.6%) patients tested positive for IgG anti-HAV. The prevalence of anti-HAV positivity was similar among patients with chronic hepatitis B (74, 97.4%), chronic hepatitis C (82, 97.6%), cirrhosis of the liver due to the hepatitis B (46, 97.8%) and hepatitis C (46, 97.8%) virus. CONCLUSION: Vaccination against HAV is not required among patients with chronic liver disease in India as there is a very high prevalence of pre-existing antibodies in these patients.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Batra Y.Is cirrhosis of the liver reversible? The ultimate that a hepatologist wishes.Trop Gastroenterol. 2003 Jan-Mar;24(1):1-2.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2003 Jan-Mar;24(1):1-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003. Abstract
We report a patient with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis (FCH)-like syndrome in renal transplant recipient, who was negative for hepatitis-B and C-virus infection. The patient presented initially with extrahepatic biliary obstruction due to stricture at the lower end of the common bile duct. Cholestasis persisted inspite of effective biliary drainage. He was operated for empyema of the gallbladder and histological examination showed the presence of cytomegalovirus inclusions in the wall of the gallbladder. The patient died inspite of aggressive management; autopsy examination of the liver revealed evidence of FCH-like changes.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Batra Y.Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: lots of hype, how much substance?Trop Gastroenterol. 2002 Jul-Sep;23(3):111-2.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2002 Jul-Sep;23(3):111-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002. Abstract
Chronic Calcific Pancreatitis of Tropics is a disease of unknown aetiology and is characterised by chronic pancreatitis with calcification in young persons who present with pain, diabetes, and/or steatorrhoea. ERCP performed on 42 patients with this condition revealed changes compatible with chronic pancreatitis. These changes were however, more marked and somewhat different from those seen in the alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Cystic dilatation, tortuosity, and obstruction of the main pancreatic duct were similar to that in alcoholic pancreatitis. The features of CCPT that were different from those of latter, were large pancreatic calculi, absence of strictures/stenosis and absence of irregularity of the ductal wall. The calculi were predominantly in the head region of the pancreas causing maximal dilatation of the main pancreatic duct in the head of pancreas. The secondary branches were stunted, short and scanty but revealed a lower grade of changes, than the changes documented in the main pancreatic duct. The pancreatic ductal changes in CCPT seems to be different from that seen in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis and may be due to the difference in the pathophysiology of the underlying disease.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Buch P, Irshad M, Gandhi BM, Joshi YK, Tandon BN.Outbreak of Dengue fever in Delhi.Lancet. 1988 Dec 24-31;2(8626-8627):1485-6.". In: Lancet. 1988 Dec 24-31;2(8626-8627):1485-6. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1988. Abstract
Hepatitis G virus (HGV)/GB virus-C (GBV-C) has been identified as a blood-borne agent with disputed pathogenicity. This virus belongs to the flaviviridae with a distant relationship to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Genetically divergent HGV isolates have been reported from different parts of the world. This study describes the prevalence of HGV in multitransfused thalassaemic children in India and genomic sequence variations in 11 HGV isolates from the same geographical location. Hepatitis G virus RNA was detected in 39.7% multitransfused thalassaemic children. The seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV was 23.8% and 17.1%, respectively, and 11.4% had dual infection. The nucleotide sequence of a 166 bp HGV genomic segment from the putative capsid-envelope region (nucleotide; nt 578-743) from 11 Indian isolates was compared to the sequences available in the nucleotide databases. The isolates from India were 81.3-94.5% homologous to the isolates from other parts of the world. On phylogenetic analysis, it was observed that HGV isolates from India may belong to two genetically divergent types.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S, Bhargava DK.Alcohol is not a desirable sclerosant.Indian J Gastroenterol. 1990 Jan;9(1):83-4.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 1990 Jan;9(1):83-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990. Abstract
One hundred and seventy five subjects with chronic liver diseases which included patients with chronic active hepatitis (90), liver cirrhosis (31) and asymptomatic hepatitis B carriers (54), were included in the study. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) specific DNA-polymerase activity and HBe-markers were tested as markers of HBV-multiplication. In HBsAg positive samples, DNA-P activity was positive in 44.4% of the HBV carriers, 52.9% of the patients with chronic active hepatitis and 81.8% of the patients with liver cirrhosis. The corresponding figures for the presence of HBeAg in these groups were 18.5, 26.5 and 45.5% respectively. Virus multiplication was also observed in 41.1 and 44.4% patients with chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis respectively, in the absence of HBsAg. The results of the present study show that hepatitis B virus is the most important etiological factor of chronic liver diseases in India. Most of our patients of chronic liver diseases seems to have contacted HBV infection as young adults and the mode of transmission is likely to be horizontal rather than vertical. The virus replicating markers correlate well with the severity of the liver injury and decreased with the age. DNA-P activity is a more sensitive marker of viral multiplication than HBeAg. Viral multiplication was also found to occur in the absence of the usual HBV markers. Continued viral multiplication in patients with chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis is implicated in continued liver injury and progressive liver disease.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S, Irshad M.Prospective study of plasma fibronectin in fulminant hepatitis: association with infection and mortality.J Hepatol. 1995 Jul;23(1):8-13.". In: J Hepatol. 1995 Jul;23(1):8-13. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1995. Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Plasma fibronectin is an opsonic glycoprotein, normally synthesized by the liver, which decreases subsequent to severe liver damage and low levels of which may contribute to reticuloendothelial system dysfunction by compromising opsonic activity. This may result in an increased frequency of infection and death. The present study was conducted to evaluate the association of plasma fibronectin activity with infection and mortality in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. METHODS: Plasma fibronectin was estimated serially in 69 consecutive patients with fulminant hepatic failure, nine patients with uncomplicated acute viral hepatitis and 32 normal volunteers. RESULTS: Plasma fibronectin levels in patients with fulminant hepatic failure (85.6 +/- 75.8 micrograms/ml) were significantly lower than in patients with uncomplicated acute viral hepatitis (295.5 +/- 88.5 micrograms/ml) and healthy volunteers (362.6 +/- 69.2 micrograms/ml). Forty-nine (72%) patients with fulminant hepatic failure died. The initial values of fibronectin in fulminant hepatic failure did not correlate with mortality. Patients with fulminant hepatic failure who survived showed a progressive rise in the fibronectin levels compared to the absence of an increase in fibronectin levels in the non-survivors. The mortality in patients with fulminant hepatic failure with infection (24/27) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to those without infection (25/42). Initial fibronectin levels in patients with infection (70.3 +/- 54.2 micrograms/ml) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in those without infection (92.3 +/- 64.4 micrograms/ml). We conclude that plasma fibronectin levels in patients with fulminant hepatic failure are decreased compared to healthy subjects and the absence of an increase in levels indicates a poor prognosis. Low levels of fibronectin are associated with an increased incidence of infection, which increases the mortality in these patients.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S, Kumer TL, Sushma S, Prasanna KS, Tandon A, Sreenivas V, Nijhawan S, Panda SK, Nanda SK, Irshad M, Joshi YK, Duttagupta S, Tandon RK, Tandon BN.Fulminant hepatitis in a tropical population: clinical course, cause, and early predict.". In: Hepatology. 1996 Jun;23(6):1448-55. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1996. Abstract

The profiles of patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) from developing countries have not been reported earlier. The current study was conducted prospectively, at a single tertiary care center in India, to document the demographic and clinical characteristics, natural course, and causative profile of patients with FHF as well as to define simple prognostic markers in these patients. Four hundred twenty-three consecutive patients with FHF admitted from January 1987 to June 1993 were included in the study. Each patient's serum was tested for various hepatotropic viruses. Univariate Cox's regression for 28 variables, multivariate Cox's proportional hazard regression, stepwise logistic regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were done to identify independent predictors of outcome at admission. All patients presented with encephalopathy within 4 weeks of onset of symptoms. Hepatotropic viruses were the likely cause in most of these patients. Hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis D (HDV) viruses, and antitubercular drugs could be implicated as the cause of FHF in 1.7% (n= 7), 28% (n= 117), 3.8% (n= 16), and 4.5% (n= 19) patients, respectively. In the remaining 62% (n= 264) of patients the serological evidence of HAV, HBV, or HDV infection was lacking, and none of them had ingested hepatotoxins. FHF was presumed to be caused by non-A, non-B virus(es) infection. Sera of 50 patients from the latter group were tested for hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA and HCV RNA. In 31 (62%), HEV could be implicated as the causative agent, and isolated HCV RNA could be detected in 7 (19%). Two hundred eighty eight (66%) patients died. Approximately 75% of those who died did so within 72 hours of hospitalisation. One quarter of the female patients with FHF were pregnant. Mortality among pregnant females, nonpregnant females, and male patients with FHF was similar (P > .1). Univariate analysis showed that age, size of the liver assessed by percussion, grade of coma, presence of clinical features of cerebral edema, presence of infection, serum bilirubin, and prothrombin time prolongation over controls at admission were related to survival (P < .01). The rapidity of onset of encephalopathy and cause of FHF did not influence the outcome. Cox's proportional hazard regression showed age > or = 40 years, presence of cerebral edema, serum bilirubin > or = 15 mg/dL, and prothrombin time prolongation of 25 seconds or more over controls were independent predictors of outcome. Ninety-three percent of the patients with three or more of the above prognostic markers died. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value of the presence of three or more of these prognostic factors for mortality was 93%, 80%, 86%, and 89.5%, respectively, with a diagnostic accuracy of 87.3%. We conclude that most of our patients with FHF might have been caused by hepatotropic viral infection, and non-A, non-B virus(es) seems to be the dominant hepatotropic viral infection among these patients. They presented with encephalopathy within 4 weeks of the onset of symptoms. Pregnancy, cause, and rapidity of onset of encephalopathy did not influence survival. The prognostic model developed in the current study is simple and can be performed at admission.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S, Saksena S, Pande JN.A prospective randomized study to evaluate propranolol in patients undergoing long-term endoscopic sclerotherapy.J Hepatol. 1994 Nov;21(5):918-9.". In: J Hepatol. 1994 Nov;21(5):918-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract

J Hepatol. 1993 Sep;19(2):291-300.Click here to read Links A prospective randomized double-blind study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of propranolol in patients with portal hypertension undergoing long-term endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) for recurrent variceal bleeding. Consecutive patients with portal hypertension (Child's class A or B) due to cirrhosis (n = 72), non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis (n = 29) and extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (n = 13) attending the liver clinic of a tertiary care center were included in the study. All patients had had at least one documented episode of variceal bleed in the previous 4 weeks. Fifty-eight patients received propranolol and 56 received placebo in addition to weekly EST. Rebleeding occurred in 12 (21%) patients in the placebo group and 10 (17%) patients in the propranolol group during a mean follow-up period of 24.4 +/- 10.4 months in the former and 23.8 +/- 9.2 months in the latter group (P > 0.1). The number of episodes of rebleeding (14 in the placebo and 12 in the propranolol group) were also similar (P > 0.1). The median bleeding-free period was more than 40 months in both treatment groups (P > 0.1). The mean transfusion requirements and the number of hospital admissions for rebleeding were also similar in the two treatment groups (P > 0.1). Complete obliteration of varices was achieved in 44 (78.9%) patients in the placebo group and 43 (75.5%) patients in the propranolol group (P > 0.1). Recurrence of new varices was seen in two patients in the placebo and in three of those in the propranolol group. Seven patients in the placebo group and five in the propranolol group died (P > 0.1). Complications related to EST were similar in the two treatment groups but additional adverse effects were observed in the propranolol group. The cumulative incidence of rebleeding in the placebo group was 12.7 and in the propranolol group it was 11.2 per 100 patient years of follow-up. It is concluded that the addition of propranolol in patients with portal hypertension and fair hepatic function on long-term EST does not confer any additional benefit.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S, Tandon A, Joshi YK, Tandon BN.A preliminary open trial on interferon stimulator (SNMC) derived from Glycyrrhiza glabra in the treatment of subacute hepatic failure.Indian J Med Res. 1993 Apr;98:69-74.". In: Indian J Med Res. 1993 Apr;98:69-74. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract
The efficacy of the interferon stimulator named Stronger Neo Minophagen-C (SNMC) derived form the plant G. glabra was studied at a dose of 40 or 100 ml daily for 30 days followed by thrice weekly intravenously for 8 wk in 18 patients of subacute hepatic failure due to viral hepatitis. The survival rate amongst these patients was 72.2 per cent, as compared to the earlier reported rate of 31.1 per cent in 98 patients who received supportive therapy (P < 0.01). Death in four of the five patients was due to associated infections leading to hepatorenal failure and terminal coma. Further studies are necessary to standardize the dose and duration of therapy with SNMC in subacute hepatic failure.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S, Tandon BN.Should we redefine acute liver failure?Lancet. 1993 Dec 4;342(8884):1421-2.". In: Lancet. 1993 Dec 4;342(8884):1421-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract

J Hepatol. 1993 Sep;19(2):291-300.Click here to read Links A prospective randomized double-blind study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of propranolol in patients with portal hypertension undergoing long-term endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) for recurrent variceal bleeding. Consecutive patients with portal hypertension (Child's class A or B) due to cirrhosis (n = 72), non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis (n = 29) and extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (n = 13) attending the liver clinic of a tertiary care center were included in the study. All patients had had at least one documented episode of variceal bleed in the previous 4 weeks. Fifty-eight patients received propranolol and 56 received placebo in addition to weekly EST. Rebleeding occurred in 12 (21%) patients in the placebo group and 10 (17%) patients in the propranolol group during a mean follow-up period of 24.4 +/- 10.4 months in the former and 23.8 +/- 9.2 months in the latter group (P > 0.1). The number of episodes of rebleeding (14 in the placebo and 12 in the propranolol group) were also similar (P > 0.1). The median bleeding-free period was more than 40 months in both treatment groups (P > 0.1). The mean transfusion requirements and the number of hospital admissions for rebleeding were also similar in the two treatment groups (P > 0.1). Complete obliteration of varices was achieved in 44 (78.9%) patients in the placebo group and 43 (75.5%) patients in the propranolol group (P > 0.1). Recurrence of new varices was seen in two patients in the placebo and in three of those in the propranolol group. Seven patients in the placebo group and five in the propranolol group died (P > 0.1). Complications related to EST were similar in the two treatment groups but additional adverse effects were observed in the propranolol group. The cumulative incidence of rebleeding in the placebo group was 12.7 and in the propranolol group it was 11.2 per 100 patient years of follow-up. It is concluded that the addition of propranolol in patients with portal hypertension and fair hepatic function on long-term EST does not confer any additional benefit.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S.Interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis B: more information but clarity eludes.Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Oct-Dec;15(4):177-8.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Oct-Dec;15(4):177-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Plasma fibronectin is an opsonic glycoprotein, normally synthesized by the liver, which decreases subsequent to severe liver damage and low levels of which may contribute to reticuloendothelial system dysfunction by compromising opsonic activity. This may result in an increased frequency of infection and death. The present study was conducted to evaluate the association of plasma fibronectin activity with infection and mortality in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. METHODS: Plasma fibronectin was estimated serially in 69 consecutive patients with fulminant hepatic failure, nine patients with uncomplicated acute viral hepatitis and 32 normal volunteers. RESULTS: Plasma fibronectin levels in patients with fulminant hepatic failure (85.6 +/- 75.8 micrograms/ml) were significantly lower than in patients with uncomplicated acute viral hepatitis (295.5 +/- 88.5 micrograms/ml) and healthy volunteers (362.6 +/- 69.2 micrograms/ml). Forty-nine (72%) patients with fulminant hepatic failure died. The initial values of fibronectin in fulminant hepatic failure did not correlate with mortality. Patients with fulminant hepatic failure who survived showed a progressive rise in the fibronectin levels compared to the absence of an increase in fibronectin levels in the non-survivors. The mortality in patients with fulminant hepatic failure with infection (24/27) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to those without infection (25/42). Initial fibronectin levels in patients with infection (70.3 +/- 54.2 micrograms/ml) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in those without infection (92.3 +/- 64.4 micrograms/ml). We conclude that plasma fibronectin levels in patients with fulminant hepatic failure are decreased compared to healthy subjects and the absence of an increase in levels indicates a poor prognosis. Low levels of fibronectin are associated with an increased incidence of infection, which increases the mortality in these patients.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S.Liver failure; varied manifestation and confusing classification.Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Apr-Jun;15(2):43-4.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Apr-Jun;15(2):43-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) was tested for in a group of 16 defined non-B chronic hepatitis patients using specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These were chosen from amongst 56 biopsy proven cases of chronic hepatitis of which majority (40) were positive for hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis C virus RNA could be demonstrated in 12 (75%) of remaining 16 cases. These include all seven patients positive for antibody to HCV. Two of these patients had past history of blood transfusion and in another two the clinical course started with severe acute liver disease. This study establishes the association of HCV with severe liver disease. The clinical and biochemical profiles are also discussed. In view of limited sensitivity of the antibody assays it is justified to develop diagnostic testes based on local strains.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S.Management of hepatic metastases: hope for the hopeless.Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Jul-Sep;15(3):119-20.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Jul-Sep;15(3):119-20. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) was tested for in a group of 16 defined non-B chronic hepatitis patients using specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These were chosen from amongst 56 biopsy proven cases of chronic hepatitis of which majority (40) were positive for hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis C virus RNA could be demonstrated in 12 (75%) of remaining 16 cases. These include all seven patients positive for antibody to HCV. Two of these patients had past history of blood transfusion and in another two the clinical course started with severe acute liver disease. This study establishes the association of HCV with severe liver disease. The clinical and biochemical profiles are also discussed. In view of limited sensitivity of the antibody assays it is justified to develop diagnostic testes based on local strains.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S.Pharmacotherapy in refractory ascites due to cirrhosis; the search continues.Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Jan-Mar;15(1):1-2.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1994 Jan-Mar;15(1):1-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract
The present study describes the frequency of hepatitis viral markers in patients with uncomplicated acute viral hepatitis (AVH; n = 32) and in patients with severe liver diseases, including those with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF; n = 110), subacute hepatic failure (SAHF; n = 65), and chronic active hepatitis (CAH; n = 33). The results indicate that hepatitis A virus infection is quite rare, whereas hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are the predominant causes of acute and chronic liver failure in India. The incidence of HBV infection in AVH, FHF, SAHF, and CAH groups was recorded in 3.7, 19.1, 23.1, and 69.7% of the cases, respectively. Similarly, HCV infection in these four groups was noted in 12.5, 45, 44.6, and 48.5% of the cases, respectively. Further analysis of HCV infection demonstrated that it was as frequent as single infection in acute cases, but more commonly found in association with HBV infection in chronic liver failure cases. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection, as indicated by the presence of IgM anti-HDV antibodies, was recorded in 7.3% of the cases with AVH, in 7.3% of the cases with FHF, in 9.2% of the cases with SAHF, and in 6.1% of the cases with CAH. HDV was associated with HBV both as superinfection as well as coinfection. Interestingly, nearly 2-6% of the cases in each group showed the presence of simultaneous HBV, HCV, and HDV infection. 83.3% of the AVH, 42.1% of the FHF, 37.0% of the SAHF, and 15.1% of the CAH patients had unknown viral markers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Dasarathy S.Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotics: explosion of information.Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Jul-Sep;14(3):77-8.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Jul-Sep;14(3):77-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract
PCR was used to demonstrate the presence of a conserved region and to clone novel members of the cytochrome P-450 4A gene family from guinea pig, human and mouse cDNAs. This strategy is based on the sequences at nucleotides 925-959 and at the haem binding domain (nucleotides 1381-1410) of the rat CYP4A1 gene. Murine Cyp4a clones showed high sequence identity with members of the rat gene family, but CYP4A clones from human and guinea pig were equally similar to the rat/mouse genes, suggesting that the rat/mouse line had undergone gene duplication events after divergence from human and guinea-pig lines. The mouse Cyp4a-12 clone was localized to chromosome 4 using interspecific backcross mapping, in a region of synteny with human chromosome 1. The assignment of the human CYP4A11 gene to chromosome 1 was confirmed by somatic cell hybridization. An RNAase protection assay was shown to discriminate between the murine Cyp4a-10 and Cyp4a-12 cDNAs. Treatment of mice with the potent peroxisome proliferator methylclofenapate (25 mg/kg) induced Cyp4a-10 RNA in liver, and to a lesser extent in kidney; there was no sex difference in this response. Cyp4a-12 RNA was present at high levels in male control liver and kidney samples, and was not induced by treatment with methylclofenapate. However, Cyp4a-12 RNA was present at low levels in control female liver and kidney RNA, and was greatly induced in both organs by methylclofenapate. Guinea pigs were exposed to methylclofenapate (50 mg/kg), but there was no significant induction of the guinea-pig CYP4A13 RNA. These findings are consistent with a species difference in response to peroxisome proliferators between the rat/mouse and the guinea pig.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Irshad M, Gandhi BM, Joshi YK, Tandon BN.Pre-S proteins–a new marker for the hepatitis-B virus.Trop Gastroenterol. 1987 Apr-Jun;8(2):91-8.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1987 Apr-Jun;8(2):91-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1987. Abstract
A simple and sensitive ELISA was developed to characterize the interaction between polymerised human serum albumin (pHSA) and HBsAg, using pHSA-coated polyvinylmicrotitre plates as solid phase and anti-HBs-coupled HRPO as the conjugate. The interaction was found to be specific and dependent on the size of albumin polymer. pHSA-binding activity (pHSA-BA) was studied in both HBsAg-negative and HBsAg-positive sera from various liver diseases including acute viral hepatitis, fulminant hepatitis, cirrhosis of liver, chronic active hepatitis, and healthy HBsAg carriers. pHSA-BA was detected only in HBsAg-positive sera. Analysis of HBsAg-positive sera indicated pHSA-BA in high proportions of patients sera as compared to sera from healthy HBsAg carriers. pHSA-BA was detected both in the presence and absence of HBe markers, though the mean BA was relatively high in presence of HBeAg. The effect of human serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM) on the BA was investigated and a correlation between pHSA-BA and HBsAg-IgM complex positivity in sera was established. Finally, the probable role of human serum IgM in facilitating the binding process was discussed.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Mishra PK.Chronic calcific pancreatitis of the tropics.Trop Gastroenterol. 1984 Jul-Sep;5(3):124-34.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1984 Jul-Sep;5(3):124-34. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1984. Abstract
Nine patients with acute liver failure due to Plasmodium falciparum liver injury admitted to the Rajgarhia Liver Unit of the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences during 1982-84 are presented. The liver was palpable in all the patients, and eight had splenomegaly. Investigations revealed mild to moderate abnormality in liver function tests. All were negative for the markers of acute infection due to hepatitis A and B viruses. Blood film examination showed P. falciparum alone in seven and along with P. vivax in the remaining two patients. Liver histology, which was identical in all eight patients where liver biopsy was done, showed centrizonal necrosis and hyperplastic Kupffer cells loaded with malarial pigment. All the patients recovered with specific anti-malarial and supportive treatment. Our observations suggest that malaria due to P. falciparum may present as jaundice and encephalopathy which stimulates acute hepatic failure due to fulminant hepatitis.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Panda SK, Duphare H, Dasarathy S, Ramesh R, Jameel S, Nijhawan S, Irshad M, Tandon BN.Chronic hepatitis in a large Indian hospital.Natl Med J India. 1993 Sep-Oct;6(5):202-6.". In: Natl Med J India. 1993 Sep-Oct;6(5):202-6. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract
BACKGROUND. In developed countries as well as in Southeast Asia, the hepatitis B and C viruses are the main causes of chronic hepatitis. In India, however, there have been no major investigations on the aetiology of chronic hepatitis. (The hepatitis E virus which is responsible for half the sporadic and most of the epidemic cases of acute viral hepatitis in India does not cause chronic disease.) We, therefore, studied the profile of chronic hepatitis in India. METHODS. The clinical presentation, aetiology, serology and histological changes were studied prospectively in 48 patients with chronic hepatitis admitted to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Of these, 44 (92%) had chronic active hepatitis, 3 (6.3%) had chronic persistent hepatitis and 1 (2%) had chronic lobular hepatitis. RESULTS. The hepatitis B virus was the aetiological agent in 24 (50%) of these patients, the hepatitis D virus in association with hepatitis B virus in 10 (21%), the hepatitis C virus in 7 (15%) and the non-A, non-B viruses other than the hepatitis C virus in 6 (13%). One patient (2.0%) had autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Jaundice at presentation was seen in 33 (69%) patients and more than half had hypoalbuminaemia (< 3 g/dl) with a prolonged prothrombin time. Alanine aminotransferase levels were less than 5 times above normal in over two-thirds of the patients. The highest alanine aminotransferase values were observed in patients with hepatitis D virus infection whereas the lowest were seen in patients with non-A, non-B related chronic active hepatitis. Histological examination revealed bridging necrosis in 40 (91%) patients with chronic active hepatitis indicating a severe form of disease. Replication of the hepatitis B virus was seen in 13 patients with chronic hepatitis, 5 of whom had hepatitis D virus-induced chronic hepatitis. Patients with hepatitis B virus replication had higher alanine aminotransferase values and more severe bridging necrosis than patients who did not have replicating viruses. Higher alanine aminotransferase values, ascites and oesophageal varices were encountered more frequently in patients with hepatitis B and D virus than in those with non-A, non-B related chronic hepatitis. CONCLUSION. Chronic hepatitis is not uncommon in India. It presents with evidence of severe disease and, as elsewhere, is most frequently caused by the hepatitis B virus.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Panda SK, Saxena A, Gupta SD.Acute hepatic failure in India: a perspective from the East.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 May;15(5):473-9.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 May;15(5):473-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2000. Abstract
Acute hepatic failure (AHF) in India almost always presents with encephalopathy within 4 weeks of the onset of acute hepatitis. Further subclassification of AHF into hyperacute, acute and subacute forms may not be necessary in this geographical area, where the rapidity of onset of encephalopathy does not seem to influence survival. Viral hepatitis is the cause in approximately 95-100% of patients, who therefore constitute a more homogeneous population than AHF patients in the West. In India, hepatitis E (HEV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses are the most important causes of AHF; approximately 60% of cases are caused by to these viruses. Hepatitis B virus core mutants are very important agents in cases where hepatitis B results in AHF in this country. Half of the patients with AHF admitted to our centre are female, one-quarter of whom are pregnant. Therefore, pregnant females who contract viral hepatitis constitute a high-risk group for the development of AHF. However, the outcome of AHF in this group is similar to that in non-pregnant women and men. No association with any particular virus has been identified among sporadic cases of AHF. In our centre, approximately one-third of AHF patients survive with aggressive conservative therapy, whereas two-thirds of deaths occur within 72 h of hospitalization. Cerebral oedema and sepsis are the major fatal complications. Both fungal and gram-negative bacteria are major causes of sepsis. Among patients with AHF, despite the presence of sepsis, its overt clinical features (i.e. fever, leucocytosis) may be absent and objective documentation of the presence of sepsis in such patients is achieved by repeated culture of various body fluids. It should be possible to develop simple, clinical prognostic markers for AHF in this geographical region, in order to identify patients suitable for liver transplantation.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Panda SK.Hepatitis E virus: epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology and prevention.Trop Gastroenterol. 2006 Apr-Jun;27(2):63-8.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2006 Apr-Jun;27(2):63-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
HEV, a positive stranded RNA virus, is responsible for most of the epidemics of hepatitis in the developing world and is transmitted through contaminated water. It is the major aetiological agent for acute hepatitis and acute liver failure in endemic regions. It causes severe liver disease among pregnant females and patients with chronic liver disease. Serodiagnosis of HEV is now available and should be used routinely for diagnosis. The available evidence suggests that HEV may also be transmitted parenterally as well as vertically particularly in endemic areas. Experimental studies suggest that an HEV vaccine is a distinct possibility in the near future. In the absence of an effective vaccine, public health measures such as clean water supply, improved sanitation and public education are the major tools to prevent HEV epidemics in developing nations.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK, Vashisht S, Tandon RK.Primary sclerosing cholangitis in India.Gastroenterol Jpn. 1989 Feb;24(1):75-9.". In: Gastroenterol Jpn. 1989 Feb;24(1):75-9. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1989. Abstract
Six patients with PSC have been diagnosed and followed up at a centre in Northern India for periods up to 4 years. They all presented with cholestatic jaundice and cholangitis, but one of them subsequently presented with variceal haemorrhage. Cholangiographic features were the most characteristic and included irregular narrowing and segmental dilatation of the biliary radicles giving them a beaded appearance. Treating them was most frustrating. Two of them died of hepatic encephalopathy, others have also continued to be sick during the follow-up.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK.Biennial meet of the International Association for the Study of the Liver. Cape Town, 18-24 February 1996.Trop Gastroenterol. 1996 Jul-Sep;17(3):193-6.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1996 Jul-Sep;17(3):193-6. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1996. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Preliminary reports indicate that hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection exists in India. However, its prevalence in patients with different types of liver diseases has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of HDV infection in severe types of liver disease in India. METHODS: Using commercial kits for various hepatitis viral markers, the present study was undertaken to determine the serological status of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) markers in 208 patients with severe liver diseases. This total included 110 cases with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), 65 cases with subacute hepatic failure (SHF) and 33 cases with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). RESULTS: The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier population, indicated by the presence of HBsAg without IgM anti-HBc (hepatitis B core) in serum, was recorded in 23.6%, 24.6% and 60.6% cases of FHF, SHF and CAH groups, respectively. HBV infection, as indicated by serum positivity of IgM anti-HBc in the FHF and SHF groups and HBsAg and/or IgM anti-HBc in the CAH group, was detected in 19.1%, 23.1% and 69.7% of cases from these three groups, respectively. IgM anti-HDV, demonstrating active/recent HDV infection, was found in 8.1% cases of FHF and 9.2% cases of SHF patients. HDV as a superinfection in HBsAg carriers was noted in 4.5% and 4.6% cases, respectively of FHF and SHF groups. Similarly, HDV-HBV coinfection, diagnosed by simultaneous presence of IgM anti-HBc and IgM anti-HDV in the FHF and SHF groups, was recorded in 3.6% and 4.6% of cases from these two groups, respectively. In the CAH group, HDV infection was observed in 9.2% cases. CONCLUSION: HDV infection, recorded in less than 10% of patients with different liver diseases in India, seems to be an unimportant factor in inducing severe liver diseases in this country.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK.HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B.Indian J Gastroenterol. 2002 May-Jun;21(3):93-5.". In: Indian J Gastroenterol. 2002 May-Jun;21(3):93-5. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002. Abstract
BACKGROUND: To improve the survival rate of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in whom surgery is not possible, various methods have been developed employing angiographic and percutaneous techniques. We analyzed our experience with various percutaneous therapeutic interventional techniques done for HCC in our center. METHODS: Sixty-one patients with inoperable HCC (mean age 48.9 [SD 13.8] y; 47 men) were treated between January 1997 and December 2000 by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) alone (22), TACE with percutaneous alcohol injection (PEI) (20), transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with steel coils and gel foam for gastrointestinal bleed (7), percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (1), percutaneous preoperative right portal vein embolization (3) and percutaneous preoperative tumor embolization to reduce blood loss at surgery (8). RESULTS: In 42 patients treated by TACE and PEI and TACE alone, tumor necrosis was scored; over 50% necrosis was seen only after six and nine months in both treatment groups. The survival rates after six and nine months and the median survival were similar in the two groups. Of 7 cases treated with TAE with steel coils and gel foam, the gastrointestinal bleeding stopped in four; in the other three, bleeding did not stop completely although less transfusion was required. In the patient treated by radiofrequency ablation, follow-up contrast-enhanced CT did not show enhancing tumor mass. We noted left lobe enlargement after percutaneous preoperative right portal vein embolization, prior to right hepatectomy. CONCLUSION: In patients with HCC not amenable to surgical intervention, a variety of percutaneous therapeutic interventional techniques may be used.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK.HBV treatment: the hazy endpoint.Trop Gastroenterol. 2006 Jul-Sep;27(3):103-4.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2006 Jul-Sep;27(3):103-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in India, which is hyperendemic for HAV and HEV. Seroprevalence studies reveal that 90%-100% of the population acquires anti-HAV antibody and becomes immune by adolescence. Many epidemics of HEV have been reported from India. HAV related liver disease is uncommon in India and occurs mainly in children. HEV is also the major cause of sporadic adult acute viral hepatitis and ALF. Pregnant women and patients with CLD constitute the high risk groups to contract HEV infection, and HEV-induced mortality among them is substantial, which underlines the need for preventive measures for such groups. Children with HAV and HEV coinfection are prone to develop ALF. India has intermediate HBV endemicity, with a carrier frequency of 2%-4%. HBV is the major cause of CLD and HCC. Chronic HBV infection in India is acquired in childhood, presumably before 5 years of age, through horizontal transmission. Vertical transmission of HBV in India is considered to be infrequent. Inclusion of HBV vaccination in the expanded programme of immunization is essential to reduce the HBV carrier frequency and disease burden. HBV genotypes A and D are prevalent in India, which are similar to the HBV genotypes in the West. HCV infection in India has a population prevalence of around 1%, and occurs predominantly through transfusion and the use of unsterile glass syringes. HCV genotypes 3 and 2 are prevalent in 60%-80% of the population and they respond well to a combination of interferon and ribavirin. About 10%-15% of CLD and HCC are associated with HCV infection in India. HCV infection is also a major cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. HDV infection is infrequent in India and is present about 5%-10% of patients with HBV-related liver disease. HCC appears to be less common in India than would be expected from the prevalence rates of HBV and HCV. The high disease burden of viral hepatitis and related CLD in India, calls for the setting up of a hepatitis registry and formulation of government-supported prevention and control strategies.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK.Hepatology in India–sailing without a mast.Trop Gastroenterol. 1999 Oct-Dec;20(4):145.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1999 Oct-Dec;20(4):145. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1999. Abstract
Acute hepatic failure (AHF) in India almost always presents with encephalopathy within 4 weeks of the onset of acute hepatitis. Further subclassification of AHF into hyperacute, acute and subacute forms may not be necessary in this geographical area, where the rapidity of onset of encephalopathy does not seem to influence survival. Viral hepatitis is the cause in approximately 95-100% of patients, who therefore constitute a more homogeneous population than AHF patients in the West. In India, hepatitis E (HEV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses are the most important causes of AHF; approximately 60% of cases are caused by to these viruses. Hepatitis B virus core mutants are very important agents in cases where hepatitis B results in AHF in this country. Half of the patients with AHF admitted to our centre are female, one-quarter of whom are pregnant. Therefore, pregnant females who contract viral hepatitis constitute a high-risk group for the development of AHF. However, the outcome of AHF in this group is similar to that in non-pregnant women and men. No association with any particular virus has been identified among sporadic cases of AHF. In our centre, approximately one-third of AHF patients survive with aggressive conservative therapy, whereas two-thirds of deaths occur within 72 h of hospitalization. Cerebral oedema and sepsis are the major fatal complications. Both fungal and gram-negative bacteria are major causes of sepsis. Among patients with AHF, despite the presence of sepsis, its overt clinical features (i.e. fever, leucocytosis) may be absent and objective documentation of the presence of sepsis in such patients is achieved by repeated culture of various body fluids. It should be possible to develop simple, clinical prognostic markers for AHF in this geographical region, in order to identify patients suitable for liver transplantation.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK.Incidental detection of hepatitis B surface antigen: a growing concern for the Indian physician.Trop Gastroenterol. 2002 Apr-Jun;23(2):47-8.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2002 Apr-Jun;23(2):47-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2002. Abstract
Chronic Calcific Pancreatitis of Tropics is a disease of unknown aetiology and is characterised by chronic pancreatitis with calcification in young persons who present with pain, diabetes, and/or steatorrhoea. ERCP performed on 42 patients with this condition revealed changes compatible with chronic pancreatitis. These changes were however, more marked and somewhat different from those seen in the alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Cystic dilatation, tortuosity, and obstruction of the main pancreatic duct were similar to that in alcoholic pancreatitis. The features of CCPT that were different from those of latter, were large pancreatic calculi, absence of strictures/stenosis and absence of irregularity of the ductal wall. The calculi were predominantly in the head region of the pancreas causing maximal dilatation of the main pancreatic duct in the head of pancreas. The secondary branches were stunted, short and scanty but revealed a lower grade of changes, than the changes documented in the main pancreatic duct. The pancreatic ductal changes in CCPT seems to be different from that seen in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis and may be due to the difference in the pathophysiology of the underlying disease.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK.Leading-edge Scientific and clinical advances, 9-10 January, Monte Carlo, Monaco.Trop Gastroenterol. 1998 Jan-Mar;19(1):40-4.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1998 Jan-Mar;19(1):40-4. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1998. Abstract
Fifty consecutive patients with surgical obstructive jaundice were evaluated prospectively with ultrasonography (US), computed tomographic scans (CT scan) and cholangiography-percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) or endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreaticography (ERCP). The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in defining the level of obstruction was 86% as compared to 86% and 94.8% for CT scan and cholangiography, respectively. To measure the etiology of the obstruction, the accuracy of ultrasound, CT scan and cholangiography were 84%, 86% and 75%, respectively. The sensitivity of CT scans and cholangiography in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis was 100%, 81.8% and 90%, respectively, whereas specificity was 97%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Sensitivity for a diagnosis of malignant disease was 100% for both US and CT scans whereas specificity was 90% and 81%, respectively. Ultrasonography as a single radiological investigation is sufficient in the evaluation of the majority of patients with surgical obstructive jaundice. CT scan and cholangiography should be done only when US gives equivocal findings or if concomitant therapeutic procedures like basketing and stenting are also planned.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK.Liver transplant in India: miles to go.Trop Gastroenterol. 1992 Oct-Dec;13(4):127-8.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1992 Oct-Dec;13(4):127-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
Thirty patients with portal hypertension resulting from extrahepatic portal vein obstruction were studied. Evidence of postshunt encephalopathy was sought using neurological and psychometric tests and visual evoked potentials. Eleven patients were studied before and after lienorenal shunt operations and 19 at varying intervals, from 6 to 123 (median 26) months, after the same procedure. All the shunts were patent and none of the patients developed clinical or subclinical encephalopathy. In patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction, a lienorenal shunt does not appear to be associated with postshunt encephalopathy.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Acharya SK.Management of chronic hepatitis B: the Indian perspective. Trop Gastroenterol. 2005 Oct-Dec;26(4):171-2.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 2005 Oct-Dec;26(4):171-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
AIM: Passive immunotherapy using antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been advocated in certain cases of Hepatitis B infection. We had earlier reported on the cloning and expression of a high affinity scFv derived from a mouse monoclonal (5S) against HBsAg. However this mouse antibody cannot be used for therapeutic purposes as it may elicit anti-mouse immune responses. Chimerization by replacing mouse constant domains with human ones can reduce the immunogenicity of this antibody. METHODS: We cloned the V(H) and V(L) genes of this mouse antibody, and fused them with CH1 domain of human IgG1 and C(L) domain of human kappa chain respectively. These chimeric genes were cloned into a phagemid vector. After initial screening using the phage display system, the chimeric Fab was expressed in soluble form in E. coli. RESULTS: The chimeric Fab was purified from the bacterial periplasmic extract. We characterized the chimeric Fab using several in vitro techniques and it was observed that the chimeric molecule retained the high affinity and specificity of the original mouse monoclonal. This chimeric antibody fragment was further expressed in different strains of E. coli to increase the yield. CONCLUSION: We have generated a mouse-human chimeric Fab against HBsAg without any significant loss in binding and epitope specificity. This chimeric Fab fragment can be further modified to generate a full-length chimeric antibody for therapeutic uses.
Wanjala C. "Achebe: Teacher and Satirist.". In: Standpoints on African Literature. Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau; 1973.
WAMBUI JANE. "Achievements and constraints among rural Kenyan women." Project paper for Winrock International; 2012. Abstract
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ROSEMARY DRATIENO. ""Achievements and Constraints of Structural Adjustments on the Micro-Economy in Africa: "Lending Policies and the Use of Credit Funds among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya". In: Savings and Development, Vol. 22, number 2, 1998.". In: Towards an Understanding of the Business Systems in Kenya:the concept and research issues in the metal products sub-sector". IDS Working Paper Number 534,. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
Rodenburg, J; Diagne OFKPM; SKSOA; S; K;. Achievements and impact of NERICA on sustainable rice production in sub - Saharan Africa..; 2006. Abstract

In terms of production, rice is the fourth most important cereal (after sorghum, maize and millet) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It occupies 10 percent of the total land under cereal production and accounts for 15 percent of total cereal production (FAOSTAT, 2006). Approximately 20 million farmers in SSA grow rice and about 100 million people depend on it for their livelihoods (Nwanze et al., 2006). Rice is the staple food of a growing number of people in SSA: from 1961 to 2003 consumption increased at a rate of 4.4 percent per year (Kormawa, Keya and Touré, 2004). Among the major cereals cultivated, rice is the most rapidly growing food source in Africa: between 1985 and 2003, the annual increase in rice production was 4 percent, while production growth for maize and sorghum was only about 2.4 and 2.5 percent, respectively (Kormawa, Keya and Touré, 2004). The most widely grown rice species, Oryza sativa, is originally from Asia and was introduced into Africa only about 450 years ago. Another less well-known rice species, O. glaberrima (Steud), is originally from Africa and was domesticated in the Niger River Delta over 3 500 years ago (Viguier, 1939; Carpenter, 1978). As a result of their evolution, domestication and breeding history, both species have distinct and complementary advantages and disadvantages for use in African farming systems. The Asian rice (O. sativa) is characterized by good yields, absence of lodging and grain shattering, and high fertilizer returns – unlike its African counterpart (O. glaberrima). However, in contrast to Asian rice types, landraces of O. glaberrima often have good weed competitiveness and resilience against major African biotic and abiotic stresses (Koffi, 1980; Jones et al., 1997a). Dalton and Guei (2003) concluded that research into genetic enhancement of rice generated approximately US$360 million in 1998, compared with a total investment of just US$5.6 million. This is evidence that rice variety improvement has a potentially enormous impact on the economic development of SSA. Numerous conventional breeding efforts have been made to improve the performance of upland rice (O. sativa) for use in African farming systems. These efforts have had only limited success, partly because the Asian rice, O. sativa, lacks resistance or tolerance to many of the typical African stresses (Jones et al., 1997a).

Gravenir P, Obae DM. "Achieving full enrolment in Kenya." Maseno Journal of Education,Arts and Science. 1992:47-57.
O'Day DH. "Acid protease activity during germination of microcysts of the cellular slime mold Polysphondylium pallidum." J. Bacteriol.. 1976;125(1):8-13. Abstract

Extracts of dormant microcysts of Polysphondylium pallidum demonstrate pH optima for the hydrolysis of casein at 3.5 and 6.0. During germination the intracellular pH 6.0 caseinolytic specific activity does not change significantly. The pH 6.0 protease is also active on azo-albumin, revealing the same developmental pattern with this substrate. Both acid protease activities are excreted during the germination process. Addition of purified nonspecific protease to cultures speeds up germination, suggesting that the excreted protease may play a role in removal of the microcyst wall. When cycloheximide is added to cultures, complete germination (emergence) is stopped whereas the pH 6.0 protease activity still accumulates to between 50 and 60% of the maximum control activity. Although this suggests that post-translational controls might mediate the accumulation of a portion of the pH 6.0 protease increase, mixing and dilution experiments with cell extracts do not reveal the differential presence of soluble activators or inhibitors of this activity at different developmental stages. The presence of tightly bound enzyme-inhibitor complexes for protease B in dormant microcysts has not been ruled out and is currently under study.

Keter JKA. "Acid strength at clay mineral surfaces.". 1986. AbstractWebsite

The interactions of ,{1 3+ -montmorillonite, Na+ - montmorillonite and Na+ -kaolinite with selected Hammett indicators have been reinvestigated. The use of a series of indicators with different acid strengths, Ho, to determine the activity of protons on the clay surface was basid on the assumption that the activity of H+ on the clay surface is equivalent to activity in solution. The results show that A13+- montmorillonite had the hiehest acid strength, especially after drying at 1lfc. Na+-kaolinite had Ih" lo*r"rt acid strength, at two moisture levels: befirre washing with ethanol and u{"l g1lporation of this alcohol. At all moisture levels the acid strength of A1'* -montmorillonite was greater than that of either Nai - montmorillonite or Na+ - kaolinite.

Silen W, Machen TE, Forte JG. "Acid-base balance in amphibian gastric mucosa." Am. J. Physiol.. 1975;229(3):721-30. Abstract

It has been established that H+ secretion can be maintained in frog stomach in the absence of exogenous CO2 by using a nutrient bathing fluid containing 25 mM H2PO4 (pH approximately equal to 4.5) or by lowering the pH of a nonbuffered nutrient solution to about 3.0-3.6. Exogenous CO2 in the presence of these nutrient solutions uniformly caused a marked decrease in H+ secretion, PD, adn short-circuit current (Isc) and an increase in transmucosal resistance (R). Elevation of nutrient [k+] to 83 mM reduced R significantly but transiently without change in H+ when nutrient pH less than 5.0, whereas R returned to base line and H+ increased when nutrient pH greater than 5.0. Acidification of the nutrient medium in the presence of exogenous CO2 results in inhibition of the secretory pump, probably by decreasing intracellular pH, and also interferes with conductance at the nutrient membrane. Removal of exogenous CO2 from standard bicarbonate nutrient solution reduced by 50% the H+, PD, and Isc without change in R; K+-free nutrient solutions reverse these changes in Isc and PD but not in H+. The dropping PD and rising R induced by K+-free nutrient solutions in 5% CO2 - 95% O2 are returned toward normal by 100% O2. Our findings support an important role for exogenous CO2 in maintaining normal acid-base balance in frog mucosa by acting as an acidifying agent.

McNamara J, Worthley LI. "Acid-base balance: part {II}. {Pathophysiology}." Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine. 2001;3:188-201. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To review the normal human acid-base physiology and the pathophysiology and management of acid-base disturbances in a two-part presentation. DATA SOURCES: Articles and published peer-review abstracts and a review of studies reported from 1990 to 2000 and identified through a MEDLINE search of the English language literature on acid-base balance. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: Acid-base disorders are usually classified as metabolic (non-respiratory) or respiratory, depending on whether the primary change occurs in the plasma bicarbonate or the carbonic acid (i.e. carbon dioxide) concentrations, respectively. Respiratory or renal compensatory changes usually occur to minimise the effect of the primary disturbance. A metabolic acidosis arises from an abnormal process that generates non-carbonic acid or an abnormal loss of HCO3- and may be identified by an increase or normal anion gap, respectively. The arterial blood gas usually reveals a pH {\textless} 7.36, PCO2 {\textless} 35 mmHg and 'calculated' HCO3- {\textless} 18 mmol/L. In general, a high anion gap acidosis is managed by treating the disorder generating the acid (thereby ceasing the acid production) and enhancing the clearance of the acid anion (e.g. by metabolism or excretion) thereby regenerating the HCO3- reduced by buffering. A metabolic alkalosis arises from an abnormal process generating excess HCO3-. The arterial blood gas usually reveals a pH {\textgreater} 7.44, PCO2 {\textgreater} 45 mmHg and 'calculated' HCO3- {\textgreater} 32 mmol/L. As the kidney has a large capacity to excrete HCO3-, management usually requires treatment of the processes that are generating as well maintaining the alkalosis. Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis are usually caused by a primary disorder of carbon-dioxide excretion, and correction of the pH disorder only occurs with correction of the primary disease process. CONCLUSIONS: In man, acid-base disturbances are usually classified as either metabolic or respiratory. Correction of the underlying disorder is often all that is required to allow the body to metabolise or excrete the acid or alkali and return the buffer pair (HCO3- and PCO2) to normal.

McNamara J, Worthley LI. "Acid-base balance: part {II}. {Pathophysiology}." Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine. 2001;3:188-201. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To review the normal human acid-base physiology and the pathophysiology and management of acid-base disturbances in a two-part presentation. DATA SOURCES: Articles and published peer-review abstracts and a review of studies reported from 1990 to 2000 and identified through a MEDLINE search of the English language literature on acid-base balance. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: Acid-base disorders are usually classified as metabolic (non-respiratory) or respiratory, depending on whether the primary change occurs in the plasma bicarbonate or the carbonic acid (i.e. carbon dioxide) concentrations, respectively. Respiratory or renal compensatory changes usually occur to minimise the effect of the primary disturbance. A metabolic acidosis arises from an abnormal process that generates non-carbonic acid or an abnormal loss of HCO3- and may be identified by an increase or normal anion gap, respectively. The arterial blood gas usually reveals a pH {\textless} 7.36, PCO2 {\textless} 35 mmHg and 'calculated' HCO3- {\textless} 18 mmol/L. In general, a high anion gap acidosis is managed by treating the disorder generating the acid (thereby ceasing the acid production) and enhancing the clearance of the acid anion (e.g. by metabolism or excretion) thereby regenerating the HCO3- reduced by buffering. A metabolic alkalosis arises from an abnormal process generating excess HCO3-. The arterial blood gas usually reveals a pH {\textgreater} 7.44, PCO2 {\textgreater} 45 mmHg and 'calculated' HCO3- {\textgreater} 32 mmol/L. As the kidney has a large capacity to excrete HCO3-, management usually requires treatment of the processes that are generating as well maintaining the alkalosis. Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis are usually caused by a primary disorder of carbon-dioxide excretion, and correction of the pH disorder only occurs with correction of the primary disease process. CONCLUSIONS: In man, acid-base disturbances are usually classified as either metabolic or respiratory. Correction of the underlying disorder is often all that is required to allow the body to metabolise or excrete the acid or alkali and return the buffer pair (HCO3- and PCO2) to normal.

Taha SM, El-Nakhal MNS, Ishac YZ. "Acid-fermented vegetables.". 1983.Website
W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Acitivity of Gardenia Jovis Tonantis on isolated rabbit ileum and rat phrenic nerve diaphram. K.J. Achola. J.W. Mwangi and Rahab W. Munenge. (1993).". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1993. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, A. C. (1989). Extension Services and Appropriate Farming Technologies for Women in the Dryland Areas of Kenya. European Association of Agricultural Economists (EAAE) Conference, Montpellier, France May 29 - June 2, 1989.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1989.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, A. C. (1990). The Farming Systems Approach to Research and Extension (FSA/RE): Model and Training Requirements. National Workshop on Farming Systems Approach to Research, Extension and Training, March 5-7 1990.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1990.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, A. C. (Editor),Kenya's Rural Research Priorities: Proceedings of a Seminar held at Naivasha. University of Nairobi. Institute for Development Studies (IDS), Occasional Paper No.53.". In: Proceedings of a Seminar held at Naivasha 28-30 April, 1988. University of Nairobi. Institute for Development Studies (IDS), Occasional Paper No.53. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1988.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, A.C., J. M. Bahemuka and E. N. Mwaura (1990). Reducing Post-Harvest Losses: Perceptions of Farmers and Extension Workers in Kenya. Discovery and Innovation Journal of the African Academy of Sciences (Volume 2 Number 1 pp.36-39.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1990.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1976). "The Marketing of Poultry Meat and Eggs in Nairobi". Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. Unpub. M.Sc.Thesis.". In: Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi. Unpub. M.Sc.Thesis. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1976.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1982). "A Test of the Nutrient Non-Substitution Hypothesis in Crop Response and Fertilizer Carry-over Analysis". University of California, Davis. Ph.D. Dissertation that received the award for being one of the top ten dissertations prod.". In: Ph.D. Dissertation that received the award for being one of the top ten dissertations produced in Canada and USA for the year 1982. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1982.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1991). Livestock Production Profile in Environmental Change and Dryland Management in Machakos District, Kenya 1930 - 1990, M. Tiffen (Editor), ODI/University of Nairobi.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1996). Methodologies for estimating Informal Cross-Border trade in Eastern and Southern Africa. USAID SD Publication Series, Technical Paper # 29.". In: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Seriers, Technical Paper No. 59. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1997). Regional Cooperation and Trade in the Greater Horn of Africa: Proceedings of a Workshop held at the Kenya Commercial Bank Institute, Nairobi, February 18-19 1997. Publication of the Technical Advisory Committee of the African Rur.". In: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Seriers, Technical Paper No. 59. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1997.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1998) Informal Cross-border Trade in Eastern and Southern Africa: Methodological Approaches and Preliminary Results. In Asiwaju, A. I. and M. de Leeuw (Editors): Border Region Development in Africa: Focus on eastern and southern Sub-Reg.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1999). Constraints and Future Prospects in Marketing of Agricultural Commodities within the East African Community. Paper presented at a Ministerial Seminar on the East African Cooperation; Arusha, March 25 - 26, 1999.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1999.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (1999). Trade in agricultural Commodities in eastern and Southern Africa: Policy Options for Malawi. Paper presented at a Seminar on Trade Liberalization and Regional Integration in southern Africa; Rural Policy Research Center/Malawi In.". In: Proceedings of a forum on regional integration of Eritrean cereals markets, held in Asmara, 23rd July 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1999.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2002). Targeting Agricultural Research for Development in Semi-Arid Tropics of Sub-Sahara Africa. Report by Workshop Facilitator for ICRISAT/Nairobi.". In: Report by Workshop Facilitator for ICRISAT/Nairobi. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2003). Policy Influence by Selected Natural Resource Management Projects of the East and Central Africa Program for Agricultural Policy Analysis (ECAPAPA). Project Evaluation Case Study of IDRC funded projects in East Africa. Report to .". In: Project Evaluation Case Study of IDRC funded projects in East Africa. Report to IDRC/Ottawa. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2003.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2004). Markets to raise incomes for Poor Farmers in Africa, Abstracts of Workshop Papers. Rockefeller Foundation, Food Security Division.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2004.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2004). Review of Research on Agriculture and Rural Development in Kenya over the past five years. World Bank/Kenya.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2004.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2005). Kenya.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2005.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2007). FAO-Kenya Government National Medium Term Priority Framework(NMTPF). FAO/Kenya.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2007.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. (2008). Supply and Demand for Major Agricultural Commodities in the COMESA Region. COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November.". In: COMESA Secretariat, Lusaka, Zambia; November. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2008.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and Echessah, P. (2003). Changing Comparative Advantage and Regional Trade in the Greater Horn of Africa: Implications for Food Security. REMPAI Technical Paper.". In: Implications for Food Security. REMPAI Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2003.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and John J. Waelti (1990). Basic Concepts of Microeconomics with Special Reference to Kenya. University of Nairobi Press, Nairobi.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1990.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and NATURA/NECTAR (1992). Diffusion and Adoption of Technology, in Agricultural Research and Development Towards Sustainable Production Systems. University of Reading. NATURA/NECTAR Teaching Modules.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1992.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah (1996). Informal Cross-border Trade between Kenya and Uganda: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1996.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah (1997). Informal Cross-border Trade in east Africa: Implications for Food Security in Ackello-Ogutu, C. (Editor) - - Regional Cooperation and Trade in the Greater Horn of Africa: Proceedings of a Workshop held at the Keny.". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held in Maputo, November, 1997. USAID SD Publication Series Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1997.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah (1997). Unrecorded Trade between Kenya and Uganda: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Seriers, Technical Paper No. 59.". In: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Seriers, Technical Paper No. 59. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1997.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah (1998). Unrecorded Trade between Tanzania and her Neighbors: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Series Technical Paper No. 89.". In: Implications for Food Security. USAID SD Publication Series Technical Paper No. 89. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1998.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah, N Mwania and T. Oketch, Editors (2002). Opportunities and Challenges of Intra-regional Trade in East and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a forum on Agribusiness Development and regional integration in Malawi held at Capi.". In: Proceedings of a forum on Agribusiness Development and regional integration in Malawi held at Capital Hotel Lilongwe, Malawi 16th April 2002. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and P. Echessah, N Mwania and T. Oketch, Editors (2002). Opportunities and Challenges of Intra-regional Trade in East and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a Regional Workshop held in Zanzibar December 6-8 2001. RTAA/Technoserve, USAID RED.". In: Proceedings of a Regional Workshop held in Zanzibar December 6-8 2001. RTAA/Technoserve, USAID REDSO/ESA, Nairobi. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 2002.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and S. G. Mbogoh (1991). Environmental Change and Dryland Management in Machakos District, Kenya 1930-90. ODI Working Paper No 55, Edited by M. Tiffen.". In: A Round Table Discussion with Ackello-Ogutu et al. EPAT/Winrock International. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. and W. Mwangi (1994). Training of Agricultural Economists in Eastern and Southern Africa, in Peters, G. H. and Douglas D. Hedley (Editors), Agricultural Competitiveness: Market Forces and Policy Choice, Proceedings of XXII International .". In: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Mayfair Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya, December 6, 1996. USAID, SD Publication Series, Technical Paper. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1994.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C. The need for a new approach to fertilizer use and Food Production in the Less Developed Countries. Contributed Paper IAAE Occasional Paper No.4. Agriculture and Economic Instability, IAAE Conference, Malaga, Spain, 26th August - 4th Sept.". In: Contributed Paper IAAE Occasional Paper No.4. Agriculture and Economic Instability, IAAE Conference, Malaga, Spain, 26th August - 4th September,1985. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1985.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C., Q. Paris and W. A. Williams (1985). "Nutrient Non-Substitution in Crop Response. A Non -Nested Hypothesis Test". Working Paper No. 85-4, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of California, Davis.". In: A Non -Nested Hypothesis Test". Working Paper No. 85-4, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of California, Davis. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1985.
AKELLO PROFOGUTUAC. "Ackello-Ogutu, C., Q. Paris, William A. Williams (1985). Testing a Von Liebig Crop Response Function against Polynomial Specifications. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 67 No.4.". In: Testing a Von Liebig Crop Response Function against Polynomial Specifications. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 67 No.4. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1985.
MBULA PROFBAHEMUKAJUDITH. "Ackello-Ogutu, J.M. Bahemuka and E. Mwaura. "Reducing Post-Harvest Losses: Perceptions of Farmers and Extension Workers in Kenya", 1989. Published by Discovery and Innovation, 1990.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1990.
O E, Robert SJ. Acknowledgments.; 1995.
Kimeu M. "Acoustics Design in Auditoria.". In: Green Building Training in Kampala organised by UN Habitat. Kampala; 2014.
Kimeu M. "Acoustics Design in Auditoria.". In: Green Building Training in Nairobi - organised by UN-Habitat . Apollo Centre in Westlands, Nairobi.; 2014.
Kimeu M. "Acoustics Design In Auditoria: The Case of The LRC at CUEA.". In: EAREW. ADD Building; 2014.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "An Acousto-Ultrasonic Study of Model Defects in Model Ceramics and Ceramic Composites',.". In: Ph.D Thesis, University of London,. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991. Abstract
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AO O, SK S, SO ML, Gitonga E, Shah MV, Gitau W. "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African.". 1984.Website
AO O, SK S, SO ML, Gitonga E, Shah MV GW. "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in an African.". In: East African Medical Journal 61(9): 724-726, 1984. b) 1985 2. University of Nairobi.; 1984.
Kariuki S, Mirza N, Mitema ES, Olsvik O. "Acquired tetracycline resistance genes in nosocomial Salmonella typhimurium infection in a Kenyan hospital.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Tetracyclines have been among the most widely used antibiotics worldwide. Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance among hospital strains of bacteria has continued to rise and of major concern has been the transfer of resistance to pathogenic organisms. Bacteraemia due to hospital acquired S. typhimurium has been a major cause of morbidity at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), hence the need to study drug susceptibility pattern of this organism. This study also characterized the tetracycline resistance genes using oligonucleotide probes. Ninety seven S. typhimurium strains isolated from patients at KNH were used. Agar dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Plasmids were isolated from each strain and the different plasmid profiles were grouped by their molecular weights into 6 patterns. Out of 97, 87 (88%) strains were resistant. MIC ranged from 1 microgram/ml to 128 micrograms/ml. Genes encoding for tetracycline resistance were located on plasmids of molecular weights 65 MDa, 5.2 or both. Plasmid-encoded antimicrobial resistance is likely to spread to other pathogenic organisms, reduce our ability to treat the infection and increase the cost and duration of treatment.

Olsvik O, Mitema ES, Gathuma J, Mirza N. "Acquired tetracycline resistance genes in nosocomial Salmonella typhimurium infection in a Kenyan hospital.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Tetracyclines have been among the most widely used antibiotics worldwide. Plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance among hospital strains of bacteria has continued to rise and of major concern has been the transfer of resistance to pathogenic organisms. Bacteraemia due to hospital acquired S. typhimurium has been a major cause of morbidity at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), hence the need to study drug susceptibility pattern of this organism. This study also characterized the tetracycline resistance genes using oligonucleotide probes. Ninety seven S. typhimurium strains isolated from patients at KNH were used. Agar dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Plasmids were isolated from each strain and the different plasmid profiles were grouped by their molecular weights into 6 patterns. Out of 97, 87 (88%) strains were resistant. MIC ranged from 1 microgram/ml to 128 micrograms/ml. Genes encoding for tetracycline resistance were located on plasmids of molecular weights 65 MDa, 5.2 or both. Plasmid-encoded antimicrobial resistance is likely to spread to other pathogenic organisms, reduce our ability to treat the infection and increase the cost and duration of treatment.

kinyuawanjau. Acquisition of books at kenya polytechnic. Nairobi: Technical University of Kenya; 1999.
T
A
HEMED DRKHALILMOHAMMED. "Acquisitions of Technological Capabilities: Some Third Woirld Experiences.". In: Oral presentation, AFRA IV (RAF/4/009) Regional Meeting on Current and Future Activities in Maintenance and Repair of Nuclear Instruments. Arusha, Tanzania: 28th February to 2nd March 1994. University of Nairobi.; 1992.
Mbiuki SM, Mbai K, Gathumbi PK. "Actinobacillus seminis as a cause of ram infertility in Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

An outbreak of epididymitis and orchitis associated with Actinobacillus seminis infection is reported. In the outbreak, both young unmated rams and mature breeding rams were affected. Infected rams were found to have abscessed testes and epididymi and semen of poor quality when compared with uninfected rams. Testicular and epididymal lesions in affected rams were similar to those observed in cases of brucellosis. While no other body systems were observed to be affected by the disease, severe losses may be incurred by farmers through the loss of breeding rams. Infection by A. seminis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of epididymitis and orchitis in Kenya.

Kohn, A; Bruce J, Bruce J, Kinoti G, Mutahi WT, Coles G, Katz N. "Action of oxamniquine on Schistosoma mansoni in mice experimentally infected with a strain from Kenya.". 1984.Website
ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "Action-oriented and participatory health education in primary schools. In C. E. Aldinger and C. V. Whitman (eds), pp. 85-95. Case Studies in Global School Health Promotion: From Research to Practice. New York: Springer.". In: Izvestiya Journal, Geographical series NO. 1 pages 90 - 105, U.S.S.R., Academy of Sciences Moscow, 1980. Science; 2009. Abstract
Ogutu EO. A 10-year (1976-1986) retrospective study was done on 30 cases with histological diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1 and the peak incidence was in the 6th and 7th decades. The head of the pancreas was involved in 96% of cases while solid adenocarcinoma of duct cell origin accounted for 73.3% of cases, followed by anaplastic carcinoma (23.3%). The commonest complications were distinct metastasis (86.6%), obstructive jaundice (73.3%) and upper gastrointestinal bleed (13.6%).
Harrison, L.J.S, Obiero, G.O, Gumede, SP, Highes, A, McMahon, A.R, Rawatlal, R, MS S. Activation of Linear Alkanes to Oxygenated Intermediates and Products using Genetically Engineered Yeast streams. Richards Bay, South Africa; 2007.
Kanui TI, Ole Maloiy GM;, Juma F;, Ole Miaron JO. "Activation of mu, delta or kappa opioid receptors by DAMGO, DPDPE, U-50488 or.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Data available on the role of the opioid systems of the naked mole-rat in nociception is scanty and unique compared to that of other rodents. In the current study, the effect of DAMGO, DPDPE and U-50488 and U-69593 on formalin-induced (20 μl,10%) nociception were investigated. Nociceptive-like behaviors were quantified by scoring in blocks of 5 min the total amount of time (s) the animal spent scratching/biting the injected pawin the early (0–5 min) and in the late (25–60 min) phase of the test. In both the early and late phases, administration of 1 or 5 mg/kg of DAMGO or DPDPE caused a naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. U-50488 and U-69593 at all the doses tested did not significantly change the mean scratching/biting time in the early phase. However, in the late phase U-50488 or U-69593 at the highest doses tested (1 or 5 mg/kg or 0.025 or 0.05 mg/kg, respectively) caused a statistically significant and naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. The data showed that mu, delta or kappa-selective opioids causes antinociception in the formalin test in this rodent, adding novel information on the role of opioid systems of the animal on pain regulation.

Towett PK, Kanui TI, Ole Maloiy GM, Juma F. "Activation of mu, delta or kappa opioid receptors by DAMGO, DPDPE, U-50488 or U-69593 respectively causes antinociception in the formalin test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Data available on the role of the opioid systems of the naked mole-rat in nociception is scanty and unique compared to that of other rodents. In the current study, the effect of DAMGO, DPDPE and U-50488 and U-69593 on formalin-induced (20 μl,10%) nociception were investigated. Nociceptive-like behaviors were quantified by scoring in blocks of 5 min the total amount of time (s) the animal spent scratching/biting the injected pawin the early (0–5 min) and in the late (25–60 min) phase of the test. In both the early and late phases, administration of 1 or 5 mg/kg of DAMGO or DPDPE caused a naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. U-50488 and U-69593 at all the doses tested did not significantly change the mean scratching/biting time in the early phase. However, in the late phase U-50488 or U-69593 at the highest doses tested (1 or 5 mg/kg or 0.025 or 0.05 mg/kg, respectively) caused a statistically significant and naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. The data showed that mu, delta or kappa-selective opioids causes antinociception in the formalin test in this rodent, adding novel information on the role of opioid systems of the animal on pain regulation.

Kanui TI, Ole Maloiy GM, Juma F, Ole Miaron JO. "Activation of mu, delta or kappa opioid receptors by DAMGO, DPDPE, U-50488 or U-69593 respectively causes antinociception in the formalin test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.". 2008. Abstract

Data available on the role of the opioid systems of the naked mole-rat in nociception is scanty and unique compared to that of other rodents. In the current study, the effect of DAMGO, DPDPE and U-50488 and U-69593 on formalin-induced (20 μl,10%) nociception were investigated. Nociceptive-like behaviors were quantified by scoring in blocks of 5 min the total amount of time (s) the animal spent scratching/biting the injected pawin the early (0–5 min) and in the late (25–60 min) phase of the test. In both the early and late phases, administration of 1 or 5 mg/kg of DAMGO or DPDPE caused a naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. U-50488 and U-69593 at all the doses tested did not significantly change the mean scratching/biting time in the early phase. However, in the late phase U-50488 or U-69593 at the highest doses tested (1 or 5 mg/kg or 0.025 or 0.05 mg/kg, respectively) caused a statistically significant and naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. The data showed that mu, delta or kappa-selective opioids causes antinociception in the formalin test in this rodent, adding novel information on the role of opioid systems of the animal on pain regulation.

Towett PK, Kanui TI, Juma F, Ole Miaron JO. "Activation of mu, delta or kappa opioid receptors by DAMGO, DPDPE, U-50488 or U-69593 respectively causes antinociception in the formalin test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Data available on the role of the opioid systems of the naked mole-rat in nociception is scanty and unique compared to that of other rodents. In the current study, the effect of DAMGO, DPDPE and U-50488 and U-69593 on formalin-induced (20 μl,10%) nociception were investigated. Nociceptive-like behaviors were quantified by scoring in blocks of 5 min the total amount of time (s) the animal spent scratching/biting the injected pawin the early (0–5 min) and in the late (25–60 min) phase of the test. In both the early and late phases, administration of 1 or 5 mg/kg of DAMGO or DPDPE caused a naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. U-50488 and U-69593 at all the doses tested did not significantly change the mean scratching/biting time in the early phase. However, in the late phase U-50488 or U-69593 at the highest doses tested (1 or 5 mg/kg or 0.025 or 0.05 mg/kg, respectively) caused a statistically significant and naloxone-attenuated decrease in the mean scratching/biting time. The data showed that mu, delta or kappa-selective opioids causes antinociception in the formalin test in this rodent, adding novel information on the role of opioid systems of the animal on pain regulation.

Mwazighe FM. "Active Components in the Essential Oil from Matricaria recutita L. Grown in Selected Areas in Kenya.". In: 5th SEANAC Conference . Mombasa, Kenya; 2014.
Edwards T, Scott AG MOVMCBKSLWNBGNCRGEE. "Active convulsive epilepsy in a rural district of Kenya: a study of prevalence and possible risk factors." Lancet Neurology. 2008;7(1)(7(1)):50-56. Abstract

Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Few large-scale studies of epilepsy have been done in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of, treatment gap in, and possible risk factors for active convulsive epilepsy in Kenyan people aged 6 years or older living in a rural area.
METHODS:

We undertook a three-phase screening survey of 151,408 individuals followed by a nested community case-control study. Treatment gap was defined as the proportion of cases of active convulsive epilepsy without detectable amounts of antiepileptic drugs in blood.
FINDINGS:

Overall prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy was 2.9 per 1000 (95% CI 2.6-3.2); after adjustment for non-response and sensitivity, prevalence was 4.5 per 1000 (4.1-4.9). Substantial heterogeneity was noted in prevalence, with evidence of clustering. Treatment gap was 70.3% (65.9-74.5), with weak evidence of a difference by sex and area. Adjusted odds of active convulsive epilepsy for all individuals were increased with a family history of non-febrile convulsions (odds ratio 3.3, 95% CI 2.4-4.7; p<0.0001), family history of febrile convulsions (14.6, 6.3-34.1; p<0.0001), history of both seizure types (7.3, 3.3-16.4; p<0.0001), and previous head injury (4.1, 2.1-8.1; p<0.0001). Findings of multivariable analyses in children showed that adverse perinatal events (5.7, 2.6-12.7; p<0.0001) and the child's mother being a widow (5.1, 2.4-11.0; p<0.0001) raised the odds of active convulsive epilepsy.
INTERPRETATION:

Substantial heterogeneity exists in prevalence of active convulsive epilepsy in this rural area in Kenya. Assessment of prevalence, treatment use, and demographic variation in screening response helped to identify groups for targeted interventions. Adverse perinatal events, febrile illness, and head injury are potentially preventable associated factors for epilepsy in this region.

Barongo J, Macheyeki AS, Mdala H, Chapola LS, Manhica VJ, Chisambi J, Feitio P, et al. "Active fault mapping in Karonga-Malawi after the December 19, 2009 Ms 6.2 seismic event." Journal of African Earth Sciences. 2015;102:233-246. AbstractFull Text

The East African Rift System (EARS) has natural hazards – earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides along the faulted margins, and in response to ground shaking. Strong damaging earthquakes have been occurring in the region along the EARS throughout historical time, example being the 7.4 (Ms) of December 1910. The most recent damaging earthquake is the Karonga earthquake in Malawi, which occurred on 19th December, 2009 with a magnitude of 6.2 (Ms). The earthquake claimed four lives and destroyed over 5000 houses. In its effort to improve seismic hazard assessment in the region, Eastern and Southern Africa Seismological Working Group (ESARSWG) under the sponsorship of the International Program on Physical Sciences (IPPS) carried out a study on active fault mapping in the region.

The fieldwork employed geological and geophysical techniques. The geophysical techniques employed are ground magnetic, seismic refraction and resistivity surveys but are reported elsewhere. This article gives findings from geological techniques. The geological techniques aimed primarily at mapping of active faults in the area in order to delineate presence or absence of fault segments. Results show that the Karonga fault (the Karonga fault here referred to as the fault that ruptured to the surface following the 6th–19th December 2009 earthquake events in the Karonga area) is about 9 km long and dominated by dip slip faulting with dextral and insignificant sinistral components and it is made up of 3–4 segments of length 2–3 km. The segments are characterized by both left and right steps.

Although field mapping show only 9 km of surface rupture, maximum vertical offset of about 43 cm imply that the surface rupture was in little excess of 14 km that corresponds with Mw = 6.4. We recommend the use or integration of multidisciplinary techniques in order to better understand the fault history, mechanism and other behavior of the fault/s for better urban planning in the area.

Macheyeki AS, Chapola LS, Manhiça V, Chisambi J, Feitio P, Ayele A, Barongo J, Ferdinand RW, Ghebrebrhan O, Goitom B, Hlatywayo JD, Kianji GK, Marohbe I, Mulowezi A, Mutamina D, Mwano JM, Shumba B, andTumwikiri. "Active Fault Mapping in Karonga-Malawi after the December 19, 2009 Ms 6.2 Seismic Event.". 2014.
Kuria, Z.N., Woldai, T., Barongo, J.O., van der F.D. M. "Active fault segments as potential earthquake sources: inferences from integrated geophysical mapping of the Magadi fault system, southern Kenya Rift." Journal of African Earth Sciences . 2010;57:345-359.
A.M G, P. L, S. L, M. W, H. A-A, M. F, G. C, Z. Q, JP. S. "Active management of the third stage of labour with and without controlled cord traction: a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial." Lancet. 2012;379(9827):1721-7. Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Active management of the third stage of labour reduces the risk of post-partum haemorrhage. We aimed to assess whether controlled cord traction can be omitted from active management of this stage without increasing the risk of severe haemorrhage.

METHODS:

We did a multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial in 16 hospitals and two primary health-care centres in Argentina, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Uganda. Women expecting to deliver singleton babies vaginally (ie, not planned caesarean section) were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) with a centrally generated allocation sequence, stratified by country, to placental delivery with gravity and maternal effort (simplified package) or controlled cord traction applied immediately after uterine contraction and cord clamping (full package). After randomisation, allocation could not be concealed from investigators, participants, or assessors. Oxytocin 10 IU was administered immediately after birth with cord clamping after 1-3 min. Uterine massage was done after placental delivery according to local policy. The primary (non-inferiority) outcome was blood loss of 1000 mL or more (severe haemorrhage). The non-inferiority margin for the risk ratio was 1·3. Analysis was by modified intention-to-treat, excluding women who had emergency caesarean sections. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN 12608000434392.

FINDINGS:

Between June 1, 2009, and Oct 30, 2010, 12,227 women were randomly assigned to the simplified package group and 12,163 to the full package group. After exclusion of women who had emergency caesarean sections, 11,861 were in the simplified package group and 11,820 were in the full package group. The primary outcome of blood loss of 1000 mL or more had a risk ratio of 1·09 (95% CI 0·91-1·31) and the upper 95% CI limit crossed the pre-stated non-inferiority margin. One case of uterine inversion occurred in the full package group. Other adverse events were haemorrhage-related.

INTERPRETATION:

Although the hypothesis of non-inferiority was not met, omission of controlled cord traction has very little effect on the risk of severe haemorrhage. Scaling up of haemorrhage prevention programmes for non-hospital settings can safely focus on use of oxytocin.

FUNDING:
United States Agency for International Development and UN Development Programme/UN Population Fund/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research

AM G, M W, M M, Z Q, G P. "Active management of the third stage of labour without controlled cord traction: a randomized non-inferiority controlled trial." Reprod Health. 2009;6(2). Abstract

BACKGROUND:
The third stage of labour refers to the period between birth of the baby and complete expulsion of the placenta. Some degree of blood loss occurs after the birth of the baby due to separation of the placenta. This period is a risky period because uterus may not contract well after birth and heavy blood loss can endanger the life of the mother. Active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) reduces the occurrence of severe postpartum haemorrhage by approximately 60-70%. Active management consists of several interventions packaged together and the relative contribution of each of the components is unknown. Controlled cord traction is one of those components that require training in manual skill for it to be performed appropriately. If it is possible to dispense with controlled cord traction without losing efficacy it would have major implications for effective management of the third stage of labour at peripheral levels of health care.

OBJECTIVE:
The primary objective is to determine whether the simplified package of oxytocin 10 IU IM/IV is not less effective than the full AMTSL package.

METHODS:
A hospital-based, multicentre, individually randomized controlled trial is proposed. The hypothesis tested will be a non-inferiority hypothesis. The aim will be to determine whether the simplified package without CCT, with the advantage of not requiring training to acquire the manual skill to perform this task, is not less effective than the full AMTSL package with regard to reducing blood loss in the third stage of labour.The simplified package will include uterotonic (oxytocin 10 IU IM) injection after delivery of the baby and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The full package will include the uterotonic injection (oxytocin 10 IU IM), controlled cord traction following observation of uterine contraction and cord clamping and cutting at approximately 3 minutes after birth. The primary outcome measure is blood loss of 1000 ml or more at one hour and up to two hours for women who continue to bleed after one hour. The secondary outcomes are blood transfusion, the use of additional uterotonics and measure of severe morbidity and maternal death.We aim to recruit 25,000 women delivering vaginally in health facilities in eight countries within a 12 month recruitment period.

MANAGEMENT:
Overall trial management will be from HRP/RHR in Geneva. There will be eight centres located in Argentina, Egypt, India, Kenya, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand and Uganda. There will be an online data entry system managed from HRP/RHR. The trial protocol was developed following a technical consultation with international organizations and leading researchers in the field. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: The main objective of this trial is to investigate whether a simplified package of third stage management can be recommended without increasing the risk of PPH. By avoiding the need for a manual procedure that requires training, the third stage management can be implemented in a more widespread and cost-effective way around the world even at the most peripheral levels of the health care system. This trial forms part of the programme of work to reduce maternal deaths due to postpartum haemorrhage within the RHR department in collaboration with other research groups and organizations active in the field.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:
ACTRN12608000434392

Karimurio J, Rono H, Barasa E, Mukiri M, Gichangi M. "Active trachoma is an infectious disease, stop treating it administratively." J Ophthalmol East Cent & S Afr. 2013;17(1):26-30.active_trachoma.pdf
Karimurio J, Mukiri M RBGHEM. "Active trachoma is an infectious disease, stop treating it administratively." JOECSA. 2013;17(1):25-29.
O PROFORINDADA. "Activirale Aktivitat von Inhaltastoffen der Composite Echinacea purpurea.D.A.O. Orinda, et al Arrneim. Forsch. (Drug Res.) 23, 1119-1120 (1973).". In: (Drug Res.) 23, 1119-1120 (1973). Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1973. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 163952 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Activities Implemented Jointly in the Forestry Sector - Conceptual and Operational Fallacies 10 Georgetown International Environmental Law Review p. 97 (With Philippe Cullet).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1997. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
Gatumu JC. "Activities of three to six year old children not in preschool: the case fo Mbeere District, Kenya." Egerton Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education. 2009;VII, No. 2 & 3, 2008(ISSN 1021 - 1128):252-265.
Gatumu JC. "Activities of three to six year old children not in preschool: the case of Mbeere Disctrict, Kenya." Egerton Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education. 2008;7(2 & 3):252-265.
S.M. Kivai, P.K. Muoria BA, Oguge N. "Activity budget and group dynamics in Grevy’s zebra on Samburu rangelands, Kenya." Discovery and Innovations (Special Edition No. 2) 19: S 162-169; 2007. Abstract
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and Luc Van Purvelde. H., Boscelaers NVDFMMJDK. "Activity of 6-pentacylsalicylic Acid of Ozoroa insignis (Anarcadiaceae) against Marine Crustacians." Pharmaceutical Biology . 2000;40 ((1)):74-76 .
W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Activity of Ageratum Conyzoides extract on isolated rat phrenic nerve diaphram and blood pressure on anaesthetised rats. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 1996. Vol. 35, No. 1 Jan. 1997 pp. 31.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

W MRSMUNENGERAHAB. "Activity of Ageratum Conyzoides on isolated rat phrenic nerve diaphram and blood pressure on anaesthetised rats. International Journal of Pharmacognosy 1994 Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 31.". In: Afri. J. Oral Hlth. Sci. 2002; 3: 97-99. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Wong ROL, Ghosh A. "Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic growth and patterning." Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2002;3:803-812. AbstractWebsite

One of the most remarkable features of the developing brain is its ability to undergo structural change in response to experience. Among the cellular elements that show this kind of plasticity are dendrites, which are the components that receive and process synaptic information. Recent observations indicate that calcium signalling in neurons can regulate dendritic growth and remodelling by several mechanisms, and these mechanisms are likely to be key mediators of structural plasticity in the developing brain.

Zhao S, Tian H, Ma L, Yuan Y, Yu RC, Ma M. "Activity-{Dependent} {Modulation} of {Odorant} {Receptor} {Gene} {Expression} in the {Mouse} {Olfactory} {Epithelium}." PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69862. AbstractWebsite

Activity plays critical roles in development and maintenance of the olfactory system, which undergoes considerable neurogenesis throughout life. In the mouse olfactory epithelium, each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) stably expresses a single odorant receptor (OR) type out of a repertoire of ∼1200 and the OSNs with the same OR identity are distributed within one of the few broadly-defined zones. However, it remains elusive whether and how activity modulates such OR expression patterns. Here we addressed this question by investigating OR gene expression via in situ hybridization when sensory experience or neuronal excitability is manipulated. We first examined the expression patterns of fifteen OR genes in mice which underwent neonatal, unilateral naris closure. After four-week occlusion, the cell density in the closed (sensory-deprived) side was significantly lower (for four ORs), similar (for three ORs), or significantly higher (for eight ORs) as compared to that in the open (over-stimulated) side, suggesting that sensory inputs have differential effects on OSNs expressing different OR genes. We next examined the expression patterns of seven OR genes in transgenic mice in which mature OSNs had reduced neuronal excitability. Neuronal silencing led to a significant reduction in the cell density for most OR genes tested and thinner olfactory epithelium with an increased density of apoptotic cells. These results suggest that sensory experience plays important roles in shaping OR gene expression patterns and the neuronal activity is critical for survival of OSNs.

Hayano Y, Yamamoto N. "Activity-{Dependent} {Thalamocortical} {Axon} {Branching}." The Neuroscientist. 2008;14:359-368. AbstractWebsite
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NDEGWA PROFELIJAHNJUGUNA. "Actors and Land Use Planning in the Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin (1996) in B. Soltas (Id) Actor Orientation in Resource Management. A Reader. Contributions to the ASP Bern Workshop, February29-March 2 1996.". In: Community Diagnosis and Health Action. A manual for Tropical and Rural areas. Chapter 15. PP130 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1996. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

Donald Adjeroh, Guan Huiwei SNBMSZ. "Acupoint: An expert system for Traditional Chinese Medicine ." American Journal of Acupuncture . 1995.
Kimeli P, Amuti S, Kipyegon A, Mbugua SW. "ACUTE ABDOMINAL AORTIC RUPTURE IN A MARE ON TRANSIT." International Journal of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine. 2015;3(2):20-22.kimeli_et_al__aortic_rupture_in_mare__2015.pdf
P K, S A, AN K, S.W M. "Acute abdominal aortic rupture in a mare on transit." international journal of agricultural science and veterinary medicine . 2015;3(2):20-22.
Awori KO, Saidi SH, Kiptoon DK. "Acute acalculous cholecystitis in an outpatient setting.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) typically affects hospitalized patients with critical illness. Outpatient AAC is reported to occur in elderly males with cardiovascular comorbidities. We report the presentation of acute acalculous cholecystitis in two young African men admitted for the first time within days of each other. They reported short histories of right upper abdominal pain and had tender gallbladders. Sonography revealed gallbladder wall thickening. Open cholecystectomy and histology confirmed AAC.The postoperative outcome was excellent. Recognition of AAC in a subset of young male patients presenting de novo with right upper quadrant pain is stressed. Cholecystectomy has good prognosis in these cases.

Awori KO, Saidi SH, Kiptoon DK. "Acute acalculous cholecystitis in an outpatient setting.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) typically affects hospitalized patients with critical illness. Outpatient AAC is reported to occur in elderly males with cardiovascular comorbidities. We report the presentation of acute acalculous cholecystitis in two young African men admitted for the first time within days of each other. They reported short histories of right upper abdominal pain and had tender gallbladders. Sonography revealed gallbladder wall thickening. Open cholecystectomy and histology confirmed AAC.The postoperative outcome was excellent. Recognition of AAC in a subset of young male patients presenting de novo with right upper quadrant pain is stressed. Cholecystectomy has good prognosis in these cases.

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