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INUANI DRMUGIVANEFRED. "1987: Msc. Agricultural Economics and Rural Development Tennessee State University Nashville.". In: The Academic Journal of Daystar university. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1987.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1988: Ng.". In: Afr.Dent. J. 2: 76-79. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The present longitudinal study was conducted on ten children from age 5-6 years to determine the post-eruptive enamel changes of fluorosed permanent incisors. The children were born and reared in an area of Kenya with a water fluoride level of 14-45 parts per million. The incisors were examined and photographed periodically from the time of eruption over a period of 2 1/2 years. It was noted that the fluorosed incisor was intact as it erupted and then it underwent a variety of changes. In some there was mechanical breakdown (pitting) of the chalky white enamel which occurred rapidly initially and then the breakdown slowed down by 2 years. In others, there was smoothening of the pitted enamel resulting in a translucent appearance. Alternatively there was some degree of patchy staining of the enamel without surface breakdown. Much of the cervical 1/3 of the enamel remained intact even in teeth with severe breakdown. In most cases, these changes were bilaterally symmetrical. The possible reasons for these changes are discussed.
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1989, August 30th to September 2nd 4th Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Conference University of Bayreuth. 21st Annual Conference on African Linguistics. University of Georgia April, 1990.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1989.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1991: Maina S. W. ,Ng.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 68:243-248. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
The purpose of this study was to record the caries status in children attending public primary schools in Nairobi. The sample comprised 513 children, 262 aged 6-8 years and 251 aged 13-15 years. The children were drawn from six randomly selected schools in the city. Clinical examination was carried out in a room with natural daylight, using the WHO (1977) criteria. Fifty-four per cent of the 6- to 8-year-olds and 50% of the 13- to 15-year-olds were caries-free. The mean dmft in the 6- to 8-year-olds was 1.7, and the mean dmfs was 3.5. The mean DMFT in the 13- to 15-year-olds was 1.8, and the mean DMFS was 2.9. The d- and D-components dominated and were mainly located in the occlusal surfaces. The f-component of the dmft and the F-component of the DMFT comprised 1% and 10%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of caries between males and females in the younger age group. In the older age group, however, females had a higher (p < 0.05) prevalence than males. In general, the study showed a low caries prevalence in Nairobi children.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1992. August The 5th Nilo-Saharan Colloquium Nice, France.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1992.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1992: Chindia M. L., Valderhaug J., Ng.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 69:337 . Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to record the caries status in children attending public primary schools in Nairobi. The sample comprised 513 children, 262 aged 6-8 years and 251 aged 13-15 years. The children were drawn from six randomly selected schools in the city. Clinical examination was carried out in a room with natural daylight, using the WHO (1977) criteria. Fifty-four per cent of the 6- to 8-year-olds and 50% of the 13- to 15-year-olds were caries-free. The mean dmft in the 6- to 8-year-olds was 1.7, and the mean dmfs was 3.5. The mean DMFT in the 13- to 15-year-olds was 1.8, and the mean DMFS was 2.9. The d- and D-components dominated and were mainly located in the occlusal surfaces. The f-component of the dmft and the F-component of the DMFT comprised 1% and 10%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of caries between males and females in the younger age group. In the older age group, however, females had a higher (p < 0.05) prevalence than males. In general, the study showed a low caries prevalence in Nairobi children.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1992: Ng.". In: Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 102: 244-250. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 513 primary school children in Nairobi. The clinical examination was performed in a room with natural daylight using Thylstrup & Fejerskov's index (TFI). Overall, 18% of 6-8-yr-olds had dental fluorosis in the primary dentition and 76% of 13-15-yr-olds in the permanent dentition. There was no significant sex difference (P > 0.05) in either the prevalence or the severity of fluorosis. In children with mixed dentition, the prevalence and severity of fluorosis was higher in the permanent teeth. In the permanent dentition, no clear difference was demonstrable in the severity between the anterior and the posterior teeth. The degree of fluorosis in most of the children in the area served with river water (0.2-0.4 ppm F-) was of a very mild form. However, in the area served with borehole waters, 48% of the children and 40% of the teeth were found to have TFI scores > or = 5. Measures to reduce dental fluorosis are necessary in the latter area.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1992: Ng.". In: Acta Odontol Scand. 1992 Oct;50(5):269-72. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to record the caries status in children attending public primary schools in Nairobi. The sample comprised 513 children, 262 aged 6-8 years and 251 aged 13-15 years. The children were drawn from six randomly selected schools in the city. Clinical examination was carried out in a room with natural daylight, using the WHO (1977) criteria. Fifty-four per cent of the 6- to 8-year-olds and 50% of the 13- to 15-year-olds were caries-free. The mean dmft in the 6- to 8-year-olds was 1.7, and the mean dmfs was 3.5. The mean DMFT in the 13- to 15-year-olds was 1.8, and the mean DMFS was 2.9. The d- and D-components dominated and were mainly located in the occlusal surfaces. The f-component of the dmft and the F-component of the DMFT comprised 1% and 10%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of caries between males and females in the younger age group. In the older age group, however, females had a higher (p < 0.05) prevalence than males. In general, the study showed a low caries prevalence in Nairobi children.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1993, 27th-29th September. The Second International LICCA Conference Maseru, Lesotho.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1993. 22nd- 24th March The International LAUD-Symposium, Duisburg University.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993.
S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "1993. Effect of deflowering and defoliation during reproductive phase on flower and pod abscission and yield of pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan). Discovery and Innovation, 5: 377-380.". In: Paper submitted in the 3rd International Weed Science Congress in June 2000 at Foz du Iguasu, Brazil. Taylor & Francis; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1993: Aasrum E., Ng.". In: Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac Orthop 104:48-50. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The uptake of alkali soluble and alkali insoluble fluoride on and in fluorotic enamel was investigated in vitro. Teeth from Kenya, assigned score 3 in accordance with Thylstrup-Fejerskov's fluorosis index, were used. The enamel was treated with either a neutral 2% NaF solution, a 0.2% NaF solution (pH 5.5), or the supernatant from a 0.1% NaF-containing toothpaste (pH 7). The treatment time was 1 h. The reaction product formed on the enamel was analyzed by KOH extraction and acid etching. Significantly higher amounts of alkali soluble fluoride were formed on the enamel from the 2% and 0.2% NaF solutions, as compared with the control. There was also a significant increase in the firmly bound fluoride after treatment with the neutral 2% NaF solution.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1993: Cruz R., Ng.". In: Scand J Dent Res. 1993 Feb;101(1):5-8. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The uptake of alkali soluble and alkali insoluble fluoride on and in fluorotic enamel was investigated in vitro. Teeth from Kenya, assigned score 3 in accordance with Thylstrup-Fejerskov's fluorosis index, were used. The enamel was treated with either a neutral 2% NaF solution, a 0.2% NaF solution (pH 5.5), or the supernatant from a 0.1% NaF-containing toothpaste (pH 7). The treatment time was 1 h. The reaction product formed on the enamel was analyzed by KOH extraction and acid etching. Significantly higher amounts of alkali soluble fluoride were formed on the enamel from the 2% and 0.2% NaF solutions, as compared with the control. There was also a significant increase in the firmly bound fluoride after treatment with the neutral 2% NaF solution.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1993: Ng.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Mar;70(3):175-8. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The prevalence of dental caries, malocclusion and fractured incisors was investigated in 245 children from a pastoral community in Kenya. Forty-eight per cent of them were found to be caries-free. The overall mean DMFT was 1.9 (s.d. 2.7). Among those with caries, the mean DMFT was 3.0 (s.d. 2.0). Fifty-eight per cent of the children had malocclusion. Overall, 84% of the sample had Angle's Class I, 11% Class II and 5% Class III molar relation. The prevalence of fractured incisors was 15%. Most of the fractures were in the maxilla and involved enamel only. Minimal treatment had been carried out on the children.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1993: Ng.". In: Oral Epidemiol. 21:15-18. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The uptake of alkali soluble and alkali insoluble fluoride on and in fluorotic enamel was investigated in vitro. Teeth from Kenya, assigned score 3 in accordance with Thylstrup-Fejerskov's fluorosis index, were used. The enamel was treated with either a neutral 2% NaF solution, a 0.2% NaF solution (pH 5.5), or the supernatant from a 0.1% NaF-containing toothpaste (pH 7). The treatment time was 1 h. The reaction product formed on the enamel was analyzed by KOH extraction and acid etching. Significantly higher amounts of alkali soluble fluoride were formed on the enamel from the 2% and 0.2% NaF solutions, as compared with the control. There was also a significant increase in the firmly bound fluoride after treatment with the neutral 2% NaF solution.

OWANO MRSOCHIENOLYNN. "1994 Sexist Language and its effect on Girls.". In: conference of house maids and bar maids. oxford press; 1994. Abstract

matina ma nguku

M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "1995 - Current Malarial chemotherapy. Bhatt K. M.. The New African Journal of Medicine - Vol:11. Pg.11-12.". In: AIDS. Medics 1996; vol. 15, 11 . Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1995. Abstract

Meningococcal meningitis has been recognised as serious problem for almost 200 years. In Africa the disease occurs in epidemics periodically during the hot and dry weather in the "meningitis belt" and in east Africa, which is outside this belt the epidemics tend to occur during the cold and dry months. The infection is mainly transmitted from person to person by nasopharyngeal carriers in crowded places like refugee camps and army barracks. The rural/urban migration, the basic structural conditions of housing in squatter settlements and slums together with an overcrowded transport system have also contributed to the transmission of meningococcal meningitis. The earlier treatment of meningococcal meningitis was by the way of repeated CSF drainage. The first important advance in the treatment was intrathecal injection of antimeningococcal serum. A major break through in the treatment was the introduction of sulphonamides which was the preferred treatment until emergence of resistance to sulphonamides in mid 1960's. Penicillin remains the drug of choice currently. Mass immunisation of selected communities using polyvalent A and C polysaccharide vaccine is a useful control measure. Chemoprophylaxis is generally not recommended during epidemics. Given the current population densities and rural/urban migration together with financial constraints, future epidemic in Kenya may be more explosive unless strict surveillance programmes are maintained.

M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "1995 - Views on HIV and Herpes Zoster - K.M Bhatt and Z.W Njoroge. Medical Review. Pg. 20.". In: AIDS. Medics 1996; vol. 15, 11 . Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1995. Abstract

Meningococcal meningitis has been recognised as serious problem for almost 200 years. In Africa the disease occurs in epidemics periodically during the hot and dry weather in the "meningitis belt" and in east Africa, which is outside this belt the epidemics tend to occur during the cold and dry months. The infection is mainly transmitted from person to person by nasopharyngeal carriers in crowded places like refugee camps and army barracks. The rural/urban migration, the basic structural conditions of housing in squatter settlements and slums together with an overcrowded transport system have also contributed to the transmission of meningococcal meningitis. The earlier treatment of meningococcal meningitis was by the way of repeated CSF drainage. The first important advance in the treatment was intrathecal injection of antimeningococcal serum. A major break through in the treatment was the introduction of sulphonamides which was the preferred treatment until emergence of resistance to sulphonamides in mid 1960's. Penicillin remains the drug of choice currently. Mass immunisation of selected communities using polyvalent A and C polysaccharide vaccine is a useful control measure. Chemoprophylaxis is generally not recommended during epidemics. Given the current population densities and rural/urban migration together with financial constraints, future epidemic in Kenya may be more explosive unless strict surveillance programmes are maintained.

M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "1995. Biochemical markers in Fusarium wilt resistant and susceptible genotypes of pigeonpea . Kenya J. Science and Technology11: 42 - 48.". In: Paper presented in the International Conference on Integrated pest Management for Sub-saharan Africa, 8-12 Sept 2002, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 1995. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1995: Kabue M. M., Moracha, J. Ng.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 72: 210-212. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Nairobi Dental School, Kenya. Data on occlusal features and the need for orthodontic treatment in Kenya is scanty. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of malocclusion in children in Nairobi, Kenya. Nine hundred and nineteen children aged 13-15 years (468 male, 451 female) were examined. The registration method used was that described by Bjork et al. The prevalence of malocclusion was 72%. The predominant anteroposterior relationship of the dental arches was neutral occlusion (93%). Specific malocclusion traits were highest for crowding (19%), rotations (19%), posterior crossbite (10%), maxillary overjet (10%), and frontal open bite (8%). There was no statistically significant difference in the overall prevalence of malocclusion between males and females, but some occlusal traits were significantly higher in males. Although the findings indicate that the present population is not characterized by a substantial difference in the overall prevalence of malocclusion compared with other communities, some traits differed in prevalence from those reported elsewhere.
and Oucho S-DJODM. The 1996 UNFPA Strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa. New York: UNFPA; 1996.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "1996.Study of sugar cane and sugar production costs in Kenya :implications under a liberalized marketing systemm.REPORT.Kenya Sugar Authority.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1996. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1996: Ng.". In: Acta Odontol Scand. 54:12 . Elsevier; 1996. Abstract

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Nairobi Dental School, Kenya. The need for orthodontic treatment in Kenya was previously not been investigated. This study was undertaken to assess the need for orthodontic treatment in 13- to 15-year-old children in Nairobi. The objective need was assessed in 919 children by using the Norwegian treatment need index, and the subjective need was assessed in 739 children by using a structured questionnaire. Objective treatment need was recorded in 29% and subjective need in 33% of the children. Less than 1% were allocated the 'very great need' category. Relatively more girls than boys were dissatisfied with the appearance of their teeth, and a significantly higher number of girls (P < 0.001) said they would like to have their teeth straightened. The children's perceived need for treatment correlated significantly with the treatment need index. Fixed appliances were found necessary for correcting malocclusion in 23% of the children and removable appliances in 6%. Future studies in Kenya should be directed at determining the societal perception of malocclusion, upon which treatment standards may be based.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1997: Ng.". In: Acta Odontol Scand. 55: 325-32. Elsevier; 1997. Abstract
Kiambu District Hospital, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of hypodontia (except 3rd molars) in a population of orthodontic patients. DESIGN: A retrospective case study. SETTING: Private orthodontic practice in Nairobi PATIENTS: Six hundred and fifteen orthodontic patients aged eight to fifteen years. RESULTS: Hypodontia occurred in 39 children (6.3%). The missing teeth were observed in 24 males (7.2%) and 15 females (5.3%). Of the children with hypodontia, about 80% lacked one or two teeth, 54% had hypodontia involving anterior teeth, 18% lacked single posterior teeth and 8% had two or more teeth missing in the same quadrant. The highest recorded number of missing teeth in any one individual was seven. The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular 2nd premolars (30%), maxillary 2nd premolars (24%) and maxillary lateral incisors (22%) in that order. CONCLUSIONS: Our data for hypodontia were within the wide range reported in the literature. The finding of patients with hypodontia involving the anterior teeth and others missing more than two teeth in the same quadrant was an indication of a great need for orthodontic treatment. The present findings reiterate the neeed for a thorough radiographic evaluation of patients prior to removal of permanent teeth for orthodontic reasons.
INUANI DRMUGIVANEFRED. "1999: Ph.D in Rural Sociology and Agricultural Extension and Marketing University of Nairobi/Mississippi State University.". In: The Academic Journal of Daystar university. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1999.
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. 19th Century Popular Swahili Poetry. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 1978.
C PROFBEBORALILLY. "1Bebora L.C. (1987): Chick morbidity and mortality.". In: Paper presented at KVA scientific meeting on . Taylor & Francis; 1987.
Konyimbi T. "1Property Taxation In Western And South-Eastern African Countries: Principles And Applications In Zimbabwe, Tanzania And Ghana,."; 2005. Abstract

Land is a vital resource for rural livelihoods. Establishing and clarifying land rights through formalisation has become a key issue in development policies that aim to promote more productive uses of land. This re port looks at some land reform initiatives from a gendered human rights perspective. The human rights-based approach (HRBA) has a direct bearing on international and national land reform policies, facilitating gender equality through elimination of discrimination against women. The overall aim of this report is to make a contribution to the operationalisation of the HRBA. Chapter 2 focuses on different approaches to formalisation in different historical periods to date, starting with a discussion of the concept itself. In Chapter 3 the hum an rights- based approach to development is developed in relation to women’s land rights, while Chapter 4 is an analysis of the approach to land policy found in the 2003 World Bank report. The country studies presented in Chapters 5–8 explore to what extent international and national formalisation initiatives are consonant with international human rights standards

KONYIMBIH DRTOM. "1Property Taxation in Western and South-Eastern African Countries: Principles and applications in Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Ghana, Paper presented for the pilot core course in Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations and Municipal Financial Management in Harare Zi.". In: KLB. WFL Publisher; 1998. Abstract
This article investigates the forces leading to migration of husbands from rural Kenya, the economic situation and activities of wives with migrant husbands, receipt of remittances by wives and the possible influences on capital formation in rural Kenya, using the Nyeri district as a case study. Although the residual sample of rural wives whose husbands have migrated to urban areas in Kenya is small, the analysis of this sample highlights several important points worthy of investigation. It seems that rural husbands who migrate from rural Kenya have limited education and skills and are mostly pushed out of rural areas rather than pulled. The wives seem not to be empowered in relation to economic and family decisions-making. The husband and his relatives retain control of important economic and household decisions and this has negative impacts on agricultural productivity. The wives are hampered by their relative lack of access to agricultural extension officers, finance for farm investment and capital resources for use on their farm. Probit analysis suggests that the probability of a wife obtaining remittances from a migrant husband declines with the number of years of his absence and the age of the wife but increases with the number of her dependent children and whether or not she employs hired labour. Duration of migration is important in explaning the amount of remittances but not in explaining the likelihood of wives receiving remittances. Overall indications are that remittances are mostly motivated by altruism or social obligation of the migrant to his family. This study was limited by lack of resources but nonetheless provides useful pointers to further research.  
M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "1st Kenya National Symposium on Music (Egerton University). Publication of Permanent Music Commission of Kenya.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract

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"2 AFRICE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE.". In: EDUCATION IN AFRICA: REFLECTIONS BEYOND 2015 MDGs-COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES. Nairobi, University of Nairobi; 2015.principals_use_of_counselling_skills_dr_geoffrey_wango.ppt
Akech M. "2) Globalization, the Rule of (Administrative) Law, and the Realization of Democratic Governance in Africa.". In: The Next Twenty Years,” 20th Anniversary of Symposium of the Indiana Journal . Indiana University Maurer School of Law; 2012.
Akech M. "2) Women Should Focus on Whole Judiciary." Nairobi Star, July 20, 2020.
WANJIRU. DRGITARIPATRICIA. "2, 2.". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; 2004. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Nyamori JM. A 2- Year Retrospective Study On The Pattern Of Retinobh.storna In Kenya.; 2009. Abstract

Background: The national epidemiological characteristics of retinoblastoma in Kenya have not been determined. The diagnosis of this cancer is mainly clinical; histology determines tumour extent. Late diagnosis of this otherwise curable malignancy is associated with high mortality.
Aim: To determine the incidence and pattern of presentation of retinoblastoma in Kenya.
Design: A retrospective case series
Setting: All 75 eye care centres in the 8 provinces of Kenya as registered in the Ministry of health eye information system.
Methods: With permission, clinical registers at eye care centers were reviewed to identify cases of retinoblastoma that presented from 1sr January 2006 to 31st December 2007. Only centers that reported cases were visited to record patient's clinical and demographic data in a questionnaire. Cross-referred cases were analysed once to avoid double-counting.
Results: A total of 206 suspected cases presented to 46 eye care facilities but 58 cases (28.2%) were lost
after referral. Of 148 traced cases, 28.4% were self referrals and of the referred cases, most (21.6%) were
from central province. Only 63.5% of cases were finally treated at 2 teaching and referral hospitals.After
excluding 3 missing files and 13 cases that were ruled out on histology, 132 confirmed cases(166 eyes) were
subsequently analysed. The mean delay in first presentation was 6.75 months and delay after referral was
1.69 months. Leukocoria was the most common presenting complaint (91.7% cases) and sign (71.1 % eyes).
There were 25.8% bilateral cases and 78.2% unilateral cases with mean ages of 26 and 35.9 months
respectively. The male to female ratio was 1.49:1. Only 4.5% had a positive family history. Most (32.6%)
cases resided in the Rift valley province. There was no association between ethnicity and bilaterality. The annual incidence of retinoblastoma in 2007 was 1:17,030 live births.
Conclusions: A significant proportion of cases were lost after referral. The late presentation was associated with advanced disease. Leukocoria was the most common finding. Most cases resided in the Rift valley province. The incidence of retinoblastoma was similar to most countries but may be an underestimate.
Recommendations: Public education ancl screening with the red reflex test by primary health care workers would ensure early detection. Quality control measures in record keeping would ensure accuracy. A retinoblastoma registry would provide accurate estimates through register-based studies. Further research is necessary to investigate the lost cases after referral, delays in presentation and barriers to uptake of services.

Mburu MM, Collins K Mweresa, Philemon Omusula, Alexandra Hiscox, Takken W, Wolfgang R Mukabana. "2-Butanone as a carbon dioxide mimic in attractant blends for the Afrotropical malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus." Malaria journal. 2017;16(1):351.
Gor SO. "2. An Assessment of the Trade Potential from the East African Community Integration.". In: TRAPCA’s Trade Policy Research Forum . Arusha, Tanzania; 2011.
MUSEMBI PROFNGANDABENJAMIN. "2. B Nganda, P. S. Owino and A. K. Kilonzo, (1988), ECONOMICS, Part One: African Economic Problems, BEC 103. Prepared for the Faculty of External Degrees Studies, College of Adult and Distance Education, University of Nairobi.". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
Simiyu MT, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Birech Z, Mwebaze G. "2. Mary T. Simiyu, Francis W. NyongesaApplication of An Organic Plant-Derived Binder in the Fabrication of Diatomaceous Earth Waste-Based Membranes for Water Purification Systems.". In: 10th International Conference of the African Materials Research Society (AMRS2019). Arusha, Tanzania,; 2019.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "2. Odhiambo WA, Muchai A and Njuguna P The Health Cost assessment of Firearm Injuries at Kenyatta National Hospital , Nairobi.(Abstract accepted for the 10th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, London sept 2010).". In: BOOK. Safety 2010; 2010. Abstract
Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "2. Odhiambo WA, Muchai A and Njuguna P The Health Cost assessment of Firearm Injuries at Kenyatta National Hospital , Nairobi.(Abstract accepted for the 10th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, London sept 2010).". In: BOOK. Safety 2010; 2010. Abstract

Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.

WANJIKU DRMUMENYASIPHILA. "2. Tait R.B., Mumenya S.W., Alexander M.G., and Hourahane D.: Textile concrete provides special architectural and permanent shuttering opportunities.". In: Paper presented at the conference: Developing concrete to serve practical needs, Mindrand, South Africa, 13th -14th October 2004. Publication ISBN Number 1-920-01717-8 pp. 281-289. Materials Research Society; 2004. Abstract
1. Singh C. B.  .  August . .
Oketch Oboth JWB. "2. The Relationship between Knowledge of Results and Performance." East African Journal of Education. 1988;Vol. 1:22-25.
Chaga H. 2. ‘Dismal performance in Kiswahili at Holy Cross Secondary School’ . Nairobi: Kenyatta University ; 2003.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "2. Mbuthia, P.G. 2004. PhD Thesis: Entitled, .". In: Thesis. University of Nairobi; 2004.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "2. Strengthening Masters of community Health Nursing in Kenya.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal KNJ 37(2) 58-64. Decemer, 2008. Prof. Karani Anna, Kazuko Nasire,Prof. Junko Tashiro,Waithaka Peter, Yumi Sakyo,Wakako Ichikawa; 2008. Abstract

Development / Strengthening Masters on Community Health Nursing Curriculum in Kenya. In the East African region no nurse had done a master programme in Community Health Nursing. Therefore, a needs assessment was done followed by a study on developing / strengthening community health nursing in Kenya as a model for the region. This was done in collaboration with a nursing institution in Kenya and another in Japan.Aim was to develop/strengthen Masters in Community Health Nursing programme in Kenya and the region.The study was conducted between 2005 and 2006 in Kenya. Two provinces were selected due to proximity and accessibility. The national hospital, one provincial hospital, five district hospitals and five health centres were randomly selected as study areas. The 22 subjects (Registered Community Health Nurses) purposely selected were lecturers, administrators and service providers. The tool used was recorded interview, checklist and focus group discussions at the subjects working area followed by transcription of interview. Five data collectors were trained for 2 days and tools pre-tested. The study revealed that majority of the subjects (50%) wanted lifelong learning at the place of work with progress onto masters to PhD by distance learning. Masters graduates should be responsible for teaching, administration and policy. A core curriculum, distance learning, learning manuals, clear job descriptions and exchange programme were declared most important.Conclusion: Core curriculum developed for implementation, clear job descriptions recommended, distance learning to be started using modules and support for exchange program needed.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "20. J.N. Kariuki, G.K. Gitau, C.K. Gachuiri, S. Tamminga, and J.M.K. Muia. Effect of supplementing Napier grass with desmodium and lucerne on DM, CP and NDF intake and weight gains in dairy heifers. Livestock Production Science (1999) 60: 81-88.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Livestock Production Science; 1999. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

P OCHILO. "20. Training and Professional Qualifications for Journalists.". In: Media Bills Workshop organized by the Kenya Union of Journalists Association and African Council for Communication and Education for Media Practitioners. Nairobi Safari Club; Submitted.
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "2000 - Evaluation of efficacy and tolerance of .". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Jun;83(6):295-305. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2000. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Anthrax is an ancient disease affecting animals and humans. Sporadic cases of anthrax and small epidemics have been seen from time to time in different parts of the world and in Africa. However many clinicians are not very familiar with the various presentations and management of anthrax. It is relevant for the health care workers to re-familiarise themselves with all aspects of anthrax, with the impending threat of bioterrorism. OBJECTIVE: To familiarise healthcare workers on all aspects of anthrax. STUDY SELECTION: To describe epidemiology pathogenesis, clinical features, management and prevention of anthrax including measures to take when weapons grade anthrax is suspected. DATA SYNTHESIS: Three forms of the disease are recognised, cutaneous, inhalational and intestinal. Cutaneous anthrax is the most common form. Inhalation anthrax is the most severe form of anthrax. The treatment of anthrax in most cases is penicillin, however with the threat of bioterrorism, intentional releases of anthrax spores in the environment has caused much concern. Weapons grade anthrax of more virulent strain and resistant to commonly used antibiotics is possible. CONCLUSION: In view of the different clinical presentations and outcomes it is important that health care workers re-familiarise themselves with the disease and in the event of bioterrorism are able to take appropriate measures.
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "2000 - Evaluation of efficacy and tolerance of .". In: Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Jul 15;33(2):248-56. Taylor & Francis; 2000. Abstract
Bloodstream infections are a frequent complication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in Africa and usually associated with a poor prognosis. We evaluated bloodstream infections across a decade in 3 prospective cross-sectional surveys of consecutive medical admissions to the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Participants received standard clinical care throughout. In 1988-1989, 29.5% (28 of 95) of HIV-positive patients had bloodstream infections, compared with 31.9% (46 of 144) in 1992 and 21.3% (43 of 197) in 1997. Bacteremia and mycobacteremia were significantly associated with HIV infection. Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, non-typhi species of Salmonella (NTS), and Streptococcus pneumoniae predominated. Fungemia exclusively due to Cryptococcus neoformans was uncommon. Clinical features at presentation remained similar. Significant improvements in the survival rate were recorded among patients with NTS bacteremia (20%-83%; P<.01) and mycobacteremia (0%-73%; P<.01). Standard clinical management can improve outcomes in resource-poor settings.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "2000: Ng.". In: Afr. J. Oral Hlth Sci. 1:8-11. Elsevier; 2000. Abstract
Kiambu District Hospital, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of hypodontia (except 3rd molars) in a population of orthodontic patients. DESIGN: A retrospective case study. SETTING: Private orthodontic practice in Nairobi PATIENTS: Six hundred and fifteen orthodontic patients aged eight to fifteen years. RESULTS: Hypodontia occurred in 39 children (6.3%). The missing teeth were observed in 24 males (7.2%) and 15 females (5.3%). Of the children with hypodontia, about 80% lacked one or two teeth, 54% had hypodontia involving anterior teeth, 18% lacked single posterior teeth and 8% had two or more teeth missing in the same quadrant. The highest recorded number of missing teeth in any one individual was seven. The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular 2nd premolars (30%), maxillary 2nd premolars (24%) and maxillary lateral incisors (22%) in that order. CONCLUSIONS: Our data for hypodontia were within the wide range reported in the literature. The finding of patients with hypodontia involving the anterior teeth and others missing more than two teeth in the same quadrant was an indication of a great need for orthodontic treatment. The present findings reiterate the neeed for a thorough radiographic evaluation of patients prior to removal of permanent teeth for orthodontic reasons.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "2000: Ng.". In: Afr. J. Oral Hlth Sci. 1:16-18. Elsevier; 2000. Abstract
Kiambu District Hospital, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of hypodontia (except 3rd molars) in a population of orthodontic patients. DESIGN: A retrospective case study. SETTING: Private orthodontic practice in Nairobi PATIENTS: Six hundred and fifteen orthodontic patients aged eight to fifteen years. RESULTS: Hypodontia occurred in 39 children (6.3%). The missing teeth were observed in 24 males (7.2%) and 15 females (5.3%). Of the children with hypodontia, about 80% lacked one or two teeth, 54% had hypodontia involving anterior teeth, 18% lacked single posterior teeth and 8% had two or more teeth missing in the same quadrant. The highest recorded number of missing teeth in any one individual was seven. The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular 2nd premolars (30%), maxillary 2nd premolars (24%) and maxillary lateral incisors (22%) in that order. CONCLUSIONS: Our data for hypodontia were within the wide range reported in the literature. The finding of patients with hypodontia involving the anterior teeth and others missing more than two teeth in the same quadrant was an indication of a great need for orthodontic treatment. The present findings reiterate the neeed for a thorough radiographic evaluation of patients prior to removal of permanent teeth for orthodontic reasons.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "2001. Nutrient and anti-nutrient content of raw and cooked Amaranthus hybridus. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, vol. 39,459- 469.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 2001. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "2001: Ng.". In: E. Afr Med. J. 78: 200-203. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "2001: Ng.". In: Afr. J. Oral Hlth Sci. 2: 35-38. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "2001: Ngatia E.M., Ng.". In: Afr. J. Oral Hlth Sci, 2: 22-29. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "2001: Ngatia E.M., Ng.". In: Afr. J. Oral Hlth Sci. 2:44-46. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "2001: Ngatia, E.M., Imungi J.K., Muita J.W., Ng.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 78:673 . Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. Although multiple supernumerary teeth without any associated syndromes are rare, their occurrence can create a variety of clinical problems such as derangement of the occlusion, prevention of eruption of permanent teeth, damage to adjacent teeth, cystic degeneration and root resorption. Hence, clinical and radiographic evaluation of patients should always be thorough in order to detect their presence. Furthermore, because the clinical management of multiple supernumerary teeth poses a great challenge to clinicians, timely, appropriate consultation and interdisciplinary approach to treatment is extremely important. We report two cases, a 14 year-old boy with eight and a 13-year-old girl with seven supernumerary teeth not associated with syndromes. In the boy, the teeth were bilaterally distributed in all quadrants in the premolar regions, and in the girl they were distributed bilaterally in the premolar regions in the mandible and bilaterally distal to the upper third molars. The clinical implications and management are discussed.
JEFITHA DRKARIMURIO. "2001: Topic .". In: Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To identify the main barriers to utilisation of eye care services among the slum population of Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Kibera slums, Nairobi City, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Randomly selected 1,438 Kibera slum dwellers aged over two years. RESULTS: Majority of subjects (83.3%) do not utilise the nearby well-established eye clinics. Twenty one percent of those with poor vision do not seek treatment at all. The main barriers to seeking eye care services were lack of money, ignorance and the problem not causing much discomfort to warrant medical attention. There was significant, association between the level of education and health seeking behaviour (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Majority of Kibera slum dwellers have no access to eye care. RECOMMENDATION: There is need to establish a comprehensive primary eye care project to provide low cost but quality services affordable to Kibera slum dwellers.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "2003 The Actualization Of Secure Tenure In Kenya: The Evolving Trends In Different Political Governments.". In: ISK / CASLE / HABITAT Workshop On Security Of Land Tenure. Nairobi; 2003.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "2003 Grain Maize Yield Improvement using Tephrosia vogelii and Tithonia diversifolia Biomass at Maseno, Kenya. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, Vol. 2: 1-11.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2003"CASE COMMENTARY: NICHOLAS BIWOTT VS. JUDICIAL SERVICE COMMISSION OF INQUIRY INTO TRIBAL CLASHES", The Advocate, November 2003, 14.". In: The Advocate, May 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
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M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "2003, Edited,The National Housing Policy for Kenya: Ministry of Roads,Public Works and Housing(42 pages).". In: Regional workshop on Role of Geoinformation in National Development, 25th to 26th August,2008.Regional centre for Mapping of Resources for Development,Nairobi. Society for International Development; 2003. Abstract
The objective of this study is to inveigate the real inequality perspective of land ownership and use in Kenya. The study demonstrated that there are varying degrees of inequality in land ownership, access and use in Kenya in terms of land tenure, land size and land potential.The study recommends a review of the constitution,legal and administrative frameworks so as to provide for equitable,transparent and accountable land management and administration.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "2003. Pastoralism and global climate change: towards realistic mitigation. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "2003: Edited,The National Housing Development Programme 2003-2007: Ministry of Roads,Public Works and Housing(42 pages).". In: Regional workshop on Role of Geoinformation in National Development, 25th to 26th August,2008.Regional centre for Mapping of Resources for Development,Nairobi. Society for International Development; 2003. Abstract
The objective of this study is to inveigate the real inequality perspective of land ownership and use in Kenya. The study demonstrated that there are varying degrees of inequality in land ownership, access and use in Kenya in terms of land tenure, land size and land potential.The study recommends a review of the constitution,legal and administrative frameworks so as to provide for equitable,transparent and accountable land management and administration.
WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2004 "IS CKRC ACT ULTRA VIRES THE CONSTITUTION?",.". In: The Advocate, May 2004. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
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KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "2004 An Elasto plastic constitutive model for soil tillage Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.". In: Accepted for presentation in the 8th Conference on asphalt pavements for Southern Africa Sun City South Africa, 12th to 16th September 2004. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "2004 Triaxial testing of a cemented agricultural soil . Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.". In: Accepted for presentation in the 8th Conference on asphalt pavements for Southern Africa Sun City South Africa, 12th to 16th September 2004. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "2004. A strategy for creating wider impact for bean in Africa.". In: Kenya National Bean Workshop, 25-29 May 2004, Nakuru, Kenya. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "2004. Breeding snap bean for smallholder production in East and Central Africa, pages 49-51. Annual Report 2004.". In: CIAT, Cali, Colombia. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "2004: Edited, The Second World Urban Forum Kenya Country Report: Ministry of Lands and Housing(68 pages).". In: Regional workshop on Role of Geoinformation in National Development, 25th to 26th August,2008.Regional centre for Mapping of Resources for Development,Nairobi. Society for International Development; 2004. Abstract
The objective of this study is to inveigate the real inequality perspective of land ownership and use in Kenya. The study demonstrated that there are varying degrees of inequality in land ownership, access and use in Kenya in terms of land tenure, land size and land potential.The study recommends a review of the constitution,legal and administrative frameworks so as to provide for equitable,transparent and accountable land management and administration.
WAFULA DRCHARLESMISIKO. "2005 .". In: E.A. Literature Bureau, 1973. Doctoral Thesis; 2005. Abstract
In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.
WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 "Freedom of Information Legislation in Kenya: Pertinent Issues to the Draft Bill". A paper presented at the ICJ.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 "THE CONSTITUTIONAL MAKING PROCESS IN KENYA: A CRISIS OF LEADERSHIP AND ILLEGALITIES?", in Kichana P (eds), Judiciary Watch Reports.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 "The Draft Constitution of Kenya and the Freedom of Information Legislation", a paper presented at the Consultative Forum to Revise the ICJ.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 "The Right to Information about the Activities of the Government As an Indispensable Component of the Right to Development", a Policy Brief under the ICJ- Kenya Freedom of Information Project.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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WAUNA MROLUOCHOCHIENG. "2005 'States' Compliance with their Obligations under International Law with Specific Reference to Prohibition of Torture: The Case of Kenya'.". In: East African Journal of Human Rights and Democracy, Vol. 3, No. 1 & 2 March/June. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
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OWANO MRSOCHIENOLYNN. "2005 Security and its major Constraints: An Examination of the Eastern Africa Situation.". In: conference of house maids and bar maids. oxford press; 2005. Abstract

matina ma nguku

M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "2005: Housing Market Surveys in Central Province: Case Studies of Nyeri,Nyahururu and Juja Towns.Reports prepared for National Housing Corporation.". In: Regional workshop on Role of Geoinformation in National Development, 25th to 26th August,2008.Regional centre for Mapping of Resources for Development,Nairobi. Society for International Development; 2005. Abstract
The objective of this study is to inveigate the real inequality perspective of land ownership and use in Kenya. The study demonstrated that there are varying degrees of inequality in land ownership, access and use in Kenya in terms of land tenure, land size and land potential.The study recommends a review of the constitution,legal and administrative frameworks so as to provide for equitable,transparent and accountable land management and administration.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "2005: Manual for Maintenance of School Infrastructure Facilities.Report prepared for Ministry of Education,Science and Technology.". In: Regional workshop on Role of Geoinformation in National Development, 25th to 26th August,2008.Regional centre for Mapping of Resources for Development,Nairobi. Society for International Development; 2005. Abstract
The objective of this study is to inveigate the real inequality perspective of land ownership and use in Kenya. The study demonstrated that there are varying degrees of inequality in land ownership, access and use in Kenya in terms of land tenure, land size and land potential.The study recommends a review of the constitution,legal and administrative frameworks so as to provide for equitable,transparent and accountable land management and administration.
WINFRED DR MWANGI. "2006 Homelessness in Nairobi, Kenya: Causes and Interventions.". In: GURU/DFID Homelessness conference . New Delhi, India; 2006.
WAFULA DRCHARLESMISIKO. "2006 .". In: E.A. Literature Bureau, 1973. A report prepared for the Export Promotion Council under the framework of the USAID supported Trade; 2006. Abstract
In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.
WAFULA DRCHARLESMISIKO. "2007 .". In: E.A. Literature Bureau, 1973. Export Promotion Council (EPC) and African Centre for Economic Growth; 2007. Abstract
In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.
co-author Jesse N.K. Mugambi, co-author Michael R. Guy. 2009 Jesse N.K. Mugambi and Michael R. Guy, Conxtextual Theology Across Cultures, Nairobi: Acton.. Nairobi: Acton; 2009.
Ondieki DEO. "2010 Developing Resources for the Teaching of Architects." “Africa habitat review journal” . 2011;Volume 5(Issue 5):23-28.
Zaja JO. 2012 Mwongozo wa Mstahiki Meya, Longhorn Publishing Ltd, Nairobi Kenya. Nairobi: Longhorn Publishers Kenya Ltd; 2012.
Birithia R, Subramanian S, Villinger J, Muthomi J, Narla RD, Pappu HR. "2012. First report of tomato yellow ring virus (Tospovirus, Bunyaviridae) Infecting tomatoes in Kenya." Plant Disease. 2012;96:1384.Website
Judith Mbau, Nyangito M, Gachene C. 2013. Land use and land cover changes analysis: Linking local communities to land use and land cover changes using participatory geographic information systems (PGIS).. Lambert Academic Publishers.; 2013. Abstract

Land use and land cover changes are important processes that influence the dynamics of human-wildlife conflicts. Effective management of human-wildlife conflicts requires the participation of local communities and other stakeholders. However, local communities need to identify and understand resource use change and their role in the process, so as to facilitate uptake of appropriate land resource management strategies aimed at counteracting human-wildlife conflicts. Approaches aimed at changing local community behavior towards natural resource use require appropriate technologies that bridge the technology and knowledge gaps between policy makers and local communities. PGIS was used to assess and educate local communities on land use and land cover changes as well as visualize the problems associated with resource changes. Local communities were found to be significantly knowledgeable about resource changes and their causes. PGIS compared well to conventional GIS analysis and therefore an appropriate technology for analysing and monitoring landuse and land cover changes.

Kudra, A1, and 1 C’wa SGN2 KP, 1 SKP. "2014-Striga asiatica growth and seed production in response to organic and inorganic P - fertilizers(3)." ACCESS INTERNATIONAL JUORNAL OF AGRIC SCIE. 2014;Vol. 2(1), pp.6-12, March 2014(Vol. 2(1), pp.6-12, March 2014):Vol. 2(1), pp.6-12, March 2014.2014-striga_asiatica_growth_and_seed_production_in_response_to_organic_and_inorganic_p_-_fertilizers3.pdf
"2015: Kaviti, L. “Impact of the Tamar Communication Strategy on Sexual A Gender-Based Violence in Eastern Africa.” ." In International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, October-December 2015. 2015;Vol.2, Issue 3.
Kaviti L. "2015: Kaviti, L: “From Stigma to Status: Sheng and Engsh in Kenya’s Linguistic and Literary Space”; ." In Diegner, Lutz & Frank Schulze-Engler (Eds.) 2015. Habari ya English? What about Kiswahili? East Africa as a Literary and Linguistic Contact Zone. (Matatu Journal for African Culture and Society 46), . 2015.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "21. J.N. Kariuki, G.K. Gitau, C.K. Gachuiri, S. Tamminga and K.R.G. Irungu. Effect of maturity on the mineral composition of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). Tropical Science, (1999) 39: 1-6.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Tropical Science; 1999. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

P OCHILO. 21. The Use of the Internet for the Advancement of Training and International Co-operation. . Nairobi, Kenya.: UNESCO Regional Office in Nairobi, East African Media Institute EAMI and the Friedrich Ebert Foundation.; 1996.
Kinyanjui Sarah. "21st Century Slavery? Interrogating the Treatment of Kenyan Female Domestic Workers in Saudi Arabia.". In: Canadian Law and Society Association Annual Confrence.; 2015.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "22. G.K Gitau, B.D. Perry, J.J. and McDermott. The incidence, calf morbidity and mortality due to Theileria parva infections in smallholder dairy farms in Murang.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Preventive Veterinary Medicine; 1999. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

P OCHILO. 22. The Role of Communication in the Promotion of Peace. Nairobi, Kenya.: All Africa Conference of Churches ; 2000.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "22nd January, 2007 .". In: National Defense College, Karen, Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
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MUKESH DRKUMAR. "22P Excitation of Helium Atom by Position.". In: Impact, Int. J. Biochephysics vol.12, 13 & 14; 1-4 (2000). Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2000. Abstract
The gene Q13L coding for the Capripoxvirus group specific structural protein P32 was expressed in Escherichia coli using plasmid pGEX-2T as a fusion protein with glutathione-s-transferase and purified on glutathione sepharose affinity chromatography column. The protein was then employed for diagnosis of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpyskin disease, by a latex agglutination test (LAT) using the purified P32 antigen and guinea pig detector antiserum raised against the P32 antigen. The LAT and virus neutralization test (VNT) were used to screen one hundred livestock field sera for antibodies to Capripoxvirus, in comparison the LAT was simpler, rapid and 23% more sensitive than the VNT. In addition the LAT was found to be specific for Carpripoxvirus because it did not pick antibodies to Orthopoxvirus and Parapoxvirus. The LA test can be taken for a simple and quick diagnostic tool for primary screening of Carpripoxvirus infection and will reduce the reliance of diagnostic laboratories on tissue culture facilities. Keywords: Carpripox, latex agglutination test, attachment gene J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 3 (2) 2007: pp. 36-43
Akech M. "23) Land, the Environment and the Courts in Kenya.". In: National Council for Law Reporting (NCLR), Kenya . National Council for Law Reporting (NCLR), Kenya ; 2006.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "23. J.K.Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, L.C. Bebora, C.O. Bwanga, Z.M. Wamuri and P.M.F. Mbithi. Occurrence of dermatomycosis (ringworm) due to Trichophyton verrucosum in dairy calves and its spread to animal attendants. Journal of the South African Veterinary Assoc.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. ournal of the South African Veterinary Association; 1998. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. "A 24 GHz PHEMT-Based Oscillator", Proceedings of the I4th Microwave Conference, MIKON-2002, Gdansk, Poland (co.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 2002. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

NJOROGE MRMWEMAWILFRED. "A 24 GHz PHEMT-Based Oscillator", Proceedings of the I4th Microwave Conference, MIKON-2002, Gdansk, Poland (co.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Apr;64(4):287-8. International Journal of Climatology; 2002. Abstract

Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.

was the lead consultant National Economic and Social Council(NESC). 24-Hour Economy. and Council NES, ed. Nairobi; 2010.
Redfern PH, Sinei KA. "24-Hr variation in synaptosomal tryptophan-5- hydroxylase activity in the rat brain.". In: Circadian Rhythms in the Central Nervous System. London: MacMillan Press; 1985.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "24. J.N. Kariuki, C.K..Gachuiri, G.K. Gitau, S. Tamminga, J. Van Bruchem, J.M. K. Muia and K.R.G.Irungu. Effect of feeding Napier grass, lucerne and sweet potato vines as sole diets to dairy heifers on nutrient intake, average weight gain and rumen degrad.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Livestock Production Science,; 1998. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "24. J.W. Mwangi, K. J. Achola, K.A. Sinei, W. Lwande and R. Laurent (1995). Essential oil constituents of Artemisia afra Willd. J. Essential Oil Research. 7: 97-99.". In: J. Essential Oil Research. 7: 97-99. The Kenya Medical Association; 1995. Abstract

Persons with congenital or acquired immunosuppression have long been known to have an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders. Unsurprisingly, therefore, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. Three cases with HIV-associated lymphoma aged 30, 32 and 35 years respectively are presented. Two had cutaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while one had Hodgkin's lymphoma. Standard chemotherapy for lymphoma was given with good tumour regression. Two of the patients died within six months of lymphoma diagnosis due to other complications of HIV.

O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "24th May, 2007 .". In: Taifa Hall, University of Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
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MASU DRSYLVESTER. "25 Exhibition and seminar of Architectural Association of Kenya on May 26 -29, 1992.". In: journal. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1992. Abstract
Bovine foscioliosis coused by F. giganticais widespread in   There is a large collection of reports of fasciolosis in Kenya based on  abattoir data records from veterinary investigation laboratories (VILS) as well as reports on a few farm study was carried out to improve on the reports.  Diagnosis of fasciola infection has traditionally been based on detection of typical eggs in the faeces.  A variety of other techniques are now available eg enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which has shown to be sensitive and useful. Three agro-ecological zoned were defined depending on the reported prevalence; high risk, medium risk and low risk zones.  Two study districts were picked at random from each zone.  The study farms were selected using the two stage cluster sampling. Faecal and blood samples were collected on the farm.  Serum was later harvested.  ELISA and faecal sedimatation tests (FST) were carried out. A total of 2434 faecal and blood samples were screened.  ELISA achieved the highest (66%) positive rate of the samples from Kwale district and the lowest (23%) rate in Nakuru.  An overall positive prevalence of (43%) for fasciolosis was achieved.  The faecal sedimentation test showed prevalence of 19%.  In both tests high prevalence were observed in Kwale and Kilifi districts.  ELSA was always positive when FST was positive but not the converse. The on-famr survey utilizing two reliable diagnostic tests was meant to improve on existing abattoir reports.  Both tests showed fair to good agreements.  The higher detection by ELISA might be due to deworming and other reasons.  It was concluded that on-farm surveys are better than retrogressive studies; thought the latter are cheaper and faster.,  the current prevalence of fasciolosis are different from past reports with coastal showing higher than expected prevalences.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "25. J.K. Wabacha, G.K. Gitau, J.M. Nduhiu, A.G. Thaiya, P.M.F. Mbithi and S.J.M. Munyua. An outbreak of urticarial form of Swine Erysipelas in a medium scale piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. (1998) 69.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association.; 1998. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "25th May, 2007 .". In: Algeria Embassy.; 2007. Abstract
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Akech M. 26) Public Law and the Neoliberal Experiment in Kenya: What Should the Public Interest Become. New York : New York University School of Law; 2004.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "26. G.K. Gitau. A study of factors influencing endemic stability and instability to theileriosis and babesiosis on dairy production in Murang.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, University of Nairob; 1997. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Akech M. "28) The Common Law’s Approach to Liability and Redress and its Applicability to East Africa.". In: Liability and Redress under the Cartagena Protocol. Mombasa, Kenya; 200.
Akech M. "29) Governing the International Market: Trade, Multinational Corporations, and Social and Economic Rights.". In: International Law and Politics Symposium on Social and Economic Rights and Development. New York; 2002.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ, MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "29) Mbaka M., Gathura, P.B., Njeru, F.M. Mbaria J.M. Kitala P.M., Kaburia H.F.A, Gitahi J.N., Macharia J.K., Kamau J.M. (2004): An assessment of the Presence of Escherichia coli in the Roof-collected Rain Water from some areas around Nairobi. The Kenya ve.". In: The Kenya Veterinarian. E; 2004. Abstract

ABSTRACT: One of the sources of feacal contamination of rainwater harvested from roofs is wind-blown dust containing particulate matter from animal faeces, or through direct defecation. Since the primary habitat for Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the gastro-intestinal tract of mammals and birds (Atlas 1984), it's a good indicator of feacal contamination (Hazen, 1988). This study aimed to investigate the presence of E.coli. In rainwater samples collected from roofs in some areas around Nairobi, which have different levels of livestock density. Forty four of the 89 samples collected tested positive for the presence of E.coli from Ngong Division, which had a cattle density of 1446 per square Kilometre was, 55%, but it was not significantly different from both Kikuyu Division: cattle density of 166; both of which had 34% of the samples testing positive to E. coli (p=0.3094). It was concluded that rain water harvested from roofs for human consumption in the study area should be treated before use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE, KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE, KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "29. D.I. Kariuki, G.K. Gitau and S.J.M. Munyua. The use of preserved colostrum in rearing of replacement dairy calves: calf performance, economics and on-farm practicability in Kenya. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. (1995) 62 (3): 167-170.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research; 1995. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Akunga ND, Keraka M, Anyango SO. 2Burden of Childhood Diarrhea from Water sanitation and hygiene: The case of Nairobi City, Kenya. . Bonn: Verlag Dr. Muller (VDM). ISBN978-3-639-27847-7 .; 2010.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "2ND EDITION OF "A HANDBOOK ON CRIMINAL PROCEDURE IN KENYA.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2006.
O DRLUMUMBAPATRICK. "2ND EDITION OF "AN OUTLINE OF JUDICIAL REVIEW IN KENYA.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 1. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1999.
Imungi, JK; Okoth MW. 2nd Food Science Subject Meeting Report.; 1996.
M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "2nd Kenya National Symposium on Music (Egerton University) Publication of Permanent Music Commission of Kenya.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract

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F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "2nd Opening lecture on "Savanna and Woodland Ecosystems in Tropical America and Africa: Geomorphological concepts". Pp. 3-4 (see also Symposium on Savanna and Woodland Ecosystem in Tropics. University of Brasilia, BRAZIL, 2-7 October.". In: UNESCO/ROSTA Technical Report 1985, pp. 52, Nairobi. UN-HABITAT; 1984. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
3
GODFREY PROFMURIUKI. "3 Chapters in Official Handbook.". In: Kenya Government, Nairobi.; 1983. Abstract
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Akech M. "3) Evaluating the Impact of Corruption (Perception) Indicators on Governance Discourses in Kenya.". In: Research Network on Indicators Panel, Law and Society Association Annual Meeting. San Francisco, California; 2011.
Akech M. "3) The Police Must Not Take Sides in Political Contests." East African, January 28, 2008.
El-Tamawy M, Helmi A, Hamdi S, El-Serafi O, El-Banhawy E. "3-21-16 Is prolactin implicated in the pathogenesis of migraine?". 1997.Website
Mutai P, Heydenreich M, Thoithi G, Mugumbate G, Chibale K, Yenesew A. "3-Hydroxyisoflavanones from the stem bark of Dalbergia melanoxylon: Isolation, antimycobacterial evaluation and molecular docking." Phytochem. Lett.. 2013;6:671-675.
Yenesew A., Peggoty Mutai, Matthias Heydenreich GTGMKC. "3-Hydroxyisoflavanones from the stem bark of Dalbergia melanoxylon: Isolation, antimycobacterial evaluation and molecular docking studies." Phytochemistry Letters . 2013;6 :671-675. Abstractpaper_65_mutai_et_al_phyto_2013.pdf

Two new 3-hydroxyisoflavanones, (S)-3,4′,5-trihydroxy-2′,7-dimethoxy-3′-prenylisoflavanone (trivial name kenusanone F 7-methyl ether) and (S)-3,5-dihydroxy-2′,7-dimethoxy-2″,2″-dimethylpyrano[5″,6″:3′,4′]isoflavanone (trivial name sophoronol-7-methyl ether) along with two known compounds (dalbergin and formononetin) were isolated from the stem bark of Dalbergia melanoxylon. The structures were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques. Kenusanone F 7-methyl ether showed activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whereas both of the new compounds were inactive against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at 10 μg/ml. Docking studies showed that the new compounds kenusanone F 7-methyl ether and sophoronol-7-methyl ether have high affinity for the M. tuberculosis drug target INHA.

Yenesew A, Atilaw Y, Heydenreich, Ndakala A, Hoseah M, Akala, M Kamau E. "3-Oxo-14α,15α-epoxyschizozygine: A new schizozygane indoline alkaloid from Schizozygia coffaeoides." Phytochemistry Letters . 2014;10:28-31. Abstractpaper_73_atilaw_et_al_phyto_2014.pdf

The stem bark extract of Schizozygia coffaeoides (Apocynaceae) showed moderate antiplasmodial activity (IC50 = 8–12 μg/mL) against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Chromatographic separation of the extract led to the isolation of a new schizozygane indoline alkaloid, named 3-oxo-14α,15α-epoxyschizozygine. In addition, two dimeric anthraquinones, cassiamin A and cassiamin B, were identified for the first time in the family Apocynaceae. The structures of the isolated compounds were deduced on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The schizozygane indole alkaloids showed good to moderate antiplasmodial activities (IC50 = 13–52 μМ).

Atilaw Y, Heydenreich M, Ndakala A, Akala HM, Kamau E, Yenesew A. "3-Oxo-14α,15α-epoxyschizozygine: A new schizozygane indoline alkaloid from Schizozygia coffaeoides." Phytochemistry Letters. 2014;10:28-31.
P OCHILO. 3. A Review of a WHO Video Programme and two WHO Radio Programmes on Health . Finland: Geneva and University of Tampere, ; 1986.
(Editor) FM,(Editor) HN. 3. Africa Imperatives in the World Trade Order: Case Studies on Kenya. , 2005.. Nairobi: AERC.-KIPPRA; 2005.
SWALEH AMIRI, TIMAMMY RAYYA. "3. Androgyny and Women’s Identity in Ari Katini Mwachofi’s Mama Ee." International Journal of Education and Research . 2013;1(8):1-12 .
"3. Inequality and Child Survival in Kenya: a Probit Model Approach.". In: 31st General Conference of the International Association for Research in Income and Wealth. St Gallen, Switzerland; 2010.
Ndungu MN. "3. Kiswahili na Uzalishaji Chakula.". In: CHAKITA Conference 2012 on Kiswahili, Cohesion, Intergration and Development . Kenyatta University; 2012.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "3. Maichomo, M. W., Gitau, G. K., Gathuma, J. M., Ndung.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2009. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Akech M. "30) The African Growth and Opportunity Act: Implications for Kenya’s Trade and Development." JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AND POLITICS . 2001;33(651).

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