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S. RF, P. HM, C. M, M. BS, K. AF. ". “Clinical presentation and post-mortem findings of patients with AIDS at Kenyatta National Hospital." Journal of AIDS. 2000;Supplement 24:23-29.
Wasamba P. ". “Magic or Mirage: The Efficacy of Nvivo7 in Oral Literature Research”." African Affairs Journal. 2007;Vol. 22(No. 8):141-182.abstract.pdf
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. "."The perils of land"tenure" reform" in J. W. Arntzenm at. Al (eds.); Land Policy and Agriculture in Eastern and Southern Africa, United Nations University Tokyo, Japan.". In: Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1987. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "., 2004, Deflection characteristics for flexible road and airport pavements in Kenya.". In: Accepted for presentation in the 8th Conference on asphalt pavements for Southern Africa Sun City South Africa, 12th to 16th September 2004. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. ".1995. Adsorbed water in dry vegetables. KIFST Preceedings.Proceedings of the second KIFST Conference. 8th .". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1995. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
Maitai CK, Muraguri N, Patel HA. ".A survey on the use of poisoned arrows in Kenya during the period 1964-1971." East Afr Med J. . 1973;50(2):100-104. AbstractWebsite

In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.

CR N, T C, JA S, PA W, D F, N P, FJ K, K M. ".Coma scales for children with severe falciparum malaria.". In: Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Mar-Apr;91(2):161-5. uon press; 1997. Abstract

{ The Blantyre coma scale (BCS) is used to assess children with severe falciparum malaria, particularly as a criterion for cerebral malaria, but it has not been formally validated. We compared the BCS to the Adelaide coma scale (ACS), for Kenyan children with severe malaria. We examined the inter-observer agreement between 3 observers in the assessment of coma scales on 17 children by measuring the proportion of agreement (PA), disagreement rate (DR) and fixed sample size kappa (kappa n). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the scales in detecting events (seizures and hypoglycaemia) in 240 children during admission and the usefulness of the scales in predicting outcome. There was considerable disagreement between observers in the assessment of both scales (BCS: PA = 0.55

Musonye MM. ".Let an Ailing God Die: The Place of Change in Society. ." Perspectives. 1998;Vol. 2(No.1).
NDONG'A PROFOMONDILUCIA. ".Omondi, L.N. (1986) Reduplication as a Linguistic Phenomenon. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere. October, 1986. Schriftenreihe des Kolner Institut fur Afrikanistik.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
M PROFKHALAGAIJAIRUS. ".P. Duggal and J. M. Khalagai, Operator Equation AB+BA*=A*B+BA=I, India J.". In: Pure Applied Maths. Vol.13 (11) , 526-531. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics(GJPAM), 2012, to appear; 1982. Abstract
J. M. Khalagai,
KHALFAN DRABDALLAHFATMAH. ".Single dose filgastrim in cytotoxic-induced neutropaenia in children.ast Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):30-5.". In: ast Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):30-5. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To document the impact of fixed dose weight adjusted filgastrim (G-CSF) in cytotoxic-induced neutropaenia. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Paediatric Oncology Unit at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: All paediatric oncology patients who had developed cytotoxic-induced neutropaenia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The following were documented for every tissue proven case of malignancy; age, sex, type of malignancy, treatment regimen and schedule, initial blood count at the time of neutropaenia; subsequent blood counts daily for five days from day one of single dose filgastrim, and the calculated neutrophil incremental count. RESULTS: Initially eight patients with solid tumours previously treated with filgastrim revealed that cytotoxic induced neutropaenia could be ameliorated by a single dose of filgastrim. Subsequently, the study listed thirty patients. This cohort consisted of; 37% rhabdomyosarcoma, 30% Burkitts, 27% acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 6% Hodgkin's lymphoma. Increased neutrophil count after 48 hours was documented in 26 (87%) patients, with absolute neutrophil counts range of 0.5 to 31.5 x 10(9)/L. This response was significantly influenced by gender (p>0.0001), malignancy type and chemotherapy regimen (p>0.001). CONCLUSION: The study shows that chemotherapy induced neutropaenia can be alleviated by a single dose of filgastrim without adverse effects on lymphoblastic leukaemia. This study suggests that a single dose of filgastrim should be first tried in cytotoxic induced neutropaenia in the paediatric age group. PMID: 18543524 [PubMed - in process]

Otieno CF, Huho AN OEOAAANE. ".Type 2 diabetes mellitus: clinical and aetiologic types, therapy and quality of glycaemic control of ambulatory patients.East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):24-9.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):24-9. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2008. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease with multiple causes revolving around beta cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and enhanced hepatic glucose output. Clinical judgement based on obesity status, age of onset and the clinical perception of residual beta cell insulin secretory function (hence insulin-requiring or not), has been used to determine therapeutic choices for each patient. Further laboratory testing of the clinically defined type 2 diabetes unmasks the various aetiologic types within the single clinical group. OBJECTIVE: To determine the aetiological types of the clinically defined type 2 diabetic patients, their chosen therapies at recruitment and the quality of glycaemic control achieved. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: Diabetes out-patient clinic of Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: A total of 124 patients with clinical type 2 diabetes were included, 49.2% were males. The mean duration of diabetes in males was 26.09 (20.95) months and that of females was 28.68 (20.54) months. The aetiological grouping revealed the following proportions: Type 1A-3.2%, Type 1B-12.1%, LADA-5.7%, and "true" type 2 diabetes 79.0%. All the patients with Type 1A were apparently, and rightly so, on "insulin-only" treatment even though they did not achieve optimal glycaemic control with HbA1c % = 9.06. However the study patients who were type 1B and LADA were distributed all over the treatment groups where most of them did not achieve optimal glycaemic control, range of HbA1c of 8.46 -10.6%. The patients with "true" type 2 were also distributed all over the treatment groups where only subjects on 'diet only' treatment had good HbA1c of 6.72% but those in other treatment groups did not achieve optimal glycaemic control of HbA1c, 8.07 - 9.32%. CONCLUSION: Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease where clinical judgement alone does not adequately tell the various aetiological types apart without additional laboratory testing of C-peptide levels and GAD antibody status. This may partly explain the inappropriate treatment choices for the various aetiological types with consequent sub-optimal glycaemic control of those patients.

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Kimani G.N. "1) A module for Adult Education Teachers, Department of Adult Education and School of Distance Studies.". In: Factors Influencing Curriculum Development. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1989.
Akech M. "1) Is the Vetting Process Really Fair to Judges? ." Nairobi Star, June 29, 2020.
MUCUNU DRMBARIAJ. "1) J. M. Mbaria (1999). Studies of Pharmacokinetics, Anthelmintic Efficacy and Acute Toxicity of Pyrethrins in Sheep and Dogs and Pyrethroids Analysis in Air.". In: Proceedings of the First National Workshop on medicinal, aromatic and other underutilized plant species in Kenya. Held from 29th October to 3rd November 2001 at Kenya Wildlife Service Training Institute, Naivasha, Kenya. University of Nairobi; 1999. Abstract

ABSTRACT: One of the sources of feacal contamination of rainwater harvested from roofs is wind-blown dust containing particulate matter from animal faeces, or through direct defecation. Since the primary habitat for Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the gastro-intestinal tract of mammals and birds (Atlas 1984), it's a good indicator of feacal contamination (Hazen, 1988). This study aimed to investigate the presence of E.coli. In rainwater samples collected from roofs in some areas around Nairobi, which have different levels of livestock density. Forty four of the 89 samples collected tested positive for the presence of E.coli from Ngong Division, which had a cattle density of 1446 per square Kilometre was, 55%, but it was not significantly different from both Kikuyu Division: cattle density of 166; both of which had 34% of the samples testing positive to E. coli (p=0.3094). It was concluded that rain water harvested from roofs for human consumption in the study area should be treated before use.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamide - protecting group for Asparagine and Application to Na-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid - phase peptide synthesis of Oxytocin,.". In: submitted for publication to Kenya Naitonal Academy of Sciences Journal ref. KTS/A/283 letter dated 20th September,. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; 2001. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamide protecting group for asparagines and application to N-alpha-t-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase peptide synthesis of oxytocin." chemistry and materials research. 2014;6(2):1-11.
Yusuf A, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as Carboxamide-Protecting Group for Asparagine and Application to N-α-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) Solid-phase Peptide Synthesis of Oxytocin." chemistry and materials research. 2014;6(2). Abstractchemistry and materials research

Description
Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-1, 2-ethanedithiol (2: 20: 2: 1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40 C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in 56% yield.

Amir Y, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamine-protecting group for asparagine and application to N-a-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase pentide synthesis of oxytocin." Journal of chemistry and materials research. 2014;6(2):1-11. Abstractscan0013.pdf

Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was
used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were
used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-I,2-
ethanedithiol (2:20:2:1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a
one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40°C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in
56% yield.

Amir Y, Gitu P, Bhatt B, Njogu M, Salim A, Orata D. "1-Tetralinyl as carboxamine-protecting group for asparagine and application to N-a-t-Butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) solid-phase pentide synthesis of oxytocin." Chemistry and Materials Research. 2014. Abstract

Oxytocin, a nonapeptide amide, was synthesized on a benzhydryl-resin using the Boc strategy. Benzyl group was
used in the protection of sulfhydryl group of cysteine and tyrosine side-chain. Benzhydryl and tetralinyl groups were
used in the protection of glutamine and asparagine side-chains respectively. TFMSA-TFA-thioanisole-I,2-
ethanedithiol (2:20:2:1 v/v) was used on the peptide-resin under different cleavage conditions to obtain oxytocin in a
one-pot reaction. The cleavage at 40°C for two hours gave oxytocin quantitatively. Oxytocin could be isolated in
56% yield.

Anselm OJ. 1. Being And Meaning .; 1991.
Ndavi P Muia. "1. Female Genital Mutilation Across Boarders: .". In: 38th Kenya Obstetrical and Gynecological Society Annual Scientific Conference . Nyeri, Kenya; 2014.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE, KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "1. Gitau G.K. et al. Dryland Livestock Wildlife Environment Interface Project: Experiences and lessons learnt from Livestock-Wildlife Environment Interface Management in Kenya and Burkina Faso. www.gefweb.org/uploadedFiles/Focal_Areas/Land.../livestock-wi.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. /Land.../livestock-wildlife; 2009. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Wasike NM, Sakwa HN. "1. Nomadic and pastoralist education: Past interventions, challenges and implications for the post 2015 attainment of EFA in Kenya.". In: 2nd AFRICE International Conference on “EDUCATION IN AFRICA: REFLECTIONS BEYOND 2015 MDGs- COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES. Kenya Science Campus University of Nairobi; 2015.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "1. Odhiambo WA, Gitau R W; The Pattern and Tools of violence Used in the Post- election Violence in Kenya .(Abstract accepted for the 10th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, London sept 2010).". In: BOOK. Safety 2010; 2010. Abstract
Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "1. Odhiambo WA, Gitau R W; The Pattern and Tools of violence Used in the Post- election Violence in Kenya .(Abstract accepted for the 10th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, London sept 2010).". In: BOOK. Safety 2010; 2010. Abstract

Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Forty two children with aplastic anaemia were seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, over a period of 8 years (1980-1988). These have been analysed with respect to sex, age and area of geographical origin. The overall male:female ratio is 1:1 with a preponderance of Kikuyu patients. Repeated transfusions was the commonest presenting feature and rapid onset was associated with poor prognosis. Exposure to herbicides/pesticides and other agrochemicals is implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of childhood aplastic anaemia in Kenya.

D.C W, E.M O, Farquhar C, Richardson BA, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Inwani I, Benki-Nugent S, G J-S. "1. Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 infected children on antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a prospective cohort." BCM Pediatr. 2010:10-33.predictors_of_mortality_in_hiv-1infected_children.pdf
Ekwom PE, Oyoo GO, Amayo EO, Muriithi IM. "1. Prevalence and characteristics of articular manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus infection." east african medical journal. 2010;87(10):408-14.
Muriithi EM, Gunga SO, Ngesu LM, K’Odhiambo AK, Wachira LN. "1. School Characteristics, Use of Project Method and Learner Achievement in Physics." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;4(8):196-203. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate how school characteristics affect the usage of the PM and the consequent impact on learner achievement in physics (LAP). Data was collected using Students Achievement Tests (SAT) and questionnaire for physics teachers. Stratified Sampling was applied to select 84 schools comprising boys, girls and mixed schools from seven provinces of Kenya. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. ANOVA, chi-square and multiple-regression were used to test the hypothesis. The key findings of the study were that PM enhances the learning of physics; Single sex schools performed better than mixed schools; the type of schools in terms of gender, whether day or boarding were not factors in the usage of project method. In view of these research findings, the researchers recommend that the government come up with a policy that enhances the establishment of more single sex schools, enhance resource mobilization for the teaching of physics, review the teacher training component so as to encompass the PM as an alternative teaching strategy, and in-service physics teachers on the role of school characteristics in the study of physics.

Kihu SM, Gachohi JM, Ndungu EK, Gitao CG, Bebora LC, Njenga JM, Wairire GG, Maingi N, Wahome RG, Ireri R. "1. Sero-epidemiology of Peste Des Petits ruminants virus infection in Turkana County, Kenya ." BMC Veterinary Research. 2015;11(87):1-13.
Oketch Oboth JWB. "1. Stress as a Health Issue among University students: Implications for the Counselling Services." The Fountain, Journal of Educational Research. 2010;Vol. IV(No. 1).
Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

Njau DG, Muge EK, Kinyanjui PW, Omwandho C, Mukwana S. "1. STRs analysis of human DNA from Maggots Fed on Decomposing Bodies: Assessment of the time period for successful analysis ." Egyptian Journal of Forensic Science . 2019;6(3):261-269. AbstractFull Text Link

Frequently, forensic entomology is applied in the use of insect maggots for the identification of specimens or remains of humans. Maggot crop analysis could be valuable in criminal investigations when maggots are found at a crime scene and a corpse is absent. Human short tandem repeat (STR) has previously been used to support the association of maggots to a specific corpse but not in the period at which the body has been decomposing. The aim of this research was to assess the time period for successful STR analyses of human DNA from third instar maggots (Protophormia terraenovae) obtained from decomposing human corpses as well as to investigate the human DNA turnover and degradation in the maggot crop after they are removed from food and/or are fed on a beef (a new/different) food source. Results showed that the amount of human DNA recovered from maggots decreased with time in all cases. For maggots fed on beef, the human DNA could only be recovered up to day two and up to day four for the starved maggots. STR analyses of human DNA from maggots’ crop content using 16 loci generated profiles that matched those of reference samples although some of the alleles were not amplifiable therefore generating partial profiles for the samples starved for 4 days and those fed on beef. This may be due to nuclease activity present in the gut of larvae that may have caused degradation of DNA and consequently reduction in DNA yield. It was possible to identify the decomposing body using STRs as markers.

Kimani Zipporah Muthoni, Ogutu O, Anthony K. "1. The Prevalence and Impact of Obstetric Fistula on Women of Kaptembwa – Nakuru, Kenya." International Journal of Applied Science and Technology . 2014;4(3):273-287.
Ndavi PM, Wanga H KD. "1. Underutilized technology in infertility management: .". In: 37th Kenya Obstetrical and Gynecological Society Annual Scientific Conference . Eldoret, Kenya; 2013.
O PROFMUMMAALBERT. "1. Environmental Law: Meeting UK & EC Requirements, McGraw Hill, London.". In: UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 19, 2000/2001, No. 1 at p. 181. Departmental seminar; 1995. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "1. Naruse Kazuko, Tashiro Junko, Sankyo Yumi, Ichikawa Wakako, Karani Anna Stakeholders.". In: Annual Scientific Conference of National Nurses Association of Kenya on 5th - 7th October, 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College in Nyeri, Kenya. Blackwell Publishing Co.; Submitted. Abstract

After the World Health Assembly approved WHA 45.5 in 1992 addressing the nursing shortage by refocusing nurses and midwifes to meet community health needs, community demands for educated nurses and the needs of higher nursing education in developing countries increased.  Therefore in Kenyan a major university school of nursing initiated a collaborative study with a well established Japanese nursing college to determine the service-providers

Berson DM. "1.25 - {Retinal} {Ganglion} {Cell} {Types} and {Their} {Central} {Projections}." In: Gardner RMTATARMPDDOSFGBMCHDDHK, ed. The {Senses}: {A} {Comprehensive} {Reference}. New York: Academic Press; 2008:. Abstract

Ganglion cells are the only retinal neurons communicating directly with the brain. It is well known that mammalian ganglion cells comprise more than a dozen types, clearly distinguishable from one another in structure and function. Each type also appears to send axons to a distinctive subset of the many central visual nuclei receiving direct retinal input. The implication is that each ganglion cell type forms a specialized channel sculpted by evolutionary pressures to fulfill specific visual functions. Though the outlines of this perspective have been clear for decades, many essential details are lacking. The goal of this chapter is to summarize the state of knowledge about where retinal axons are distributed in the brain and which types of ganglion cells contribute to these pathways. The primary focus is on ganglion cell types that appear to be conserved across mammalian phylogeny.

Akech M, Kameri-Mbote P. 10) The Justice Sector and the Rule of Law in Kenya. African Governance Monitoring and Advocacy ; 2009.
Muema DM, Nduati EW, Uyoga M, Bashraheil M, Scott JAG, Hammitt LL, Urban BC. "10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) induces memory B cell responses in healthy Kenyan toddlers." Clin. Exp. Immunol.. 2015;181(2):297-305. Abstract

Memory B cells are long-lived and could contribute to persistence of humoral immunity by maintaining the plasma-cell pool or making recall responses upon re-exposure to an antigen. We determined the ability of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to induce anti-pneumococcal memory B cells. Frequencies of memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides from serotypes 1, 6B, 14, 19F and 23F were determined by cultured B cell enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) in 35 children aged 12-23 months who received pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). The relationships between plasma antibodies and memory B cell frequencies were also assessed. After two doses of PHiD-CV, the proportion of subjects with detectable memory B cells against pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides increased significantly for serotypes 1 (3-45%; P < 0·01), 19F (21-66%; P < 0·01) and 23F (13-36%; P = 0·02), but not serotypes 6B (24-42%; P = 0·24) and 14 (21-40%; P = 0·06). Correlations between antibodies and memory B cells were weak. Carriage of serotype 19F at enrolment was associated with poor memory B cell responses against this serotype at subsequent time-points (day 30: non-carriers, 82% versus carriers, 0%, P < 0·01; day 210: non-carriers, 72% versus carriers, 33%, P = 0·07). PHiD-CV is capable of inducing memory B cells against some of the component pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides.

Gor SO. "10. Government Spending and Economic Growth in Kenya: Which Way for Vision 2030.". In: University of Nairobi, School of Economics’ Seminar on Policy Options for Achieving Vision 2030. Nairobi; 2007.
P. OCHILO. "10. Media Approach: Journalistic Practices in Distributing Information on Health Care.". In: Training Course of East African Journalists on Primary Health Care Phase III. Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania; 1987.
P. OCHILO. "10. Media Approach: Journalistic Practices in Distributing Information on Health Care.". In: Training Course of East African Journalists on Primary Health Care Phase III. Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania; 1987.
Kibugi R. "10. Enhanced access to environmental justice in Kenya." Environmental Law and Sustainability after Rio. 2011:158. Abstract
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KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "101 Global Leadershjp Lessons For Nurses (Chapter 92"Synergy and Win-Win: The Goals of Effective Leadership") By Prof. Anna K. Karani and Patrick K. Wairiri.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Sgma Theta Tau International : Honor Society For Nursing; 2009. Abstract

The Goals of the book are to:1,  Illustrate the process and rewards of mentoring for the organization, mentee,      and mentor.2.  Offer salient , tangible, subject-based lessons for new and experienced       leaders alike.3.  demonstrate that mentee-mentor competences are more readily gained      through personal example, channeled practice, or experience than      through pure education and training.At the end of every chapter there are reflective questions.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "101 Global Leadershjp Lessons For Nurses (Chapter 92- Synegy and Win-Win: The goals of Effective Leadership) By Prof. Anna K. Karani and Patrick Kimani Wairiri.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Sigma Theta Tau International : Honor Society of Nursing; 2009. Abstract

  The goals of the book are to:1. Illustrate the process and rewards of mentoring for the organization, mentee,and     mentor.2. Offer salient,tangible,subject-based lessons for new and experienced leaders    alike.3. Demonstrate that mentee-mentor competencies are more readily gained through     personal example, channeled practice, or experience than through pure     education and training. At the end of each chapter, there are reflective question. 

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "101. Wango, E.O, Tabifor, H.N, Muchiri, L.W., Sekadde-Kigondu, C. Progesterone, Estradiol and their receptors in leiomyomata and the adjacent normal myometria of black Kenyan women .Afr. J.Health Sci. 9:123, 2002.". In: E.A.M.J vol 79 (10) 530, 2002. uon press; 2002. Abstract
Reproductive Biology Unit, Department of Animal Physiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. dochiel@kisian.mimcom.net The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
"10th Anniversary workshop of the Understanding Development Issues in Nurse Educator (UDINE-C) network and the health educators East Midlands celebrations conference,.". In: 10th Anniversary workshop of the Understanding Development Issues in Nurse Educator (UDINE-C) network and the health educators East Midlands celebrations conference,. Lincoln, UK; 2017.
Okidi CO, Kameri-Mbote P, Akech M. "11) ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE IN KENYA: IMPLEMENTING THE FRAMEWORK LAW ." East African Educational Publishers. 2008.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE, KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "11. G. K. Gitau, M. Waridi, H. A. Makame, M. M. Saleh, R. A. Muhamed, A.P. Mkola and M. A. Haji. Occurrence of high udder infection rates in dairy cows in Ungunja Island of Zanzibar, Tanzania. The Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine (2003) .". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. The Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine; 2003. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Gor SO. "11. Labour Market Dialogue: Perspectives from the Healthcare Sector in Kenya.". In: Entrepreneurship and Business Support, Organized by FKE/COTU and Labour Market Dialogue, Sweden. Whitesands Hotel, Mombasa.; 2006.
11. Perspectives for Editorial Independence published in: Strengthening Democratic Voices. . Nairobi, Kenya.: . UNESCO – Paris Series on Public Service Broadcasting and Editorial Independence ; 1997.
P. OCHILO. "11. Training of Journalists and Democratic Transition in Kenya.". In: Journalism Seminar on Ethical Decision Making in News Processing in Multiparty Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya.; 1992.
Odada E, Olago D, Ochola W, Wandiga S. 11TH WORLD LAKES CONFERENCE. Nairobi: international lake environment committee ; 2005.
Akech M. 12) Report on the Review of the Law of Succession Act. Kenya Law Reform Commission ; 2009.
Akech M. "12) Transboundary Freshwater Governance and the Environment.". In: The Environmental Sustainability Challenge. United Nations Environment Program, Bangkok, Thailand; 2009.
Gor SO. "12. An Assessment of the Implementation of the National Development Plans in Kenya: The Case of Education Sector Programmes .". In: Institute of Research and Post Graduate Studies of Maseno University.; 2005.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "12. G.K Gitau, J.J. McDermott and B.D. Perry. Factors associated with Theileria parva infections in smallholder dairy farms in Murang.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Bulletin for Animal Health and Production in Africa; 2002. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

Ogutu O, F W. "12. Steroid use in Rhesus negative sensitized mothers to reduce Rhesus anti-D titres." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 2005;19:40-43.
P. OCHILO. "12. The Media and Multi-party Politics in Africa: The Case of Kenya.". In: The Media and Multi-party Politics forum .; 1990.
12. Workshop on inclusion of the disabled . Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio: by Dayton Education Board – Columbus, Ohio ; 2004.
"12th Conference of Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,.". In: 12th Conference of Parties . Nairobi, Kenya.; 2006.
Okidi CO, Kameri-Mbote P, Akech M. "13) Governing Water and Sanitation in Kenya, in ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE IN KENYA: IMPLEMENTING THE FRAMEWORK LAW 305 ." East African Educational Publishers. 2008;305 .
Akech M. 13) The Nature and Extent of Environmental Crime. Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Sudan, Ethiopia, Rwanda ; 2009.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "13-15 march, 2007 participated at the .". In: Kenya School of Monetary Studies, Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
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C K, Ogutu O. "13. Condom acceptability and use among patients attending STC clinic in Nairobi ." J. Obstet. Gynaecol. East. Cent. Afr. 1992;10:25-30 .
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "13. G.K Gitau, J.J. McDermott and B.D. Perry. Constraints to dairy heifer calf rearing in smallholder dairy farms in Murang.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2002. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

P. OCHILO. "13. The Social Responsibility of the Electronic Media.". In: 10th Workshop on Broadcasting and Multi-Party Democracy . Nairobi, Kenya.; 1994.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "139 McClelland RS, Lavreys L, Hassan WM, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola J, Baeten JM. Vaginal washing and increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition among African women: a 10-year prospective study. AIDS 2006;20:269-73.". In: AIDS 2006;20:269-73. IBIMA Publishing; 2006. Abstractvaginal_washing_and_increased_risk_of_hiv-1_acquisition_among_african_women_a_10-year_prospective_study.docvaginal_washing_and_increased_risk_of_hiv-1_acquisition_among_african_women_a_10-year_prospective_study.pdf

BACKGROUND: No prospective study has examined the risk of HIV-1 acquisition associated with vaginal washing, although intravaginal practices have been identified as potentially important contributors to HIV-1 susceptibility. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of vaginal washing to incident HIV-1 infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Data were derived from a 10-year study of risk factors for HIV-1 acquisition among 1270 Kenyan female sex workers. Intravaginal practices were ascertained at study enrollment. At monthly follow-up visits, women completed a standardized interview and specimens were collected for diagnosis of HIV-1 and genital tract infections. RESULTS:: Compared with women who did not perform vaginal washing, there was an increased risk for acquiring HIV-1 among women who used water [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 2.64; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-6.97] or soap (adjusted HR 3.84; 95% CI, 1.51-9.77) to clean inside the vagina, after adjustment for demographic factors, sexual behavior, and sexually transmitted infections. Furthermore, women who performed vaginal washing with soap or other substances were at higher risk for HIV-1 compared with those who used water alone (adjusted HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.02-2.13). CONCLUSIONS: In populations where vaginal washing is common, this practice may be an important factor promoting the spread of HIV-1. Intervention strategies aimed at modifying intravaginal practices should be evaluated as a possible female-controlled HIV-1 prevention strategy.

O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "13th July, 2007 .". In: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.; 2007. Abstract
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O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "13th July, 2007 .". In: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.; 2007. Abstract
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Franceschi L, Gachenga E, Lutz D, Akech M. "14) GOVERNANCE, INSTITUTIONS AND THE HUMAN CONDITION ." Strathmore University & Law Africa. 2009.
Gor SO. "14. Ethnically Homogeneous Middleman Groupings - a Transactions Cost Perspective.". In: First International Nilotic Studies Conference. Kisumu, Kenya; 2004.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "14. J. N. Kariuki, S. Tamminga, C.K. Gachuiri, G. K. Gitau, and J. M. K. Muia. Intake, DM degradation and rumen fermentation as affected by varying levels of desmodium and sweet potato vines in napier grass fed to cattle. South African Journal of Animal S.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. South African Journal of Animal Science; 2001. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "14. Johnson O. Nyasani; John W. Kimenju; Florence M. Olubayo and Michel J. Wilson. (2008). Laboratory and field investigations using indigenous entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control of Plutella xylostella in Kenya.". In: Asian Journal of plant pathology 2(1) 48-53. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2008. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
P. OCHILO. "14. Media and Democracy and Sustainable Development: .". In: The 10th Biennial Conference of the African Council for Communication Education . Accra, Ghana; 1994.
Kibugi R. "14. Implementing stewardship in Kenyan land use law: the case for a sustainability extension." Environmental Governance and Sustainability. 2012:288. Abstract
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Ngowi BV, Tonnang HEZ, Khamis F, Mwangi EM, Nyambo B, Ndegwa PN, Subramanian S. "14.5 Population dynamics of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Its Parasitoids Along Altitudinal Gradients of the Eastern Afromontane." Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods. 2017:231.
AO Mulimba, Othieno-Abinya NA, Nyong’o AO. "A 15 – YEAR RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF OSTEOGENIC SARCOMA IN KENYA." Africa Journal Medical Practice. 1994;1(3). Abstract

Cases of osteogenic sarcoma were studied as reported in the Kenya Cancer Registry covering a period of 15 years between January 1976 and December 1990. There were 271 cases with 113 (41.5%) coming from the Kikuyu community. The male to female ratio was 1.3 to 1 and the median age was 17 years. The tribal bias suggests either a genetic aetiology or a common environmental factor.

Afri J Med Prac, 1994; 1 (3): 73-7

Introduction

Osteosarcoma is the most common sarcoma of bone worldwide. It occurs mainly during childhood and adolescence. during childhood and adolescence. 1-3 A biphasic pattern is observed with this tumour. The childhood and adolescent tumour is commonly observed arising in the epiphyses of long bone during the growth spurt . A small peak occurs in the elderly which is commonly associated with paget ‘s diseases or arises in prior radiation therapy ports or associated with exposure to thorotrast.4

Apart from the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) based study by Gakuu in 1980, 5 no information is available on the clinic-epidemiological picture of asteosarcoma in East Africa. A study was therefore, designed to look into some preliminary information about osteosarcoma in Kenya.

Materials and Methods

The source if this information was the Kenya Cancer registry (January 1975 to December 1990). Details were scrutinized about histology, sex, hospital of reporting, tribe, age and involved site(s).

Results
There were a total of 271 cases of osteogenic sarcoma consisting of 151 males and 177 females (Male : Female = 1.3:1). Three cases had no gender identified. The Kikuyu predominate (42%) followed by Kamba (12%) as province, as shown in table 1. Most cases were reported from Nairobi province, as shown in table 2.

Cases were registered in all age groups (range 3 – 87 years) though the second decade accounted for 140 out of 244 (57%) of those whose ages were known (table 3). The median age was 17 years and mean age 19.5 years. Age distribution by tribes was fairly similar (table 4). The femur and tibia were most commonly involved, followed by the jaws (figure1).

Head and face involvement was then analyzed in greater details. The median age this time was 22 and mean age 27.3, only 26.5%of cases being recorded in second decade and 38.2% in third decade (Table 5). The Kikuyu were stillleading in head and facial involvement. It is however noteworthy that 40% of Luos now presented this way (table 6).

Nyong’o NA;, Mulimba AO;. A 15 – Year Retrospective Analysis Of Osteogenic Sarcoma In Kenya.; 1994. AbstractWebsite

Cases of osteogenic sarcoma were studied as reported in the Kenya Cancer Registry covering a period of 15 years between January 1976 and December 1990. There were 271 cases with 113 (41.5%) coming from the Kikuyu community. The male to female ratio was 1.3 to 1 and the median age was 17 years. The tribal bias suggests either a genetic aetiology or a common environmental factor.

Akech M. 15) Draft Constitution of the Dockworkers Union. Mombasa, Kenya ; 2008.
"A 15-year study of the impact of community antiretroviral therapy coverage on HIV incidence in Kenyan female sex workers." AIDS. 2015;29(17):2279-86. AbstractWebsite

To test the hypothesis that increasing community antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage would be associated with lower HIV incidence in female sex workers (FSWs) in Mombasa District, Kenya.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "15. A.G. Thaiyah, G.K. Gitau and Mugambi. Outbreaks of bovine rabies in Kiambu District, Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian (2001) 24: 1-2.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. The Kenya Veterinarian; 2001. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

P. OCHILO. 15. Professional Ethics: Fair Play Impartiality in Covering Elections. . Nairobi, Kenya.: United States International University (USIU) ; 1999.
Akech M. "16) Governing Security in Kenya: How Should We Respond to the Post-2007 Election Crisis.". In: Security Governance. Grand Regency Hotel, Nairobi; 2008.
Akech M. 16) Land and the Environment Law Reports. Kenya: NCLR; 2006.
Mbwesa J. "16. Adult literacy as a determinant factor of farmer participation in agricultural extension: a case study of kibwezi Division Kenya ." The Kenya Adult Educator ' A Journal of Kenya adult Education Association - KAEA. 2002;Vol. 5(Issue 2).
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "16. G.K Gitau, J.J. McDermott, B. McDermott and B.D. Perry. The impact of Theileria parva infections and other factors on calf mean daily weight gains in smallholder dairy farms in Murang.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Preventive Veterinary Medicine; 2001. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "16. Kabubo, F. M. and Kiriti-Nganga, T. (2008), .". In: International Journal of Afro-Asian Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp.40-56. Serials Publications; 2008.
P. OCHILO. "16. Professional Ethics: Fair Play and impartiality in Covering Elections .". In: Workshop on Effective Journalism in a Changing World: Fair and Impartial Coverage of Elections. United States International University Africa-Nairobi; 1996.
P. OCHILO. 16. The Growing Gap between Training and Employment in Communications in Anglophone Africa: Diagnostic and Strategies for Intervention in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. . Nairobi, Kenya.: UNESCO and ORBICOM INTERNATIONAL Network of UNESCO Chairs and Associates in Communications ; 1999.
Akech M, Kameri-Mbote P. "17) Ownership and Regulation of Land Rights in Kenya: Balancing Entitlements with the Public Trust.". In: Beyond the National Land Policy. Kenyatta International Conference Centre, Nairobi, ; 2008.
W K, E H. "17. Anatomical features of the sternum in a kenyan population. Anatomy ." Journal of Africa. 2014;3(1):229-233.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "17. G.K Gitau, J.J. McDermott, J.M. Katende, C.J. O.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Epidemiology and Infection; 2000. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

"17. The Media: Professionalism, Independence and Fair Coverage of the Elections.". In: Effective Journalism in a Changing World. United States International University Africa-Nairobi; 1996.
Akech M. "18) Breaking the Conspiracy of Power: Democracy, Public Law Values and the Governance of Privatization in the Weak State in Africa.". In: Non-State Actors as Standard Setters: The Erosion of the Public-Private Divide. Basel, Switzerland; 2007.
KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "18. G.K Gitau, J.J., McDermott, B.D., Perry and J.M. Katende. The Epidemiology of Theileria parva infections on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya. Tropical Veterinary Diseases, control and prevention in the context of the new world order. Annals of the New.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences; 2000. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

"18. The Need for Reporters to Understand Parliamentary Standing Orders.". In: Effective Journalism in a Changing World: Fair and Impartial Coverage of Elections. the United States International University Africa-Nairobi; 1996.
O PROFNYINGUROPHILIP. "18th March, 2007 .". In: Sunday Standard.; 2007. Abstract
n/a
Fawzia M. Afrid Butt1*, Julius Ogengo1 JB2 MC3 ED4 EW5LAO. "A 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." Open Journal of Stomatology. 2012;2:54-59.benign_tumours_2012.pdf
Butt FMA, Ogeng'o J, Bahra J, Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, wagaiyu E. "19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya." Open Journal of Stomatology . 2012; 2:54-59. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

Butt FM, Ogengo J, Bahra J, Dimba EAO, Wagaiyu E. "19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

Butt FM, Ogengo J, Bahra J, Chindia ML, Wagaiyu E. "19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

Butt FM, Ogengo J, Bahra J, Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, Wagaiyu E. "19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions in a teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya.". 2012. AbstractWebsite

Background: The diversity of benign jaw tumours may cause difficulty in a correct diagnosis and insti-tution of an appropriate treatment. Data on the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the Afri-can continent. We present a 19-year audit of benign jaw tumours and tumour-like lesions at a University teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Histo-pathological records were retrieved and re-examined from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial pa-thology, University of Nairobi from 1992 to 2011. The jaw tumours were classified according to the latest WHO classification. Results: During the 19-year audit, 4257 biopsies were processed of which 597 (14.02%) were jaw tumours within an age range of between 4 to 86 years. There was greater number of odontogenic tumours 417 (69.85%) than the bone related lesions 180 (30.15%). Of the odontogenic tumours, the epithet- lial and in the bone related types, the fibro-osseous lesions were frequent. Conclusion: Ameloblastoma and ossifying fibroma were the most frequent tumours reported in this audit. The information regarding the prevalence of these tumours is scarce from the conti-nent and can be useful in early detection and man-agement before they cause facial deformity.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "19. J.N. Kariuki, S. Tamminga, G.K. Gitau, C.K. Gachuiri and J.M.K. Muia. Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian heifers fed on Napier grass supplemented with graded levels of Lucerne. South African Journal of Animal Science, (1999) 29: 1-11.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. South African Journal of Animal Science; 1999. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1976. August, The 3rd Conference of The Language Association of Eastern Africa. Kenya Science Teachers College, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1976.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1978, 13-17 fevrier, UNESCO Experts Meeting on L'Affirmation De L'Identite Culturelle et La Conscience Nationale Dan L'Afrique Contemporaine. Brazaville (Congo).". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1978.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1980, September 8-10, 1st Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Leiden.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1980.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1980, September, Eastern African History Conference, Nyeri.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1980.
MOHAMED PROFABDULAZIZ. "1981." The Object Prefix in Bantu. 1981.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1982. January 4-6, The International Symposium on Language and History of Nilotic Peoples., Institut fur Afrikanistik Der Universitat Zu Koln.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1982.
M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "1983 - Clinical presentation of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya. Clinical aspects of Kalaazar in Kenya chapter 5 pg. 37. Kager, Rees, Bhatt, Manguyu, Hock Meyer, Wellde and Lyerly.". In: Trop Geogr Med. 1984 Mar;36(1):21-35. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1983. Abstract

At the beginning of the century, splenectomy was used in the treatment of kala-azar, but now is rarely needed, the major indication being for drug resistant kala-azar. Inadvertent splenectomy prior to the diagnosis of kala-azar continues to occur, probably because of a reluctance to perform splenic aspiration in the investigation of splenomegaly. Five Kenyan children underwent splenectomy for drug resistant kala-azar. All were immediately improved, but one died of overwhelming post splenectomy infection (OPSI) two months later and another of a malignant lymphoma seven months after surgery. The other three patients appear to be cured. Splenectomy was considered in a sixth child with kala-azar because of a Salmonella abscess in the spleen, but the abscess ruptured catastrophically before surgery could be arranged.

NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1983, 14-17th July The 2nd Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, The University of Colleraine. N. Ireland.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1983.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1984 9-12th, April Seminar on Culture and Development, Kilaguni Lodge.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1984.
A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "The 1984-85 Budgetary Measures: Some Comments for Foreign Investors, Bulletin for International Fiscal Documentation, Amsterdam, Holland, Vol. 38, No.12:543.". In: Nairobi University Law Journal, Vol. 1:69. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1984. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1984. 18-20 July, Academics - Policy Makers' Seminar on Migration, Remittances and Rural Development, Kisumu, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1984.
M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "1985 - Retrospective study of morality in malaria during 1984 - 1985 at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). GBA Okelo, AK Kemtai, Bhatt K. M. .EAMJ Vol. 64 pg 21.". In: EAMJ Vol. 64 pg 21. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1985. Abstract
Rat bite fever has not been reported from Kenya previously. A case of 17 year old Kenyan male who was diagnosed to have rat bite fever after a bite of domestic rat is described. The history, clinical features and demonstration of spirillum like organisms from a thick blood film suggest infection due to spirillum minus. The patient recovered completely after a course of penicillin and gentamicin.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1985, February 1-4, Workshop on "The Role of The Judiciary In Plural Society", Eldoret, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1985.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1986, 5-8th August 3rd Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Colloquium, Kisumu, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1986.
M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "1987 - Evaluation of Elisa system in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Thesis for MSc. in Clinical Tropical Medicine. Bhatt K. M.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol. 13 no. 2. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1987. Abstract
Rat bite fever has not been reported from Kenya previously. A case of 17 year old Kenyan male who was diagnosed to have rat bite fever after a bite of domestic rat is described. The history, clinical features and demonstration of spirillum like organisms from a thick blood film suggest infection due to spirillum minus. The patient recovered completely after a course of penicillin and gentamicin.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1987, 23rd-27th November, Seminar on Women. Law and Development Mombasa, Kenya.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1987, April, 18th African Linguistics Conference. University of Quebec, in Montreal, Canada.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987.
INUANI DRMUGIVANEFRED. "1987: Msc. Agricultural Economics and Rural Development Tennessee State University Nashville.". In: The Academic Journal of Daystar university. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 1987.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1988: Ng.". In: Afr.Dent. J. 2: 76-79. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract
Department of Dental Surgery, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The present longitudinal study was conducted on ten children from age 5-6 years to determine the post-eruptive enamel changes of fluorosed permanent incisors. The children were born and reared in an area of Kenya with a water fluoride level of 14-45 parts per million. The incisors were examined and photographed periodically from the time of eruption over a period of 2 1/2 years. It was noted that the fluorosed incisor was intact as it erupted and then it underwent a variety of changes. In some there was mechanical breakdown (pitting) of the chalky white enamel which occurred rapidly initially and then the breakdown slowed down by 2 years. In others, there was smoothening of the pitted enamel resulting in a translucent appearance. Alternatively there was some degree of patchy staining of the enamel without surface breakdown. Much of the cervical 1/3 of the enamel remained intact even in teeth with severe breakdown. In most cases, these changes were bilaterally symmetrical. The possible reasons for these changes are discussed.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1989, August 30th to September 2nd 4th Nilo-Saharan Linguistics Conference University of Bayreuth. 21st Annual Conference on African Linguistics. University of Georgia April, 1990.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1989.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1991: Maina S. W. ,Ng.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 68:243-248. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract
The purpose of this study was to record the caries status in children attending public primary schools in Nairobi. The sample comprised 513 children, 262 aged 6-8 years and 251 aged 13-15 years. The children were drawn from six randomly selected schools in the city. Clinical examination was carried out in a room with natural daylight, using the WHO (1977) criteria. Fifty-four per cent of the 6- to 8-year-olds and 50% of the 13- to 15-year-olds were caries-free. The mean dmft in the 6- to 8-year-olds was 1.7, and the mean dmfs was 3.5. The mean DMFT in the 13- to 15-year-olds was 1.8, and the mean DMFS was 2.9. The d- and D-components dominated and were mainly located in the occlusal surfaces. The f-component of the dmft and the F-component of the DMFT comprised 1% and 10%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of caries between males and females in the younger age group. In the older age group, however, females had a higher (p < 0.05) prevalence than males. In general, the study showed a low caries prevalence in Nairobi children.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1992. August The 5th Nilo-Saharan Colloquium Nice, France.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1992.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1992: Chindia M. L., Valderhaug J., Ng.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 69:337 . Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to record the caries status in children attending public primary schools in Nairobi. The sample comprised 513 children, 262 aged 6-8 years and 251 aged 13-15 years. The children were drawn from six randomly selected schools in the city. Clinical examination was carried out in a room with natural daylight, using the WHO (1977) criteria. Fifty-four per cent of the 6- to 8-year-olds and 50% of the 13- to 15-year-olds were caries-free. The mean dmft in the 6- to 8-year-olds was 1.7, and the mean dmfs was 3.5. The mean DMFT in the 13- to 15-year-olds was 1.8, and the mean DMFS was 2.9. The d- and D-components dominated and were mainly located in the occlusal surfaces. The f-component of the dmft and the F-component of the DMFT comprised 1% and 10%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of caries between males and females in the younger age group. In the older age group, however, females had a higher (p < 0.05) prevalence than males. In general, the study showed a low caries prevalence in Nairobi children.
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1992: Ng.". In: Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 102: 244-250. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 513 primary school children in Nairobi. The clinical examination was performed in a room with natural daylight using Thylstrup & Fejerskov's index (TFI). Overall, 18% of 6-8-yr-olds had dental fluorosis in the primary dentition and 76% of 13-15-yr-olds in the permanent dentition. There was no significant sex difference (P > 0.05) in either the prevalence or the severity of fluorosis. In children with mixed dentition, the prevalence and severity of fluorosis was higher in the permanent teeth. In the permanent dentition, no clear difference was demonstrable in the severity between the anterior and the posterior teeth. The degree of fluorosis in most of the children in the area served with river water (0.2-0.4 ppm F-) was of a very mild form. However, in the area served with borehole waters, 48% of the children and 40% of the teeth were found to have TFI scores > or = 5. Measures to reduce dental fluorosis are necessary in the latter area.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1992: Ng.". In: Acta Odontol Scand. 1992 Oct;50(5):269-72. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Dental School, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to record the caries status in children attending public primary schools in Nairobi. The sample comprised 513 children, 262 aged 6-8 years and 251 aged 13-15 years. The children were drawn from six randomly selected schools in the city. Clinical examination was carried out in a room with natural daylight, using the WHO (1977) criteria. Fifty-four per cent of the 6- to 8-year-olds and 50% of the 13- to 15-year-olds were caries-free. The mean dmft in the 6- to 8-year-olds was 1.7, and the mean dmfs was 3.5. The mean DMFT in the 13- to 15-year-olds was 1.8, and the mean DMFS was 2.9. The d- and D-components dominated and were mainly located in the occlusal surfaces. The f-component of the dmft and the F-component of the DMFT comprised 1% and 10%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of caries between males and females in the younger age group. In the older age group, however, females had a higher (p < 0.05) prevalence than males. In general, the study showed a low caries prevalence in Nairobi children.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1993, 27th-29th September. The Second International LICCA Conference Maseru, Lesotho.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993.
NDONG&#39;A PROFOMONDILUCIA. "1993. 22nd- 24th March The International LAUD-Symposium, Duisburg University.". In: Faculty of Education, Kenyatta University. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1993.
S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "1993. Effect of deflowering and defoliation during reproductive phase on flower and pod abscission and yield of pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan). Discovery and Innovation, 5: 377-380.". In: Paper submitted in the 3rd International Weed Science Congress in June 2000 at Foz du Iguasu, Brazil. Taylor & Francis; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1993: Aasrum E., Ng.". In: Am. J. Orthod. Dentofac Orthop 104:48-50. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The uptake of alkali soluble and alkali insoluble fluoride on and in fluorotic enamel was investigated in vitro. Teeth from Kenya, assigned score 3 in accordance with Thylstrup-Fejerskov's fluorosis index, were used. The enamel was treated with either a neutral 2% NaF solution, a 0.2% NaF solution (pH 5.5), or the supernatant from a 0.1% NaF-containing toothpaste (pH 7). The treatment time was 1 h. The reaction product formed on the enamel was analyzed by KOH extraction and acid etching. Significantly higher amounts of alkali soluble fluoride were formed on the enamel from the 2% and 0.2% NaF solutions, as compared with the control. There was also a significant increase in the firmly bound fluoride after treatment with the neutral 2% NaF solution.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1993: Cruz R., Ng.". In: Scand J Dent Res. 1993 Feb;101(1):5-8. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The uptake of alkali soluble and alkali insoluble fluoride on and in fluorotic enamel was investigated in vitro. Teeth from Kenya, assigned score 3 in accordance with Thylstrup-Fejerskov's fluorosis index, were used. The enamel was treated with either a neutral 2% NaF solution, a 0.2% NaF solution (pH 5.5), or the supernatant from a 0.1% NaF-containing toothpaste (pH 7). The treatment time was 1 h. The reaction product formed on the enamel was analyzed by KOH extraction and acid etching. Significantly higher amounts of alkali soluble fluoride were formed on the enamel from the 2% and 0.2% NaF solutions, as compared with the control. There was also a significant increase in the firmly bound fluoride after treatment with the neutral 2% NaF solution.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1993: Ng.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Mar;70(3):175-8. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Department of Dental Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The prevalence of dental caries, malocclusion and fractured incisors was investigated in 245 children from a pastoral community in Kenya. Forty-eight per cent of them were found to be caries-free. The overall mean DMFT was 1.9 (s.d. 2.7). Among those with caries, the mean DMFT was 3.0 (s.d. 2.0). Fifty-eight per cent of the children had malocclusion. Overall, 84% of the sample had Angle's Class I, 11% Class II and 5% Class III molar relation. The prevalence of fractured incisors was 15%. Most of the fractures were in the maxilla and involved enamel only. Minimal treatment had been carried out on the children.

MACHARIA PROFNGANGAPETER. "1993: Ng.". In: Oral Epidemiol. 21:15-18. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The uptake of alkali soluble and alkali insoluble fluoride on and in fluorotic enamel was investigated in vitro. Teeth from Kenya, assigned score 3 in accordance with Thylstrup-Fejerskov's fluorosis index, were used. The enamel was treated with either a neutral 2% NaF solution, a 0.2% NaF solution (pH 5.5), or the supernatant from a 0.1% NaF-containing toothpaste (pH 7). The treatment time was 1 h. The reaction product formed on the enamel was analyzed by KOH extraction and acid etching. Significantly higher amounts of alkali soluble fluoride were formed on the enamel from the 2% and 0.2% NaF solutions, as compared with the control. There was also a significant increase in the firmly bound fluoride after treatment with the neutral 2% NaF solution.

OWANO MRSOCHIENOLYNN. "1994 Sexist Language and its effect on Girls.". In: conference of house maids and bar maids. oxford press; 1994. Abstract

matina ma nguku

M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "1995 - Current Malarial chemotherapy. Bhatt K. M.. The New African Journal of Medicine - Vol:11. Pg.11-12.". In: AIDS. Medics 1996; vol. 15, 11 . Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1995. Abstract

Meningococcal meningitis has been recognised as serious problem for almost 200 years. In Africa the disease occurs in epidemics periodically during the hot and dry weather in the "meningitis belt" and in east Africa, which is outside this belt the epidemics tend to occur during the cold and dry months. The infection is mainly transmitted from person to person by nasopharyngeal carriers in crowded places like refugee camps and army barracks. The rural/urban migration, the basic structural conditions of housing in squatter settlements and slums together with an overcrowded transport system have also contributed to the transmission of meningococcal meningitis. The earlier treatment of meningococcal meningitis was by the way of repeated CSF drainage. The first important advance in the treatment was intrathecal injection of antimeningococcal serum. A major break through in the treatment was the introduction of sulphonamides which was the preferred treatment until emergence of resistance to sulphonamides in mid 1960's. Penicillin remains the drug of choice currently. Mass immunisation of selected communities using polyvalent A and C polysaccharide vaccine is a useful control measure. Chemoprophylaxis is generally not recommended during epidemics. Given the current population densities and rural/urban migration together with financial constraints, future epidemic in Kenya may be more explosive unless strict surveillance programmes are maintained.

M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "1995 - Views on HIV and Herpes Zoster - K.M Bhatt and Z.W Njoroge. Medical Review. Pg. 20.". In: AIDS. Medics 1996; vol. 15, 11 . Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1995. Abstract

Meningococcal meningitis has been recognised as serious problem for almost 200 years. In Africa the disease occurs in epidemics periodically during the hot and dry weather in the "meningitis belt" and in east Africa, which is outside this belt the epidemics tend to occur during the cold and dry months. The infection is mainly transmitted from person to person by nasopharyngeal carriers in crowded places like refugee camps and army barracks. The rural/urban migration, the basic structural conditions of housing in squatter settlements and slums together with an overcrowded transport system have also contributed to the transmission of meningococcal meningitis. The earlier treatment of meningococcal meningitis was by the way of repeated CSF drainage. The first important advance in the treatment was intrathecal injection of antimeningococcal serum. A major break through in the treatment was the introduction of sulphonamides which was the preferred treatment until emergence of resistance to sulphonamides in mid 1960's. Penicillin remains the drug of choice currently. Mass immunisation of selected communities using polyvalent A and C polysaccharide vaccine is a useful control measure. Chemoprophylaxis is generally not recommended during epidemics. Given the current population densities and rural/urban migration together with financial constraints, future epidemic in Kenya may be more explosive unless strict surveillance programmes are maintained.

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