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KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Waithaka, Kimani. 1984. Growth and flowering pattern of Liatris corms in Kenya. Acta Horticulturae, 158:249-253.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
C PROFKIPTOONJAPHETH. "Waiyaki P.G., Kiptoon J.C. and Mugera G.M. (1982): Gnidia latifolia (Meisn) toxicity in Rats. The Kenya veterinarian Vol.6 p.10-14.". In: Scientific Conference of Kenya Veterinary Association 21-22 October. 1986. ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1982.
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Waiyaki, P.G. and Kagunya D.K.J. (1978) orchitis in a ram caused by a Flavobacterium species .". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1978. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
OBWA MRWAKAJUMMAHJOHN. "Wakajummah J.O. .". In: Nairobi University Press, CEES. Elsevier; 1991.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Wakhungu J. W. , Olukoye G.A. and M.S. Badamana (2005). Productivity of Indigenous and Exotic cattle on Kenyan ranches. The Kenya Veterinarian (submitted).". In: proceedings of the FVM 5th Biennial Scientific Conference and distribution, 2006. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2005.
O DRBWANGACALEB. "Wakhungu J.W. and Bwanga, C.O.; and Kipleel D.B. Strictures on the choice criteria of dairy cattle breeds in smallholder farms in Kenya. Contract Research report to USAID-ARF-KARI, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: A paper presented in the 3rd Commonwealth Veterinary Association Workshop on . The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1997.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Wakhungu J.W. M.S. Badamana and R.O. Mosi, (2002). Impact of Genetic Improvement in Dairy Production of the Kenyan Zebu cattle. A paper presented at the scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association, held at Kakamega, Kenya 24-26/4/2002.". In: A paper presented at the scientific conference of Kenya Veterinary Association, held at Kakamega, Kenya 24-26/4/2002. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2002.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Wakhungu J.W. Olukoye G.A. and M.S. Badamana (2004). Productivity of indigenous and exotic cattle on Kenyan ranches.". In: A paper presented at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Bi-annual Scientific conference at Kabete , Kenya, 3-5th Nov 2004. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994.
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "Wakhungu, J. W; Olukoye, G. A and Badamana, M. S (2005). Productivity of exotic and indigenous cattle on Kenyan ranches. The Kenya Veterinarian. Vol. 30.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2005.
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "Wakhungu, J.W. and Abate, A. (1992). Indigenous livestock resources for presentation of pastoral environments in East Africa.". In: In: Proceedings of East African Environmental Network 8th-9thh May, 1992, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1992.
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "Wakhungu, J.W. and Baptist, R. (1992). Kenya Artificial Insemination: Policy Issues Beyond Rehabilitation and Breeding Programmes Consideration. The Kenya Veterinarian 16: 33-37.". In: Paper presented for APSK symposium 7th-8th March, 2001 Egerton University Njoro, Kenya. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1992.
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "Wakhungu, J.W. and Baptist, R. (1992). Reproductive Wastage and mortality as productivity components in dairying: An impact analysis method for sustainable production system. Journal of the Zimbabwe Society for Animal Production IV: 45-50.". In: Paper presented for APSK symposium 7th-8th March, 2001 Egerton University Njoro, Kenya. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1992.
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "Wakhungu, J.W. and R. Baptist (2004). Herd-level Modeling of steady-state livestock productivity; Approaches, Applications and Prospects. The Kenya Veterinarian 27 ::31-35.". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6- 8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2004.
MOHAMED PBADAMANA. "Wakhungu, J.W. annd M.S. Badamana (2005). Indigenous animals and plants genetic resources for conservation of pastoralists of range management of East Africa. African Journal of Ecology (Submitted).". In: proceedings of the FVM 5th Biennial Scientific Conference and distribution, 2006. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2005.
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "Wakhungu, J.W. Rege, J.E.O. and Itulya, S. (1991). Genetic and phenotypic parameters and trends in production and reproductive performance of the Kenya Sahiwal Cattle. Bull. Anim. Hlth, Prod. Afr. 39: 365-372.". In: paper presented at the All Africa conference on animal agriculture: achievements, challenges and prospects, November 23-27, 1992, Nairobi, Kenya. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 1991.
W. DRWAKHUNGUJACOB. "Wakhungu, J.W., Badamana, M.S. and Mosi, R.O. (2001). The dairy cattle industry in high potential areas of Kenya: A new structural approach and prospects:.". In: Paper presented for APSK symposium 7th-8th March, 2001 Egerton University Njoro, Kenya. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2001.
M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J, Brunton P, Silikas N, Glenny AM.Direct versus indirect veneer restorations for intrinsic dental stains.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD004347.Click here to read.". In: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD004347. University of Nairobi Press; 2004. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Patients with discoloured teeth frequently present to the dentist requesting restorations designed to improve their appearance. For teeth that are sound, this might include the use of a veneer restoration. The veneer acts as a thin layer of a material covering the labial surface of a tooth and can be applied directly to the tooth, or by using indirect methods. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of direct versus indirect laminate veneer restorations. SEARCH STRATEGY: The following electronic databases were searched: The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2002), MEDLINE (1980 to 19/11/2002) and EMBASE (1980 to 19/11/2002). There was no restriction on language. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of participants with permanent anterior teeth suitable for restorations using laminate veneers, comparing direct (different composite materials) and indirect techniques for making dental veneers. The indirect restorations may be either composite or porcelain. The primary outcome was restoration failure. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Assessment of relevance and validity and data extraction were conducted in triplicate. Authors of the primary studies were contacted to provide additional information as necessary. MAIN RESULTS: Six full publications were screened as being potentially relevant to the review, only one trial was found to meet the review's inclusion criteria. Although the trial met the review's inclusion criteria with regard to participant characteristics, interventions and outcomes assessed, problems with the reporting of the data prevented any statistical analysis of the results. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: There is no reliable evidence to show a benefit of one type of veneer restoration (direct or indirect) over the other with regard to the longevity of the restoration.

J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Wakiaga J, Kisumbi B, Chindia ML.Discolouration of teeth: an overview of the diagnosis and management.East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):213-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):213-6. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1995. Abstract
The dentist is faced with a daunting task in application of clinical skills to achieve maximum cosmetic results when it comes to the management of discoloured and/or hypoplastic dentition. In this paper, an overview is made of the diagnosis and the management of these broadly termed conditions and the cost-effectiveness of the various modalities discussed.
M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J, Kisumbi BK, and Lesan WR Some Optical Properties in Resin Composite Veneer Materials. A Pilot Study Submitted to the Journal of the Kenya Dental Association 2007.". In: Dent Mater. 2008 Jan;24(1):129-33. Epub 2007 Jun 18. University of Nairobi Press; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Marginal integrity is a major clinical problem in restorative dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of an edge strength measurement device in an in vitro test to determine the force required to fracture flakes of material by a Vickers indentation at progressively increasing distances from an interface edge of bulk material. METHODS: Five representative resin-composites were investigated. Fourteen disks of specimens (12mm diameter x 2.5mm thick) were prepared for each material. These were divided into seven sub-groups corresponding to different edge-distances (0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0mm). An edge strength measurement device (CK10) (Engineering Systems, Nottingham, UK) was used. The mode of the failure of each specimen was examined under the integral microscope of the CK10. RESULTS: The force (N)-to-fracture at a distance of 0.5mm from the edge was defined as the edge strength. The highest failure force (edge strength) was observed for Tetric Ceram (174.2N) and the lowest for Filtek Supreme (enamel) (87.0N). Correlations between the failure-forces to fracture materials with edge-distance were regression analyzed giving coefficients (r) ranging from 0.94 (p=0.02) to 0.99 (p=0.01). Two modes of failure were observed: chipping and–generally at greater distances–cracking. SIGNIFICANCE: Edge strength is a definable and potentially useful parameter to characterize this aspect of clinically related behavior. A standardized distance of 0.5mm from the specimen's edge, when chipping failure prevails, is suitable and convenient as a reference point.

M DRWAKIAGAJOHN, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J,M., Kisumbi B.K. and ChindiaM.L.: Discolouration of Teeth: An overview of the diagnosis and management. East African Medical Journal, 72: 213-216, 1995.". In: East African Medical Journal, 72: 213-216, 1995. University of Nairobi Press; 1995. Abstract
The dentist is faced with a daunting task in application of clinical skills to achieve maximum cosmetic results when it comes to the management of discoloured and/or hypoplastic dentition. In this paper, an overview is made of the diagnosis and the management of these broadly termed conditions and the cost-effectiveness of the various modalities discussed.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M and Kisumbi B.K: In-vitro colour changes of resin composites in beverages. Journal of Dental Research.". In: Journal of Dental Research. Taylor & Francis; 2013. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study dimensional time-dependence of resin/ionomer formulations from 5 min age to one month and to separate out the intrinsic setting shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion effects, by using non-aqueous and aqueous storage media, respectively. METHODS: Materials studied included: A: resin-, B: metal- and C: polyphosphonate-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs]; and controls of D: poly-acid modified composite [compomer]; and E: resin-composite. Separate specimen groups (n = 5) were stored in different storage-media: (i) silicone fluid; (ii) de-ionized water. Experiments were repeated at 23 and 37 degrees C. Volumetric changes of specimens (4 mm diameter x 6 mm height) were obtained via accurate mass measurements (to 10(-4) g), using Archimedes principle, with silicone or water also used as the Archimedean fluid. These measurements were made periodically over a 30 day period, post fabrication. RESULTS: In silicone at 23 degrees C, all materials underwent further gradual intrinsic shrinkage (after 5 min from mix). This was highly significant (p < 0.05) for the RM-GIC (A). At 37 degrees C, however the RM-GIC expanded, indicating that its cure is temperature-sensitive. In water, at 23 and 37 degrees C, the shrinkage was either partially offset (materials C, D, E), or replaced by appreciable expansions (materials A and B). Differences between RM-GIC (A) and MM-GIC (B) were significant (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: The deployment of dual storage media made an important contribution to the separate analysis of the volumetric changes due to the on-going setting chemistry in these systems and the time-dependent effects of an aqueous environment.

KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M and Kisumbi B.K: In-vitro colour changes of resin composites in beverages. Journal of Dental Research.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
M DRWAKIAGAJOHN, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Kaimenyi J.T. and Kisumbi B,K.: Chair-side experience and reason underlying failure to seek medical treatment. East African Medical Journal 73: 320-322, 1996.". In: East African Medical Journal 73: 320-322, 1996. University of Nairobi Press; 1996. Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of 568 jaw tumours and tumour-like conditions seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a period of fifteen years. For descriptive purposes, the term tumour is used here in its wider context to cover both neoplastic and dysplastic jaw lesions which present primarily as jaw swellings. The study reveals a pattern consistent with other African series and suggests a more aggressive progression and younger age at onset than elsewhere.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Wakiaga J.M., Kisumbi B, and Chindia ML: Discolouration of teeth an overview of the diagnosis and management. East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):213-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Apr;72(4):213-6. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1995. Abstract
The dentist is faced with a daunting task in application of clinical skills to achieve maximum cosmetic results when it comes to the management of discoloured and/or hypoplastic dentition. In this paper, an overview is made of the diagnosis and the management of these broadly termed conditions and the cost-effectiveness of the various modalities discussed.
W DRMAINASUSAN, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W and Kisumbi B.K. Incidence of the Second Canal the Upper Second Premolar. Journal of Dental Research 13th Annual Scientific Conference of the East and Southern Division of IADR.". In: East Afri. Med J. 1988 May; 65(5):330-4. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
Measurement of tooth lengths was carried out on 537 extracted human teeth. The teeth were collected from adults aged 17 years and above and preserved in formalin. The tooth lengths were obtained by taking measurements off calibrated graph paper. The lengths obtained in this study were comparable to previous data reported in the literature. However, this new data will provide useful guidelines in Kenya for the management of endodontic patients especially in the purchase and stocking of the most appropriate endodontic instruments.
W DRMAINASUSAN, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W and Kisumbi B.K. Incidence of the Second Canal the Upper Second Premolar. Journal of Dental Research 13th Annual Scientific Conference of the East and Southern Division of IADR.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W., Kisumbi B.K. : Incidence of the second Canal in the upper Second Premolar. (Journal of Dental Research).". In: Journal of Dental Research. Taylor & Francis; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study dimensional time-dependence of resin/ionomer formulations from 5 min age to one month and to separate out the intrinsic setting shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion effects, by using non-aqueous and aqueous storage media, respectively. METHODS: Materials studied included: A: resin-, B: metal- and C: polyphosphonate-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs]; and controls of D: poly-acid modified composite [compomer]; and E: resin-composite. Separate specimen groups (n = 5) were stored in different storage-media: (i) silicone fluid; (ii) de-ionized water. Experiments were repeated at 23 and 37 degrees C. Volumetric changes of specimens (4 mm diameter x 6 mm height) were obtained via accurate mass measurements (to 10(-4) g), using Archimedes principle, with silicone or water also used as the Archimedean fluid. These measurements were made periodically over a 30 day period, post fabrication. RESULTS: In silicone at 23 degrees C, all materials underwent further gradual intrinsic shrinkage (after 5 min from mix). This was highly significant (p < 0.05) for the RM-GIC (A). At 37 degrees C, however the RM-GIC expanded, indicating that its cure is temperature-sensitive. In water, at 23 and 37 degrees C, the shrinkage was either partially offset (materials C, D, E), or replaced by appreciable expansions (materials A and B). Differences between RM-GIC (A) and MM-GIC (B) were significant (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: The deployment of dual storage media made an important contribution to the separate analysis of the volumetric changes due to the on-going setting chemistry in these systems and the time-dependent effects of an aqueous environment.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W., Kisumbi B.K. : Incidence of the second Canal in the upper Second Premolar. (Journal of Dental Research).". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga JM, Kaimenyi JT, Kisumbi BK.Reasons underlying failure to seek dental treatment among Nairobi University students. East Afr Med J. 1996 May;73(5):320-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1996 May;73(5):320-2. University of Nairobi Press; 1996. Abstract
A survey of 272 University of Nairobi undergraduate students was undertaken to assess their dental chairside experience and what reasons they gave for failing to seek dental treatment. Most respondents considered dental treatment uncomfortable and painful. The cost of treatment and fear arising from information given by other dental patients were important reasons that kept the respondents from visiting a dental clinic. This paper reveals the need for the dental profession to play a greater role in reducing costs of treatment and odontophobia.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA. "Wakiaga JM, Kisumbi BK, Lesan WR. Some optical properties of resin composite veneers materials. A pilot study. In press Journal of Kenya Dental Association 2008:1(1): 29-36.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 2008. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
FREDRICK DRONYANGOJOHN. "Wakiaga JM, Onyango JF, Awange DO.Clinico-pathological analysis of jaw tumours and tumour-like conditions at the Kenyatta national hospital.East Afr Med J. 1997 Feb;74(2):65-8.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Feb;74(2):65-8. University of Nairobi Press; 1997. Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of 568 jaw tumours and tumour-like conditions seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital over a period of fifteen years. For descriptive purposes, the term tumour is used here in its wider context to cover both neoplastic and dysplastic jaw lesions which present primarily as jaw swellings. The study reveals a pattern consistent with other African series and suggests a more aggressive progression and younger age at onset than elsewhere.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Wakiaga, J.M., Kaimenyi, J.T. and Kisumbi, B.K (1996). Reasons underlying failure to seek dental treatment among Nairobi University students.East African Medical Journal 73:320-322.". In: East African Medical Journal 73:320-322. African Meteorological Society; 1996. Abstract
A survey of 272 University of Nairobi undergraduate students was undertaken to assess their dental chairside experience and what reasons they gave for failing to seek dental treatment. Most respondents considered dental treatment uncomfortable and painful. The cost of treatment and fear arising from information given by other dental patients were important reasons that kept the respondents from visiting a dental clinic. This paper reveals the need for the dental profession to play a greater role in reducing costs of treatment and odontophobia.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Wakwabi, E. O., Balirwa, J and Ntiba, M.J. Aquatic biodiversity of Lake Victoria Basin. In Eric Odada, D. Olago and W. Ochola (eds.). Environmental Development: An Ecosystem Assessment of Lake Victoria Basin Environmental and Socio-Economic Status, Trends.". In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management Journal (In Press). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2006. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "Wale, E. and J. Mburu (2006). Attribute-based Crop Diversity Index and its Implications for Onfarm Conservation of Coffee Diversity in Ethiopia. In: Smale, M., Ed. Valuing Crop Biodiversity:On-farm Conservation, Genetic Resources and Economic Change. CABI.". In: In: Smale, M., Ed. Valuing Crop Biodiversity: On-farm Conservation, Genetic Resources and Economic Change. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 48-62 (ISBN 0 85199 083 5). Ogutu J.O; 2006. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
MBURU DRJOHNIRUNGU. "Wale, E. and J. Mburu (2006). Farmers.". In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Ethiopian Economy. Ethiopian Economic Association, Addis Ababa, pp. 69-90. Ogutu J.O; 2006. Abstract
The vision of the Government of Kenya is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision every educational institution, teacher, learner and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress. It calls for recognition of the fact that ICT provides capabilities and skills needed for a knowledge-based economy. It also calls for transforming teaching and learning to incorporate new pedagogies that are appropriate for the 21st  century. The Ministry of Education�s (MOE) mission is to facilitate effective use of ICT to improve access, learning and administration in delivery education programmes and services. The principal objective will be to integrate ICT in the delivery of education and training curricula. XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = O />  Although not exhaustive, the range of ICT that have been used in the delivery of education to improve access, teaching, learning, and administration includes: Electric Board, Audio Cassette, Radio for Interactive Radio Instructions (IRI), Video/TV-Learning, Computer, Integrated ICT infrastructure and Support Application Systems (SAS).These systems are in use, at various degrees, in most parts of Africa (Charp, 1998). This plan envisages use ofthese digital components to improve access and quality in the delivery of education in Kenya.  The major challenge in respect to this component is limited digital equipment at virtually all levels of education. While the average access rate is one computer to 15 students in most of the developed countries, the access rate in Kenya is approximately one computer to 150 students (EMIS, 2005). Whereas most secondary schools in Kenya have some computer equipment, only a small fraction is equipped with basic ICT infrastructure. In most cases equipment of schools with ICT infrastructure has been through initiatives supported by the parents, government, development agencies and the private sector, including the NEPAD E-Schools programme. Attempts to set up basic ICT infrastructure in primary schools are almost negligible.  According to ICTs in Education Options Paper, one of the main problems is limited penetration of the physical telecommunication infrastructure into rural and low-income areas. Specifically, the main challenge is limited access to dedicated phone lines and high-speed systems or connectivity to access e-mail and Internet resources. The EMIS Survey (2003/2004) indicated that over 70% of secondary schools and a much larger proportion of primary schools require functional telephones. Indeed, many parts of Kenya cannot easily get Internet services because of the poor telephone networks. About 90% of secondary schools need to establish standard Local Area Networks (LANs) in order to improve sharing of learning resources.  Alternative and appropriate technologies for access to Internet resources, including wireless systems remain quite expensive. Indeed, a small proportion of schools have direct access, through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), to high-speed data and communication systems. Furthermore, very few schools in the rural areas use wireless technology such as VSAT to access e-mail and Internet resources. Nearly all of the 6 NEPAD e-Schools are in rural areas and are expected to enjoy internet connectivity through VSAT technology.  While other countries have reported up to 41% of integration of ICT to teaching and learning, the proportion remains substantially low in Africa, Kenya included. Integration aims at the use ICT to support teaching and learning in the delivery of the various curricula to achieve improved education outcomes. Because ICT is interactive media, it facilitates students to develop diversified skills needed for industrialization and a knowledge-based economy. It also allows teachers and learners to proceed at different paces depending on the prevailing circumstances. As a first step, the Ministry of Education has initiated a major ICT project in Secondary schools meant to equip over 200 secondary schools with ICT infrastructure for integration of ICT in teaching/learning process ( KESSP, 2004). Three schools have been chosen in every district of Kenya.
John HPH. "Walicheka Kicheko.". In: Mwenda Wazimu na Hadithi Nyingine. Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2000.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Walker LM, Phogat SK, Chan-Hui PY, Wagner D, Phung P, Goss JL, Wrin T, Simek MD, Fling S, Mitcham JL, Lehrman JK, Priddy FH, Olsen OA, Frey SM, Hammond PW, Mirro G, Serwanga J, Pozniak A, McPhee D, Manigart O, Mwananyanda L, Karita E, Inwoley A, Jaoko W, .". In: UoN research meeting. Science 326 (5950): 285-9; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Walker LM, Phogat SK, Chan-Hui PY, Wagner D, Phung P, Goss JL, Wrin T, Simek MD, Fling S, Mitcham JL, Lehrman JK, Priddy FH, Olsen OA, Frey SM, Hammond PW, Mirro G, Serwanga J, Pozniak A, McPhee D, Manigart O, Mwananyanda L, Karita E, Inwoley A, Jaoko W, .". In: UoN research meeting. Science 326 (5950): 285-9; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Walker LM, Phogat SK, Chan-Hui PY, Wagner D, Phung P, Goss JL, Wrin T, Simek MD, Fling S, Mitcham JL, Lehrman JK, Priddy FH, Olsen OA, Frey SM, Hammond PW, Mirro G, Serwanga J, Pozniak A, McPhee D, Manigart O, Mwananyanda L, Karita E, Inwoley A, Jaoko W, .". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Science 326 (5950): 285-9; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Walker LM, Phogat SK, Chan-Hui PY, Wagner D, Phung P, Goss JL, Wrin T, Simek MD, Fling S, Mitcham JL, Lehrman JK, Priddy FH, Olsen OA, Frey SM, Hammond PW, Mirro G, Serwanga J, Pozniak A, McPhee D, Manigart O, Mwananyanda L, Karita E, Inwoley A, Jaoko W, .". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Science 326 (5950): 285-9; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Walker, K., J. Underwood, T.M. Waema, L. Dunckley, J. Abdelnour-Nocera, R. Luckin, C. Oyugi and S. Camara. A resource kit for participatory socio-technical design in rural Kenya .". In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, Florence, IT, 5-10 Apr 2008. Pambazuka Press; 2008. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY, M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Walsham, G. and Waema T.M., (1994), Information Systems Strategy and Implementation:.". In: A Case Study of a Building Society, ACM Transactions on Information Systems 12 (2), 150-173. East African Educational Publishers Ltd.; 1994. Abstract
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GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "Walter E., Dreher D., Kok M., Thiele L, Kiama S. G., Gehr P., and H. P. Merkle (2001). Hydrophilic poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres for the delivery of DNA to human-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. Journal of Controlled Release 76: 149-.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference 2002. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Dendritic cells play a central role in initiation of primary T lymphocyte responses to foreign antigens. Their potency in antigen presentation vis-a-vis reported low or lack of ability to phagocytize particulate matter has limited our understanding of the role that they play in inducing immunity to particulate antigens. One hypothesis is that dendritic cells may possess a high phagocytic capacity when immature and located in peripheral tissues, which they lose on maturation. Our goal was to characterize the phagocytic capacity in human immature dendritic cells. The phagocytic capacity of human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells was studied by morphological and morphometric means, and compared to that of professional phagocytes, human alveolar macrophages, their progenitors, the peripheral blood monocytes, and mature dendritic cells. Phagocytic index (proportion of phagocytic cells) was decreased by 42.8% (immature dendritic cells) and 74.2% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to monocytes. Similarly, the phagocytic index was decreased by 46.5% (immature dendritic cells) and 75.9% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to macrophages. Volume density of phagocytized particles was decreased by 76.1% (immature dendritic cells) and 96.7% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to the monocytes. However, volume density was decreased by 34.3% (immature dendritic cells) and 91% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to alveolar macrophages. These results show that human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells possess a phagocytic capacity that is lower than that of peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages but higher than that of mature dendritic cells.
GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "Walter E., Dreher D., Kok M., Thiele L, Kiama S. G., Gehr P., and H.P. Merkle (2001). Hydrophilic poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres for the delivery of DNA to human-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. Journal of Controlled Release 76: 149-1.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference 2002. Elsevier; 2001. Abstract
Dendritic cells play a central role in initiation of primary T lymphocyte responses to foreign antigens. Their potency in antigen presentation vis-a-vis reported low or lack of ability to phagocytize particulate matter has limited our understanding of the role that they play in inducing immunity to particulate antigens. One hypothesis is that dendritic cells may possess a high phagocytic capacity when immature and located in peripheral tissues, which they lose on maturation. Our goal was to characterize the phagocytic capacity in human immature dendritic cells. The phagocytic capacity of human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells was studied by morphological and morphometric means, and compared to that of professional phagocytes, human alveolar macrophages, their progenitors, the peripheral blood monocytes, and mature dendritic cells. Phagocytic index (proportion of phagocytic cells) was decreased by 42.8% (immature dendritic cells) and 74.2% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to monocytes. Similarly, the phagocytic index was decreased by 46.5% (immature dendritic cells) and 75.9% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to macrophages. Volume density of phagocytized particles was decreased by 76.1% (immature dendritic cells) and 96.7% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to the monocytes. However, volume density was decreased by 34.3% (immature dendritic cells) and 91% (mature dendritic cells) with respect to alveolar macrophages. These results show that human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells possess a phagocytic capacity that is lower than that of peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages but higher than that of mature dendritic cells.
GITAHI DRKIAMASTEPHEN. "Walter E., Dreher, D., Kok M., Thiele L., Kiama S. G., Gehr P., and P. Merkle (2000). Interaction between DNA-loaded poly (DL-lactide-coglycolide)microspheres and human antigen-presenting cells Pharmaceutical Research.". In: Presented at the fourth NFP37 Somatic Gene Therapy meeting held in Fribourg, Switzerland on 6th October 2000. Elsevier; 2000. Abstract
Recent publications have demonstrated that the protease caspase-1 is responsible for the processing of pro-interleukin 18 (IL-18) into the active form. Studies on cell lines and murine macrophages have shown that the bacterial invasion factor SipB activates caspase-1, triggering cell death. Thus, we investigated the role of SipB in the activation and release of IL-18 in human alveolar macrophages (AM), which are the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens. Under steady-state conditions, AM are a more important source of IL-18 than are dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes. Cytokine production by AM and DC was compared after both types of cells had been infected with a virulent strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and an isogenic sipB mutant, which were used as an infection model. Infection with virulent Salmonella led to marked cell death with features of apoptosis while both intracellular activation and release of IL-18 were demonstrated. In contrast, the sipB mutant did not induce such cell death or the release of active IL-18. The specific caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK blocked the early IL-18 release in AM infected with the virulent strain. However, the type of Salmonella infection did not differentially regulate IL-18 gene expression. We concluded that the bacterial virulence factor SipB plays an essential posttranslational role in the intracellular activation of IL-18 and the release of the cytokine in human AM.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. "Walter O. Oyugi, Rural Development Administration: A Kenyan Case Study. plus Bibliography.". In: New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. 265 pp. IPPNW; 1981. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
MARY DROMOSA. "Walubengo, D. & M. Omosa (1995) Pre-Evaluation Impact Study: Rural Stoves West Kenya Project. Submitted to ITDG Kenya.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1995. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Walubengo, D.; A. Onyango & M. Omosa (1992) An Evaluation Report on the Tanzania Traditional Energy Development Organisation. Submitted to HIVOS, Netherlands.". In: A Synthesis of Existing Information on the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Rural Livelihoods in Kenya. Submitted to Futures Group, UK; Department for International Development and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Government of Kenya. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1992. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
M. DRGICHUHICHRISTINE. "Wamalwa DC, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Selig S, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Wariua G, Gichuhi C, Bosire R, John-Stewart G.Early response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children. J Acquir Immune Defic.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jan;34(1):25-9. African Crop Science Society; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine. DESIGN: Observational prospective cohort. METHODS: HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 lymphocyte count, weight for age z score, and height for age z score were measured before the initiation of HAART and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. Children received no nutritional supplements. RESULTS: Sixty-seven HIV-1-infected children were followed for a median of 9 months between August 2004 and November 2005. Forty-seven (70%) used zidovudine, lamivudine (3TC), and an NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz), whereas 25% used stavudine (d4T), 3TC, and an NNRTI. Nevirapine was used as the NNRTI by 46 (69%) children, and individual antiretroviral drug formulations were used by 63 (94%), with only 4 (6%) using a fixed-dose combination of d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine (Triomune; Cipla, Mumbai, India). In 52 children, the median height for age z score and weight for age z score rose from -2.54 to -2.17 (P<0.001) and from -2.30 to -1.67 (P=0.001), respectively, after 6 months of HAART. Hospitalization rates were significantly reduced after 6 months of HAART (17% vs. 58%; P<0.001). The median absolute CD4 count increased from 326 to 536 cells/microL (P<0.001), the median CD4 lymphocyte percentage rose from 5.8% before treatment to 15.4% (P<0.001), and the median viral load fell from 5.9 to 2.2 log10 copies/mL after 6 months of HAART (P<0.001). Among 43 infants, 47% and 67% achieved viral suppression to less than 100 copies/mL and 400 copies/mL, respectively, after 6 months of HAART. CONCLUSION: Good early clinical and virologic response to NNRTI-based HAART was observed in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children with advanced HIV-1 disease.
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Wamalwa, B.M., M. Sakka, P.M. Shiundu, T. Kimura, K. Ohmiya, and K. Sakka, .". In: J. Appl. Glycoscience, 52 Suppl., 49-51. AWC and FES; 2005. Abstract
domain of the putative celB gene from alkalophilic Bacillus
Wambugu A, KABUBO-MARIARA JANE, Musau S. "Wambugu, Anthony.". 2010.Website
KIPKEMOI DRTOWETPHILEMON. "Wambugu, S.N., Joakim, D., Towett, P.K., Kiama, S.G. and Kanui, T.I. Laboratory management of captive hingeback tortoises. Workshop on Reptile Care, Health and Welfare, 2007.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. 2008; 2007. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
KIPKEMOI DRTOWETPHILEMON. "Wambugu, S.N., Kanui, T.I., Towett, P.K., Kiama, S.G., Abelson, K. Nociception in Tortoises: the formalin, hot-plate and acetic acid instillation tests. In the 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 2008, 2.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. 2008; 2008. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
KIPKEMOI DRTOWETPHILEMON. "Wambugu, S.N., Kanui, T.I., Towett, P.K., Kiama, S.G., Abelson, K. The formalin test and capsaicin instillation in the Marsh Terrapin (Pelomedusa subrufa). In the 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 2008.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. 2008; 2008. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
KIPKEMOI DRTOWETPHILEMON. "Wambugu, S.N., Towett, P.K., Kiama, S.G., Abelson, K.S.P. and Kanui, T.I. (2009). Effects of Opioids in the Formalin Test in the Speke’s Hinged Tortoise (Kinixys spekii). Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 33, 347-351.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.

KIPKEMOI DRTOWETPHILEMON. "Wambugu, S.N., Towett, P.K., Kiama, S.G., Abelson, K.S.P. and Kanui, T.I. Composition of nociceptive afferents in the trigeminal nerve in the Marsh Terrapin (Pelomedusa subrufa). Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Scientific Conference, 2008, 14P.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. 2008; 2008. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wambugu. M, R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and J. Tanner. 1998. Delivery of technical information to smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu district. In: Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences: The Kenya Veterinarian 23:160-162.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wambugu. M, R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and J. Tanner. 1998. Delivery of technical information to smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu district. In: Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences: The Kenya Veterinarian 23:160-162.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Wambugu. M, R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and J. Tanner. 1998. Delivery of technical information to smallholder dairy farms in Kiambu district. In: Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences: The Kenya Veterinarian 23:160-162.". In: Proceedings, 6th KARI Scientific conference, November, 1998. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wambugu. M, R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and J. Tanner. 1998. Evaluation of the use of milk urea nitrogen (MUM) as an indicator of nutritional status of dairy cattle in small holder farms in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:152-154.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wambugu. M, R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and J. Tanner. 1998. Evaluation of the use of milk urea nitrogen (MUM) as an indicator of nutritional status of dairy cattle in small holder farms in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:152-154.". In: A paper presented at Kenya Bureau of Standards Seminar on Feed manufacturing held at The Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi on 14th August, 2003. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1998.
K PROFGACHUIRICHARLES. "Wambugu. M, R.G. Wahome, C.K. Gachuiri and J. Tanner. 1998. Evaluation of the use of milk urea nitrogen (MUM) as an indicator of nutritional status of dairy cattle in small holder farms in Kiambu district. The Kenya Veterinarian 23:152-154.". In: Proceedings, 6th KARI Scientific conference, November, 1998. Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Wambui P.N., Opiyo E.T.O. and Rodrigues A.J. (Eds) Kizza J.M., Lynch K., Nath R.., & Aisbett J. (2010). License Plate Recognition System: Localization for Kenya.". In: In Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development, 2010. Vol VI pp355-366, ISBN 978-9970-25- 015-8. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2010.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I. A, Zimmerman, R R; and Slack RCB. Salmonella typhimurium .". In: Proceedings of the 1976 Annual Scientific Conference of the East African Medical Research Council (Book on Delivery of Health Care in Africa). IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A 1971. Cellular localization of five exoprotein antigens of Staph aureus Ph.D Thesis of University of New Hampshire, U.S.A, 148 pages.". In: Ph.D Thesis of University of New Hampshire, U.S.A, 148 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1971. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A and Chesbro 1970. Identification of antigens in Jensen.". In: Bacteriology proceedings Pg. 79. IBIMA Publishing; 1970. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A and Shiroya, AGMI. The Role of Preventive Disease in causing Death in Kenya .". In: Proceedings of the EAMRC Annual Scientific Conference (1976). IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A and Slack RCB. Anaerobic Infection in Kenyatta National Hospital: Bacteriological Isolations. EAMJ Vol. 55 (6): 278, 1978.". In: EAMJ Vol. 55 (6): 278, 1978. IBIMA Publishing; 1978. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A, Hillman, DA and Kiugu, SK. The Incidence of Bacterial Opthalmia Neonatorum at Kenyatta National Hospital .". In: Proceedings of the 1976 Annual Scientific Conference of the E.A. Medical Research Council. IBIMA Publishing; 1976. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A, Mirza NB and Ichoro O. Bacteriology of Septicaemia at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Medicom, vol 3 (6): 1981.". In: Medicom, vol 3 (6): 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A, Mirza NB and Nsazumuhire H. Penicillin resistant Pneumococcal Meningitis in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. EAMJ Vol 58: 112. Jan 1981.". In: EAMJ Vol 58: 112. Jan 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A, Mirza NB. Problems of Salmonella infections in a hospital in Kenya. EAMJ vol 58 (9): 677, 1981.". In: EAMJ vol 58 (9): 677, 1981. IBIMA Publishing; 1981. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A. 1967. Correlation of Virulence and Biochemical characteristic of strains of Staph. aureus from bovine mastitis. MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages.". In: MSc Thesis of University of New Hampshire. 79 pages. IBIMA Publishing; 1967. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A. 1967. Correlation of Virulence with Growth rates in Staphylococcus aureus. Can. J. Microbiology 15: 723-29.". In: J. Microbiology 15: 723-29. IBIMA Publishing; 1967. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A. and Gathaiya (1974). Some aspects of Gonorrhoea in Nairobi. The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol 7:36-40.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Medicine. Vol 7:36-40. IBIMA Publishing; 1974. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A. and Slack, RCB. Bacterial Sensitivity to Minocycline (Minocin) of clinical isolation, EAMJ. Vol. 54 No. 11 (Nov. 1977).". In: EAMJ. Vol. 54 No. 11 (Nov. 1977). IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A. Bacterial Stool Pathogens in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. EAMJ 57: 867-871, 1980.". In: EAMJ 57: 867-871, 1980. IBIMA Publishing; 1980. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A. Itotia, Say and Cruikshank. Diarrhoeal Disease due to Shigella, Salmonella and Enteropathogenic E. coli. Chapter in .". In: Chapter in . IBIMA Publishing; 1974. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "WAMOLA I.A. Role of the Laboratory in Infectious Disease. Fiji Medical Association Annual Seminar. (14th .". In: Fiji Medical Association Annual Seminar. (14th . IBIMA Publishing; 1984. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Wamola IA.Microbial contamination of commercial food products: fact or fiction.East Afr Med J. 1992 Mar;69(3):121-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1992 Mar;69(3):121-2. IBIMA Publishing; 1992. Abstract
An increase in illness due to measles is one of the potential consequences of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Africa. During a study of perinatal HIV transmission conducted in Kenya, the risk of acquiring measles before vaccination (9 months of age) was found to be 3.8 times higher in infants born to HIV-seropositive mothers than in control infants (10 [9%] of 109 vs. 5 [3%] of 194 infants; P = .02; odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-13.2). The majority of infants who developed measles in this study had significant sequelae related to their measles infection. The increased risk of measles appeared to be related to relatively lower anti-measles antibody titers detected in cord blood samples of affected infants born to HIV-seropositive mothers. However, 94% of all infants were susceptible to measles on the basis of ELISA testing at age 6 months regardless of maternal HIV serology. These observations highlight the need for improved measles vaccination strategies in Africa and for studies to delineate the effects of HIV infection on the incidence,
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Wamunyokoli F., Osir;E.O., Ochanda, J.O., and Olembo, N.K: Studies of Bacillus thuringiensis S- endo-toxin active against Aedes egypti larvae.". In: In Proceedings of the African Regional Symposium Biotechnology for Rapid Development in Africa held at ILRI Nairobi on 17-21 February 1992 PP 279-288. East African Medical Journal; 1994. Abstract
The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Wamwayi, H. M., D. P. Kariuki, J. S. Wafula, P. S. Rossiter, P. G. Mbuthia, and S. R. Macharia, 1992. Observations on rinderpest in Kenya, 1986 .". In: Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa. Bulletin of Animal health and Production in Africa; 1992.
WANAMBISI PROFMWESELIMONICA. "WANAKHAMUNA AND WANANGWE A short story-Oral narrative in THE SURVIVORS edited by A.B Odaga and Hebel Andati Shiloli. Kisumu: Kenya Women Writers. Foundation ( FEMART -K), December REFEREED BY ASENATH BOLE ODAGA.". In: Published by University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor: MI 481061346 U.S.A. March 15, 1989. Publication No. 88-16, 106.; 1985. Abstract

This dissertation is a study of twentieth-century American novels which can be used in a course by Kenyan and other East African students and teachers. The selected novels can be studied as models for exemplification of the most significant developments and trends in longer American narrative fiction in the period covered by the study. Because of time limits and for purposes of presenting quality fictional works to be covered in one semester, eight novels were analyzed in this study. These are: Sister Carrie (1900) by Theodore Dreiser, The Great Gatsby (1925) by F.Scott Fitzgerald, The Sun Also Rises (1926) by Ernest Hemingway, Intruder in the Dust (1948)by J.D Salinger, Invisible Man(1952) by Ralph Ellison, Go Tell it On The Mountain(1953) by James Baldwin and Brown Girl, Brownstones(1959)by Paule Marshall. Each of the selected novels represents a component of significance in American literature during the era designated .Sister Carrie

Ndungu MN. "Wanawake, Utamaduni na Katiba’.". In: BAWAKI International Conference on Language, Culture and Constitution . Catholic University of Eastern Africa; Submitted.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Wandera, J.G. and Munyua, W. K. (1971): Severe Anaplasmosis In a 4 day - old calf. Bull. Epiz. Dis Afr. Vol. 19. No, 3; 219 - 221.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1971. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Wandera, J.G. and Munyua, W. K. (1971): Severe Anaplasmosis In a 4 day - old calf. Bull. Epiz. Dis Afr. Vol. 19. No, 3; 219 - 221.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1971. Abstract
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(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Wandera, J.G. Kamau, J.A. Ngatia, T.A. Wamukoya, J.P.O. and Mulei, C.M. (2000). Bovine lymphosarcoma in Kenya.". In: The Kenya Vet. 20:67-69.; 2000.
J PROFBUOROIB. "Wandera, J.G., Kamau, J.A., Ngatia, T.A., Buoro, I.B.J and Price, J.E. (1990).Haemangiosarcoma in Dogs: Morphological land Clinical findings. Bulleti Animal Health and Production in Africa 38: 301-308.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Jul;64(7):448-52. Taylor & Francis; 1990. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
Adwok JA, Githaiga JW. "Wandering spleen presenting as a right hypochondrial mass and intestinal obstruction.". Submitted. Abstract

This is a case report of a 23 year old multiparous woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and a right hypochondrial mass. Laparatomy revealed an infarcted 1.4 Kg spleen in the right lumbar region compressing the ascending colon. There was also ileal volvulus around the splenic pedicle. This is probably the first documented case of wandering spleen in the right hypochondrium, presenting as right large bowel obstruction, to be reported in our region. Wandering spleen is a rare condition, often asymptomatic, but may present as an acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and rarely made. Laboratory tests are seldom useful, but imaging studies do assist. Up to 1971 only 350 cases had been reported in the western literature. Review of English literature from 1900 to 1991 reported only 51 cases in children. In our region 11 cases were reported in Uganda between 1968 and 1971. No other literature is available from our region. Clinical presentation, aetiology, investigation, and management of wandering spleen is discussed

Githaiga JW, Adwok JA. "Wandering spleen presenting as a right hypochondrial mass and intestinal obstruction.". Submitted. Abstract

This is a case report of a 23 year old multiparous woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and a right hypochondrial mass. Laparatomy revealed an infarcted 1.4 Kg spleen in the right lumbar region compressing the ascending colon. There was also ileal volvulus around the splenic pedicle. This is probably the first documented case of wandering spleen in the right hypochondrium, presenting as right large bowel obstruction, to be reported in our region. Wandering spleen is a rare condition, often asymptomatic, but may present as an acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and rarely made. Laboratory tests are seldom useful, but imaging studies do assist. Up to 1971 only 350 cases had been reported in the western literature. Review of English literature from 1900 to 1991 reported only 51 cases in children. In our region 11 cases were reported in Uganda between 1968 and 1971. No other literature is available from our region. Clinical presentation, aetiology, investigation, and management of wandering spleen is discussed

W DRGITHAIGAJOSEPH. "Wandering spleen: a case report .". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Sep;79(9):457-60. University of Nairobi Press; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
Muriiithi M, Mwango GN. "Wandering spleen: case report.". 2010. Abstract

Wandering spleens are rare clinical entities found more commonly in women aged 20-40 years. We report one such case found in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman who presented with low abdominal pains of sudden onset and splenomegaly. An emergency abdominal CT scan showed an enlarged spleen located in the right lumbar region and extending into the pelvis. There was a long splenic pedicle containing tortuous vessels. A review of literature and the postulated aetiological factors and associations are discussed.

OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Wandiga, S.O., Opondo, M., Olago, D.O., Githeko, A., Githui, F., Marshall, M., Downs, T., Opere, A., Yanda, P., Kangalawe, R., Kabumbuli, R., Kirumira, E., Kathuri, J., Apindi, A., Olaka, L., Ogallo, L., Mugambi, P., Sigalla, R., Nanyunja, R., Baguma, T. .". In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 10(1):23-32. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Wang CC, McClelland RS, Overbaugh J, Reilly M, Panteleeff DD, Mandaliya K, Chohan B, Lavreys L, Ndinya-Achola J, Kreiss JK.The effect of hormonal contraception on genital tract shedding of HIV-1.AIDS. 2004 Jan 23;18(2):205-9.". In: AIDS. 2004 Jan 23;18(2):205-9. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: A previous cross-sectional study reported that hormonal contraception may be associated with increased infectivity in HIV-1 infected women. We conducted a prospective study to determine if cervical shedding of HIV-1 increased after initiating hormonal contraception. DESIGN: Shedding of HIV-1 DNA (a marker of HIV-1 infected cells) and HIV-1 RNA were measured before and after initiating hormonal contraception. METHODS: HIV-1 seropositive women were recruited from a Kenyan family planning clinic. At baseline, cervical secretions were collected for HIV-1 DNA and RNA assays in women initiating hormonal contraception; follow-up samples were collected a median of 64 days later. RESULTS: One-hundred and one women chose depot medroxyprogesterone (Depo), 53 chose low-dose oral contraceptives (OC), seven high-dose OC, and 52 progesterone-only OC. At follow-up, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of cervical HIV-1 DNA detection [from 42% to 52%, odds ratio (OR), 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-2.63) for all hormonal contraception combined, and a trend for an increase for each individual type. Although the prevalence of cervical HIV-1 RNA increased slightly (from 82% to 86%; OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 0.83-3.03), the concentration of cervical HIV-1 RNA did not change significantly overall (from 2.81 to 2.84 log10 copies/swab; P = 0.77) or for individual contraception types. CONCLUSIONS: A modest but significant increase in shedding of HIV-1 DNA but not of HIV-1 RNA was detected after starting hormonal contraception. Our results may have important implications regarding the infectivity of women using hormonal contraception, and highlight the need for epidemiologic studies of transmission rates from women using and not using hormonal contraception.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Wang CC, McClelland RS, Reilly M, Overbaugh J, Emery SR, Mandaliya K, Chohan B, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kreiss JK.The effect of treatment of vaginal infections on shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.J Infect Dis. 2001 Apr 1;183(7):1017-22. E.". In: J Infect Dis. 2001 Apr 1;183(7):1017-22. Epub 2001 Feb 28. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
To assess the effect of treatment of vaginal infections on vaginal shedding of cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-1-infected cells, HIV-1-seropositive women were examined before and after treatment of Candida vulvovaginitis, Trichomonas vaginitis, and bacterial vaginosis. For Candida (n=98), vaginal HIV-1 RNA decreased from 3.36 to 2.86 log(10) copies/swab (P<.001), as did the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA (36% to 17%; odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-6.5). For Trichomonas vaginitis (n=55), HIV-1 RNA decreased from 3.67 to 3.05 log(10) copies/swab (P<.001), but the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA remained unchanged (22%-25%; OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-2.2). For bacterial vaginosis (n=73), neither the shedding of HIV-1 RNA (from 3.11 to 2.90 log(10) copies/swab; P=.14) nor the prevalence of DNA (from 21% to 23%; OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-2.0) changed. Vaginal HIV-1 decreased 3.2- and 4.2-fold after treating Candida and Trichomonas, respectively. These data suggest that HIV-1 transmission intervention strategies that incorporate diagnosis and treatment of these prevalent infections warrant evaluation.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Wang CC, McClelland RS, Reilly M. Overbaugh J, Emery SR, Mandaliya K, Chohan B, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo J, Kreiss JK. The effect of treatment of vaginal infections on shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. infect Dis 2001;183:1017-22.". In: J. infect Dis 2001;183:1017-22. IBIMA Publishing; 2001. Abstract
We evaluated the association between the severity of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) illness and HIV-1 plasma virus load before seroconversion using stored plasma samples obtained from 74 prostitutes in Mombasa, Kenya. Fever, vomiting, headache, fatigue, arthralgia, myalgia, sore throat, skin rash, or being too sick to work were each associated with significantly higher virus loads before HIV-1 seroconversion, and each additional symptom or sign was associated with an increase in virus load of 0.4 log(10) copies/mL.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Wang'ombe JK, Mwabu GM. Economics of essential drug schemes : The perspectives of Developing countries, Soc Sci Med. 1987;25(6):625-30.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1987;25(6):625-30. SITE; 1987. Abstract
Essential drug schemes in the Third World countries face many problems. These include dependency on imported drugs in the face of chronic shortages of foreign exchange, inadequate manpower and technical capability for selection and procurement of drugs, competition between generic and brand drugs, weak local drug procurement and distribution systems and inability to commence local manufacturing even in situations where there may exist comparative advantage. Many of these problems relate to each other and are compounded by the domination of the pharmaceutical industry by multinational firms. Third World countries are in a very weak position in the international pharmaceutical industry. It is suggested that the essential drug situation would improve in Third World countries if certain strategies and policies were adopted. These include: intensification of personnel training in pharmaceuticals, deliberate use of generic drugs rather than brand name drugs, the involvement of the public sector in the procurement and distribution of drugs, buying drugs in bulk, changing drug prescription and consumption practices through continuous education, changing or instituting regulations to guard against unfavourable patents and commencing domestic production of essential drugs where this is not in conflict with the principle of comparative advantage.
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Wang'ombe JK, Mwabu GM.Agricultural Land Use Patterns and Malaria Conditions in Kenya, Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1993. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Wang'ombe JK.Economic Evaluation in Primary Health Care: The Case of Western Kenya Community Based Health Care Project,Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1984;18(5):375-85. SITE; 1984. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Wang'ombe JK.Public Health Crises of Cities in Developing Countries, Soc. Sc. & Med. Vol. 41, No. 6, 1995, pp 857-862.". In: Soc. Sc. & Med. Vol. 41, No. 6, 1995, pp 857-862. SITE; 1995. Abstract
During the decade and a half after Alma Ata hundreds of projects were started in developing countries to implement the principles of PHC and start community based health care programs in the rural areas of developing countries. Until the past five years urban health was not seen as a special health problem. Population pressure in the rural areas has created shortages of land, food and employment opportunities. These forces have generated major population movements to the urban centres. The population movements have encouraged unprecedented expansion of urban centres. This sudden concentration of large populations in small geographical areas has resulted in the urban health crises of the developing world. The poor who live in the slum areas have no access to adequate health services, they experience frequent epidemics of communicable diseases like cholera, they live within a heavily polluted environment, and their children have very poor health because they are not immunized and are malnourished. The paper agrees with approaches which have been championed by development agencies to address the urban health crises. These approaches propose the reorientation of urban health systems to include adoption of PHC for urban health programs, intersectoral collaboration and extra budgetary support. The paper argues for further strengthening of the reorientation approach by adjusting the development planning model. It is proposed that the urban plan be integrated into the national development plan so that emerging urban health crises can receive special attention in resource allocation.
WAMBUA MRMUASYAISAAC, OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Wang'ombe, J.K et al (1998) Capacity of Non .". In: CHAKITA. EAEP; 1998. Abstract
The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.
WAMBUA MRMUASYAISAAC, OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Wang'ombe, J.K et al (1998) Capacity of Non .". In: University of Nairobi. 2003; 1998. Abstract

This paper argues that problems in education are caused by non-professional teachers who are employed when trained teachers move in search of promotion friendly activities or financially rewarding duties. This shift of focus means that policy makers in education act without adequate professional guidance. The problems in education, therefore, result from demands made on mainstream education based on misconceptions about what education can offer. It is argued that the implementation of e-learning in education faces the risk of developing on the basis of unproven theories. This scenario increasingly sees the replacement of formal education activities in institutions of learning with non-formal and informal education practices. Given that the contents and influences of non-formal and informal education are not under the control of the teacher, the experiences that learners bring to education settings are increasingly difficult to manage. The paper proposes that by integrating e-learning in teacher education and rewarding 'good teaching', there is a potential for a successful e-learning revolution in education.

Dr. WANG'ONDU VIRGINIAWANGECHI. "Wang'ondu V.W, JHP Kahindi, NK Olembo and JO Ochanda, 2007, Screening of Local Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates for Toxicity to Chilo partellus,Sesamia calamistis and Busseola fusca in Kenya .J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 3(2):27-35.". In: J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 3(2):27-35. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2007. Abstract

Stem borers are a major source of pre-harvest maize crop losses in Kenya and many Sub-Saharan African countries. This menace needs to be addressed if food security is to be realized in this region. Seven local isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains were isolated from soils collected from Kakamega and Machakos districts in Kenya. They were screened for toxicity against 1st and 2nd instar larvae of Chilo partellus, Sesamia calamistis and Busseola fusca through laboratory bioassays on artificial and natural diets. On farm Bt toxin potency trials were carried out only in Machakos using isolate 1M which was isolated from the area. The various isolates showed differences in their toxicity to the three stem borers. Isolates 1M and VM-10 (from Machakos district) were found to be the most potent against C. partellus with larval mortalities of 100 % within 72 h. Their LD50 values were 0.004 mg/ml and 0.04 mg/ml respectively. The most toxic isolates against S. calamistis were, 44M, VM-10 and 1M, with larval mortalities of 73%, 64% and 62% respectively after 72h at a concentration of 8.6 mg/ml through artificial diet bioassays on 1st instar larvae. Isolates 44M and K10-2 showed high toxicity against B. fusca with larval mortalities of 20% by artificial diet bioassays and 44% by maize leaf bioassays respectively. Leaf disk bioassays with all the insect species showed higher larval mortalities than those done with the artificial diet bioassays indicating the larval preference of natural diet. However leaf disk bioassays with B. fusca recorded higher larval mortalities with sorghum than maize leaves. Field trial results obtained from Machakos district using a biopesticide made from isolate 1M indicated that it was highly effective in stem borer control.

KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "Wangalachi, S. and Kiriti-Nganga, T. Determinants of Expansion of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya: A Case Study of SMEs in Three Informal Settlements in Kenya.". In: International Journal of Afro-Asian Studies, Vol. 1 No 1. pp. 186-208. Serials Publications; 2008.
MAKOKHA DRWANGIASABINA. "Wangia Caleb, Hugo Degroote and Mukoya-Wangia. Maize Marketing in Kenya: Implementation and Impact of Liberalization 1989-1999.". In: Paper presented at the 7th Eastern & Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference & Symposium on Low-Nitrogen & Drought Tolerance in maize. Held at Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Nairobi, between 11-15 February, 2002. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1999. Abstract
Understanding how individuals with a high degree of HIV exposure avoid persistent infection is paramount to HIV vaccine design. Evidence suggests that mucosal immunity, particularly virus-specific CTL, could be critically important in protection against sexually acquired HIV infection. Therefore, we have looked for the presence of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in cervical mononuclear cells from a subgroup of highly HIV-exposed but persistently seronegative female sex workers in Nairobi. An enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to measure IFN-gamma release in response to known class I HLA-restricted CTL epitope peptides using effector cells from the blood and cervix of HIV-1-resistant and -infected sex workers and from lower-risk uninfected controls. Eleven of 16 resistant sex workers had HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in the cervix, and a similar number had detectable responses in blood. Where both blood and cervical responses were detected in the same individual, the specificity of the responses was similar. Neither cervical nor blood responses were detected in lower-risk control donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies in the cervix of HIV-resistant sex workers were slightly higher than in blood, while in HIV-infected donor cervical response frequencies were markedly lower than blood, so that there was relative enrichment of cervical responses in HIV-resistant compared with HIV-infected donors. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the absence of detectable HIV infection in the genital mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers may be playing an important part in protective immunity against heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O, Tabifor N.H., Makawiti D.W., Kigondu C.S. and Muchiri L.W.(2002) Oestradiol and progesterone receptor concentrations and the metabolism of oestrogen in uterine leiomyomata. Afr.J.Health Sc. 9:(3-4),113-118.". In: Biennial Conference. Faculty of Vet. Medicine. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1983). Inhibition of spermatogenesis by antibodies to cauda epididymal androgen-binding proteins. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Society for the Study of Fertility Annual Conference, York, UK., Abstr. 63. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1983. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1988). The role of placental binucleate cells in implantation and steroid metabolism in sheep and goats. Ph.D Thesis, Cambridge University.". In: The First Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Symposium, ICIPE, Nairobi, Abstr. 13. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1990). Effects of interfering with testosterone transport on Sertoli cell function.". In: The First Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Symposium, ICIPE, Nairobi, Abstr.21. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1990). Non-human primates as models for research in human reproduction. Discovery and Innovation (Cover article), 2(2), 33-36.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1990). Nuclear techniques in animal sciences: Animal Reproduction.". In: National Council for Science and Technology Nuclear Specialist Meeting, Nairobi, 25th June. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1990). On trophoblastic binucleate cells, feto-maternal interactions at implantation and the definitive ruminant placenta.". In: University of Zimbabwe, Faculty of veterinary Science Seminars, 29th October. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1990). Ovarian function and assessment of granulosa cell activity in vitro.". In: Workshop on . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1990). The relevance of defined cell biology and biochemical techniques in definition of gross reproductive physiology phenomena.". In: The First Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Symposium, ICIPE, Nairobi, Abstr. 13. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1991). The role of the fetus in maintenance of pregnancy. The Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI)Seminars, 27th March.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1992). The role of feto-maternal hybrid syncitium in transport of fetal products across the placental barrier in ruminants.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1994). The relevance of basic reproductive biology research in reproductive health strategies.". In: Needs Assessment Workshop on Research in Reproduction, Safariland Club, Naivasha,11th-15th July. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1995). Testicular morphology and testosterone levels in dogs treated with antibodies to cauda epididymal androgen-binding antigen. Acta Biol. Hungarica, 46(1), 107-117.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. B-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1996). The multiple roles of trophoblastic binucleate cells found in ruminant placentae.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. B-42. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1996. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1998). Development of animal models for research in human reproduction.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine: Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences.5th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1998). Development of animal models for research in human reproduction.". In: Proceedings of the First Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kenya Vet J. 23, 3. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (1998). Development of animal models for research in human reproduction. Kenya Vet J. 23, 3.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (FASBMB), pp199-204. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1998. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. (2005). Anti-fertility effects of embelin in female Sprague-Dawley rats may be due to suppression of ovarian function.Acta Biologica Hungarica 56 (1-2),1-9.". In: Biennial Conference. Faculty of Vet. Medicine. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2005. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. and Gombe S. (1995). Effects of immunising dogs against an androgen-binding cauda epididymal antigen (CABA). Discovery and Innovation, 7(3), 265-275.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. B-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. and Mbui P. (1989). A simplified method for large-scale isolation of porcine zona pellucidae. . In .". In: The First Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Symposium, ICIPE, Nairobi, Abstr. 13. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1989. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. and Mbui P. (1994). Studies on conversion of labeled pregnenolone to progesterone by baboon placental cytotrophoblast cells in vitro. Primates, 35 (2), 203-209.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. B-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. and Mutema A. (1992). The integration of physiology in a problem based learning curriculum for medical undergraduate students.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. and Suleman M. (1994). Strategies in controlling wild animal populations. Discovery and Innovation, 6(2), 146-151.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. B-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1994. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. and Wooding F.B.P. (1986). The role of binucleate cells in implantation in the goat. Society for the Study of Fertility and British Neuro-endocrine Joint Winter Meeting, Nottingham, UK.,Abstr. 114.". In: Society for the Study of Fertility Annual Conference, York, UK., Abstr. 63. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1986. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O. Odongo H., Okumu G. and Yusuf A. (2006). The effects of Punica granatum on the reproductive parameters of male and female goats. (In prep. for J. Ethno-pharmacology).". In: Archaeology of Oceania 32(1997):118-122. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2006. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Mbui P. and Kiawa B. (1989). Steroid metabolism by placentae of sheep, goat and baboon: A comparative study. In .". In: The First Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Symposium, ICIPE, Nairobi, Abstr. 13. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1989. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Odongo H.O., Oduma J.A. and Oduor-Okelo D. (1995).Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine on testosterone production by mouse Leydig cells in vitro. Acta Biol. Hungarica, 46(1), 75-85.". In: First Pan African Conference on Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstr. B-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1995. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Onyango D.W., Odongo H., Okindo E., Mugweru J. and Gichiri J. (1997). In vitro production of testosterone and plasma levels of gonadotropins, testosterone and cortisol in male rats treated with the pesticide heptachlor. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.". In: Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Advances in Veterinary Education and Animal Sciences. 5th. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Suleman M. and Odongo H. (2006). Hormonal response to single intra-muscular injection of promegranate extract in adult male African Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops). (In pre. for J. of Ethno-pharmacology).". In: Archaeology of Oceania 32(1997):118-122. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2006. Abstract
Although a relationship between Lapiat and post-Lapita ceramic traditions has long been suspected, a systematic and detailed examination of the similarities and differences has not been previously made. An important first step is to determine the nature of change from one to the other by examining pottery from sites which have the full ceramic sequence. My analyses of the assemblages from Manus and New Island demonstrate continuity between the two traditions.
OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Wooding F.B.P. and Heap R.B. (1987). Differences in the role for PGE2 in steroid synthesis by isolated binucleate cells from sheep and goat placentae. J. Endocrinol., 117, 131.". In: The First Biochemical Society of Kenya Annual Symposium, ICIPE, Nairobi, Abstr. 13. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1987. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Wooding F.B.P. and Heap R.B. (1987). Indomethacin suppresses progesterone synthesis in isolated binucleate cells from placentae of sheep and not goat.". In: Society for the Study of Fertility Annual Conference, York, UK., Abstr. 63. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1987. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Wooding F.B.P. and Heap R.B. (1987). Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) increases PGE2 synthesis and conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone by sheep but suppresses 5β-pregnanediol production by goat isolated binucleate cells. Society fo.". In: Society for the Study of Fertility Annual Conference, York, UK., Abstr. 63. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1987. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Wooding F.B.P. and Heap R.B. (1990). Implantation in the goat. A morphological study. J. Anatomy, 171, 241-257.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Wooding F.B.P. and Heap R.B. (1990). Implantation in the goat. A quantitative study. Placenta, 11, 381-394.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1990. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Wooding F.B.P. and Heap R.B. (1991). Progesterone and 5β-pregnanediol production by isolated fetal placental binucleate cells from sheep and goats. J. Endocrinol., 129, 283-289.". In: The First Internal Conference of African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 21st-27th September. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1991. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

OMOLO PROFWANGOEMMANUEL. "Wango E.O., Wooding F.B.P. and Heap R.B. (1992). Regulation of steroid synthesis and metabolism in isolated binucleate cells of the placentae of sheep and goats. J. Reprod. Fertil., 94, 203-211.". In: Needs Assessment Workshop on Research in Reproduction, Safariland Club, Naivasha,11th-15th July. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1992. Abstract

SUMMARY LIII)' lIIorpllOlogiClI changcs ill the goat ,csris after:. sillgle illlraperilOlieal injec,ioll of ethalle ,lillie' I.:lIIeslll"llOnarc (EI )S) werc investigatcd mint; (1Orh liglH alld deCll'On microscopy. The (olllpolind was ;almillistered at two dose Icvels: 75 mgll

W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Wango EO, Tabifor HN, Muchiri LW, Sekadde-Kigondu C, Makawiti DW.Progesterone, estradiol and their receptors in leiomyomata and the adjacent normal myometria of black Kenyan women.Afr J Health Sci. 2002 Jul-Dec;9(3-4):123-8.". In: Afr J Health Sci. 2002 Jul-Dec;9(3-4):123-8. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 2002. Abstract
The contents of progesterone and oestrogen, and their respective receptors in uterine leiomyomata and adjacent normal myometrial tissue in indigenous black women in Kenya were studied. A random selection of twenty women undergoing hysterectomy for uterine fibroids at Kenyatta National Hospital was used for the studies. The myometria contained higher levels of E(2 ) (181% : P < 0.001); and P(4 ) (240.6 % : P < 0.001); as compared to the leiomyomata. On the other hand uterine leiomyomata contained significantly higher levels of ER (147.6% : P < 0.001); and PR (178.7% : P < 0.001 ); than normal myometria. These findings differ slightly from those reported in black women in developed countries, but support the proposal that manipulation of sex steroids may be useful in the treatment and management of uterine leiomyomata.
. DRONYANGODANIELW. "Wango, E. O., Onyango, D. W., Odongo, H., Okindo, E & Mugweru, J (1997):In vitro production of testosterone and plasma levels of luteinizing hormone, testosterone and cortisol in male rats treated with heptachlor.Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 118C(3): 381-386.". In: Proceedings of the First Meeting of Federation of African Societies of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology(FASBMB) (Eds. Ochanda, J. O., Kiaira, J. K & Makawiti, D. W.),pp.195-198. Biochemical Society of Kenya. Kisipan, M.L.; 1997. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

ACHIENG DRODUMAJEMIMAH. "Wango, E.O.; Odongo, H.O.; Oduma, J.; Oduor Okelo, D. (1995).Effects of 6-Hydroxydopamine on testosterone production by mouse Leydig cells in-vitro. Acta Biologica Hungarica. 46(1):75-85.". In: Proceedings of 1st Pan-African Conference on biochemistry and molecular biology,Nairobi, Kenya. Douglas McLean Publishing; 1995. Abstract
This publication bring together upto 15 papers presented at the inagural conference of the world Association of Sign Language Interpreters by experts form around the globe. the pares highlight the importance of of worjing together and sharing a global responsibility for the development of interpreting services worldwide. This is a valuable resource for all sign language interpreters, students and interpreter trainers, and contains much to interest those who wish to know more about the situation of Sign Language interpratation form an internation perspective.
Wangu wa Makeri: A Biography . Nairobi.: East African Education Publishers, ; 2002.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Wangwe WM, Sanghvi HCG, Ndavi PM, Mwathe EG.:The Effect of Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy in Patients at Risk of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension and Pre-Eclampsia at Kenyatta National and Pumwani Maternity hospitals : J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 13 No. 1:8: .". In: East Afr. Med. J. 1997; 74: 634-638. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1997. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
WERE DRWANJALAGENEVIEVE, WERE DRWANJALAGENEVIEVE. "Wanjala G., .". In: The Fountain : Journal of Educational Research Vol. 4 Issue 2,2010 Pp. 10-35, ISSN 2079 - 3383. School of Education, UoN; 2010. Abstract
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H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. 1980 A Prospective Study of Premature Study of Membranes at Kenyatta National Hospital Part of M.Med Dissertation Submitted in 1980 (Pg 160-185).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1980. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. 1980 A Review of Uterine Fibroids at Kenyatta National Hospital Part of M.Med Dissertation Submitted in 1980 (pg 356-377).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1980. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. 1988 Microsurgery in the Management of Tubal Factors in Female Infertile at a Nairobi Hospital (Submitted to Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1988. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. Acute Puerperal Inversion of the Uterus at Kenyatta National Hospital (Submitted to Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa).". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1976. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. Is Microsurgery Useful in the Management of Infertiligy in Kenya (Submitted as an Editorial to Journal of Obsterics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa.". In: Editorial to Journal of Obsterics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1976. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S. Problems of Contraceptive of Family Planning In a Manual for Clinical Family Planning Practice P167-177. Edited by Khama O. Rogo KMA Publications 1988.". In: KMA Publications 1988. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1988. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

H DRWANJALASAMSON. "Wanjala S., Murugu NM, Mati JKG 1985 Mortality due to Abortions at Kenyatta National Hospital 1974-1983 Abortion: Medical Progress and Social Implications Pitman, London (CIBA Foundation Symposium 115) 41-53.". In: Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 1985. Abstract

PIP: In 1990, the annual population growth rate in Kenya was 3.8%, among the highest rates world wide. The ever growing adolescent fertility rate (111-152/1000 from 1969-1989) contributed to this rapid growth. Further repeat pregnancies among adolescents remained high in the 1980's and ranged from 20%-28.6%, depending on the survey. Even though overall prevalence of pregnancy fell 15.4% between 1978-1984, it remained the same for the 15-19 year old group. Teenage births have made up at least 35% of total deliveries. 1985 data revealed that even though adolescents represent 11-35% of the total obstetric population, problems ranked high among them: 38% of all eclampsia cases and high maternal mortality (102/100,000 vs. 57/100,000 older mothers). Studies showed that adolescents are sexually active, are ignorant about contraception, and do not use contraception. Yet contraceptive and family planning services are free in Kenya. Nevertheless the teenagers are at high risk of an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and AIDS. In the early 1980s, Kenyatta National Hospital reported 53% of 74.1% of septic abortion cases being single women were between 14-20 years old. Similar results emerged from other studies. Health professionals believed these results to be underestimated, however. In the 1980s, 33% of all adolescents between 13-15 years old in a rural area had gonorrhea. In Kenyatta, 36% of pregnant 15-24 year olds had at least 1 STD while,e only 16% of those 24 years old did. Further, teenagers are especially vulnerable to psychological problems when they 1st learn of their pregnancy. Health services should be geared to meet the specific needs of adolescents, such as contraception education and antenatal services. PMID: 12316815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Wanjala, SM, Onyango, GK, Sekadde-Kigondu, CB A prospective Study on the Treatment of Oligospermia with Tomoxifene at kenyatta national Hospital. J. Obstet Gyneacol for East And Central Africa. 10(1), 31, 1992.". In: J. Obstet Gyneacol for East And Central Africa. 10(1), 31, 1992. uon press; 1992. Abstract
Forty females, age 14 to 35 years (mean 28.6 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) were included in the study. Their menstrual patterns were noted. The function of their hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis was assessed by the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin (PrL), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) at different phases of the menstrual cycle in patients who continued to have normal menses (Group 1) and at weekly intervals for six weeks in patients with menstrual disturbances (Group II). The mean hormone levels during the initial contact Luteal phase in group I were FSH 12.0 IU/L (N, 1.0-3.0 IU/L), LH 1.8IU/L (N 1.5-101U/L), PrL 652mIU/L (N, 100-600 mIU/L) mE2 160 pmol/L (N 400-1400 pmol/L) and P5 nmol/L (N 14-60 nmol/L) for group I. Corresponding values for group II were 1.2, 10.3, 250, 600 and 3.0 in relevant units. All patients (fourteen) with end stage renal disease (ESRD) had amenorrhoae. On the other hand, most patients with stable CRF (22/26) had normal menses. Following initiation of therapy (conservative or dialytic), there was no significant alteration in the hormonal profile or menstrual pattern. We conclude that other factors apart from the hormonal imbalances, may be responsible for the menstrual disturbances noted in patients with CRF.
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Wanjao, L.W. and Waithaka, Kimani. 1982. The effect of GA3 application on growth and flowering of Liatris. Scientia Horticulturae, 19: 343-348.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1982. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Wanjau, O.M., Midiwo, J.O. and Mwangi, R.W. (1990). Insect antifeedant principles from leaves of Polygonum senegalense.". In: Proc. 3rd NAPRECA Symp. on Natural Products and their applications. pp. 40-57. ISBN 9987 8814 32. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Wanjogu, S.N and J.P. Mbuvi 1993. The Influence of Parent Materials on some Characteristics of the Soils of a Semi-Arid Catchment E. Afr. Agric. For. J. Vol. 58, No. 4. pp. 331-337.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1993. Abstract
Influence of soil type and landuse on soil water retention and availability in the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Laikipia District were investigated. Representative soils, six in Sirima and four in Mukogodo, surveyed at a detailed level, were assessed using samples taken from 0-10, 20-30 and 40-5 cm depths of bush, grass, bare ground and cultivated sites. Sirima soils retained more water than Mukogodo soils due to differences in clay type and textural composition. All Sirima soil layers were clay while Mukogodo topsoils were sandy loam and subsurface layers sandy clay loam. Mukogodo soils were more compact and had significantly lower carbon content than Sirima soils at all depths. For each area, only the surface layer had significant difference (p<0.05) in water retention among landuses, with bare ground retaining the most especially at higher pressures. However, no distinction in water availability could be made among soil types in each area. Unlike the increase in clay content with depth, bulk density and carbon content were not significant in influencing plant water availability
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Wanjogu, S.N. and J.P. Mbuvi, 1995. Influence of Parent Material on Soil Characteristics in Sirimia and Mukogodo Cathcment, Laikipia, Kenya. ITC. Journal Vol. 1. pp. 29-37.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1995. Abstract
Influence of soil type and landuse on soil water retention and availability in the semi-arid Sirima and Mukogodo catchments in Laikipia District were investigated. Representative soils, six in Sirima and four in Mukogodo, surveyed at a detailed level, were assessed using samples taken from 0-10, 20-30 and 40-5 cm depths of bush, grass, bare ground and cultivated sites. Sirima soils retained more water than Mukogodo soils due to differences in clay type and textural composition. All Sirima soil layers were clay while Mukogodo topsoils were sandy loam and subsurface layers sandy clay loam. Mukogodo soils were more compact and had significantly lower carbon content than Sirima soils at all depths. For each area, only the surface layer had significant difference (p<0.05) in water retention among landuses, with bare ground retaining the most especially at higher pressures. However, no distinction in water availability could be made among soil types in each area. Unlike the increase in clay content with depth, bulk density and carbon content were not significant in influencing plant water availability
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Wanjogu, S.N. and J.P. Mbuvi, 1999. The soils of North East and South West toposequences in Laikipia District, Kenya. Soil Science Society of East Africa (SSSEA) pp 260-266 ISBN 9966-879-27-7.X.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Wanjogu, S.N. and J.P. Mbuvi, 2000. Erosion susceptibility of the soils of Mukogodo catchment. Land and Water Management in Kenya. ***.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
P PROFMBUVIJOSEPH. "Wanjogu, S.N. and J.P. Mbuvi, 2000. The geochemistry and mineralogy of parent materials and soils in two catchment in Laikipia District, Kenya. Soil Science Society of East Africa pp 323-328. ISBN 9966-879-27-7.". In: Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Wanjohi J.K., Sekadde-Kigondu C.B., Maina F.W. Mati J.K.G., J. Obstet. Gynaecol. E. Central Afr. 2:23, 1983 Menstrual blood loss in nulliparous normal women.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6. uon press; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid.
W MRMAINAFRANCIS. "Wanjohi J.K., Sekkade-Kigondu C.B., Maina F.W., Mati J. K. G. .". In: J. Obs. Gyn. Centr., East Africa 2;23 (1983). EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1983. Abstract
No abstract available.
W MRMAINAFRANCIS, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Wanjohi JK, Sekadde-kigondu CB, Maina FW, Mati JK.Menstrual blood loss (MBL) in nulliparous Kenyan women.J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6. uon press; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
W MRMAINAFRANCIS, S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Wanjohi JK, Sekadde-kigondu CB, Maina FW, Mati JK.Menstrual blood loss (MBL) in nulliparous Kenyan women.J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6.". In: J Obstet Gynaecol East Cent Africa. 1983 Mar;2(1):23-6. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1983. Abstract
PIP: Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was evaluated in 74 nulliporous Kenyan women aged between 20 and 27 years. The hemoglobin levels were all in normal range with the mean of 13.65 +or- 0.8, 13.84 +or- 1.2 and 13.04 +or- 1.2 g/100 ml respectively in 3 populations. The MBL was comparable in the 3 populations with the mean of 35.1 +or- 12.6, 30.6 +or- 8.7 and 32.2 +or- 9.4 ml respectively. There was no difference of statistical significance between the 2 periods studied per each individual. This study objectively assesses the menstrual blood loss in 3 population groups–2 urban and 1 rural. The data can be used to evaluate menstrual blood loss before and after initiation of various contraceptives used in Kenya. Subjects were volunteers who were not on any contraception except barrier or natural rhythm methods, not under psychological stress and who exhibited normal physical female characteristics on examination. Those who wished to drop out, became pregnant or desired contraception, were excluded. The study confirms the individual constancy of the menstrual blood loss in this population. This has important practical implications since a single determination of the menstrual blood loss may be a fairly good expression for the average blood loss in a woman. The immediate effect of various treatments such as IUD insertion or oral contraceptives on the MBL may easily be evaluated quantitatively by measurements in consecutive periods using only 1 period as a control. The quick method can be easily used in evaluating pathological conditions e.g. iron-deficiency due to heavy bleeding, IUD-associated hemorrhage, menorrhagia and uterine fibroid. PMID: 12267056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MURABA DRWANJOHIJOHN. "Wanjohi, J.M.,(1992). Copper levels in soils, water and plants collected around coffee farms along Rutui river in Kirinyaga District and Ruiru river in Kiambu District. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. SITE; 1992. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

MURABA DRWANJOHIJOHN. "Wanjohi,J. M. (2006). Antiplasmodial anthracene derivatives from some some Kenyan Aloe and Bulbine species. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Ph.D. Thesis, University of Nairobi. SITE; 2006. Abstract

This paper describes the methodology and presents preliminary results of an economic appraisal of a community based health care project in Kenya. Community health workers, trained for 12 weeks and deployed in two locations in Kenya's Western Province, act as first contact providers of basic health care and promoters of selected health, sanitation and nutrition practices. A Cost Benefit Analysis has been undertaken using the Willingness to Pay approach to compare the costs of the project and its benefits. The benefits are in the form of more easily accessible basic health care and are measured as consumer surplus accruing to the community. Gain in consumer surplus is consequent on the fall of average user costs and rise in utilisation of the project established points of first contact with primary health care. The argument for the economic viability of the project is validated by the large Net Present Value and Benefit Cost Ratio obtained for the whole of the project area and for the two locations separately. Although the evaluation technique used faces the problem of valuation of community time, aggregation of health care services at all points of first contact and the partial nature of cost benefit analysis evaluations, the results are strongly in favour of decentralisation of primary health care on similar lines in the rest of the country.

Ngugi M. "Wanted: A Suave, Articulate, Highly-Educated President." The Anvil Souvenir Issue (2011):100-102.
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "Wanyama P. Juma, Hoseah M. Akala, Fredrick L. Eyase, Lois L. Muiva, Matthias Heydenreich, Faith A. Okalebo, Martin Peter, Douglas Walsh, Mabel Imbuga, Abiy Yenesew. Terpurinflavone: an antiplasmodial flavone from the stem of Tephrosia purpurea. Phytochemi.". In: Manuscript number PHYTOL-D-00140R1. Phytochemistry Letters; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} 1. Introduction Tephrosia Pers (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) is a large tropical and sub-tropical genus estimated to contain about three hundred species (Waterman and Khalid, 1980; Abou-Douh et al., 2005) out of which thirty species are found in Kenya (Tarus et al., 2002). The extracts of some Tephrosia species have shown various biological activities including antiplasmodial (Muiva et al., 2009), antibacterial (Abou-Douh et al., 2005) anticancer (Santram et al., 2006) and insecticidal activities (Delfel et al., 1970). The taxon T. purpurea is among the most widely used Tephrosia species in traditional medicine (Damre et al., 2003). Various biological activities including antibacterial (Hegazy et al., 2009; Chinniah et al., 2009), antidiabetic and antioxidant (Pavana et al., 2009), immunomodulatory (Damre et al., 2003), anti-inflammatory (Damre et al., 2003) and cancer chemopreventive activities (Chang et al., 2000) have been reported for extracts and pure compounds from this plant. T. purpurea. is rich in prenylated flavonoids including flavones (Hegazy et al., 2009; Pelter et al., 1981), flavanones (Pelter et al., 1981; Gupta et al., 1980), chalcones (Chang et al., 2000; Pelter et al., 1981) and rotenoids (Ahmad et al., 1999). In the search for compounds with antiplasmodial activity from Kenyan plants, the stem of T. purpurea has been investigated. This report is on the isolation and characterization of a new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone (1), with antiplasmodial activity along with three known flavonoids. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The stem extract of Tephrosia purpurea showed antiplasmodial activity against the D6 (chloroquinesensitive) and W2 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 10.47  2.22 mg/ml and 12.06 2.54 mg/ml, respectively. A new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone, along with the known compounds lanceolatin A, -semiglabrin and lanceolatin B have been isolated from this extract. The new compound, terpurinflavone, showed the highest antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 3.12  0.28 mM (D6) and 6.26  2.66 mM (W2). The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande Peter. 1998. The Significance of Voter Education in the Democratization Process. In The Road to Democracy.". In: A Publication of The Eastern And Southern African Universities Research Programme. Tema Publishers, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. PP87-104. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1998.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter et al. 1997. History and Government.". In: Longhorn, Kenya. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1997.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2001. Governance, Democracy and Development in East Africa. In P. Samanta and Risen (ed).". In: Realizing African Development - A Millennial Analysis Centre for Indo-African Development Studies, Calcutta PP.1-22. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2001. The Power of Knowledge: The Impact of Voter Education and Electoral Behaviour in a Kenyan Constituency.". In: In Ludeki Chweya (ed) Electoral Politics in Kenya. ClariPress, Nairobi PP.47-69. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2001.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2002. Recent Constitutional Developments in Kenya.". In: In Saida Yahya-Othmos (edt). Politics, Governance and Cooperation in East Africa. Mkuki Ya Nyota Publications, Dar-es-Salaam. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2002.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2003. Affirmative Action for Kenyan Women: An Analysis of the Relevant Provision of the Draft Constitution. In Maria Nzomo (edts) Perspectives on Gender Discourse. Women in Politics: Challenges on Democratic Transition in Kenya.". In: Henrich Boll Foundation, East and North Africa Region. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract
The paper examines the issues of affirmative action as currently provided for in the Draft constitution and seeks to shed insights into the impact of these provisions on the under- representation of women in major decision making state organs and the low level of political participation by women. In short the paper seeks to find out whether or not these provisions will be a panacea to the problems of under representation of women in public decision-making institutions including parliament and local authorities. The paper argues that the proposed affirmative action is major victory for Kenyan women and marks a positive step towards gender parity in Kenyan politics. However affirmative action by itself will not lead to gender parity and solve the political marginalization of women in the medium and long term. It will not result in the nomination of capable and influential women committed to the cause of women. It may in fact be counterproductive in the short and medium run. The women will have to put considerable pressure on those nominated through affirmative action to represent them to do precisely that.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2003. Beyond Campaign Rhetoric; The challenges for NARC Government.". In: Wajibu. A Journal of Social and Religious Concern. Vol.18, number 1-2, May -July.pp 23-25. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2003. Abstract

The current electoral system in Kenya was adopted at the Lancaster House Conference in 1962 during the negotiations for Kenya's independence. Numerous laws and regulations that have their origins in the current constitution govern the entire electoral process. Despite these the political and administrative environment often hinders the conduct of free and fair elections in the country, a fact that has serious negative implications for the development and attempts to institutionalise democracy in the country. There has been very weak support to the Electoral Commission by other key stakeholders such as political parties especially since the reintroduction of multiparty politics in 1992.There is an urgent need to re-examine the electoral laws and to empower the Electoral Commission of Kenya in order to improve the management of elections. The ongoing constitutional review provides a golden opportunity for this.

PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2004. Challenging the Political Order: The Politics of Presidential Succession In Kenya. In Bahemuka and Brockington (edited) East Africa In Transition, Images, Identities and Institutions.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This paper analyses the politics of presidential succession that occupied the time resources and energy of the political class since the opening up of the political space in the late 1980s and earlyb1990s. The paper has three major arguments. First it argues that the changes that were sought constituted a major challenge to the established political order as it sought to dislodge those in power and to make the government responsive to the citizens. This was being done in a context in which political leaders consider it illegal to challenge those in authority. Secondly the paper argues that those challenging the political order by seeking the presidency faced an uphill task precisely because they were up against a well-established political machine in the name of the Kenya Africa National Union (KANU). Finally the paper argues that the politics surrounding presidential succession gravitated around two major interests, namely ethnic and class interests.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2004. Decentralization and Local Goverance: A Conceptual and Theoretical Discourse.". In: Regional Development Dialogue Journal of the United Nations Center for Regional Ddevelopment (UNCRD) Vol, 25, No 1 Spring pp1-13. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This article is a contribution to the debate on the concepts of decentralization and local governance. It discusses some of the major theoretical and conceptual issues that may impact on the practice of decentralization and local governance in Africa. The discussion begins with a conceptualisation of decentralization and local governance and the linkage s between the two, by critically examining some of the assumed linkages between the tow concepts. In particular the article questions the assumption that decentralization will necessarily lead to good governance at the local level This is followed by a discussion of some of the factors that account for the weak support that governments in Sub-Saharan Africa give to decentralization and local governance. In this regard the article identifies some of the challenges to decentralization and local governance that have to be addressed in order to make the process more efficient. The bulk if the discussion takes a more theoretical perspective.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2004. NEPAD and Security In the IGAD Region. Security In the Age of Globalization.". In: In Makumi Mwagiru (edit) African Regional Henrich Boll Foundation Regional Office for Eastern Africa, Nairobi. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2004.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2005. Evolution of Governance Practice in Kenya. An Overview in Bujra Abdala (ed). Democratic Transition in Kenya: The Struggle from Liberal to Social Democracy.". In: African Centre for Economic Growth in collaboration with Development Policy Management Forum. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Since the 1990s, political discourse in Kenya and indeed in other Sub-Saharan Africa n countries has centred on issues of governance. This is because of the emerging consensus in the country , especially among scholars that the major social economic, political and human rights problems that Kenya is experiencing emanate from the nature of governance in the country(Kanyinga;2001;37).As a result , a number of initiatives to improve governance have been and continue to be undertaken in Kenya. These initiatives cover the four dimensions of governance, namely political, economic, administrative and legal. This chapter provides background material on the nature and trends of governance in Kenya . It highlights the major trends in governance since independence in 1963 , pointing out their impact on society generally and socio- economic development and stability in particular. The approach adopted is historical and examinees the mode of governance both during the presidency of Kenyatta and that of Moi. The final section of the chapter identifies areas of governance that require priority attention for improvement
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2005. Refugees and Internally Displaces Persons Phenomenon in Africa: A Governance Perspective.". In: Journal of the Regional Development Studies, Vol. 10. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
Since the 1990s, political discourse in Kenya and indeed in other Sub-Saharan Africa n countries has centred on issues of governance. This is because of the emerging consensus in the country , especially among scholars that the major social economic, political and human rights problems that Kenya is experiencing emanate from the nature of governance in the country(Kanyinga;2001;37).As a result , a number of initiatives to improve governance have been and continue to be undertaken in Kenya. These initiatives cover the four dimensions of governance, namely political, economic, administrative and legal. This chapter provides background material on the nature and trends of governance in Kenya . It highlights the major trends in governance since independence in 1963 , pointing out their impact on society generally and socio- economic development and stability in particular. The approach adopted is historical and examinees the mode of governance both during the presidency of Kenyatta and that of Moi. The final section of the chapter identifies areas of governance that require priority attention for improvement
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2005. The Role of the East African Legislative Assembly. In Ajulu,R. The Making of Region: The Revival of the East African Community.". In: Institute for Global Dialogue. Midrand, South Africa. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
This chapter discusses the expected contribution of the East African Legislative Assembly to the revival and consolidation of the East African Community and the eventual political federation. It also discusses the challenges that the Assembly is likely to face while playing this role. In this regard, the chapter offers some suggestions on how this role can be enhanced. It ends with a brief discussion of the future of the East African Community.
PETER PROFWANYANDE. "Wanyande, Peter, 2006. Electoral Politics and Election Outcomes in Kenya. Africa Development. Special Issue on Electoral Politics In Africa.". In: Vol XXXI No3, 2006.pp 62-80. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 2006.

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