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Forthcoming
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. With Dorothy McCormick and Mary Kinyanjui: `Enhancing Institutional Capacity for Policy Development, Dialogue, and Advocacy: Role of Associations and Other Community Based Organisations. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. AbstractWebsite

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Spencer Hensen, and Romanus Opiyo: `Impact of Lake Victoria Fish Exports on Livelihoods of Fishers, and Traders.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. Abstract

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

Gona, George, Wambui Kiai, Muiru Ngugi (Eds.). Women in Public Space(s) in Kenya. University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Mary Kinyanjui and Dorothy McCormick: `Network Brokers and Small Scale Production: The Case of Kariobangi Weighing Scales Cluster.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. Abstract

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Walter Odhiambo: `Policies and Regulations for Business Development in Kenya.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
Submitted
Ndungu MN. "Wanawake, Utamaduni na Katiba’.". In: BAWAKI International Conference on Language, Culture and Constitution . Catholic University of Eastern Africa; Submitted.
K. M, Mbote PK, Musembi C. Women's Access to Land Land-based Resources among Forest-dwelling Communities in East Africa:. Nairobi: CASELAP, University of Nairobi; Submitted.
K. M, Mbote PK, Musembi C. Women's Access to Land Land-based Resources among Forest-dwelling Communities in East Africa:. Nairobi: CASELAP, University of Nairobi; Submitted.
Adwok JA, Githaiga JW. "Wandering spleen presenting as a right hypochondrial mass and intestinal obstruction.". Submitted. Abstract

This is a case report of a 23 year old multiparous woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and a right hypochondrial mass. Laparatomy revealed an infarcted 1.4 Kg spleen in the right lumbar region compressing the ascending colon. There was also ileal volvulus around the splenic pedicle. This is probably the first documented case of wandering spleen in the right hypochondrium, presenting as right large bowel obstruction, to be reported in our region. Wandering spleen is a rare condition, often asymptomatic, but may present as an acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and rarely made. Laboratory tests are seldom useful, but imaging studies do assist. Up to 1971 only 350 cases had been reported in the western literature. Review of English literature from 1900 to 1991 reported only 51 cases in children. In our region 11 cases were reported in Uganda between 1968 and 1971. No other literature is available from our region. Clinical presentation, aetiology, investigation, and management of wandering spleen is discussed

Githaiga JW, Adwok JA. "Wandering spleen presenting as a right hypochondrial mass and intestinal obstruction.". Submitted. Abstract

This is a case report of a 23 year old multiparous woman who presented with intestinal obstruction and a right hypochondrial mass. Laparatomy revealed an infarcted 1.4 Kg spleen in the right lumbar region compressing the ascending colon. There was also ileal volvulus around the splenic pedicle. This is probably the first documented case of wandering spleen in the right hypochondrium, presenting as right large bowel obstruction, to be reported in our region. Wandering spleen is a rare condition, often asymptomatic, but may present as an acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and rarely made. Laboratory tests are seldom useful, but imaging studies do assist. Up to 1971 only 350 cases had been reported in the western literature. Review of English literature from 1900 to 1991 reported only 51 cases in children. In our region 11 cases were reported in Uganda between 1968 and 1971. No other literature is available from our region. Clinical presentation, aetiology, investigation, and management of wandering spleen is discussed

OLIECH JS. "WATER,HUMAN HEALTH/WELLNESS.". In: the fifth regional workshop on water is life. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; Submitted. Abstract

Scientific paper presented during the FIFTH ANNUAL REGIONAL WORKSHOP  ON THE THEME;`` WATER IS LIFE``. Abstract: The paper illustrates the health status of water in the human body in health and in disease situations and how body water content depends on many variables including age, sex, fat content,leaness of muscles ,the internal environment of body cells and the external envronmental air and  temperature.

Nkonya E, Xiong W, Deustua J, Kato E. "Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt improved land management practices which can improve yields and incomes? The reason is not always because these practices are uneconomical but sometimes it is because resource poverty prevents farmers from tak.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt improved land management practices which can improve yields and incomes? The reason is not always because these practices are uneconomical but sometimes it is because resource poverty prevents farmers from taking advantage of yield and income enhancing agricultural practices. In this study we examine the relative merits of using a carbon payment scheme compared to a subsidy policy to help reduce the cost of specific land management practices with productivity and ecosystem benefits such as carbon sequestration. Using a 30-year crop simulation model, we examine the impacts of different soil fertility management treatments (SFTs) on yields and soil carbon and proceed to compute discounted incremental revenue streams over the same period. We find that the SFTs simulated are on average profitable given the conditions assumed in our DSSAT simulations. When carbon was priced at $8 or $12/t CO2e, the increase in incremental incomes generated from a carbon payment were invariably higher than those imputed from a 50% fertilizer subsidy. When carbon was priced at $4/Co2e, the increase was almost similar and sometimes higher than that from the imputed income transfer from a 50% subsidy. If these indications hold in further research, it could imply that using fertilizer subsidies as the sole mechanism for stimulating adoption of improved soil fertility management practices may unnecessarily forgo other complementary and possibly superior alternatives. Depending on the specific economic equity considerations, we conclude that either of these instruments can be used to help farmers break through resource barriers that prevent them from adopting productivity-enhancing and environmentally beneficial agricultural practices. However, given the fiscal burden on public finances and possible opportunity costs of any substantial subsidy program, it is possible that a carbon payment system can be a reasonable alternative assuming the range of carbon prices used in this study and especially if accompanied by measures to ameliorate the costs of fertilizer to farmers.

KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M and Kisumbi B.K: In-vitro colour changes of resin composites in beverages. Journal of Dental Research.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
W DRMAINASUSAN, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W and Kisumbi B.K. Incidence of the Second Canal the Upper Second Premolar. Journal of Dental Research 13th Annual Scientific Conference of the East and Southern Division of IADR.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W., Kisumbi B.K. : Incidence of the second Canal in the upper Second Premolar. (Journal of Dental Research).". In: Journal of Dental Research. Taylor & Francis; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study dimensional time-dependence of resin/ionomer formulations from 5 min age to one month and to separate out the intrinsic setting shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion effects, by using non-aqueous and aqueous storage media, respectively. METHODS: Materials studied included: A: resin-, B: metal- and C: polyphosphonate-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs]; and controls of D: poly-acid modified composite [compomer]; and E: resin-composite. Separate specimen groups (n = 5) were stored in different storage-media: (i) silicone fluid; (ii) de-ionized water. Experiments were repeated at 23 and 37 degrees C. Volumetric changes of specimens (4 mm diameter x 6 mm height) were obtained via accurate mass measurements (to 10(-4) g), using Archimedes principle, with silicone or water also used as the Archimedean fluid. These measurements were made periodically over a 30 day period, post fabrication. RESULTS: In silicone at 23 degrees C, all materials underwent further gradual intrinsic shrinkage (after 5 min from mix). This was highly significant (p < 0.05) for the RM-GIC (A). At 37 degrees C, however the RM-GIC expanded, indicating that its cure is temperature-sensitive. In water, at 23 and 37 degrees C, the shrinkage was either partially offset (materials C, D, E), or replaced by appreciable expansions (materials A and B). Differences between RM-GIC (A) and MM-GIC (B) were significant (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: The deployment of dual storage media made an important contribution to the separate analysis of the volumetric changes due to the on-going setting chemistry in these systems and the time-dependent effects of an aqueous environment.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W., Kisumbi B.K. : Incidence of the second Canal in the upper Second Premolar. (Journal of Dental Research).". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
Luiza C. Campos DO, Osborn. D. "Water and the UN sustainable development goals." UCL Open Eviron. Submitted:1. Abstract
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O. KG. "Water Resources.". Submitted. Abstract
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M DRININDAJOSEPH, A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "Wet periods along the East Africa Coast and the extreme wet spell event of October 1997.". In: A Journal in Meteorology and Related Sciences. Kenya Met Soc; Submitted.
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Wilson G. Kamundia, Paul M. Shiundu, and John M. Onyari, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Wilson G. Kamundia, Paul M. Shiundu, and John M. Onyari, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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In Press
MUTUKU DRNZIMBIBERNARD, KIBET DRMOINDISTEPHEN, P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "W_4-Curvature tensor on a A-Einstein Sasakian manifold." Global Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mathematical Sciences(GJTAMS). In Press. Abstract

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2022
2021
Onyango AE, Okoth MW, Kunyanga CN. "Water Disinfection Techniques: A review." Journal of Engineering in Agriculture and the Environment. 2021;7(1):54-78.
Missiame A, Nyikal RA, Irungu P. "What is the impact of rural bank credit access on the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers in Ghana? An endogenous switching regression analysis." Heliyon . 2021;7(5). AbstractWebsite

Abstract
This paper assesses the impact of access to credit from rural and community banks (RCBs) on the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers in Ghana. The study employed the stochastic frontier, and endogenous switching regression models to estimate the technical efficiency, and the impact of RCB credit access, respectively, on a randomly selected sample of 300 smallholder cassava farmers in the Fanteakwa District of Ghana. Results suggest that cassava farmers in the District are 70.5 percent technically efficient implying that cassava yield levels could be increased further by 29.5 percent without changing the current levels of inputs. The results further reveal that the gender of the household head, access to extension services, membership in farmer organizations, and proximity to the bank are the major factors that positively influence farmers to access credit from RCBs. On average, farmers who accessed credit from RCBs have significantly higher technical efficiencies than farmers who did not access, suggesting that access to credit from RCBs positively impacts the technical efficiency of smallholder cassava farmers.

Keywords: Credit access; Endogenous switching regression; Rural and community banks; Stochastic frontier model; Technical efficiency.

MK N, J D, M N, et al. "Why is There Low Morbidity and Mortality of COVID-19 in Africa." Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021;10.4269/ajtmh.20-0474.
Moturi CA, Okemwa VO, Orwa DO. "Why the Insurance Sector Needs Big Data Analytics Capability for Digital Transformation." International Journal of Big Data Management. 2021. Abstract

In order for organisations to generate competitive advantages from big data investments, they need to acquire a unique blend of technology, human skills, financial resources and a data-driven culture. Organisations need to measure their big data analytics capability in order to yield competitive performance. This study sought to examine the relationship between a firms big data analytics capability (BDAC) and competitive performance through mediating role of dynamic and operational capabilities. To test the proposed research model, we used survey data from 110 employees across 54 insurance companies in Kenya. Using partial least squares structural equation modelling, the results provide evidence that BDAC leads to superior firm performance. Various resources that form big data analytics (BDA) capability have been identified and an instrument to measure BDAC proposed. The findings from this study provides a roadmap strategy for implementing BDA projects.

2020
Chesaro MK, Maina SM, Makunda CS. "Waste Minimization Strategy for Sustainable Interior Design." Africa Habitat Review Journal. 2020;14(2):1831-1841.
Maina, makunda, chesaro. "Waste Minimization Strategy for Sustainable Interior Design." Africa Habitat Review. 2020;14(2):1831-1841.
Maxwell CO, Dulo SI, Olago DO, Odira PMA. "Water Availability Analysis of Multiple Source Groundwater Supply Systems in Water Stressed Urban Centers: Case of Lodwar municipality, Kenya." Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering. 2020;10(2). Abstractresearchgate.net

Ensuring water security to urban population in fragile environments through interlinked systems of groundwater abstraction, storage and distribution of sufficient quantity is challenging especially to urban utilities situated in arid and semi-arid regions. The purpose of this research was to evaluate water delivery challenges for water utilities in fragile environment in Kenya. A systematic analysis of availability from each supply sub-components from source to consumer was carried out through water audit and network analysis by employing water flow measurement equipments and through pump performance analysis and by employing continuity equation and Bernoulli’s principle to sections of the network. Results showed that water availability within a utility in such environments is contributed by seasonal variations between wet and dry affecting quantity at source, optimal design of supply infrastructure
in this case better matching of solar power with the pump, using standard pipes and on optimal operational strategies employed to reduce losses within the network. Based on these findings, we conclude that with clear understanding of each subcomponent’s contributions to entire water supply system and optimizing their design and operations, more people will be made water secure in all seasons in the fragile environments.

Keywords: Borehole • Availability • Water supply infrastructure

Opere AO, Njogu AK. "Water in the Upper Awach-Kibuon Catchment in Nyamira County, Kenya." American Journal of Water Resources. 2020;vol. 8, no. 4 (2020)(doi: 10.12691/ajwr-8-4-6.): 200-210.
B.M. Nzimbi, Luketero SW. "Weyl and Browder theorems for operators with or without SVEP at zero." International Journal of Statistics and Applied Mathematics. 2020;5(3):11-24. AbstractWebsite

The study of operators having some special spectral properties like Weyl's theorem, Browder's theorem
and the SVEP has been of important interest for some time now. The SVEP is very useful in the study of
the local spectral theory. In this paper, we explore the single-valued extension property (SVEP) for some
operators on Hilbert spaces. We characterize operators with or without SVEP at zero and those where
Weyl's and Browder's theorems hold. It is shown that if a Fredholm operator has no SVEP at zero, then
zero is an accumulation point of the spectrum of the operator. It is also shown that quasi similar Fredholm
operators have equal Weyl spectrum.

Onyango G. "Whistleblowing behaviours and anti-corruption approaches in public administration in Kenya.". 2020. Abstract

This article demonstrates that whistleblowing often receives little attention in public administration due to ambivalence regarding administrative roles held by public administrators, the fluid scalar chain and horizontal linkages, and competitive and intricate public, organisational and private interests. Drawing on comparative analysis to elucidate the broader scope of anti-corruption reforms and whistleblowing in public administration, the article explores the influence of the administrative culture on the relationship between whistleblowing behaviours and implementation of anti-corruption reforms in public administration in Kenya. It illustrates how bureaucratic oversight mechanisms such as internal auditing procedures and ethical guidelines tend to underperform where administrative environments largely feature autocratic bureaucratic authority, parochial management styles and centralised decision-making processes. Despite the functional specialty of public institutions, these cultural composites potentially elicit administrative behaviours that generally make whistleblowing anti-organisational, anti-social and an outright illegality in public administration. The absence of whistleblowing legislation or weak whistleblowing laws exacerbate these conditions. Whistleblowing becomes even more complex at the local-state level as social networks and working groups tend to be strengthened by the collectivist associational culture in public administration. Consequently, non-performance of anti-corruption reforms were found to stem from the collective chastisement of whistleblowing practices in public organisations in Kenya. Furthermore, institutional deficits typical in local-state administration seemingly made it riskier for potential whistleblowers to come forth, mainly attendant to loose and inconsistent legislation on corruption. Therefore, to enhance whistleblowing, there is a need to insulate potential whistleblowers from legal retaliation, including cultural retaliations that come in forms of emotional and professional ‘attacks’.

"Fungomeli M", Cianciaruso M, Zannini P, Githitho A, Frascaroli F, Fulanda B, Kibet S, Wiemers B, Mbuvi MT. "Woody plant species diversity of the coastal forests of Kenya: filling in knowledge gaps in a biodiversity hotspot." Plant Biosystems-An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology. 2020;154(6):973-982.
McGuire E, Ambuko J, Jarman A, Mitcham E. "Who Is Fortunate Enough to Eat All Their Fruits and Veggies?". In: 2020 ASHS Annual Conference. ASHS; 2020. Abstract
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2019
Wasamba P. "Will public service commission Succeed in appointing VCs competatively." The Standard, February 22, 2019:14.
"The World Health Organization ACTION-I Trial:multi-country, multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of antenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of imminent early preterm birth in hospitals in LMICs." Trials. 2019;20(1):507. Abstract

Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) have long been regarded as a cornerstone intervention in mitigating the adverse effects of a preterm birth. However, the safety and efficacy of ACS in hospitals in low-resource countries has not been established in an efficacy trial despite their widespread use. Findings of a large cluster-randomized trial in six low- and middle-income countries showed that efforts to scale up ACS use in low-resource settings can lead to harm. There is equipoise regarding the benefits and harms of ACS use in hospitals in low-resource countries. This randomized controlled trial aims to determine whether ACS are safe and efficacious when given to women at risk of imminent birth in the early preterm period, in hospitals in low-resource countries.

Mwema FM, Obiko JO, Leso T, MBUYA TO, Mose BR, Akinlabi ET. "Wear Characteristics of Recycled Cast Al-6Si-3Cu Alloys." Tribology in Induastry. 2019;41(4):613-621. AbstractDOI: 10.24874/ti.2019.41.04.13

Recycling of Al-Si alloys for high integrity structural components for the automotive industry applications has gained attention in the recent times. In this article, scrap of cylinder heads containing 6.01%Si and 2.62%Cu were recycled by casting into four alloys invariants: base alloy (no alloying elements added), 0.02%Ca, 0.38%Fe and 0.9%Fe+0.45%Mn additions. The structural properties were analysed through optical and SEM/EDS microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD). The wear characteristics of the alloys were investigated using a multi-pass ball on the flat reciprocating method under a normal load of 30 N and velocity of 4 mm/s. The results showed delamination and adhesive wear as the predominant wear mechanisms for the recycled Al-Si alloys. The base and 0.02%Ca alloys exhibited the lowest coefficients of friction and rates of wear. A comparison of the wear data to the published data on primary alloys revealed that our secondary alloys have the potential for applications in the automotive industry.

Ngarachu M, Bore M, Gichuhi S. Willingness to donate eyes and its associated factors among adults in a community in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019.
JK Omari, Mworia JK, Gichuki N, Mligo C. "Woody Species Composition in Upper Tana River Floodplain of Kenya: Potential Effects of Change in Flood Regimes." Journal of sustainability, environment and peace . 2019;1:91-97.
ONYANGO M A, OLUOCH M F. "Workforce Diversity and Performance of Kisumu Law Courts, Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2019;10(12):doi:10.30845/ijbss.v10n12p3.
Collaborators WHOACTIONT. "The World Health Organization ACTION-I (Antenatal CorTicosteroids for Improving Outcomes in preterm Newborns) ." TRIALS. 2019;20(1):507. AbstractWebsite

Background
Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) have long been regarded as a cornerstone intervention in mitigating the adverse effects of a preterm birth. However, the safety and efficacy of ACS in hospitals in low-resource countries has not been established in an efficacy trial despite their widespread use. Findings of a large cluster-randomized trial in six low- and middle-income countries showed that efforts to scale up ACS use in low-resource settings can lead to harm. There is equipoise regarding the benefits and harms of ACS use in hospitals in low-resource countries. This randomized controlled trial aims to determine whether ACS are safe and efficacious when given to women at risk of imminent birth in the early preterm period, in hospitals in low-resource countries.

Methods/design
The trial design is a parallel, two-arm, double-blind, individually randomized, placebo-controlled trial of ACS (dexamethasone) for women at risk of imminent preterm birth. The trial will recruit 6018 women in participating hospitals across five low-resource countries (Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Nigeria and Pakistan). The primary objectives are to compare the efficacy of dexamethasone with placebo on survival of the baby and maternal infectious morbidity. The primary outcomes are: 1) neonatal death (to 28 completed days of life); 2) any baby death (any stillbirth postrandomization or neonatal death); and 3) a composite outcome to assess possible maternal bacterial infections. The trial will recruit eligible, consenting pregnant women from 26 weeks 0 days to 33 weeks 6 days gestation with confirmed live fetuses, in whom birth is planned or expected within 48 h. The intervention comprises a regimen of intramuscular dexamethasone sodium phosphate. The comparison is an identical placebo regimen (normal saline). A total of 6018 women will be recruited to detect a reduction of 15% or more in neonatal deaths in a two-sided 5% significance test with 90% power (including 10% loss to follow-up).

Discussion
Findings of this trial will guide clinicians, programme managers and policymakers on the safety and efficacy of ACS in hospitals in low-resource countries. The trial findings will inform updating of the World Health Organization’s global recommendations on ACS use.

2018
Kanyinga K. "What it takes to unify the country goes beyond mega development projects." Sunday Nation, January 28, 2018.
Mbatiah M. Watoto wa Mwelusi.; 2018.
Khamala D, Njiraine D, Makori E. "Webometrics Ranking and Its Relationship to Quality Education and Research in Academic Institutions in Kenya." Library Philosophy and Practice. 2018.
Foster C, Graham M, Mann L, Waema T, Friederici N. "Who controls the digital? Value chains and the challenges of connectivity for East African firms." Economic Geography. 2018;94(1):68-86. AbstractFull text link

In recent years, Internet connectivity has greatly improved across the African continent. This article examines the consequences that this shift has had for East African firms that are part of global value chains (GVCs). Prior work yielded contradictory expectations: firms might benefit from connectivity through increased efficiencies and improved access to markets, although they might also be further marginalized through increasing control of lead firms. Drawing on extensive qualitative research in Kenya and Rwanda,including 264 interviews, we examine 3 sectors (tea, tourism, and business process outsourcing) exploring overarching, cross-cutting themes. The findings support more pessimistic expectations: small African producers are only thinly digitally integrated in GVCs. Moreover, shifting modes of value chain governance, supported by lead firms and facilitated by digital information platforms and data standards are leading to new challenges for firms looking to digitally integrate. Nevertheless, we also find examples in these sectors of opportunities where small firms are able to cater to emerging niche customers, and local or regional markets. Overall, the study shows that improving connectivity does not inherently benefit African firms in GVCs without support for complementary capacity and competitive advantages.

Langer L, Erasmus Y, Tannous N, Obuku E, Ravat Z, Chisoro C, OM, Nduku P, Tripney J, van Rooyen C, Stewart R. "Women in wage labour: A systematic review of the Effectiveness and Design Features of Interventions Supporting Women’s Participation in Wage Labour in Higher-growth and/or Male …." ucl discovery. 2018. Abstracteppi.ioe.ac.uk

In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), women’s participation in wage labour is significantly lower than that of men. In addition, women’s participation is often clustered in particular sectors of the economy that are not well-remunerated and have lower prestige. Higher growth economic sectors such as ICT and finance are dominated by men, excluding women from lucrative opportunities for social and economic development. Even where women have equal access to wage labour opportunities, they often suffer from vertical occupational segregation, earning significantly less than men and being less likely to be promoted. This horizontal and vertical occupational segregation of wage labour markets in LMICs for women hinders both economic and social development. In response to this challenging gendered nature of wage labour markets in LMICs, a range of interventions and policies have been proposed to increase women’s employment. These interventions aim to overcome a range of barriers to women’s wage labour employment in highergrowth/male-dominated sectors, such as discrimination against women by markets and work institutions, or a lack of access to credit and assets and of technical and soft skills. However, these labour market programmes to increase women’s wage employment vary greatly, as do the barriers to women’s wage labour participation. Different programme designs assume different pathways to support women’s employment and it is not clear what programme approaches and design features are most effective.

Mungania BG. Word order in the Kiswahili clause: a Minimalist approach. Schroeder H, Okombo O, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Odundo Paul Amolloh, Wanjiru KG, Lilian GK. "Work-based Learning, Procedural Knowledge and Teacher Trainee Preparedness towards Teaching Practice at the University of Nairobi, Kenya. ." The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. . 2018;17(3):96-110.
Manyara PO, Mwero JN, Mutua H. "Workability, Compressive, and Tensile Split Strength Behavior of Blue Gum Ash Glass Concrete." International Journal of Science and Research Publications (IJSRP). 2018;Vol 8(4).
2017
Kanyinga K. "Why government and NGOs aren’t friends." Sunday Nation, January 15, 2017.
Mugambi JNK. "Why Water: Lenten Meditation for 2017 World Water Day.". In: ”, Ecumenical Water Network. Geneva; 2017.
Masese FA, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Mbui DN. "Water Quality Status of Selected Sources of Domestic Water in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3(8):193-198.
Masese FA, Wandiga SO, Mbui D. "Water Quality Status of Selected Sources of Domestic Water in Kenya.". 2017. Abstractsemanticscholar.org

In Kenya, water scarcity is a major issue due to destruction of water catchment, poor management of water supply and contamination of national water resources. The government’s long-term objective is to ensure that all citizens have access to safe drinking water. Although the government has increased the budget for improving access to water, many citizens still do not have access to potable water. The study analysed contaminants from selected sources of domestic water in the counties of Machakos, Nakuru, Kiambu and Nairobi. The following physico-chemical parameters were investigated–pH, conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), anions (Cl-and PO43-), E. Coli and total coliforms. Water samples were collected from eight sampling sites in dry and wet seasons and analysed following standard methods. pH values varied from 6.3–9.1 in the dry season, and 6.9–9.5 in the wet season, conductivity from 244.0–5758.0 µS/cm in the dry season and 141.0–2004.0 µS/cm in the wet season, TDS from 113.0–5,824.0 mg/L in the dry season and 82.0–183.0 in the wet season, temperature from 24.1–25.2 C in the dry season and 25.3–25.8 C in the wet season, TSS from 0.00–0.01 mg/L in the dry season and 0.01–0.02 mg/L in the wet season, COD from 112.0–255.0 mg/L in the dry season and 90.6–154.0 mg/L in the wet season, DO varied from 2.8–4.2 mg/L in the dry season and 3.1–4.2 mg/L in the wet season, nitrates from 2.5–19.6 ppm, phosphates from 0.03–2.24 mg/L, while E. Coli varied from 13–4,300 CFU/ml. The values obtained for most parameters …

Masese FA, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO, Mbui DN. "Water quality status ofselected sources of domestic water in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3:193-198. AbstractInternational Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology

Description
In Kenya, water scarcity is a major issue due to destruction of water catchment, poor management of water supply and contamination of national water resources. The government’s long-term objective is to ensure that all citizens have access to safe drinking water. Although the government has increased the budget for improving access to water, many citizens still do not have access to potable water. The study analysed contaminants from selected sources of domestic water in the counties of Machakos, Nakuru, Kiambu and Nairobi. The following physico-chemical parameters were investigated–pH, conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), anions (Cl-and PO43-), E. Coli and total coliforms. Water samples were collected from eight sampling sites in dry and wet seasons and analysed following standard methods. pH values varied from 6.3–9.1 in the dry season, and 6.9–9.5 in the wet season, conductivity from 244.0–5758.0 µS/cm in the dry season and 141.0–2004.0 µS/cm in the wet season, TDS from 113.0–5,824.0 mg/L in the dry season and 82.0–183.0 in the wet season, temperature from 24.1–25.2 C in the dry season and 25.3–25.8 C in the wet season, TSS from 0.00–0.01 mg/L in the dry season and 0.01–0.02 mg/L in the wet season, COD from 112.0–255.0 mg/L in the dry season and 90.6–154.0 mg/L in the wet season, DO varied from 2.8–4.2 mg/L in the dry season and 3.1–4.2 mg/L in the wet season, nitrates from 2.5–19.6 ppm, phosphates from 0.03–2.24 mg/L, while E. Coli varied from 13–4,300 CFU/ml. The values obtained for most parameters …

Haines S, Imana CA, Opondo M, Ouma G, Rayner S. Weather and Climate Knowledge for Water Security: Institutional Roles and Relationships in Turkana. Vol. 5.; 2017. AbstractREACH

Lodwar town in Turkana County faces water security issues relating to its strategic location, (semi-)arid climate, hydroclimatic variability, high poverty rates, low piped water service and a rapidly growing population challenges that are also relevant to many Kenyan and African small towns in fragile environments. Political, economic and environmental changes affecting Lodwar, including devolution, climate variation and change, demographic shifts, and the exploration of subterranean resources (both water and oil), make this an important time to examine the challenges and prospects for inclusive water security. This working paper discusses findings from a 2016 study of the institutions involved in water decision-making in Lodwar, focusing on their access to and use (or non-use) of weather and climate information. What organisations are involved in water decisions affecting Lodwar town; how do they negotiate information access, accountability and uncertainty; and what is at stake? Drawing on qualitative material collected during a 10-week study of institutional arrangements and decision-making, this paper explores
connections and mismatches between weather/climate knowledge and water decisions in Lodwar town and the wider Turkwel basin.

Haines SL, Imana CA, Opondo M, Ouma G, Rayner S. "Weather and climate knowledge for water security: Institutional roles and relationships in Turkana." Oxford University Research Archive. 2017;(5). Abstractora.ox.ac.uk

Lodwar town in Turkana County faces water security issues relating to its strategic location, (semi-)arid climate, hydroclimatic variability, high poverty rates, low piped water service and a rapidly growing population – challenges that are also relevant to many Kenyan and African small towns in fragile environments. Political, economic and environmental changes affecting Lodwar, including devolution, climate variation and change, demographic shifts, and the exploration of subterranean resources (both water and oil), make this an important time to examine the challenges and prospects for inclusive water security. This working paper discusses findings from a 2016 study of the institutions involved in water decision-making in Lodwar, focusing on their access to and use (or non-use) of weather and climate information. What organisations are involved in water decisions affecting Lodwar town; how do they negotiate information access, accountability and uncertainty; and what is at stake? Drawing on qualitative material collected during a 10-week study of institutional arrangements and decision-making, this paper explores connections and mismatches between weather/climate knowledge and water decisions in Lodwar town and the wider Turkwel basin.

Opanga Y, Opanga S, Mutisya R, Kaduka L. "Weight changes and associated factors among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy at a referral hospital in Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2017;6(3):134-141.
English M, Ayieko P, Nyamai R, Were F, Githanga D, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati. "What do we think we are doing? How might a clinical information network be promoting implementation of recommended paediatric care practices in Kenyan hospitals?" Health Res Policy Syst.. 2017;15(4). AbstractWebsite

Background

The creation of a clinical network was proposed as a means to promote implementation of a set of recommended clinical practices targeting inpatient paediatric care in Kenya. The rationale for selecting a network as a strategy has been previously described. Here, we aim to describe network activities actually conducted over its first 2.5 years, deconstruct its implementation into specific components and provide our ‘insider’ interpretation of how the network is functioning as an intervention.
Methods

We articulate key activities that together have constituted network processes over 2.5 years and then utilise a recently published typology of implementation components to give greater granularity to this description from the perspective of those delivering the intervention. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel we then suggest how the network may operate to achieve change and offer examples of change before making an effort to synthesise our understanding in the form of a realist context–mechanism–outcome configuration.
Results

We suggest our network is likely to comprise 22 from a total of 73 identifiable intervention components, of which 12 and 10 we consider major and minor components, respectively. At the policy level, we employed clinical guidelines, marketing and communication strategies with intervention characteristics operating through incentivisation, persuasion, education, enablement, modelling and environmental restructuring. These might influence behaviours by enhancing psychological capability, creating social opportunity and increasing motivation largely through a reflective pathway.
Conclusions

We previously proposed a clinical network as a solution to challenges implementing recommended practices in Kenyan hospitals based on our understanding of theory and context. Here, we report how we have enacted what was proposed and use a recent typology to deconstruct the intervention into its elements and articulate how we think the network may produce change. We offer a more generalised statement of our theory of change in a context–mechanism–outcome configuration. We hope this will complement a planned independent evaluation of ‘how things work’, will help others interpret results of change reported more formally in the future and encourage others to consider further examination of networks as means to scale up improvement practices in health in lower income countries.

Ogeng’o JA, Olabu BO, Mwachaka PM, Ominde BS, Inyimili MI. "What is the origin of the labyrinthine artery among black Kenyans?" Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2017;6(2):982-986. Abstractwhat_is_the_origin_of_the_labyrinthine_artery_among.pdfWebsite

Origin of labyrinthine artery is important because it influences the presentation of occlusion of anterior inferior
cerebellar and basilar arteries. It shows ethnic and geographical variation, but there is no data from black African
populations. This study, therefore examined the pattern of origin of labyrinthine artery in adult black Kenyans.
Three hundred and fourty six arteries from one hundred and seventy-three formalin fixed brains were examined
by dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya. Labyrinthine artery arose from
basilar artery in 260 (75.1%); as common trunk with anterior inferior cerebellar artery in 48 (13.9%) and from
the latter in 38 (11.0%) of cases. There was no side and gender difference in the pattern of origin. This implies
that majority of labyrinthine arteries arise from basilar artery, different from that in oriental, Indo-Asian and
Caucasian populations, in which it arises from the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Preoperative evaluation of
basilar artery branching is recommended.

Mutune, J.M. HWMCPRG. "What Rights and Benefits? The Implementation of Participatory Forest Management in Kenya: The Case of Eastern Mau Forest Reserve ." Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 2017; http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10549811.2017.1289105.
Ampt FH, Mudogo C  , P G, Lim MSC, Manguro G, Chersich M, W J, Temmerman M, Laini M, Comrie-Thomson L, Stoové M, Agius PA, Hellard M, L'Engle K, S L. "WHISPER or SHOUT study: protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial assessing mHealth sexual reproductive health and nutrition interventions among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya." BMJ Open. 2017;7(8):e017388.
Kinoti MW, Kihiko MK, Cooney TM. "Women empowerment through Government Loaned Entrepreneurship Teams (GLETs) in Kenya.". In: Research Handbook on Entrepreneurial Teams. Edward Elgar Publishing; 2017.
KIRUI G K, J. WANJARE, J. OOKO, OLUOCH M F. "WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF SUGAR CANE OUTGROWER COMPANIES IN KENYA." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research. 2017;2(4):ISSN: 2455-8834.
Odada E, Zalasiewicz J, Waters CN, Summerhayes CP, Wolfe AP, et al. "The Working Group on the Anthropocene: Summary of evidence and interim recommendations." Anthropocene. 2017;19:55-60. AbstractFull Text

Since 2009, the Working Group on the ‘Anthropocene’ (or, commonly, AWG for Anthropocene Working Group), has been critically analysing the case for formalization of this proposed but still informal geological time unit. The study to date has mainly involved establishing the overall nature of the Anthropocene as a potential chronostratigraphic/geochronologic unit, and exploring the stratigraphic proxies, including several that are novel in geology, that might be applied to its characterization and definition. A preliminary summary of evidence and interim recommendations was presented by the Working Group at the 35th International Geological Congress in Cape Town, South Africa, in August 2016, together with results of voting by members of the AWG indicating the current balance of opinion on major questions surrounding the Anthropocene. The majority opinion within the AWG holds the Anthropocene to be stratigraphically real, and recommends formalization at epoch/series rank based on a mid-20th century boundary. Work is proceeding towards a formal proposal based upon selection of an appropriate Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), as well as auxiliary stratotypes. Among the array of proxies that might be used as a primary marker, anthropogenic radionuclides associated with nuclear arms testing are the most promising; potential secondary markers include plastic, carbon isotope patterns and industrial fly ash. All these proxies have excellent global or near-global correlation potential in a wide variety of sedimentary bodies, both marine and non-marine.

2016
Kanyinga K. "We have more electoral problems than told." Daily Nation, May 8, 2016.
Kanyinga K. "Why protests are turning violent." Daily Nation, June 4, 2016.
Kanyinga K. "Why President Museveni beats the opposition." Daily Nation, February 14, 2016.
Gachara G, Symekher S, Otieno M, Magana J, Opot B, Bulimo W. "Whole genome characterization of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from Kenya during the 2009 pandemic." Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2016. AbstractWebsite
n/a
Kanyinga K. "Why elections are becoming dangerous affair." Daily Nation, May 22, 2016.
Kanyinga K. "Why elections fail integrity test." Daily Nation, July 30, 2016.
Fuente D, Gatua JG, Ikiara M, KABUBO-MARIARA J, Mwaura M, Whittington D. "Water and sanitation service delivery, pricing, and the poor: An empirical estimate of subsidy incidence in Nairobi, Kenya." Water Resources Research. 2016;(doi:10.1002/2015WR018375).
Mugambi JNK. Water as Necessity for Sustainable Livelihoods. Lagos, Nigeria; 2016.
Ngay'u M. What Are The Drivers Of Growth On The Rural - Urban Fringes? A Case Study Of The Nairobi - Kiambu Corridor.; 2016. Abstract

The development of the urban fringes is an inevitable consequence of urbanization given that as cities continue to grow, urban activities spread outwards in waves towards the rural areas. The rural-urban fringes of cities thus, are the exit points for residents relocating from major urban built areas, and entry points for rural migrants into the towns. Firstly, rural-urban fringes are determined by two major factors; that is, administrative boundaries and the differences in the intensity of built up areas and the farmland. Secondly, policy and legal guidelines exhibit inadequacies in handling the dynamism of the fringes and thus the failure by planning agencies in managing the impending growth. Thirdly, prospective land developers, businesses and communities fail to anticipate the results of development because they lack information on potential or approved development plans. This research paper applies urban development theories to explain the drivers of growth at the rural-urban fringes. In this regard, the study draws heavily from a paper by Alonso and Wingo’s explanations on the spatial structure in terms of how the market allocates space to users according to supply and demand; von Thunen’s agricultural land use model whose building blocks are economic rent, distance from the centre and individual decision making explains how the urban structure is influenced by the locational behavior of households in the city. A sample of 134 respondents, drawn from the five (5) neighborhoods located within the Nairobi-Kiambu development corridor informed the research. This was further informed by the rather heterogeneous nature of the neighborhoods in terms of physical characteristics, livelihoods and historical evolution. Observation, questionnaires, focus group discussions and interviews were the main methods applied in the collection of primary data. A synopsis of the findings reveals that, contrary to conclusions in studies carried out elsewhere in Africa that periphery development accommodates low income residents, the Nairobi-Kiambu corridor presents an area interspersed with low and high income households; households locate at the fringes so as to take advantage of relaxed regulations and therefore engage in land use practices that are allowable.

The purpose of the research paper is to inform readers and other researchers on the dynamics of fringe development of a city in an African country. The paper provides insights into causes and effects of rural land conversion into urban land uses. The research is based on a most vibrant development corridor of the city of Nairobi.

Key words: rural-urban fringe, drivers of growth, development corridor, land,
planning.

Wanjala G. "what extent do teachers' perception of quality affect their practices?" ResearchGate. 2016;(https://www.researchgate.net ).
Wanjala G. "What is Theoretical Framework in Vocational/Technical Education? ." ResearchGate. 2016;(https://www.researchgate.net ).
Lafort Y, Greener R, Roy A, Greener L, Ombidi W, Lessitala F, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Beksinska M, P G, Reza-Paul S, Smit JA, Chersich M, W D. "Where Do Female Sex Workers Seek HIV and Reproductive Health Care and What Motivates These Choices? A Survey in 4 Cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa. ." PLoS One. . 2016;11(8):e0160730. doi: 10.1371.peter_gichangi_differ_paper_2.pdf.pdf
Wanjala G. "Which Factor Influences Social Interaction? Answer provided on 30th March 2016 on ResearchGate. ." ResearchGate. 2016;(https://www.researchgate.net ).
Gachara G, Symekher S, Otieno M, Magana J, Opot B, Bulimo W. "Whole genome characterization of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from Kenya during the 2009 pandemic." Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2016:-. Abstractwhole_genome_of_pandemic_h1n1_paper.pdfWebsite

Abstract An influenza pandemic caused by a novel influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 spread worldwide in 2009 and is estimated to have caused between 151,700 and 575,400 deaths globally. While whole genome data on new virus enables a deeper insight in the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and drug sensitivities of the circulating viruses, there are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from African countries. We describe herein the full genome analysis of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated in Kenya between June 2009 and August 2010. A total of 40 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated during the pandemic were selected. The segments from each isolate were amplified and directly sequenced. The resulting sequences of individual gene segments were concatenated and used for subsequent analysis. These were used to infer phylogenetic relationships and also to reconstruct the time of most recent ancestor, time of introduction into the country, rates of substitution and to estimate a time-resolved phylogeny. The Kenyan complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 2 and clade 7 sequences but local clade 2 viruses did not circulate beyond the introductory foci while clade 7 viruses disseminated country wide. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated between April and June 2009, and distinct clusters circulated during the pandemic. The complete genome had an estimated rate of nucleotide substitution of 4.9 × 10− 3 substitutions/site/year and greater diversity in surface expressed proteins was observed. We show that two clades of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were introduced into Kenya from the \{UK\} and the pandemic was sustained as a result of importations. Several closely related but distinct clusters co-circulated locally during the peak pandemic phase but only one cluster dominated in the late phase of the pandemic suggesting that it possessed greater adaptability.

Wambua L, Peninah Nduku Wambua, Allan Maurice Ramogo, Domnic Mijele, Moses Yongo Otiende. "Wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever: perspectives for integrated control of a lymphoproliferative disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa." Archives of virology. 2016;161(1):1-10.
Dorothy Syallow Masiga, Mukhovi MS, mwaura F. "Wildlife Population Change in Africa from the Eyes of the Public-The Case of Mara Enoonkishu Conservancy in Southern Kenya." Natural Resources. 2016;7:434-444.
k litondo, Ntale F, Kato C. "Women Micro and Small Enterprises as a Platform for Human Development in Kenya: A Case of Kisumu City." Strategic Management Quarterly. 2016;3(4):23-37.women_micro.pdf
Isabella Epiu, Jossy Verel Bahe Tindimwebwa, Cephas Mijumbi, Francois Ndarugirire, Theogene Twagirumugabe, Lugaz ER, Chokwe TM. "Working towards safer surgery in Africa; a survey of utilization of the WHO safe surgical checklist at the main referral hospitals in East Africa ." BMC Anesthesiology . 2016;2016 (16)(BMC series – 2016(16):60).
2015
Iraki XN. "Who will defend Kenya's intellectual space?" The Standard, March 10, 2015.
Iraki XN. "Where America derives her greatness from." The Standard, July 25, 2023.
Iraki XN. "Why we should fear school-bus syndrome." The Standard, July 14, 2023.
Iraki XN. "Will new money ever win over old money?" The Standard, August 25, 2015.
Kanyinga K. "Why Kenya’s regional powerhouse status is under serious threat." Daily Nation, June 6, 2015.
Manyuira W. "When you stick out like a sore thumb at the office." Daily Nation, September 25, 2023:DN 2.
"When to operate in strabismus.". In: ollege of Ophthalmology of Eastern Central and Southern Africa (COECSA. Naivasha,Kenya; 2015.when_to_operate_in_strabismus-_njambi-_coecsa_2015.pdf
Marangu D, Kovacs S, Walson J, Bonhoeffer J, Ortiz JR, John-Stewart G, Horne DJ. "Wheeze as an adverse event in pediatric vaccine and drug randomized controlled trials: A systematic review." Vaccine. 2015;33(41):5333-41. Abstract

Wheeze is an important sign indicating a potentially severe adverse event in vaccine and drug trials, particularly in children. However, there are currently no consensus definitions of wheeze or associated respiratory compromise in randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Pope WH, Bowman CA, Russell DA, Jacobs-Sera D, Asai DJ, Cresawn SG, Jacobs WR, Hendrix RW, Lawrence JG, Hatfull GF. "Whole genome comparison of a large collection of mycobacteriophages reveals a continuum of phage genetic diversity." Elife. 2015;4:e06416. Abstract

The bacteriophage population is large, dynamic, ancient, and genetically diverse. Limited genomic information shows that phage genomes are mosaic, and the genetic architecture of phage populations remains ill-defined. To understand the population structure of phages infecting a single host strain, we isolated, sequenced, and compared 627 phages of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Their genetic diversity is considerable, and there are 28 distinct genomic types (clusters) with related nucleotide sequences. However, amino acid sequence comparisons show pervasive genomic mosaicism, and quantification of inter-cluster and intra-cluster relatedness reveals a continuum of genetic diversity, albeit with uneven representation of different phages. Furthermore, rarefaction analysis shows that the mycobacteriophage population is not closed, and there is a constant influx of genes from other sources. Phage isolation and analysis was performed by a large consortium of academic institutions, illustrating the substantial benefits of a disseminated, structured program involving large numbers of freshman undergraduates in scientific discovery.

Kanyinga K. "We are a country of contradictions; although we ail, we still trudge on." Daily Nation, September 12, 2015.
Kanyinga K. "We are a country of contradictions; although we ail, we still trudge on." Daily Nation, September 12, 2015.
Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Karulu GN, Mureithi SM, Wanjogu R. "Water Stress Tolerance of Six Rangeland Grasses in the Kenyan Semi-arid Rangelands." American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 2015;3(5):222-229.water_stress_tolerance_of_six_range_grasses_..._american_journal_of_agriculture_and_forestry.pdf
Koech Oscar Kipchirchir1 *, Ngugi1 KR, Mwangi1 MS, Njomo1 KG, Raphael2 W. "Water Stress Tolerance of Six Rangeland Grasses in the Kenyan Semi-arid Rangelands ." American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 2015;3: 222-229.
Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Karuku GN, Mureithi SM, Wanjogu R. "Water use efficiency of six rangeland grasses under varied soil moisture content levels in the arid Tana River County, Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2015;9(7):632-640.wue_koech_et_al_2015.pdf
Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Karuku GN, Mureithi SM, Wanjogu R. "Water use efficiency of six rangeland grasses under varied soil moisture content levels in the arid Tana River County, Kenya." African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2015;9(7):632-640.
Odhiambo JA, Norton U, Ashilenje D, Omondi EC, Norton JB. "Weed dynamics during transition to conservation agriculture in western Kenya maize production." PloS one. 2015;10(8):e0133976.
Martin SL, Muhomah T, Thuita FM, Bingham A, Mukuria AG. "What motivates maternal and child nutrition peer educators? Experiences of fathers and grandmothers in western Kenya. ." Social Science & Medicine. 2015;143:45-53.
Odada E, Zalasiewicz J, Waters CN, Williams M, Barnosky AD, et al. "When did the Anthropocene begin? A mid-twentieth century boundary level is stratigraphically optimal." Quaternary International. 2015;383:196-203. AbstractFull Text

We evaluate the boundary of the Anthropocene geological time interval as an epoch, since it is useful to have a consistent temporal definition for this increasingly used unit, whether the presently informal term is eventually formalized or not. Of the three main levels suggested – an ‘early Anthropocene’ level some thousands of years ago; the beginning of the Industrial Revolution at ∼1800 CE (Common Era); and the ‘Great Acceleration’ of the mid-twentieth century – current evidence suggests that the last of these has the most pronounced and globally synchronous signal. A boundary at this time need not have a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP or ‘golden spike’) but can be defined by a Global Standard Stratigraphic Age (GSSA), i.e. a point in time of the human calendar. We propose an appropriate boundary level here to be the time of the world's first nuclear bomb explosion, on July 16th 1945 at Alamogordo, New Mexico; additional bombs were detonated at the average rate of one every 9.6 days until 1988 with attendant worldwide fallout easily identifiable in the chemostratigraphic record. Hence, Anthropocene deposits would be those that may include the globally distributed primary artificial radionuclide signal, while also being recognized using a wide range of other stratigraphic criteria. This suggestion for the Holocene–Anthropocene boundary may ultimately be superseded, as the Anthropocene is only in its early phases, but it should remain practical and effective for use by at least the current generation of scientists.

Kabira WM. "Why hearing the Voices of Kenyan Women is Important for a More Just Future. ." The Conversation-Africa Pilot (https://theconversation.com/why-hearing-the-voices-of-kenyan-women-is-important-for-a-more-just-future-47638). 2015.
Mugambi JNK. "Witchcraft as Abuse of Religion." Sapientia. 2015.
Litondo, kato, Ntale. "Women Micro and Small Enterprises as a Platform for Human Development in Kenya: A Case of Kisumu City." Strategic Management Quarterly. 2015;vol.3( No. 4):23-37. Abstractwomen_micro_and_small_enterprises_as_a_platform_for_human_development_in.pdf

Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) are contributing a lot to the Kenyan national
development in general and human development in particular. However, it was observed
that many of the women MSEs in the informal sector of Kisumu city are performing
poorly. Nevertheless, limited use of strategic management practices has been cited as one
of the main causes of poor business performance. This study therefore investigated the
best strategic management practices of women MSEs and their effect on human
development. Best strategic management practices investigated were: closing time, locus
of planning, planning horizon, change in government regulations, and possession of a
business plan, stock, change in technology, creditors, sales, debtors, competitors, profits
and opening time. A cross sectional survey design was used and systematic random
sampling employed to collect data from the women MSEs in Kisumu city. Descriptive
statistics, correlation analysis and linear probability model were used to analyze the
collected data. The results revealed that most of the women in Kisumu city are literate
and have at least attained primary level of education. The study established that strategic
management practices of women MSEs have a significant effect on human development.
However, few women MSEs apply best strategic management practices. The study also
shows that the women who keep records of their business transactions and involve their
employees in their business planning process have high chances of improving their
livelihoods by buying land, building permanent houses, getting business premises, and
joining Savings and Credit Co-operative Societies (SACCOs). The study recommends
that the Kisumu County government, church leaders, civil society groups and NonGovernmental
Organizations should organize workshops and seminars to sensitize
women entrepreneurs on the best strategic management practices. Microfinance
institutions should be prevailed over to give loans at reasonable interest rates to
prospective women entrepreneurs.

"Michuki G". "Women’s Land Rights: Cultural Dynamism and Decentralized Land Administration in Kenya." Global Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences. 2015;4(3):131-140.
Okeng'o GO'a. "When the dark-sector components``talk''to each other." IAU General Assembly. 2015;22. Abstract
n/a
2014
Gathigi G. "Welcome to the age of crowd education." Standard, May 13, 2014.
Gathigi G. "Why sit-in exams are not the best assessment tools." Standard, April 17, 2014.
Mugambi JNK. "Water as basic Necessity for Life: A Theological Reflection.". In: Ecumenical Network Consultation. Geneva; 2014.
Kanyinga K. "Why Jubilee must embrace rule of law and employ governance." Daily Nation, December 28, 2014.
Mugambi JNK. Water as Basic Necessity for Life. Acton; 2014.
Katko TS, Hukka JJ, A MD, Nyangeri EN. "Water Services and Cooperation.". In: Global Water: Issues and Insights (P231-237). Austriani National University Press (ANU). http://press.anu.edu.au; 2014.
Mureithi. KOK; RKN; GK; RW;SM. "Water Use Efficiency of Six Range Grasses under Varied Soil Water Content in Kenyan Semi-arid Rangeland." Semi-arid Rangeland. 2014;2(7)(1):261-271.
Mwiandi. "We dressed wounds and touched hearts”: African pioneering nurses and dressers at the Church of Scotland missions in Kenya, 1898-1963.". In: Nairobi Journal of Historical Studies.; 2014. Abstract

The establishment of Christian missionary stations and the spread of Christianity, Western education and medical services were possible due to concerted efforts of the White missionaries and African teachers, evangelists and ‘dispensers’. However, role played by the pioneering hospital dressers and nurses in this endeavor has received little attention from scholars. The African nurses and dressers in the Church of Scotland Mission (CSM) now Presbyterian Church of East Africa, contributed a lot to the establishment and growth of not only the medical wing of CSM but to the expansion of education and Christianity in the their areas of jurisdiction during the colonial period. In order to complete the missionary story, the inclusion of the mission hospital nurses and dressers story to the existing literature is long overdue.. The pioneering nurses and nurses took advantage of their position to spread the Gospel, opened and taught in the school, were local opinion leaders beyond hospital confines and added voices to the socio-political and economic developments in their communities. Their diverse roles were beyond the hospital boundaries.

G.O.Oyoo, E. K. Genga. "When is the last time you looked for diff use infi ltrative lymphocytosis syndrome in HIV patients?" Afr J Rheumatol. 2014;2(2)(1):2-6. Abstractdiff_use_infi_ltrative.pdf

Background: Di use In ltrative
Lymphocytosis Syndrome (DILS) is
characterised by a persistent CD8+
lymphocytosis and lymphocytic
in ltration of various organs. The exact
prevalence isn’t known but some studies
have reported between 0.85 – 3%, and
appears to be more common in African
population. Patients with DILS tend to have higher CD4 cell counts and survive
longer than those patients without DILS.
Most patients present with bilateral
parotid gland enlargement and features
of the Sicca syndrome. Common sites
of extra glandular involvement are the
lungs being the most common site,
followed by peripheral neuropathy and
liver. With the high incidence of HIV in
our population it is likely that DILS is
under diagnosed probably due to our
ignorance of this disease. Awareness of
its various presentations may bring to
light undiscovered patients with DILS.
Objective: To review pathogenesis,
diagnostic approach and current trends
in the management of di use interstitial
lymphocytic syndrome.
Data source:  Literature review of
relevant published literature from both
Africa and the rest of the world.
Data synthesis: Pathologically, under
light microscopy, DILS resembles the
focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren’s
syndrome, although it tends to be less
destructive of the glandular architecture
than in Sjogren’s syndrome. Most of the
in ammatory in ltrate is composed
of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren’s
which are CD4+. Lymphoepithelial
cysts are frequently observed in the
parotid glands of patients with DILS.
The variation in CD8+ count in the
course of HIV disease is less understood.
The variation in CD8+ lymphocytes is
implicated in the pathogenesis of a
number of clinical manifestations in HIV
diseases including Di use In ltrative
Lymphocytic Syndrome (DILS) and
HIV associated CD8+ lymphocytosis
syndrome. Parotid gland enlargement
in a patient with HIV infection should prompt clinicians to suspect DILS. In addition, clinicians should be aware
that the pulmonary process associated
with DILS may mimic clinically and
radiographically the pneumonic process
caused by pneumocystis carinii. Other
manifestations of DILS to consider
include a severe form of peripheral
neuropathy; lymphocytic in ltration of
the liver, evident as hepatitis; myositis;
and lymphocytic interstitial nephritis.
Management of DILS is determined
by the severity of glandular and extra
glandular features. Data on therapeutic
trials are lacking although there are
isolated reports of good response to
antiretroviral and steroid therapy.
Conclusion: DILS, a subset of HIV
disease manifestation, may present as
parotid gland swellings. In general, an
HIV patient presenting with DILS has a
better prognosis than a patient with HIV
alone. With the high incidence of HIV
in our population it is likely that DILS is
under diagnosed probably due to our
ignorance of this disease. Awareness of
its various presentations may bring to
light undiscovered patients with DILS.
Clinicians should watch for the possible
transformation into B-cell lymphoma.
There is still paucity of data about
this disease from pathophysiology to
treatment to studies correlating the
plasma viral load with CD8+ lymphocyte
count in patients with HIV disease.

Genga EK, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF. "WHEN IS THE LAST TIME YOU LOOKED FOR DIFFUSE INFILTRATIVE LYMPHOCYTOSIS SYNDROME (DILS) IN HIV PATIENT?" African Journal of Rheumatology. 2014;2(2):3-6. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) is characterised by a persistent CD8+ lymphocytosis and lymphocytic infiltration of various organs. The exact prevalence isn’t known but some studies have reported between 0.85 – 3%, and appears to be more common in African population. Patients with DILS tend to have higher CD4cell counts and survive longer than those patients without DILS. Most patients present with bilateral parotid gland enlargement and features of the Sicca syndrome. Common sites of extra glandular involvement are the lungs being the most common site, followed by peripheral neuropathy and liver. With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS.
OBJECTIVE: To review pathogenesis, diagnostic approach and current trends in the management of Diffuse interstitial lymphocytic syndrome
DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world.
DATA SYNTHESIS:Pathologically, under light microscopy, DILS resembles the focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren’s syndrome, although it tends to be less destructive of the glandular architecture than in Sjogren’s syndrome. Most of the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren’s which are CD4+. Lymphoepithelial cysts are frequently observed in the parotid glands of patients with DILS. The variation in CD8 count in the course of HIV disease is less understood. The variation in CD8 lymphocytes is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical manifestations in HIV diseases including diffuse infiltrative lymphocytic syndrome (DILS) and HIV associated CD8+ lymphocytosis syndrome.Parotid gland enlargement in a patient with HIV infection should prompt clinicians to suspect DILS. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the pulmonary process associated with DILS may mimic clinically and radiographically the pneumonic process caused by Pneumocystis carinii. Other manifestations of DILS to consider include a severe form of peripheral neuropathy; lymphocytic infiltration of the liver, evident as hepatitis; myositis; and lymphocytic interstitial nephritis.Management of DILS is determined by the severity of glandular and extra glandularfeatures.Data on therapeutic trials are lacking although there are isolated reports of good response to antiretroviral and steroid therapy.

CONCLUSION: DILS, a subset of HIV disease manifestation, may present as parotid gland swellings. In general, an HIV patient presenting with DILS has a better prognosis than a patient with HIV alone.With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS. Clinicians should watch for the possible transformation into B-cell lymphoma. There is still paucity of data about this disease from pathophysiology to treatment to studies correlating the plasma viral load with CD8 lymphocyte count in patients with HIV disease.

Genga EK, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF. "WHEN IS THE LAST TIME YOU LOOKED FOR DIFFUSE INFILTRATIVE LYMPHOCYTOSIS SYNDROME (DILS) IN HIV PATIENT?" African Journal of Rheumatology. 2014;2(2):3-6. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) is characterised by a persistent CD8+ lymphocytosis and lymphocytic infiltration of various organs. The exact prevalence isn’t known but some studies have reported between 0.85 – 3%, and appears to be more common in African population. Patients with DILS tend to have higher CD4cell counts and survive longer than those patients without DILS. Most patients present with bilateral parotid gland enlargement and features of the Sicca syndrome. Common sites of extra glandular involvement are the lungs being the most common site, followed by peripheral neuropathy and liver. With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS.
OBJECTIVE: To review pathogenesis, diagnostic approach and current trends in the management of Diffuse interstitial lymphocytic syndrome
DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world.
DATA SYNTHESIS:Pathologically, under light microscopy, DILS resembles the focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren’s syndrome, although it tends to be less destructive of the glandular architecture than in Sjogren’s syndrome. Most of the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren’s which are CD4+. Lymphoepithelial cysts are frequently observed in the parotid glands of patients with DILS. The variation in CD8 count in the course of HIV disease is less understood. The variation in CD8 lymphocytes is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical manifestations in HIV diseases including diffuse infiltrative lymphocytic syndrome (DILS) and HIV associated CD8+ lymphocytosis syndrome.Parotid gland enlargement in a patient with HIV infection should prompt clinicians to suspect DILS. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the pulmonary process associated with DILS may mimic clinically and radiographically the pneumonic process caused by Pneumocystis carinii. Other manifestations of DILS to consider include a severe form of peripheral neuropathy; lymphocytic infiltration of the liver, evident as hepatitis; myositis; and lymphocytic interstitial nephritis.Management of DILS is determined by the severity of glandular and extra glandularfeatures.Data on therapeutic trials are lacking although there are isolated reports of good response to antiretroviral and steroid therapy.

CONCLUSION: DILS, a subset of HIV disease manifestation, may present as parotid gland swellings. In general, an HIV patient presenting with DILS has a better prognosis than a patient with HIV alone.With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS. Clinicians should watch for the possible transformation into B-cell lymphoma. There is still paucity of data about this disease from pathophysiology to treatment to studies correlating the plasma viral load with CD8 lymphocyte count in patients with HIV disease.

Genga EK, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF. "WHEN IS THE LAST TIME YOU LOOKED FOR DIFFUSE INFILTRATIVE LYMPHOCYTOSIS SYNDROME (DILS) IN HIV PATIENT?" African Journal of Rheumatology. 2014;2(2):3-6. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) is characterised by a persistent CD8+ lymphocytosis and lymphocytic infiltration of various organs. The exact prevalence isn’t known but some studies have reported between 0.85 – 3%, and appears to be more common in African population. Patients with DILS tend to have higher CD4cell counts and survive longer than those patients without DILS. Most patients present with bilateral parotid gland enlargement and features of the Sicca syndrome. Common sites of extra glandular involvement are the lungs being the most common site, followed by peripheral neuropathy and liver. With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS.
OBJECTIVE: To review pathogenesis, diagnostic approach and current trends in the management of Diffuse interstitial lymphocytic syndrome
DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world.
DATA SYNTHESIS:Pathologically, under light microscopy, DILS resembles the focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren’s syndrome, although it tends to be less destructive of the glandular architecture than in Sjogren’s syndrome. Most of the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren’s which are CD4+. Lymphoepithelial cysts are frequently observed in the parotid glands of patients with DILS. The variation in CD8 count in the course of HIV disease is less understood. The variation in CD8 lymphocytes is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical manifestations in HIV diseases including diffuse infiltrative lymphocytic syndrome (DILS) and HIV associated CD8+ lymphocytosis syndrome.Parotid gland enlargement in a patient with HIV infection should prompt clinicians to suspect DILS. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the pulmonary process associated with DILS may mimic clinically and radiographically the pneumonic process caused by Pneumocystis carinii. Other manifestations of DILS to consider include a severe form of peripheral neuropathy; lymphocytic infiltration of the liver, evident as hepatitis; myositis; and lymphocytic interstitial nephritis.Management of DILS is determined by the severity of glandular and extra glandularfeatures.Data on therapeutic trials are lacking although there are isolated reports of good response to antiretroviral and steroid therapy.

CONCLUSION: DILS, a subset of HIV disease manifestation, may present as parotid gland swellings. In general, an HIV patient presenting with DILS has a better prognosis than a patient with HIV alone.With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS. Clinicians should watch for the possible transformation into B-cell lymphoma. There is still paucity of data about this disease from pathophysiology to treatment to studies correlating the plasma viral load with CD8 lymphocyte count in patients with HIV disease.

Oredo J. "Why Online Shout Marketing Flops." MANAGEMENT September (2014).
Mukhwana, A. MichiraNyachae IM&MM(eds). "WizarazaSerikalina Utekelezajiwa Katiba Mpyaya Kenya.". In: Ufunzajiwa Kiswahili. Focus Publishers Ltd; 2014.
Njeri KM. Women and the Informal Economy in Urban Africa. London: Zed Publishers; 2014.
Mutuli SM, BIRIR JK, Maina DM, Kairu WM, Gatari MM. Welding Quality in Kenya: Application of Radiography. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2014. AbstractWebsite

In Kenya, welding services are extensively employed in both the formal and informal sectors. The needs continue to increase with increasing population, infrastructure and vehicle fleet, and economic development. Welding need is even currently very important in support of …

2013
Njeri KM. "Women must determine their own destiny." Daily Nation (2013).
Mutai BK, Muthama JN, Ng'ang'a JK, Ngaina, J. N. "Weather-dependence of Fine Particulate Matter Air Quality over Kenya.". In: The 11th Kenya Meteorological Society International Conference & 2nd save the Earth Expo on Meteorological Research, Application and Services. KMS Headquarters, Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

In developing countries, air pollution is increasing especially in urban centers. This has led to enhanced cases of cardio-respiratory diseases. According to World Health Organization, air pollution is estimated to cause about two million premature deaths worldwide annually. Additionally an estimated 800,000 premature deaths are caused each year by urban air pollution, a principle component of which is particulate matter. Studies have indicated that the levels and distribution of air pollution are highly dependent on the meteorology. This study was conducted based on this theory.
The study sought to examine the relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and selected meteorological variables over Kenya during the period 2001 to 2012. The data used included monthly rainfall, relative humidity, temperature and wind speed from synoptic stations and satellite air quality data from the period 2001 to 2012. Monthly Global 1o by 1o level-3 Aerosol Optical Depth data was obtained through Giovanni at 550 nm from MODIS-Terra Version. 5.1 and employed as PM2.5 proxy. Detailed monitoring of temporal and spatial patterns of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution and meteorological parameters was carried out using time series analysis and surfer software. Correlation, simple regression and multiple regression techniques were used to model PM2.5 concentrations and distribution as a function of meteorological conditions.
The results reveal that a correlation between PM2.5 and rainfall, temperature and wind speed yields reasonable negative relationship with the r-value ranging from -0.429 to -0.785. A positive relationship with RH is realized, r-value ranging between 0.081 and 0.269. Student t-test showed that the results were statistically significant at 95% confidence level. The variation of rainfall, relative humidity, wind speed and temperature on the average explains 47% of PM2.5 concentrations.
Keywords: Fine Particulate Matter, Pollution, Aerosol Optical Depth, Regression.

Porkhariyal GP, Moindi SK, Nzimbi BM. "W2-Recurrent LP-Sasakian Manifold." Universal Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences. 2013;3(2):119-128.w2-_recurrent_lp_-sasakian_manifold.pdf
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M and Kisumbi B.K: In-vitro colour changes of resin composites in beverages. Journal of Dental Research.". In: Journal of Dental Research. Taylor & Francis; 2013. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study dimensional time-dependence of resin/ionomer formulations from 5 min age to one month and to separate out the intrinsic setting shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion effects, by using non-aqueous and aqueous storage media, respectively. METHODS: Materials studied included: A: resin-, B: metal- and C: polyphosphonate-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs]; and controls of D: poly-acid modified composite [compomer]; and E: resin-composite. Separate specimen groups (n = 5) were stored in different storage-media: (i) silicone fluid; (ii) de-ionized water. Experiments were repeated at 23 and 37 degrees C. Volumetric changes of specimens (4 mm diameter x 6 mm height) were obtained via accurate mass measurements (to 10(-4) g), using Archimedes principle, with silicone or water also used as the Archimedean fluid. These measurements were made periodically over a 30 day period, post fabrication. RESULTS: In silicone at 23 degrees C, all materials underwent further gradual intrinsic shrinkage (after 5 min from mix). This was highly significant (p < 0.05) for the RM-GIC (A). At 37 degrees C, however the RM-GIC expanded, indicating that its cure is temperature-sensitive. In water, at 23 and 37 degrees C, the shrinkage was either partially offset (materials C, D, E), or replaced by appreciable expansions (materials A and B). Differences between RM-GIC (A) and MM-GIC (B) were significant (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: The deployment of dual storage media made an important contribution to the separate analysis of the volumetric changes due to the on-going setting chemistry in these systems and the time-dependent effects of an aqueous environment.

MUSEMBI NICODEMUSNDAWA. WATER RELATIONS AND NOVEL CYTOKININ-GIBBERELLIN SYNERGISM IN HARVESTED LISIANTHUS (EUSTOMA GRANDIFLORUM SHINN.) FLOWERS. KICC, Nairobi, Kenya: National Commission for Science Technology and Innovation; 2013.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Water Resources.". 2013. Abstract

Fresh water is one of the basic necessities without which human beings cannot survive since water is key to the sustainability of all kinds of lifeforms. Water has multiple uses namely; nutritional, domestic, recreational, navigational, waste disposal and ecological as it is a habitat for living and non-living organisms (biodiversity) etc. And, because it is indispensable to different sectors including manufacturing, agriculture, fisheries, wildlife survival, tourism and hydroelectric power generation, it is a vital factor of economic production. For many countries, most freshwater endowments encompass surface waters, groundwater, wetlands and glaciers.

Nyanchaga EN. "Water Services Management and Governance in Kenya: Past lessons for sustainable future.". In: International Water Association (IWA) . International Water Association (IWA), ISBN: 9781780400228 (Paperback), 9781780400730 (eBook). ; 2013.
Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Weather, Climate and Global Warming.". 2013. Abstract

In order to fully appreciate the contribution of geoinformatics in monitoring climate change caused by increase in temperature, a distinction between weather and climate, on one hand, and climate variability and climate change, on the other hand, is essential. Burroughs (2007) points out that weather is what is happening to the atmosphere at any given time (i.e., what one gets), whereas climate is what would be expected to occur at any given time of the year based on statistics built up over many years (i.e., what one expects).

Awange, Joseph L; Kyalo Kiema JB. "Web GIS and Mapping.". 2013. Abstract

The Internet and web-based technology has dramatically influenced the access to and dissemination of information among communities, locally and globally. This is no less true in the domain of geographic information systems (GIS) which have traditionally been constrained in terms of information access and the communities that use them. Geospatial data has traditionally been captured and managed within individual and separate organizational databases with access by a limited number of expert users. Now, with the integrated use of the web, not just geospatial data, but also the functionality of GIS can be accessed globally by citizens and non-experts.

Kahonge AM, Okello-Odongo W, Miriti E, Abade E. "Web Security and Log Management: An Application Centric Perspective." Journal of Information Security. 2013;4(3):138-43.
Keeffe J, Mwanthi M, Mesurier RL, Hillary R, Jefitha K. "What is the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in a survey to. estimate the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis?". 2013. Abstract

Introduction A survey to determine the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (Tl] requires a large sample size and the recommended participant age is 2': 15 years. This study sought to establish the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in Tl surveys. Methods Data from six previous surveys of adults 2': 15 years old were reanalysed. Results Reanalysis indicated that 69.6-93.3% (average 87.0%) of untreated n occurred in those aged 40+ years and 52.2-86.7% (average 73.1%) in those aged 50 + years (age 2':50 years is used in rapid assessment of avoidable blindness). Age 2':40 years was adopted in a Tl survey conducted in Turkana district because it allowed a smaller sample size than age 2':15 years. Conclusions The estimated backlog of untreated Tl in people aged 2':40 years old in Turkana was 5932 and the overall n backlog was likely to be 6358-8523. These findings cannot be generalised because all surveys were carried out in the same country.

Jefitha K, Hillary R, Mesurier RL, Mwanthi M, Keeffe J. "What is the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in a survey to. estimate the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis?". 2013. Abstract

Introduction A survey to determine the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (Tl] requires a large sample size and the recommended participant age is 2': 15 years. This study sought to establish the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in Tl surveys. Methods Data from six previous surveys of adults 2': 15 years old were reanalysed. Results Reanalysis indicated that 69.6-93.3% (average 87.0%) of untreated n occurred in those aged 40+ years and 52.2-86.7% (average 73.1%) in those aged 50 + years (age 2':50 years is used in rapid assessment of avoidable blindness). Age 2':40 years was adopted in a Tl survey conducted in Turkana district because it allowed a smaller sample size than age 2':15 years. Conclusions The estimated backlog of untreated Tl in people aged 2':40 years old in Turkana was 5932 and the overall n backlog was likely to be 6358-8523. These findings cannot be generalised because all surveys were carried out in the same country.

Musingi JK. "Who stole the Rain? The Case of Recent Severe Droughts in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2013;9, No. 05(Febrauary, 2013):29-40.
Oluoch-Kosura WA, Muriuki AW, Olubayo FM. "WHY PESTS AND DISEASES REGULATION SHOULD CONCERN MANKIND.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Nature, through balancing mechanisms, provides ecosystem services, comprising provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services for the survival of mankind (MEA, Ecosystems and human well-being: biodiversity synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, 2005). The balance and stability is usually upset by interventions or development activities, thereby threatening survival. Maintaining the balance guarantees sustainable development. Pests and disease regulation provides one component of managing the ecosystem. This chapter highlights why pest and disease regulation is important in contributing to sustainable agricultural production and development. Continued multidisciplinary research efforts are needed to enable understanding of the biological interactions between pests, beneficial and host communities on one hand and the interactions between and among cost-effective pest management methods, soil health, climate change, food security and human well-being on the other hand. The holistic approach in developing the understanding of the role of pest and disease regulation in the ecosystem will ultimately contribute to the development of appropriate strategies for the achievement of human well-being

Oluoch KW, Muriuki AW, Olubayo FM, Kilalo D. "WHY PESTS AND DISEASES REGULATION SHOULD CONCERN MANKIND.". 2013.
Githanga J, Axt J, Abdallah F, Axt M, Hansen E, et al. "Wilms Tumor Survival in Kenya." National institute of health. 2013;48(6)(2013 June ):1254-1262.wilms_paper_githanga__abdalla.pdf
Abdallah F, Axt J, Axt M, Githanga J, Hansen E, Lessan J, Li M, et al. "Wilms Tumor Survival in Kenya." National Institute of Health. 2013;48(6)(june 2013):1254-1262.
Axt J, Abdallah F AGHLLMMNMJEJ, Ndung'u J, Njuguna F NOPTUWO'NJAJLHN 3rd.AOKR. "Wilms tumor survival in Kenya." J Pediatr Surg.. 2013;48(6):1254-1262.
Gona G;, Kiai W;, Ngugi M. "Women in Public Space(s) in Kenya .". 2013.Website
Njeri KM. "Women Informal Garment Traders in Taveta Road’ Nairobi: From the Margins to the Centre." African Studies Review. 2013;56(03):147-164.
KAMAU W. "WOMEN JUDGES AND MAGISTRATES IN KENYA: CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES AND CONTRIBUTIONS.". In: GENDER AND JUDGING. LONDON: OXFORD HART PUBLISHERS; 2013. Abstractwinnie_kamau_abstract.docwinnie_kamau_abstract.docwinnie_kamau_abstract.pdf

Women in Kenya are under-represented in the legal sphere, both as professionals in legal practice and in the judiciary. In particular, they have been excluded or marginalized in the higher courts and are more concentrated in the subordinate courts which have lower status and less attractive terms and conditions. There are various structural and institutional barriers to women’s selection and upward mobility in the judiciary, which need to be addressed. It is laudable that despite women being a minority in Kenyan judiciary, they have made their marks in terms of articulation of gender issues within the judiciary, particularly through the Kenya Women Judges Association and the Jurisprudence of Equality Project. The Constitution of 2010 has introduced important reforms in the structure and organization in the judiciary and have already produced some positive results. However, there is need for more concrete policies and measures specifically targeted at ensuring gender equality and equity in the Kenyan courts.

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