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Book
Mbatiah M. Watoto wa Mwelusi.; 2018.
Njeri KM. Women and the Informal Economy in Urban Africa. London: Zed Publishers; 2014.
Mutuli SM, BIRIR JK, Maina DM, Kairu WM, Gatari MM. Welding Quality in Kenya: Application of Radiography. erepository.uonbi.ac.ke; 2014. AbstractWebsite

In Kenya, welding services are extensively employed in both the formal and informal sectors. The needs continue to increase with increasing population, infrastructure and vehicle fleet, and economic development. Welding need is even currently very important in support of …

Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen RP, Kronenberg HM. Williams {Textbook} of {Endocrinology}. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2011. Abstract

The latest edition of Williams Textbook of Endocrinology edited by Drs. Shlomo Melmed, Kenneth S. Polonsky, P. Reed Larsen, and Henry M. Kronenberg, helps you diagnose and treat your patients effectively with up-to-the minute, practical know-how on all endocrine system disorders. Comprehensive yet accessible, this extensively revised 12th Edition updates you on diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, thyroid disease, testicular disorders, and much more so you can provide your patients with the most successful treatments. Find scientific insight and clinical data interwoven in every chapter, reflecting advances in both areas of this constantly changing discipline, and presented in a truly accessible format. You’ll also access valuable contributions from a dynamic list of expert authors and nearly 2.000 full-color images to help you with every diagnosis. This title has everything you need to manage any and all the clinical endocrinopathies you may encounter. Rely on the one reference that integrates rapidly evolving basic and clinical science in a cohesive, user-friendly format, definitively addresses every topic in the field, and has remained a standard for more than half a century.Update your know-how and skills to diagnose and treat your patients most effectively with exhaustively revised content on diabetes, metabolic disease, thyroid cancer, fertility problems, testicular problems, weight issues, and much more. Apply reliable guidance on endocrine conditions of growing interest like hypothyroidism and testicular disorders, with dedicated new chapters that expound on the latest research findings. Overcome any clinical challenge with comprehensive and easy-to-use coverage of everything from hormone activity, diagnostic techniques, imaging modalities, and molecular genetics, to total care of the patient. Apply the latest practices with guidance from expert authors who contribute fresh perspectives on every topic.

Muchiri J. Women’s Autobiography: Voices from Independent Kenya. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag; 2010.
Schröder H. Word Order in Toposa: An Aspect of Multiple Feature-Checking. Arlington, US : SIL International and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics 142; 2008.
Cerda C;, Diafas J;, Barkmann J;, Mburu J;, Marggraf R. WTP or WTA, or Both? Experiences from Two Choice Experiments for Early Planning Stages. In: Meyerhoff J., N. Lienhoop and P. Elsasser, eds. State Preference Methods for Environmental Valuation: Applications from Germany and Austria.; 2007. AbstractWebsite

The optimised design of project alternatives is a main challenge for the early stage of any real-world planning process. For participatory conservation planning procedures as required, e.g., by the CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) Ecosystem Approach, it is essential to involve concerned stakeholders – and their values – as early as possible. We argue that the utilisation of choice experiments offers an attractive solution to the problem of an optimised design of project alternatives. In particular, we report experiences from two case studies employing choice experiments to generate policy advice. In both case studies, the necessity of dealing with the ambiguities of participatory planning processes led to the adoption of a payment vehicle format that includes WTP and WTA attribute levels. Like several other studies, we found evidence of WTP/WTA disparities that argue for reporting both values to stakeholders and administrators.

Nganga W. Word Sense Disambiguation of Swahili: Extending Swahili Language Technology with Machine Learning. Helsinki University Press; 2005. Abstract

This thesis addresses the problem of word sense disambiguation within the context of Swahili-English machine translation. In this setup, the goal of disambiguation is to choose the correct translation of an ambiguous Swahili noun in context. A corpus based approach to disambiguation is taken, where machine learning techniques are applied to a corpus of Swahili, to acquire disambiguation information automatically. In particular, the Self-Organizing Map algorithm is used to obtain a semantic categorization of Swahili nouns from data. The resulting classes form the basis of a class-based solution, where disambiguation is recast as a classification problem. The thesis exploits these semantic classes to automatically obtain annotated training data, addressing a key problem facing supervised word sense disambiguation. The semantic and linguistic characteristics of these classes are modelled as Bayesian belief networks, using the Bayesian Modelling Toolbox. Disambiguation is achieved via probabilistic inferencing.The thesisdevelops a disambiguation solution which does not make extensive resource requirements, but rather capitalizes on freely-available lexical and computational resources for English as a source of additional disambiguation information. A semantic tagger for Swahili is created by altering the configuration of the Bayesian classifiers. The disambiguation solution is tested on a subset of unambiguous nouns and a manually created gold standard of sixteen ambiguous nouns, using standard performance evaluation metrics.

Oluoch-Kosura, W; Karugia JT, W; Karugia JT. Why the early promise for rapid increases in maize productivity in Kenya was not sustained: lessons for sustainable investment in agriculture.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

The influence of climatic, policy and institutional-related (infrastructure, technology, institutional support) factors on the decline in maize output and yields and the subsequent deepening and broadening of food poverty in Kenya is discussed. This chapter provides lessons to enable a re-focusing of attention on ways to achieve sustainable investment in agriculture in order to improve the livelihoods of the majority of households in Kenya.

Oluoch-Kosura W;, Karugia JT. Why the early promise for rapid increases in maize productivity in Kenya was not sustained: lessons for sustainable investment in agriculture.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

The influence of climatic, policy and institutional-related (infrastructure, technology, institutional support) factors on the decline in maize output and yields and the subsequent deepening and broadening of food poverty in Kenya is discussed. This chapter provides lessons to enable a re-focusing of attention on ways to achieve sustainable investment in agriculture in order to improve the livelihoods of the majority of households in Kenya.

MBATIAH PMWENDA. Wimbo Mpya. NAIROBI: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2004.
Wangu wa Makeri: A Biography . Nairobi.: East African Education Publishers, ; 2002.
Alila PO, Mitullah WV, Kamau AW. Women street vendors.; 2002.Website
Mitullah WV, Alila PO, Kamau AW. Women street vendors.; 2002.Website
Alila PO, Mitullah WV, Kamau AW. Women street vendors. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.
Kolb, Helga H, Fernandez, Eduardo E, Nelson, Ralph R (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. Abstract

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Kolb, Helga, Fernandez, Eduardo, Nelson, Ralph (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Kolb, Helga, Fernandez, Eduardo, Nelson, Ralph (Eds.). Webvision: {The} {Organization} of the {Retina} and {Visual} {System}. Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center; 1995. AbstractWebsite

Understanding the organization of the vertebrate retina has been the goal of many talented visual scientists during the past 100 years. With Cajal's (1892) anatomic descriptions of the cell types that constitute the retina in a number of vertebrate species, and with an early understanding of the role of visual purple in photochemistry in combination with psychophysical studies of adaptation and color vision, we had in the sixties the rudiments of an understanding of how the retina might be organized and functioning. To go further, though, we were beginning to need detailed information of neural circuits that underlie these functions. It was the advent of electron microscopy, microelectrode recording techniques, and pharmacology that then allowed us an era of very rapid advancement. The purpose of this Electronic Tutorial is to summarize these recent advances and to describe our present understanding, based primarily on anatomic investigations, of the Neural Organization of the Mammalian Retina. As time goes on we have been inviting other authors to write chapters on their speciality concerning the retina or other visual pathways. A great addition has been a section on Psychophysics of Vision which we hope will be of general information to all interested in learning the basics of visual perception.

Gichuki CM, Gichuki NN. Wetland birds of Kenya.; 1992.Wetland birds of Kenya
J B, C N, P M. Women Professionals in the Agricultural Sector: Kenya Case Study. Arkansas: Winrock International; 1992.
Khasiani SA, Sunny G. Women's role in the supply of fuelwood.; 1992.Website
Wamitila KW. Wingu la kupita.; 1990.Website
Book Chapter
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Spencer Hensen, and Romanus Opiyo: `Impact of Lake Victoria Fish Exports on Livelihoods of Fishers, and Traders.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. Abstract

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

Kinoti MW, Kihiko MK, Cooney TM. "Women empowerment through Government Loaned Entrepreneurship Teams (GLETs) in Kenya.". In: Research Handbook on Entrepreneurial Teams. Edward Elgar Publishing; 2017.
Katko TS, Hukka JJ, A MD, Nyangeri EN. "Water Services and Cooperation.". In: Global Water: Issues and Insights (P231-237). Austriani National University Press (ANU). http://press.anu.edu.au; 2014.
Mukhwana, A. MichiraNyachae IM&MM(eds). "WizarazaSerikalina Utekelezajiwa Katiba Mpyaya Kenya.". In: Ufunzajiwa Kiswahili. Focus Publishers Ltd; 2014.
Nyanchaga EN. "Water Services Management and Governance in Kenya: Past lessons for sustainable future.". In: International Water Association (IWA) . International Water Association (IWA), ISBN: 9781780400228 (Paperback), 9781780400730 (eBook). ; 2013.
KAMAU W. "WOMEN JUDGES AND MAGISTRATES IN KENYA: CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES AND CONTRIBUTIONS.". In: GENDER AND JUDGING. LONDON: OXFORD HART PUBLISHERS; 2013. Abstractwinnie_kamau_abstract.docwinnie_kamau_abstract.docwinnie_kamau_abstract.pdf

Women in Kenya are under-represented in the legal sphere, both as professionals in legal practice and in the judiciary. In particular, they have been excluded or marginalized in the higher courts and are more concentrated in the subordinate courts which have lower status and less attractive terms and conditions. There are various structural and institutional barriers to women’s selection and upward mobility in the judiciary, which need to be addressed. It is laudable that despite women being a minority in Kenyan judiciary, they have made their marks in terms of articulation of gender issues within the judiciary, particularly through the Kenya Women Judges Association and the Jurisprudence of Equality Project. The Constitution of 2010 has introduced important reforms in the structure and organization in the judiciary and have already produced some positive results. However, there is need for more concrete policies and measures specifically targeted at ensuring gender equality and equity in the Kenyan courts.

Kithiia. "Water Quality Degradation Trends in Kenya over the Last Decade .". In: Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment. Rijeka: Intech Publishers; 2012.
Daniel, and Olungah A. "Women’s Indigenous Knowledge in Household Food Security.". In: The Case of Mulili Sub-location, Eastern Keny. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
Muleka J. "What Does a Woman Want?". In: Man of House and other New Short Stories from Kenya. Nottingham: Critical, Cultural and Communications Press - Nottingham; 2011.
Nyasani PJ. "Why is the Pace of Development so Slow.". In: Rethinking Intergral Development in Africa. nairobi: Consolata Institute of Philosophy Press; 2011.
Odhiambo T. "Wild Men’ & Emergent Masculinities in Postcolonial Kenyan Popular Fiction.". In: Men in African Film and Fiction. London: James Currey; 2011.
Kanyinga K, Long J, Ndii D. "Was it Rigged? A Forensic Analysis of Vote Returns in Kenya's 2007 Elections.". In: Tensions and Reversals in Democratic Transitions: The Kenya 2007 General Elections. Nairobi: Society for International Development and Institute for Development Studies (IDS), University of Nairobi; 2010.
Odhiambo T. "Ways of Being and Not Being in Nairobi.". In: Learning from Nairobi Mobility. Cologne: KISDedition Cologne; 2010.
Wandiga SO, Madadi VO. "Water quality issues in East Africa.". In: Handbook of Water purity and Quality. USA: 1st Ed. Satinder Ahuja. Academic Press Elsevier. Int. ISBN. 978-01-12-374192-9. Pg. 39-65; 2009. Abstract

The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.

Muthoni M, Levine T, and Asaah AH. "Who’s Afraid of Female Sexuality.". In: Empathy and Rage: Female genital Mutilation in African Literature. Ayebia Clark. UK; 2009.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With McCormick, Dorothy: `Global Markets and Local Responses: The Changing Institutions in the Lake Victoria Fish Cluster.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2007. Abstract

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Rosemary Atieno and Benjamin Okech `Linkages and Business Competition in Kenya.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2007. Abstract

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

Gachihi M. "Women and Mau.". In: S.M Shamsul, Rethinking Mau Mau in Colonial Kenya. Palgrave, Macmillan; 2007.
Owiti L. "Women and the Politics of Transition.". In: Governance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2007.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "When Bullets begin to follower: the security question and the constitution in Kenya." Nairobi: Claripress Ltd ; 2005.
DK M, Bigsten A, Kimuyu P. "Wage Determination in the Kenyan Manufacturing Sector.". In: Structure and Performance of Manufacturing in Kenya. McMillan; 2002.
D.K K. "Water Quality Analysis."; 2001.
Brklacich, M. and Oucho JO. "Water, Health and Well-Being.". In: ibid.; 2001.
John HPH. "Walicheka Kicheko.". In: Mwenda Wazimu na Hadithi Nyingine. Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2000.
"Women, Decision Making and Poverty.". In: Poverty Revised - Analysis and Strategies Towards Poverty Eradication in Kenya. Nairobi: Ruaraka Printing Press; 1998. Abstract

Poverty among women has been linked to r various social, cultural, economic, religious and political factors. This paper presents a sociocultural analysis of structural and psychological forces within social fabric that characterize the manifestation of male chauvinism against any affIrmative action to safeguard the interests of women. The focus is on the relationship between poverty and male violence as directed to women, in the process of which the women are treated and become junior partners in decision-making with regard to resource use, distribution, conservation and consolidation, within and outside the family.
The structural linkages between poverty and male violence against women arise from the fact that the overall impact of such violence is differential access to rights and opportunities by both sexes, denying women the various forms of autonomy in decision making and pursuit of many opportunities in order to compete at par with their male counterparts, especially within the context of income generation, property procurement and management. Under more equitable circumstances, women should own the products
of their labor, rather than having all the ownership rights vested in men, thereby depriving women of their rights in both the ownership and disposal of what they should otherwise be recognized as the major producers and rightful custodians. The empirical data from which the illustrations in this paper are drawn is based on a study of violence against women in Nairobi and Kajiado districts of Kenya By defmition, violence against women has been taken to include all gender-biased violence that
results or is likely to result in physical, psychological and other forms of harm or suffering to women. Violence against women can occur at the family, community and the wider
societal levels. The family-based violence covers physical, sexual and psychological violence within the family and specifically includes incest (against women and children), sexual abuse of female children in the household, marital rape, spousal violence and battering of women. At the community and wider societal levels, violence against women includes rape of women, rape of female children, various forms of sexual harassment, forced prostitution, women battering and denial of various social and economic rights.

Frye DM, Ilnicki RD, Michieka RW. "Weed control in southern greens."; 1978.
Conference Paper
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Mary Kinyanjui and Dorothy McCormick: `Network Brokers and Small Scale Production: The Case of Kariobangi Weighing Scales Cluster.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. Abstract

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Walter Odhiambo: `Policies and Regulations for Business Development in Kenya.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
Ndungu MN. "Wanawake, Utamaduni na Katiba’.". In: BAWAKI International Conference on Language, Culture and Constitution . Catholic University of Eastern Africa; Submitted.
OLIECH JS. "WATER,HUMAN HEALTH/WELLNESS.". In: the fifth regional workshop on water is life. PROF.J.S.OLIECH; Submitted. Abstract

Scientific paper presented during the FIFTH ANNUAL REGIONAL WORKSHOP  ON THE THEME;`` WATER IS LIFE``. Abstract: The paper illustrates the health status of water in the human body in health and in disease situations and how body water content depends on many variables including age, sex, fat content,leaness of muscles ,the internal environment of body cells and the external envronmental air and  temperature.

KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M and Kisumbi B.K: In-vitro colour changes of resin composites in beverages. Journal of Dental Research.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
W DRMAINASUSAN, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W and Kisumbi B.K. Incidence of the Second Canal the Upper Second Premolar. Journal of Dental Research 13th Annual Scientific Conference of the East and Southern Division of IADR.". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W., Kisumbi B.K. : Incidence of the second Canal in the upper Second Premolar. (Journal of Dental Research).". In: Journal of Dental Research. Taylor & Francis; Submitted. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study dimensional time-dependence of resin/ionomer formulations from 5 min age to one month and to separate out the intrinsic setting shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion effects, by using non-aqueous and aqueous storage media, respectively. METHODS: Materials studied included: A: resin-, B: metal- and C: polyphosphonate-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs]; and controls of D: poly-acid modified composite [compomer]; and E: resin-composite. Separate specimen groups (n = 5) were stored in different storage-media: (i) silicone fluid; (ii) de-ionized water. Experiments were repeated at 23 and 37 degrees C. Volumetric changes of specimens (4 mm diameter x 6 mm height) were obtained via accurate mass measurements (to 10(-4) g), using Archimedes principle, with silicone or water also used as the Archimedean fluid. These measurements were made periodically over a 30 day period, post fabrication. RESULTS: In silicone at 23 degrees C, all materials underwent further gradual intrinsic shrinkage (after 5 min from mix). This was highly significant (p < 0.05) for the RM-GIC (A). At 37 degrees C, however the RM-GIC expanded, indicating that its cure is temperature-sensitive. In water, at 23 and 37 degrees C, the shrinkage was either partially offset (materials C, D, E), or replaced by appreciable expansions (materials A and B). Differences between RM-GIC (A) and MM-GIC (B) were significant (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: The deployment of dual storage media made an important contribution to the separate analysis of the volumetric changes due to the on-going setting chemistry in these systems and the time-dependent effects of an aqueous environment.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M., Maina S.W., Kisumbi B.K. : Incidence of the second Canal in the upper Second Premolar. (Journal of Dental Research).". In: Journal of Dental Research. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
M DRININDAJOSEPH, A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "Wet periods along the East Africa Coast and the extreme wet spell event of October 1997.". In: A Journal in Meteorology and Related Sciences. Kenya Met Soc; Submitted.
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Wilson G. Kamundia, Paul M. Shiundu, and John M. Onyari, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Wilson G. Kamundia, Paul M. Shiundu, and John M. Onyari, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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McGuire E, Ambuko J, Jarman A, Mitcham E. "Who Is Fortunate Enough to Eat All Their Fruits and Veggies?". In: 2020 ASHS Annual Conference. ASHS; 2020. Abstract
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Mugambi JNK. "Why Water: Lenten Meditation for 2017 World Water Day.". In: ”, Ecumenical Water Network. Geneva; 2017.
"When to operate in strabismus.". In: ollege of Ophthalmology of Eastern Central and Southern Africa (COECSA. Naivasha,Kenya; 2015.when_to_operate_in_strabismus-_njambi-_coecsa_2015.pdf
Mugambi JNK. "Water as basic Necessity for Life: A Theological Reflection.". In: Ecumenical Network Consultation. Geneva; 2014.
Mwiandi. "We dressed wounds and touched hearts”: African pioneering nurses and dressers at the Church of Scotland missions in Kenya, 1898-1963.". In: Nairobi Journal of Historical Studies.; 2014. Abstract

The establishment of Christian missionary stations and the spread of Christianity, Western education and medical services were possible due to concerted efforts of the White missionaries and African teachers, evangelists and ‘dispensers’. However, role played by the pioneering hospital dressers and nurses in this endeavor has received little attention from scholars. The African nurses and dressers in the Church of Scotland Mission (CSM) now Presbyterian Church of East Africa, contributed a lot to the establishment and growth of not only the medical wing of CSM but to the expansion of education and Christianity in the their areas of jurisdiction during the colonial period. In order to complete the missionary story, the inclusion of the mission hospital nurses and dressers story to the existing literature is long overdue.. The pioneering nurses and nurses took advantage of their position to spread the Gospel, opened and taught in the school, were local opinion leaders beyond hospital confines and added voices to the socio-political and economic developments in their communities. Their diverse roles were beyond the hospital boundaries.

Mutai BK, Muthama JN, Ng'ang'a JK, Ngaina, J. N. "Weather-dependence of Fine Particulate Matter Air Quality over Kenya.". In: The 11th Kenya Meteorological Society International Conference & 2nd save the Earth Expo on Meteorological Research, Application and Services. KMS Headquarters, Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

In developing countries, air pollution is increasing especially in urban centers. This has led to enhanced cases of cardio-respiratory diseases. According to World Health Organization, air pollution is estimated to cause about two million premature deaths worldwide annually. Additionally an estimated 800,000 premature deaths are caused each year by urban air pollution, a principle component of which is particulate matter. Studies have indicated that the levels and distribution of air pollution are highly dependent on the meteorology. This study was conducted based on this theory.
The study sought to examine the relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and selected meteorological variables over Kenya during the period 2001 to 2012. The data used included monthly rainfall, relative humidity, temperature and wind speed from synoptic stations and satellite air quality data from the period 2001 to 2012. Monthly Global 1o by 1o level-3 Aerosol Optical Depth data was obtained through Giovanni at 550 nm from MODIS-Terra Version. 5.1 and employed as PM2.5 proxy. Detailed monitoring of temporal and spatial patterns of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution and meteorological parameters was carried out using time series analysis and surfer software. Correlation, simple regression and multiple regression techniques were used to model PM2.5 concentrations and distribution as a function of meteorological conditions.
The results reveal that a correlation between PM2.5 and rainfall, temperature and wind speed yields reasonable negative relationship with the r-value ranging from -0.429 to -0.785. A positive relationship with RH is realized, r-value ranging between 0.081 and 0.269. Student t-test showed that the results were statistically significant at 95% confidence level. The variation of rainfall, relative humidity, wind speed and temperature on the average explains 47% of PM2.5 concentrations.
Keywords: Fine Particulate Matter, Pollution, Aerosol Optical Depth, Regression.

KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J.M and Kisumbi B.K: In-vitro colour changes of resin composites in beverages. Journal of Dental Research.". In: Journal of Dental Research. Taylor & Francis; 2013. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study dimensional time-dependence of resin/ionomer formulations from 5 min age to one month and to separate out the intrinsic setting shrinkage and hygroscopic expansion effects, by using non-aqueous and aqueous storage media, respectively. METHODS: Materials studied included: A: resin-, B: metal- and C: polyphosphonate-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs]; and controls of D: poly-acid modified composite [compomer]; and E: resin-composite. Separate specimen groups (n = 5) were stored in different storage-media: (i) silicone fluid; (ii) de-ionized water. Experiments were repeated at 23 and 37 degrees C. Volumetric changes of specimens (4 mm diameter x 6 mm height) were obtained via accurate mass measurements (to 10(-4) g), using Archimedes principle, with silicone or water also used as the Archimedean fluid. These measurements were made periodically over a 30 day period, post fabrication. RESULTS: In silicone at 23 degrees C, all materials underwent further gradual intrinsic shrinkage (after 5 min from mix). This was highly significant (p < 0.05) for the RM-GIC (A). At 37 degrees C, however the RM-GIC expanded, indicating that its cure is temperature-sensitive. In water, at 23 and 37 degrees C, the shrinkage was either partially offset (materials C, D, E), or replaced by appreciable expansions (materials A and B). Differences between RM-GIC (A) and MM-GIC (B) were significant (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: The deployment of dual storage media made an important contribution to the separate analysis of the volumetric changes due to the on-going setting chemistry in these systems and the time-dependent effects of an aqueous environment.

ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder (zero-grazing) production systems in Nairobi and its environs (2012). J W Aleri, J Nguhiu-Mwangi, E M Mogoa and C M Mulei.". In: Livestock research for rural development 24 (9) 2012. Livestock research for rural development 24 (9) 2012; 2012. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Graham MD. "A Wildlife Conservation Strategy for Laikipia County." by: Laikipia Wildlife Forum, Box 764, Nanyuki, Kenya; 2012. Abstract
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WAMBUI JANE. "Women and development in Kenya." Project paper for Achievers International; 2012. Abstract
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Maingi N. "Worm control in grazing livestock and anthelmintic resistance.". In: Continuing Professional Development (CPD) workshop on Trends in Veterinary Parasitology . Na1robi, Kenya; 2011.
Mwabu G, Bold T, Kimenyi M, Sandefur J. "Why Did Abolishing Fees Not Increase Public School Enrollment in Kenya?". In: Center for Global Development, Washington, D.C., Working Paper No. 271.; 2011.
APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "Wanyama P. Juma, Hoseah M. Akala, Fredrick L. Eyase, Lois L. Muiva, Matthias Heydenreich, Faith A. Okalebo, Martin Peter, Douglas Walsh, Mabel Imbuga, Abiy Yenesew. Terpurinflavone: an antiplasmodial flavone from the stem of Tephrosia purpurea. Phytochemi.". In: Manuscript number PHYTOL-D-00140R1. Phytochemistry Letters; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} 1. Introduction Tephrosia Pers (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae) is a large tropical and sub-tropical genus estimated to contain about three hundred species (Waterman and Khalid, 1980; Abou-Douh et al., 2005) out of which thirty species are found in Kenya (Tarus et al., 2002). The extracts of some Tephrosia species have shown various biological activities including antiplasmodial (Muiva et al., 2009), antibacterial (Abou-Douh et al., 2005) anticancer (Santram et al., 2006) and insecticidal activities (Delfel et al., 1970). The taxon T. purpurea is among the most widely used Tephrosia species in traditional medicine (Damre et al., 2003). Various biological activities including antibacterial (Hegazy et al., 2009; Chinniah et al., 2009), antidiabetic and antioxidant (Pavana et al., 2009), immunomodulatory (Damre et al., 2003), anti-inflammatory (Damre et al., 2003) and cancer chemopreventive activities (Chang et al., 2000) have been reported for extracts and pure compounds from this plant. T. purpurea. is rich in prenylated flavonoids including flavones (Hegazy et al., 2009; Pelter et al., 1981), flavanones (Pelter et al., 1981; Gupta et al., 1980), chalcones (Chang et al., 2000; Pelter et al., 1981) and rotenoids (Ahmad et al., 1999). In the search for compounds with antiplasmodial activity from Kenyan plants, the stem of T. purpurea has been investigated. This report is on the isolation and characterization of a new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone (1), with antiplasmodial activity along with three known flavonoids. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} The stem extract of Tephrosia purpurea showed antiplasmodial activity against the D6 (chloroquinesensitive) and W2 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 10.47  2.22 mg/ml and 12.06 2.54 mg/ml, respectively. A new prenylated flavone, named terpurinflavone, along with the known compounds lanceolatin A, -semiglabrin and lanceolatin B have been isolated from this extract. The new compound, terpurinflavone, showed the highest antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 3.12  0.28 mM (D6) and 6.26  2.66 mM (W2). The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "Welfare of Dairy Cattle in the Smallholder (Zero-grazing) Production Systems of Nairobi and its Environs (2011). Aleri, J.W.". In: Faculty of veterinary medicine 8th Biennal scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual Scientific conference 25 . University of Nairobi Thesis; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "What is the appropriate age range of individuals to be included in a survey to estimate the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis?". In: Book Chapter in Medicine and Environment Text Book 2009). Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 2011.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Where will this illness take me? Reactions to HIV Diagnosis From Women Living with HIV in Kenya. Authors : Peninnah M. Kako; Patricia E. Stevens, (University of Wisconsin .". In: Health Care For Women International. Health Care For Women International; 2011. Abstract

The purpose of the study was to develop an in-depth  understanding of reactions of 40 urban and rural HIV-infected Kenyan women to HIV diagnosis. We employed narrative inquiry principles to guide this qualitative cross-sectional study. We conducted individual in-depth interviews using open- ended questions in April and May 2006. In this article we focus on women

RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""White Collar Crime".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 2011. Abstract
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Nzomo M. "Women."; 2011. Abstract
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Wafula SW, Ikamari L, K’Oyug B. "What accounts for the upturn in infant mortality in Kenya during the 1989-2003 period?". In: Quertelet Seminar on Stalls, Resistances and Reversals in Demographic Transitions, Research Centre in Population and Societies. Universite’, Catholic De Louvain,Belgium; 2010.
Owiti L. "Women and Culture: Harmful Cultural Practices.". In: ACK Ladies Conference. Nairobi; 2010.
IRAKI WN. "Working Paper 1: Economics of (and) ideas: Using patents as a measure of National Competitiveness.". In: Journal of Environmental Geology (38) 3, pp 259-264. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2010. Abstract

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O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Wambui P.N., Opiyo E.T.O. and Rodrigues A.J. (Eds) Kizza J.M., Lynch K., Nath R.., & Aisbett J. (2010). License Plate Recognition System: Localization for Kenya.". In: In Strengthening the Role of ICT in Development, 2010. Vol VI pp355-366, ISBN 978-9970-25- 015-8. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2010.
WERE DRWANJALAGENEVIEVE, WERE DRWANJALAGENEVIEVE. "Wanjala G., .". In: The Fountain : Journal of Educational Research Vol. 4 Issue 2,2010 Pp. 10-35, ISSN 2079 - 3383. School of Education, UoN; 2010. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Wausi, A.N. and Waema, T.M. (2010). Implementing IS in developing country context: towards creating a favourable implementation context.". In: International Journal of Computing and ICT Research (IJCIR), 4(2), 12-26. Pambazuka Press; 2010. Abstract
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OGUTU MRJOSEPHONYANGO. "The way forward for e-schools project in Kenyan secondary schools (Lessons learnt from the Nepad e-schools project in Kenya).". In: 1st International Conference on Management Digest, KIM, Vol II, Article 40. Ogutu J. O; 2010. Abstract
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become common place entities in all aspects of life. Over the past twenty years the use of ICT has fundamentally changed the practices and procedures of nearly all forms of endeavour within business and governance. Within education, ICT has begun to have a presence but the impact has not been as extensive as in other fields both globally and locally within Africa as well as in Kenya. In this study, the researcher sought to find out how the use of ICT in education lends itself to more student-centered learning settings. The study seeks to determine the various impacts of ICT on contemporary secondary education in Kenya as well as potential challenges. The study was conducted through survey method. The researcher sought permission from the Ministry of Education in Kenya to collect research data from the sampled schools since all of them were public secondary schools. The researcher constructed questionnaires which were used to collect data from various respondents in the sampled Nepad e-schools in Kenya. The researcher used three categories of respondents in each school namely; the administrators, the teachers and the students. The completed questionnaires were then coded, entered into the computer using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) and then analyzed. The study revealed that both students and teachers have developed a positive attitude towards the use ICTs and related accessories in the teaching/learning process. This was reflected by the frequency of use of the facilities and the interest as indicated by the respondents. The study also found out that the schools under study were already using educational management software for various processes carried out in the schools. The study also revealed some challenges faced by the schools. Notable challenges included lack of funding to support the purchase of the infrastructure to improve access to educational materials, lack of training for teachers to adopt ICT as a teaching tool and lack suitable e-content for various subjects.Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become common place entities in all aspects of life. Over the past twenty years the use of ICT has fundamentally changed the practices and procedures of nearly all forms of endeavour within business and governance. Within education, ICT has begun to have a presence but the impact has not been as extensive as in other fields both globally and locally within Africa as well as in Kenya. In this study, the researcher sought to find out how the use of ICT in education lends itself to more student-centered learning settings. The study seeks to determine the various impacts of ICT on contemporary secondary education in Kenya as well as potential challenges. The study was conducted through survey method. The researcher sought permission from the Ministry of Education in Kenya to collect research data from the sampled schools since all of them were public secondary schools. The researcher constructed questionnaires which were used to collect data from various respondents in the sampled Nepad e-schools in Kenya. The researcher used three categories of respondents in each school namely; the administrators, the teachers and the students. The completed questionnaires were then coded, entered into the computer using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) and then analyzed. The study revealed that both students and teachers have developed a positive attitude towards the use ICTs and related accessories in the teaching/learning process. This was reflected by the frequency of use of the facilities and the interest as indicated by the respondents. The study also found out that the schools under study were already using educational management software for various processes carried out in the schools. The study also revealed some challenges faced by the schools. Notable challenges included lack of funding to support the purchase of the infrastructure to improve access to educational materials, lack of training for teachers to adopt ICT as a teaching tool and lack suitable e-content for various subjects.
TOM DONDICHO. "Where are the women in African governance?". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Just Change 17:21; 2010.
TOM DONDICHO. "Where are the women in African governance?". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Just Change 17:21; 2010. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Who wants to be a surgeon? A survery of medical students at the University of Nairobi. Mwachaka P, Mbugua E, Saidi H. Ann Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 26-31.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Who wants to be surgeon?". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
A survey of Medical studen Outcome and Complications in Women undergoing cervical cerclage in a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Webmedcentral:Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2010;(9);WMC000793ts at the University Nairobi, Kenya. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 26-31
J.K MUSINGI. "Who stole the Rain? The Case of Recent Severe Droughts in Kenya.". In: (Re)membering Kenya after 2007 PEV. GOETHE INSTITUTE Nairobi ; 2009.
Kasina M;, Nderitu HH;, Nyamasyo G;, Waturu C;, Olubayo F;, and Obudho E, Yobera D. "With-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya.". In: UNDP.; 2009.
MUTHONI MSMASINDE. "Waema T, Masinde M., Odera G., Adeya-Weya C.,Were P. and Chepken C, (2009); Development of a Business Process Outsourcing Industry in Kenya: Critical Success Factors; IDRC.". In: IADR conference - Kampala 1999. Critical Success Factors; IDRC; 2009. Abstract
ABSTRACTObjective: Dental wastes are material that has been utilized in dental clinics, which are no longerwanted for use and therefore discarded. Improper disposal of these dental wastes can cause harmto the dentist, the people in immediate vicinity of the dentist, waste handlers and general publicand the environment through production of toxins or as by products of the destruction process.This study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice on management of dentalwastes among dental practitioners in Nairobi, Kenya.Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of 70 dental practitioners practicing in Nairobi,Kenya.Results: A total of 50 dental practitioners were included in the study. Majority had graduatedbetween 1991-1995. 47.5% had only a bachelors degree, 25% had masters 7.5% had PhD and12.5% had postgraduate diploma. Forty five percent of the respondents indicated they haveattended training on management of dental waste while 89.5% had been attending continuousdental education. Forty-two percent of the respondents worked in public institution while the restwere in private practice. Only 48.7% of the practitioners were aware of the existence of wastemanagement guidelines. Only 64% felt it was important to follow the set guidelines, 5% thought itwas tedious, 2% said they were not practical and the rest were not interested in the guidelines.Eighty-two percent of the respondents said that amalgam was toxic if disposed improperly withonly 10.7% indicating pollution to be a consequence of improper disposal of amalgam. Seventysevenpercent of the respondents did not know the hazardous effects of improper disposal ofamalgam. Only half of the respondents stored waste amalgam under water, 25% said they did notknow how to dispose amalgam. All (100%) knew about occurrence of cross-infection withimproper disposal of bloody waste but only 56.1% said they incinerated bloody body waste while24.4% disposed off bloody waste with general waste 35.7% of the respondents indicated thatsharps were hazardous if improperly disposed. Only 52.4% incinerated their pathological wasted.On expired drugs, 7.3% disposed them off as part of general wastes.Conclusion: There is need for continuous professional development on waste management amongdentists in Kenya.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. (2009). e-Governance Evaluation: Towards an Integrated Outcome Evaluation Research Framework.". In: Proceedings of the LOG-IN Africa e-Local Governance 1st Conference, June 5-6 2008, Cairo, Egypt. Pambazuka Press; 2009. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. (2009). E-local governance: a case study of financial management system implementation in two municipal councils in Kenya.". In: International Journal on Electronic Governance, 2 (1), 55-73. Pambazuka Press; 2009. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. and Mitullah, W. (2009). e-Governance in Local Authorities in Kenya: Policy and Institutional Elements of Implementation.". In: Proceedings of the LOG-IN Africa e-Local Governance 1st Conference, June 5-6 2008, Cairo, Egypt, ISBN 978-9981-1-1062-0, pp. 67-78. Pambazuka Press; 2009. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. and Musyoka, J.M. (2009). Shifting shores: investigating how the shift from electronic to mobile government interacts with the development practice in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, Bogota, Columbia, November 10-13, 2009. Pambazuka Press; 2009. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. and Mwamburi, C.M. (2009). Ex Ante Evaluation of Information and Communication Technology Projects; Case Studies of Kenyan Universities.". In: International Journal of Computing and ICT Research (IJCIR), 3 (1), 65-76. Pambazuka Press; 2009. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M., Mitullah, W. and Adera, E. (2009). Research in African e-Local Governance: Outcome Assessment Research Framework.". In: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development (AJSTID), 1(1), 227-256. Pambazuka Press; 2009. Abstract
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MUSAKULU DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Wagaiyu EG, Ng.". In: The Kenya Accountant, Vol. 1:14; Vol.2. EAMJ; 2009. Abstract
SUMMARY Hereditary gingival hyperplasia (HGF) is a rare condition characterised by hyperplastic, dense fibrous connective tissue with acanthotic gingival epithelium. A family presented at the School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi with a complaint that some of the children developed swollen gums very early in life and that this got worse with eruption of the permanent teeth. The first born, a 23- year- old male, had had the swellings for over ten years. Other siblings aged 5,9 and 12 years were also affected. The swellings had affected the appearance, speech and the psychosocial wellbeing of the children. The parents were unaffected with apparently negative family histories. Following oral examination and appropriate investigations, conventional gingivectomy was performed of the maxillary and the mandibular gingivae for the siblings: the 23 -12- and the nine- year olds. The fourth affected child, a five- year- old, was still in primary dentition and had just started showing mild signs of gingival hyperplasia. The histopathological examination of the specimens from the present cases confirmed features consistent with those of HGF. This article highlights a familial presentation of HGF.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Walker LM, Phogat SK, Chan-Hui PY, Wagner D, Phung P, Goss JL, Wrin T, Simek MD, Fling S, Mitcham JL, Lehrman JK, Priddy FH, Olsen OA, Frey SM, Hammond PW, Mirro G, Serwanga J, Pozniak A, McPhee D, Manigart O, Mwananyanda L, Karita E, Inwoley A, Jaoko W, .". In: UoN research meeting. Science 326 (5950): 285-9; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Walker LM, Phogat SK, Chan-Hui PY, Wagner D, Phung P, Goss JL, Wrin T, Simek MD, Fling S, Mitcham JL, Lehrman JK, Priddy FH, Olsen OA, Frey SM, Hammond PW, Mirro G, Serwanga J, Pozniak A, McPhee D, Manigart O, Mwananyanda L, Karita E, Inwoley A, Jaoko W, .". In: UoN research meeting. Science 326 (5950): 285-9; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Walker LM, Phogat SK, Chan-Hui PY, Wagner D, Phung P, Goss JL, Wrin T, Simek MD, Fling S, Mitcham JL, Lehrman JK, Priddy FH, Olsen OA, Frey SM, Hammond PW, Mirro G, Serwanga J, Pozniak A, McPhee D, Manigart O, Mwananyanda L, Karita E, Inwoley A, Jaoko W, .". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Science 326 (5950): 285-9; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Walker LM, Phogat SK, Chan-Hui PY, Wagner D, Phung P, Goss JL, Wrin T, Simek MD, Fling S, Mitcham JL, Lehrman JK, Priddy FH, Olsen OA, Frey SM, Hammond PW, Mirro G, Serwanga J, Pozniak A, McPhee D, Manigart O, Mwananyanda L, Karita E, Inwoley A, Jaoko W, .". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Science 326 (5950): 285-9; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Water quality issues in East Africa.". In: Academic Press Elsevier. Academic Press Elsevier; 2009. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
ODONGO MRMADADIVINCENT, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Water quality issues in East Africa.". In: Academic Press Elsevier. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2009. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Kiamba A. "Women, Development and Representation.". In: Perspectives on Political leadership’ Paper presented to Forum for The Brazilian-African Women and their Challenges in this Millennium. Brazil; 2008.
JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Wagoro M C A, Othieno C J, Musandu J & Karani A (2008). Structure and Process Factors That Influence Patients.". In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. Equinet; 2008. Abstractstructure_and_process_factors_that_influence_patients_perception_of_inpatient_psychiatric_nursing_care_at_mathari_hospital__nairobi.pdf

To explore structure and process factors which influence patients' perception of quality inpatient psychiatric nursing care at Mathari hospital. This was a cross-sectional study of 236 inpatients selected by stratified random sampling. Competence to give consent was determined by a minimum score of 24 on Mini Mental State Examination. Patients were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Differences in proportions of variables were determined by calculating confidence interval and summary chi-squared statistics. P-values of < or =0.05 were considered significant. Majority of patients (87%) were aged 20-49 years with 43% having stayed in the ward for over a month. Structure factors related to patients' perception of care included physical environment, being happy with the way the ward looked was significantly related to satisfaction with care (chi(2) = 5.506, P = 0002). Process factors significantly related to patients' satisfaction with care included nurses providing patients with information on prescribed medicines (chi(2) = 10.50, P = 00012). Satisfaction with care was positively related to ability to recommend someone for admission in the same ward (chi(2) = 20.2, P = 00001). Structure and process factors identified as influencing patients' perception of care were physical environment and nurses' qualities that fit within the characteristics of Peplau's Interpersonal Relations Theory.

O DRMUSANDUJOYCE. "Wagoro M.C.A.,Othieno C.J.Musandu J & Karani A.,2008,: Structure and Process Factors that Influence Patient.". In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 15, 246. James Murimi; 2008. Abstractstructure_and_process_factors_that_influence_patients_perception_of_inpatient_psychiatric_nursing_care_at_mathari_hospital__nairobi.pdf

To explore structure and process factors which influence patients' perception of quality inpatient psychiatric nursing care at Mathari hospital. This was a cross-sectional study of 236 inpatients selected by stratified random sampling. Competence to give consent was determined by a minimum score of 24 on Mini Mental State Examination. Patients were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Differences in proportions of variables were determined by calculating confidence interval and summary chi-squared statistics. P-values of < or =0.05 were considered significant. Majority of patients (87%) were aged 20-49 years with 43% having stayed in the ward for over a month. Structure factors related to patients' perception of care included physical environment, being happy with the way the ward looked was significantly related to satisfaction with care (chi(2) = 5.506, P = 0002). Process factors significantly related to patients' satisfaction with care included nurses providing patients with information on prescribed medicines (chi(2) = 10.50, P = 00012). Satisfaction with care was positively related to ability to recommend someone for admission in the same ward (chi(2) = 20.2, P = 00001). Structure and process factors identified as influencing patients' perception of care were physical environment and nurses' qualities that fit within the characteristics of Peplau's Interpersonal Relations Theory.

KIPKEMOI DRTOWETPHILEMON. "Wambugu, S.N., Kanui, T.I., Towett, P.K., Kiama, S.G., Abelson, K. The formalin test and capsaicin instillation in the Marsh Terrapin (Pelomedusa subrufa). In the 5th International Congress of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS), 2008." 2008; 2008. Abstract

Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.

MARANI DRMARTIN. "Water management dynamics and pastoral livelihoods in the lower Ewaso Ng." HRDU, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract

In the current study, the contribution of the major angiogenic mechanisms, sprouting and intussusception, to vascular development in the avian lung has been demonstrated. Sprouting guides the emerging vessels to form the primordial vascular plexus, which successively surrounds and encloses the parabronchi. Intussusceptive angiogenesis has an upsurge from embryonic day 15 (E15) and contributes to the remarkably rapid expansion of the capillary plexus. Increased blood flow stimulates formation of pillars (the archetype of intussusception) in rows, their subsequent fusion and concomitant delineation of slender, solitary vascular entities from the disorganized meshwork, thus crafting the organ-specific angioarchitecture. Morphometric investigations revealed that sprouting is preponderant in the early period of development with a peak at E15 but is subsequently supplanted by intussusceptive angiogenesis by the time of hatching. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that moderate levels of basic FGF (bFGF) and VEGF-A were maintained during the sprouting phase while PDGF-B remained minimal. All three factors were elevated during the intussusceptive phase. Immunohistoreactivity for VEGF was mainly in the epithelial cells, whereas bFGF was confined to the stromal compartment. Temporospatial interplay between sprouting and intussusceptive angiogenesis fabricates a unique vascular angioarchitecture that contributes to the establishment of a highly efficient gas exchange system characteristic of the avian lung.

M DRININDAJOSEPH, A. DROKOOLARAPHAELE. "Wet periods along the East Africa Coast and the extreme wet spell event of October 1997.". In: A Journal in Meteorology and Related Sciences. Kenya Met Soc; 2008.
Lund, JF; Larsen HO; CBK; RNOJ; OCSS;. "When Theory Meets Reality – How To Do Forest Income Surveys In Practice."; 2008.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. (2008), The Development of National ICT Policy in Kenya; The Influence of Regional Institutions and Key Stakeholders.". In: Handbook of Research on Global Information Technology Management in the Digital Economy, Information Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global). Pambazuka Press; 2008. Abstract
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W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Wagacha J. M. and J. W. Muthomi. 2008. Mycotoxin problem in Africa: Current status, implications to food safety and health and possible management strategies. International Journal of Food Microbiology 124: 1-12.". In: International Journal of Food Microbiology 124: 1-12. Academic Journals; 2008. Abstract
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungal origin and contaminate agricultural commodities before or under post-harvest conditions. They are mainly produced by fungi in the Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genera. When ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin, mycotoxins cause lowered performance, sickness or death on humans and animals. Factors that contribute to mycotoxin contamination of food and feed in Africa include environmental, socio-economic and food production. Environmental conditions especially high humidity and temperatures favour fungal proliferation resulting in contamination of food and feed. The socio-economic status of majority of inhabitants of Sub-Saharan Africa pre-dispose them to consumption of mycotoxin contaminated products either directly or at various points in the food chain. The resulting implications include immuno-suppression, impaired growth, various cancers and death depending on the type, period and amount of exposure. A synergistic effect between mycotoxin exposure and some important diseases in the continent such as malaria, kwashiorkor and HIV/AIDS have been suggested. Mycotoxin concerns have grown during the last few decades because of their implications to human and animal health, productivity, economics of their management and trade. This has led to development of maximum tolerated limits for mycotoxins in various countries. Even with the standards in place, the greatest recorded fatal mycotoxin-poisoning outbreak caused by contamination of maize with aflatoxins occurred in Africa in 2004. Pre-harvest practices; time of harvesting; handling of produce during harvesting; moisture levels at harvesting, transportation, marketing and processing; insect damage all contribute to mycotoxin contamination. Possible intervention strategies include good agricultural practices such as early harvesting, proper drying, sanitation, proper storage and insect management among others. Other possible interventions include biological control, chemical control, decontamination, breeding for resistance as well as surveillance and awareness creation. There is need for efficient, cost-effective sampling and analytical methods that can be used for detection analysis of mycotoxins in developing countries.
G. DRGATARIMICHAELJ. "Wagner A., Boman J., Gatari M. J., (2007). The elemental analysis of size-fractionated particulate matter using TXRF.". In: Corrected and re-Submitted to Spectrochimica Acta Part B. University of Nairobi.; 2008.
KYALE DRKISUMBIBERNINA. "Wakiaga JM, Kisumbi BK, Lesan WR. Some optical properties of resin composite veneers materials. A pilot study. In press Journal of Kenya Dental Association 2008:1(1): 29-36.". In: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Vet Medicine. Taylor & Francis; 2008. Abstract
An in vitro study of the antinematodal action of two groups of compounds which act on the receptor complex of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mammalian systems is described. The compounds, Ivermectin and two benzodiazepines, Diazepam and a water soluble Midazolam were tested singly or in combination against two microfilarial parasites Onchocerca lienalis (closely related to Onchocerca volvulus) and Brugia pahangi. The combination of ivermectin and diazepam at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml and 33 micrograms/ml respectively achieved the same effect on microfilarial motility as when ivermectin was given at 1 microgram/ml alone or diazepam at 66 micrograms/ml alone. Similarly when the combination of ivermectin at 0.1 microgram/ml and midazolam at 10 micrograms/ml was used it achieved the same effect as ivermectin at 1 microgram/ml alone or midazolam at 33 micrograms/ml alone. This showed that both benzodiazepines had a synergistic effect on the activity of ivermectin. The microfilariae of B. pahangi were insensitive to both groups of compounds at all concentrations used.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Walker, K., J. Underwood, T.M. Waema, L. Dunckley, J. Abdelnour-Nocera, R. Luckin, C. Oyugi and S. Camara. A resource kit for participatory socio-technical design in rural Kenya .". In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, Florence, IT, 5-10 Apr 2008. Pambazuka Press; 2008. Abstract
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KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "Wangalachi, S. and Kiriti-Nganga, T. Determinants of Expansion of Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya: A Case Study of SMEs in Three Informal Settlements in Kenya.". In: International Journal of Afro-Asian Studies, Vol. 1 No 1. pp. 186-208. Serials Publications; 2008.
C PROFMUKURIAJOSEPH. "Wasonga CG, Okoth SA, Mukuria JC, Omwandho CO.Mushroom polysaccharide extracts delay progression of carcinogenesis in mice. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2008;7(2):147-52.". In: J Exp Ther Oncol. 2008;7(2):147-52. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter Vol. 27, pp. 79-85.; 2008. Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body's immune system increasing a patient's risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting that these extracts may be useful as adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.

M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Watts DC, Issa M, Ibrahim A, Wakiaga J, Al-Samadani K, Al-Azraqi M, Silikas N.Edge strength of resin-composite margins. Dent Mater. 2008 Jan;24(1):129-33. Epub 2007 Jun 18.". In: Dent Mater. 2008 Jan;24(1):129-33. Epub 2007 Jun 18. University of Nairobi Press; 2008. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Marginal integrity is a major clinical problem in restorative dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of an edge strength measurement device in an in vitro test to determine the force required to fracture flakes of material by a Vickers indentation at progressively increasing distances from an interface edge of bulk material. METHODS: Five representative resin-composites were investigated. Fourteen disks of specimens (12mm diameter x 2.5mm thick) were prepared for each material. These were divided into seven sub-groups corresponding to different edge-distances (0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0mm). An edge strength measurement device (CK10) (Engineering Systems, Nottingham, UK) was used. The mode of the failure of each specimen was examined under the integral microscope of the CK10. RESULTS: The force (N)-to-fracture at a distance of 0.5mm from the edge was defined as the edge strength. The highest failure force (edge strength) was observed for Tetric Ceram (174.2N) and the lowest for Filtek Supreme (enamel) (87.0N). Correlations between the failure-forces to fracture materials with edge-distance were regression analyzed giving coefficients (r) ranging from 0.94 (p=0.02) to 0.99 (p=0.01). Two modes of failure were observed: chipping and–generally at greater distances–cracking. SIGNIFICANCE: Edge strength is a definable and potentially useful parameter to characterize this aspect of clinically related behavior. A standardized distance of 0.5mm from the specimen's edge, when chipping failure prevails, is suitable and convenient as a reference point.

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Westercamp N, Mattson CL, Madonia M, Moses S, Agot K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Otieno E, Ouma N, Bailey RC.Determinants of Consistent Condom Use Vary by Partner Type among Young Men in Kisumu, Kenya: A Multi-level Data Analysis.AIDS Behav. 2008 Sep 13. [Epub ahe.". In: AIDS Behav. 2008 Sep 13. [Epub ahead of print]. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
To evaluate whether determinants of consistent condom use vary by partner type among young sexually active Kenyan men, we conducted a cross-sectional assessment of lifetime sexual histories from a sub-sample of men enrolled in a clinical trial of male circumcision. 7913 partnerships of 1370 men were analyzed. 262 men (19%) reported never, 1018 (74%) sometimes and 92 (7%) always using a condom with their partners. Condoms were always used in 2672 (34%) of the total relationships-212 (70%) of the relationships with sex workers, 1643 (40%) of the casual and 817 (23%) of the regular/marital relationships. Factors influencing condom use varied significantly by partner type, suggesting that HIV prevention messages promoting condom use with higher-risk partners have achieved a moderate level of acceptance. However, in populations of young, single men in generalized epidemic settings, interventions should promote consistent condom use in all sexual encounters, independently of partner type and characteristics.
WAMBUI JANE. "Which way forward Kenya?". Paper presented at the Centre for African Studies, Edinburgh University. Britain; 2008. Abstract
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Dr. WANG'ONDU VIRGINIAWANGECHI. "Wang'ondu V.W, JHP Kahindi, NK Olembo and JO Ochanda, 2007, Screening of Local Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates for Toxicity to Chilo partellus,Sesamia calamistis and Busseola fusca in Kenya .J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 3(2):27-35.". In: J. Trop. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 3(2):27-35. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2007. Abstract

Stem borers are a major source of pre-harvest maize crop losses in Kenya and many Sub-Saharan African countries. This menace needs to be addressed if food security is to be realized in this region. Seven local isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains were isolated from soils collected from Kakamega and Machakos districts in Kenya. They were screened for toxicity against 1st and 2nd instar larvae of Chilo partellus, Sesamia calamistis and Busseola fusca through laboratory bioassays on artificial and natural diets. On farm Bt toxin potency trials were carried out only in Machakos using isolate 1M which was isolated from the area. The various isolates showed differences in their toxicity to the three stem borers. Isolates 1M and VM-10 (from Machakos district) were found to be the most potent against C. partellus with larval mortalities of 100 % within 72 h. Their LD50 values were 0.004 mg/ml and 0.04 mg/ml respectively. The most toxic isolates against S. calamistis were, 44M, VM-10 and 1M, with larval mortalities of 73%, 64% and 62% respectively after 72h at a concentration of 8.6 mg/ml through artificial diet bioassays on 1st instar larvae. Isolates 44M and K10-2 showed high toxicity against B. fusca with larval mortalities of 20% by artificial diet bioassays and 44% by maize leaf bioassays respectively. Leaf disk bioassays with all the insect species showed higher larval mortalities than those done with the artificial diet bioassays indicating the larval preference of natural diet. However leaf disk bioassays with B. fusca recorded higher larval mortalities with sorghum than maize leaves. Field trial results obtained from Machakos district using a biopesticide made from isolate 1M indicated that it was highly effective in stem borer control.

M. DROLUBAYOFLORENCE. "W. Mwango.". In: Plant Pathology Journal 6 91): 66-71. Dr. Oliver V. Wasonga; 2007. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study was conducted in two seasons of2002 at Tigoni, Central Kenya to determine effectiveness of insecticides; neern  extract and mineral oil in managing potato aphids and their associated virus diseases. The treatments were arranged in  randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. In each season, the number of aphids in five randomly  selected plants per treatment was recordced in situ. Virus symptoms (i.ncidence) were scored and expressed as a percentage  to the total plant population per plot. Forty-five days after emergence, 10 plants each from guard rows and inner rows were  randomly selected and serologically assayed for Potato Virus Y (PVY) and Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) using DAS ELISA test. Results showd that three aphid species Aphis gossypii (Glover), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) colonized on the variety with A. gossypii being the most dominant while M. persicae was least.  Higher aphid population coincided with the short rains experienced in one of the seasons. Synthetic insecticides (Bifethrin  and dimethoate) were the most effective among the treatments in reducing aphid infestation while the neem extract and mineral oil (DC- Tron) had no significant (P<0.05) difference. However, mineral-oil treated plots recorded the lowest PVY  incidence while bifenthrin-Ireated plots had the lowest PLRV incidence. It is suggested that a combination of synthetic  insecticides and mineral oil could playa major role in reduction of the aphids and their associated vectors. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU,(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Wabacha J K, C.M. Mulei, N.P. Gitonga, M. J., Njenga, A.G. Thaiyah A.G, and J. Nduhiu (2007). Atypical dermatophilosis of sheep in Kenya.". In: J, S. Afr. vet. Ass. 78(3):178-181.; 2007.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. (2007), 2007 Kenya Telecommunications Sector Performance Review: A Supply Side Analysis of Policy Outcomes.". In: Research ICT Africa! SPR 2007 Country Reports. Pambazuka Press; 2007. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. (2007), A Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Effects of E-government on Governance.". In: 1st International Conference in Computer Science and ICT, COSCIT 2007, Nairobi, Kenya, 5th . Pambazuka Press; 2007. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. and Mitullah, W. (2007), E-governance and governance: A case study of the assessment of the effects of integrated financial management system on good governance in two municipal councils in Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, ICEGOV 2007, Macao, China, December 10-13, 2007. Pambazuka Press; 2007. Abstract
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W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Wagacha, J. M, and Muthomi, J. W. 2007. Fusarium culmorum: Infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production and their role in pathogenesis in wheat. Crop Protection 26: 877-885.". In: Crop Protection 26: 877-885. Elsevier Ltd, UK; 2007. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Wagacha, J. M., J. W. Muthomi and E. W. Mutitu. 2001. Control of bean rust using antibiotics produced by Bacillus and Streptomyces species - Translocation and persistence in snap bean. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management 11(2):165-168.". In: Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management; 2007. Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is an important pathogen of wheat causing seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight (FHB) or scab. The pathogen is dominant in cooler areas like north, central and western Europe. The fungus reproduces asexually by means of conidia, which form the main mode of dispersal. Head blight is by far the most serious concern of Fusarium infection on pre-harvest wheat and other small grain cereals. The significance of F. culmorum in wheat production is attributed to both head blight and mycotoxin contamination of the grain harvested from infected ears. Ear infection mainly occurs during anthesis and is favoured by wet weather or high humidity and warm temperatures. The major mycotoxins produced by F. culmorum are deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, which are a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. The mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol, are believed to play a role in disease development. Available options of managing Fusarium head blight include use of fungicides, cultural practices, resistant varieties and biological agents. However, no wheat variety is completely resistant to Fusarium head blight while fungicides are at most 70% effective against natural infection. This review seeks to document and infer information on F. culmorum, with special emphasis on wheat head blight infection process, mechanisms of mycotoxin production, the role the mycotoxins play in pathogenesis, and the possible management options.
PROF. ADUDA BERNARD O. "Waita S.M.,Aduda, B.O., Mwabora, J.M., Granqvist, C.G., Lindquist, S.E.,Niklasson, G.A., Hagfeldt, A., Boaschloo G. (2007)Electron Transportand Recombination in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from Obliquely Sputter Deposited and Thermally Annealed .". In: Journal of Electroanalytic Chemistry, 605, 151-156. Physica Status Solidi; 2007. Abstract
This study investigated the effectiveness of three physical-chemical methods namely; pH adjustment, precipitation with alum and the use of polyelectrolytes. In the treatment of diary wastewater from Brookeside milk processing plant. It also investigated the drainability of the sludge produced by each of the three methods. Laboratory tests were carried out in three different batches, one for each of the three methods. In the alum method enough alum was added to the wastewater samples to cause precipitation by sweep floc. In the pH adjustment method, the pH of samples were lowered to the iso-electric point of the casein proteins of approximately pH 4.5 leading to their precipitation as a result of solubility changes. The polyelectrolytes method involved the use of two polyelectrolytes, Sudfloc 3820 and Sudfloc 3860 each of which was used to coagulate the dirty wastewater. For each of the three methods, the samples were taken in one-litre beakers and subjected to Jar tests to determine the optimum dosages. After one hour of settling the supernatants were decanted and subjected to standard Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) tests, turbidity and pH measurements. The settled sludge was subjected to drainability studies. Results showed the treatment of dairy wastewater by the three physical-chemical methods to be effective. There were COD removals of between 60% and 90% and turbidity reduction of over 90%. The use of the sudfloc polyelectrolytes was found to be the least demanding in terms of effluent quality control as no pH adjustments of either the wastewater or the effluent was required. The use of polyelectolytes produced the least volumes of sludge and also the better drainability and solids concentration. Sudfloc 3820 was found to achieve better results than Sudfloc 3860 in terms of COD reduction and the drainability of sludge produced although both achieved the same drainability studies. This study showed that each of the three physical-chemical methods can be used effectively to remove the white colour of dairy wastewater as well as the bulk of the proteins and fats, hence, enabling the discharge of the effluents into natural waters to be of good assimilative capacity.
M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Wakiaga J, Kisumbi BK, and Lesan WR Some Optical Properties in Resin Composite Veneer Materials. A Pilot Study Submitted to the Journal of the Kenya Dental Association 2007.". In: Dent Mater. 2008 Jan;24(1):129-33. Epub 2007 Jun 18. University of Nairobi Press; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Marginal integrity is a major clinical problem in restorative dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of an edge strength measurement device in an in vitro test to determine the force required to fracture flakes of material by a Vickers indentation at progressively increasing distances from an interface edge of bulk material. METHODS: Five representative resin-composites were investigated. Fourteen disks of specimens (12mm diameter x 2.5mm thick) were prepared for each material. These were divided into seven sub-groups corresponding to different edge-distances (0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0mm). An edge strength measurement device (CK10) (Engineering Systems, Nottingham, UK) was used. The mode of the failure of each specimen was examined under the integral microscope of the CK10. RESULTS: The force (N)-to-fracture at a distance of 0.5mm from the edge was defined as the edge strength. The highest failure force (edge strength) was observed for Tetric Ceram (174.2N) and the lowest for Filtek Supreme (enamel) (87.0N). Correlations between the failure-forces to fracture materials with edge-distance were regression analyzed giving coefficients (r) ranging from 0.94 (p=0.02) to 0.99 (p=0.01). Two modes of failure were observed: chipping and–generally at greater distances–cracking. SIGNIFICANCE: Edge strength is a definable and potentially useful parameter to characterize this aspect of clinically related behavior. A standardized distance of 0.5mm from the specimen's edge, when chipping failure prevails, is suitable and convenient as a reference point.

M. DRGICHUHICHRISTINE. "Wamalwa DC, Farquhar C, Obimbo EM, Selig S, Mbori-Ngacha DA, Richardson BA, Overbaugh J, Emery S, Wariua G, Gichuhi C, Bosire R, John-Stewart G.Early response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children. J Acquir Immune Defic.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jan;34(1):25-9. African Crop Science Society; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine. DESIGN: Observational prospective cohort. METHODS: HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 lymphocyte count, weight for age z score, and height for age z score were measured before the initiation of HAART and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. Children received no nutritional supplements. RESULTS: Sixty-seven HIV-1-infected children were followed for a median of 9 months between August 2004 and November 2005. Forty-seven (70%) used zidovudine, lamivudine (3TC), and an NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz), whereas 25% used stavudine (d4T), 3TC, and an NNRTI. Nevirapine was used as the NNRTI by 46 (69%) children, and individual antiretroviral drug formulations were used by 63 (94%), with only 4 (6%) using a fixed-dose combination of d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine (Triomune; Cipla, Mumbai, India). In 52 children, the median height for age z score and weight for age z score rose from -2.54 to -2.17 (P<0.001) and from -2.30 to -1.67 (P=0.001), respectively, after 6 months of HAART. Hospitalization rates were significantly reduced after 6 months of HAART (17% vs. 58%; P<0.001). The median absolute CD4 count increased from 326 to 536 cells/microL (P<0.001), the median CD4 lymphocyte percentage rose from 5.8% before treatment to 15.4% (P<0.001), and the median viral load fell from 5.9 to 2.2 log10 copies/mL after 6 months of HAART (P<0.001). Among 43 infants, 47% and 67% achieved viral suppression to less than 100 copies/mL and 400 copies/mL, respectively, after 6 months of HAART. CONCLUSION: Good early clinical and virologic response to NNRTI-based HAART was observed in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children with advanced HIV-1 disease.
KIPKEMOI DRTOWETPHILEMON. "Wambugu, S.N., Joakim, D., Towett, P.K., Kiama, S.G. and Kanui, T.I. Laboratory management of captive hingeback tortoises. Workshop on Reptile Care, Health and Welfare, 2007.". In: Presented at the Commonwealth Association of Surveying and Land Economy (CASLE) and the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) Seminar, Harare,. 2008; 2007. Abstract
Samples of burnt clay from kilns in various parts of the country were tested for their cementatious qualities and found to have high silica contents.Results showed that additing upto 40% of the cly to portland cement produced good binders for mass concre and plaster work,particularly for low cost housing.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Wandiga, S.O., Opondo, M., Olago, D.O., Githeko, A., Githui, F., Marshall, M., Downs, T., Opere, A., Yanda, P., Kangalawe, R., Kabumbuli, R., Kirumira, E., Kathuri, J., Apindi, A., Olaka, L., Ogallo, L., Mugambi, P., Sigalla, R., Nanyunja, R., Baguma, T. .". In: Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 10(1):23-32. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Water Resources Vulnerability to Environmental Change in Eastern Africa sub-region . Join Africa-Asia workshop on Water Resources Vulnerability to Environmental Change, a UNEP draft report, Huahin, Thailand; 16-18 October 2007.". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2007. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Water Resources Vulnerability to Environmental Change in Eastern Africa sub-region: Workshop on Africa.". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2007. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Watts DC, Issa M, Ibrahim A, Wakiaga J, Al-Samadani K, Al-Azraki M and Silikas N. Edge Strength of Resin Composite .". In: Dent Mater. 2008 Jan;24(1):129-33. Epub 2007 Jun 18. University of Nairobi Press; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Marginal integrity is a major clinical problem in restorative dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of an edge strength measurement device in an in vitro test to determine the force required to fracture flakes of material by a Vickers indentation at progressively increasing distances from an interface edge of bulk material. METHODS: Five representative resin-composites were investigated. Fourteen disks of specimens (12mm diameter x 2.5mm thick) were prepared for each material. These were divided into seven sub-groups corresponding to different edge-distances (0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0mm). An edge strength measurement device (CK10) (Engineering Systems, Nottingham, UK) was used. The mode of the failure of each specimen was examined under the integral microscope of the CK10. RESULTS: The force (N)-to-fracture at a distance of 0.5mm from the edge was defined as the edge strength. The highest failure force (edge strength) was observed for Tetric Ceram (174.2N) and the lowest for Filtek Supreme (enamel) (87.0N). Correlations between the failure-forces to fracture materials with edge-distance were regression analyzed giving coefficients (r) ranging from 0.94 (p=0.02) to 0.99 (p=0.01). Two modes of failure were observed: chipping and–generally at greater distances–cracking. SIGNIFICANCE: Edge strength is a definable and potentially useful parameter to characterize this aspect of clinically related behavior. A standardized distance of 0.5mm from the specimen's edge, when chipping failure prevails, is suitable and convenient as a reference point.

MULINDI DRSOBBIEAZ. "Wilhelmsen I, Mulindi S, Snakok D, Wilhelmsen A B, Eriksen H R & Ursin H. (2007). Subjective health complaints are more prevalent in Maasais than in Norwegians. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 61 no. 4.". In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 61 no. 4. Springerlink; 2007. Abstract
The aim of this observational, population-based study was to compare subjective health complaints (SHC) in Norwegians, living in a Western welfare society, and Maasai people, living in rural Kenya under primitive conditions. An interview-based version of SHC inventory was used. Data from 320 Maasais were compared to data from 1243 Norwegians. The Maasais had significantly higher score than the Norwegians on 23 of 28 items, involving musculoskeletal, "pseudo-neurological" and gastrointestinal complaints. The Maasais, living under primitive conditions, close to nature, seems to have more SHC than Norwegians, living in a modern, highly developed and industrialized country.
MUTUKU DRMUTIEPIUS. "With Makumi Mwagiru: "Governance and Conflict Management", in P. Wanyande, M. Omosa and L. Chweya (eds.), Governance and Transition Politics in Kenya, Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. 2007.". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2007. Abstract
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WINIFRED KAMAU W. "Women, Law and Dispute Resolution in Kenya: The Impact of Legal Pluralism." Presented at the LSA/RCSL International Conference on Law and Society held in Humboldt University, Berlin,; 2007. Abstract
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Joram Nduati Kinuthia, Prof A. J. Rodrigues RO. "Wildlife GIS: Spatial Analysis and Visualisation in Masai Mara.". In: Map Africa 2006.; 2006.
DR. JAMES JAMESGORDON. "Water Quality parameters in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and catfish (Clarias gariepinus) polyculture in central Kenya. J. Aqua. Trop., 20(2), 159-174.". In: ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern & Southern Africa, Nairobi - Kenya, 3rd - 5th May, 2001. World Aquaculture Society; 2006.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU,(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Wabacha J K, Gitonga N P, Njenga M. J., Thaiyah A.G, Mulei C M (2006). An outbreak of acute bovine dermatophilosis in a large scale dairy herd in Kenya.". In: Bull. Anim. Prod. Hlth. Afr, 54:144-147.; 2006.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. (2006), SME e-access and usage in Kenya. In Christopher Stork and Steve Esselaar (Editors): Towards an African e-Index: SME e-access and usage across 14 African countries, researchICTafrica.net, ISBN: 10 0-620-37593-0.". In: Towards an African e-Index: SME e-access and usage across 14 African countries. Mvule Africa Publishers, ISBN 9966-769-56-0, pp. 25-72; 2006. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Waema, T.M. and Bowman-Ngaruiya, W. (2006), The Institutional Structures and Models for Implementing the Kenyan National ICT Plan. In Outa et. al (Editor), Mainstreaming ICT: Research Perspectives from Kenya.". In: Mainstreaming ICT: Research Perspectives from Kenya. Mvule Africa Publishers, ISBN 9966-769-56-0, pp. 25-72; 2006. Abstract
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GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome R.G. and Kuria, J.K.N., 2006. Re-evaluation of the use of over the counter (OTC) feed supplements and additives. Zambian Veterinary Journal (Special Edition).". In: Proceedings of the faculty of Veterinary Medicine 5th Biennual scientific conference and exhibition 6-8th September, 2006. Department of Public Health. Pharmacology and Toxicology Auditorium, University of Nairobi, Upper Kabete Campus. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 2006 Businesses in livestock production: What areas do we target?". In: Paper presented at the ABD-DASS Workshop on Development of Livestock oriented Business, held at Tsavo National Park Lodge, Voi, on 8th August 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 2006. A presentation of the draft national livestock policy.". In: Paper presented at the Central Branch of the KVA annual scientific conference held at the Sportsman. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.
GITHAIGA DRWAHOMERAPHAEL. "Wahome, R.G., 2006. Beef cattle, meat Sheep and Goat, and hide and skin production and marketing in the ASAL.". In: Paper presented at the ASPS Workshop on Livestock production, held at Agricultural information centre Nairobi On Tuesday 20th June 2006. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2006.

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