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OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "With Rottland, F. 'Language shift among the Suba of Kenya.' In M. Brenzinger (ed.) Language Death: Factual and Theoretical Exploration with Special Referenc to East Africa. Berlin, New York : Mouton de Grryter.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1992. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Spencer Hensen, and Romanus Opiyo: `Impact of Lake Victoria Fish Exports on Livelihoods of Fishers, and Traders.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. Abstract

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Walter Odhiambo: `Policies and Regulations for Business Development in Kenya.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
Kasina M;, Nderitu HH;, Nyamasyo G;, Waturu C;, Olubayo F;, and Obudho E, Yobera D. "With-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya.". In: UNDP.; 2009.
Kasina M, Nderitu J, Nyamasyo G, Watura C, Olubayo F, Yobera D. "Within-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

The aim of this research was to study spatial distribution of flower thrips on French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. Their build up and seasonal population dynamics was monitored using sticky blue colour traps and sampling of leaves and flowers in two seasons in 2002. Thrips infested French beans from the second week after crop emergence. Their population peaked at peak flowering. The sticky trap catches were linearly related to the actual presence of thrips on the crop and could estimate population build up of adult thrips on leaves and flowers. On the plants, most adults were on flowers. Larvae mainly inhabited leaves, buds and pods. The two thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom were spatially separated. The former colonized lower-canopy leaves and early flowers while the latter inhabited middle-canopy leaves and mature flowers. Overall, M. sjostedti was less than 5% of the total thrips population, implying that F. occidentalis was the main thrips pest of French beans. This study suggests that French bean growers should monitor thrips population before initiating any control measure. In addition, they should commence thrips control early, at pre-flowering, using larvicides to reduce the thrips pool and their migration to flowers. A combination of monitoring with sticky traps and proper sampling would contribute to sustainable thrips management.

Kasina M, Nderitu J, Yobera D, Obudho E, Watura C. "Within-plant distribution and seasonal population dynamics of flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infesting French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

The aim of this research was to study spatial distribution of flower thrips on French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Kenya. Their build up and seasonal population dynamics was monitored using sticky blue colour traps and sampling of leaves and flowers in two seasons in 2002. Thrips infested French beans from the second week after crop emergence. Their population peaked at peak flowering. The sticky trap catches were linearly related to the actual presence of thrips on the crop and could estimate population build up of adult thrips on leaves and flowers. On the plants, most adults were on flowers. Larvae mainly inhabited leaves, buds and pods. The two thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom were spatially separated. The former colonized lower-canopy leaves and early flowers while the latter inhabited middle-canopy leaves and mature flowers. Overall, M. sjostedti was less than 5% of the total thrips population, implying that F. occidentalis was the main thrips pest of French beans. This study suggests that French bean growers should monitor thrips population before initiating any control measure. In addition, they should commence thrips control early, at pre-flowering, using larvicides to reduce the thrips pool and their migration to flowers. A combination of monitoring with sticky traps and proper sampling would contribute to sustainable thrips management.

Mukhwana, A. MichiraNyachae IM&MM(eds). "WizarazaSerikalina Utekelezajiwa Katiba Mpyaya Kenya.". In: Ufunzajiwa Kiswahili. Focus Publishers Ltd; 2014.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "WN Ekaya and JI Kinyamario Production and decomposition of plant litter in an arid rangeland of Kenya. African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 18: 125- 129.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001.
PROF. KINYAMARIO JENESIOI, N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "WN Ekaya, JI Kinyamario and CN Karue. Abiotic and herbaceous vegetational characteristics of an arid rangeland in Kenya.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science, 18: 117-124. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001.
ABDALLAH DRAL-ASARAYMAMIBRAHIM. ""Wole Soyinka Nigerian Nobel Prize Winner", African perspective, third volume, Tenth Issue, summer 2002, state information service.". In: IEE Journal in Engineering, Science and Education, Vol. & (NO) vol. 7, no. 2, pp. pp. 81-87. Academic Journals; 2002. Abstract
21) S. Derese, A. Yenesew, J.O. Midiwo, Heydenreich and M.G. Peter. (). ..
Rugendo CJ, Njue N,, Gatimu JC. "woman participation in miraa (khat) Business and Academic performance of primary school children in Runyenjes Divisions, Embu, Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and social study. 2012.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "The women.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1988.
NGAU PROFPETERM. ""Women.". In: Edited by Paul Pedersen and Dorothy McCormick,. Taylor & Francis; 1996.
MARTIN DROGUTU. "Women.". In: Journal of Vocational Behaviour. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1995. Abstract
Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers
Nzomo M. "Women."; 2011. Abstract
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WINIFRED KAMAU W. "Women." Presented at the Graduate Law Students Conference at Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, Toronto; 2003. Abstract
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DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Women and AIDS: The Vulnerability Issue.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Women and Children in Conflict Situaitons: The Culture of Rights as a Missing Link in Afrca.". In: Nairobi: CCR-WLEA. University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
Africa Media Review, Vol. 11, No. 3
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Women and Children in Conflict Situations’ ."; 1997.
Owiti L. "Women and Culture: Harmful Cultural Practices.". In: ACK Ladies Conference. Nairobi; 2010.
M. PROFKABIRAWANJIKU. "Women and Democracy in Africa .". In: East African Medical Journal 68(9): 714-9. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1996. Abstract
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. Previous attempts to determine the interactions between filariasis transmission intensity, infection and chronic disease have been limited by a lack of a theoretical framework that allows the explicit examination of mechanisms that may link these variables at the community level. Here, we show how deterministic mathematical models, in conjunction with analyses of standardized field data from communities with varying parasite transmission intensities, can provide a particularly powerful framework for investigating this topic. These models were based on adult worm population dynamics, worm initiated chronic disease and two major forms of acquired immunity (larval- versus adult-worm generated) explicitly linked to community transmission intensity as measured by the Annual Transmission Potential (ATP). They were then fitted to data from low, moderate and moderately high transmission communities from East Africa to determine the mechanistic relationships between transmission, infection and observed filarial morbidity. The results indicate a profound effect of transmission intensity on patent infection and chronic disease, and on the generation and impact of immunity on these variables. For infection, the analysis indicates that in areas of higher parasite transmission, community-specific microfilarial rates may increase proportionately with transmission intensity until moderated by the generation of herd immunity. This supports recent suggestions that acquired immunity in filariasis is transmission driven and may be significant only in areas of high transmission. In East Africa, this transmission threshold is likely to be higher than an ATP of at least 100. A new finding from the analysis of the disease data is that per capita worm pathogenicity could increase with transmission intensity such that the prevalences of both hydrocele and lymphoedema, even without immunopathological involvement, may increase disproportionately with transmission intensity. For lymphoedema, this rise may be further accelerated with the onset of immunopathology. An intriguing finding is that there may be at least two types of immunity operating in filariasis: one implicated in anti-infection immunity and generated by past experience of adult worms, the other involved in immune-mediated pathology and based on cumulative experience of infective larvae. If confirmed, these findings have important implications for the new global initiative to achieve control of this disease.
WAMBUI JANE. "Women and development in Kenya." Project paper for Achievers International; 2012. Abstract
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WAMBUI JANE. "Women and Elections in Kenya." seminar paper presented at the Centre for African studies, Edinburgh University, Britain; 1993. Abstract
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W MRSKARURIJANE. "Women and elections in Kenya - Seminar paper presented at the centre for African Studies, Edinburgh University, Scotland.". In: http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd18/10/amim18147.htm. Tropical Animal Health and Production; 1993.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Women and Governance in Electoral Politics.". In: A paper presented at the NCSW National Seminar on Women and Governance in Kenya Nairobi. Kenya 29-30 September.; 1994. Abstract
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Gumo S, Kamau N, Muasya J, Getui M. Women and Management in Higher Education, Regional Training Workshop 16-21st June, 2002. Nairobi, Kenya: CUEA Publications; 2002.
Gachihi M. "Women and Mau.". In: S.M Shamsul, Rethinking Mau Mau in Colonial Kenya. Palgrave, Macmillan; 2007.
K. M, P.K. M. Women and property Rights in Kenya. Nairobi: Kenya Federation of Women Lawyers (FIDA); 2002.
Njeri KM. Women and the Informal Economy in Urban Africa. London: Zed Publishers; 2014.
Owiti L. "Women and the Politics of Transition.". In: Governance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2007.
PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "Women as Victims of Crime in University of Nairobi Law Journal.". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1995. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Women Candidates in Electoral Politics: Campaign Strategies and Issues,.". In: NCSW's Report on the First National Training Workshop on Capacity Building for Women candidates, July pp. 60-66.; 1992. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

WAIRIMU PROFKIBERALUCY. ""Women Education and Life Skills".". In: UNESCO/UNITWIN CHAIRS STRATEGIC planning workshop at University of Nairobi- 15-17 July ,1997. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 1997. Abstract
  
Subbo WK. Women empowerment in slum settlements: An annotated bibliography. Nairobi: United Nations Centre for Human Developments (UN_HABITAT; 2003.Women empowerment in Slum Settlement. pdf
Kinoti MW, Kihiko MK, Cooney TM. "Women empowerment through Government Loaned Entrepreneurship Teams (GLETs) in Kenya.". In: Research Handbook on Entrepreneurial Teams. Edward Elgar Publishing; 2017.
M MRNJOKAJOHN. "Women Entrepreneurs in Nairobi: The socio-cultural factors influencing their investment patterns. In P.O.Alila and P.O. Pedersen (eds) Negotiating Social Space: East African Micro Enterprises. Trenton NJ: Africa World Press.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 2001. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "The Women Group Movement in Kenya: A vaiable strategy for Empowerment?". In: Paper presented at the Annual African DAWN Meeting, held in Ibadan, Nigeria, September.; 1988. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

Todd, Judith; Friedman A; KPW, Friedman A;, Kariuki PW. "Women growing stronger with age: The effect of status in the United States and Kenya .". 1989. AbstractWebsite

Previous research suggests that there is a shift in the perceived balance of interpersonal power in the second half of life in favor of older women, towards equality between men and women. To see if this age shift in power is universal, a study of women in two cultures, the United States and Kenya, examined the effect of status on the shift. As an indirect measure of interpersonal power, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) stories were collected from 60 U.S. and 60 Kenyan women and rated by trained judges for aspects of the interpersonal power of the characters in the stories. In each country there were two groups of 15 women under age 36 and 15 women over age 44, one of higher and one of lower status. In both countries, only the higher status women showed the shift in power with age. That status modulated the shift in power with age in two different cultures is discussed in terms of the necessity for a resource base for power.

Dorothy McCormick. "Women in Business: Class and Nairobi's Small and Medium-sized Producers.". In: Firm Linkages: Importance for Industrial Structure and Performance. Nairobi: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1996. Abstract

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C. A. Mumma-Martinon. "Women In Conflict Management: How Traditional Roles And Perceptions Have Been A Hindrance." Hakimani Jesuit Journal Of Social Justice In Eastern Africa. . 2009;(01/09, ):34-40. 9.__women_in_conflicttraditional_roles.pdf
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Women in Economic Activities - Laikipia District in Women and Development in Kenya - Laikipia District by G. Were, C. Suda and J. Olenja eds. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: Journal Vol.4 No.2, 1990.; 1990. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "Women in Economic Activities - Siaya District in Women and Development in Kenya - Siaya District, by G. Were, C. Suda and J. Olenja, eds. Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi.". In: In Nairobi 1928-62 in African Urban Quaterly.; 1991. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

WAMBUI MSKIAI. "Women in journalism education: An overview of the Kenyan situation in women in journalism education: prospects, problems and priorities. The commonwealth association for education in journalism and communication (CAEJAC).". In: IDRC. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1995. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
Kiriti-Nganga TW. "Women in Kenya: A Second Class Citizen." nternational Journal of Women, Social Justice and Human Rights. 2006;1(2):217-236.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Women in Management".". In: The Phase III of the Ford Foundation Management Development Seminar for Women Managers in the Public Sector. Nairobi Province. 2 nd April 2001. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Women in Management".". In: The Phase III of the Ford Foundation Management Development Seminar for Women Managers in the Public Sector. Nairobi Province. 2 nd April 2001. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract

 

 

W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Women in Management, Challenges for this Decade.". In: paper presented at Women in Management Seminar, Windsor Country and Golf Club, Nairobi, 22-27 March.; 1993. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

KAMAU MRMUBUUPETERSON. "Women in marriage and household resources management in Kenya main study report; presented at women and law regional conference.". In: Ranch on the Lake Hotel, Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Gona, George, Wambui Kiai, Muiru Ngugi (Eds.). Women in Public Space(s) in Kenya. University of Nairobi & Ford Foundation; Forthcoming.
Gona G;, Kiai W;, Ngugi M. "Women in Public Space(s) in Kenya .". 2013.Website
MCCORMICK PROFDOROTHY, Dorothy McCormick. ""Women in Small-Scale Manufacturing: The Case of Nairobi, Kenya." Third World in Perspective vol. 1, no. 2. 1992.". In: Financing, Human Resources, Environment, and Markets of African Small Enterprise: A Literature Review." With Mary Njeri Kinyanjui. Prepared for the International Centre for Economic Growth, Nairobi. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 1992. Abstract

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NZOMO PROFMARIA. "Women in Top Management in Kenya" ."; 1992.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Women in Top Management in Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya, February.". In: Department of Government seminar on Electroal in Kenya. University of Nairobi, July.; 1994. Abstract

Women in Top Management in Kenya

Langer L, Erasmus Y, Tannous N, Obuku E, Ravat Z, Chisoro C, OM, Nduku P, Tripney J, van Rooyen C, Stewart R. "Women in wage labour: A systematic review of the Effectiveness and Design Features of Interventions Supporting Women’s Participation in Wage Labour in Higher-growth and/or Male …." ucl discovery. 2018. Abstracteppi.ioe.ac.uk

In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), women’s participation in wage labour is significantly lower than that of men. In addition, women’s participation is often clustered in particular sectors of the economy that are not well-remunerated and have lower prestige. Higher growth economic sectors such as ICT and finance are dominated by men, excluding women from lucrative opportunities for social and economic development. Even where women have equal access to wage labour opportunities, they often suffer from vertical occupational segregation, earning significantly less than men and being less likely to be promoted. This horizontal and vertical occupational segregation of wage labour markets in LMICs for women hinders both economic and social development. In response to this challenging gendered nature of wage labour markets in LMICs, a range of interventions and policies have been proposed to increase women’s employment. These interventions aim to overcome a range of barriers to women’s wage labour employment in highergrowth/male-dominated sectors, such as discrimination against women by markets and work institutions, or a lack of access to credit and assets and of technical and soft skills. However, these labour market programmes to increase women’s wage employment vary greatly, as do the barriers to women’s wage labour participation. Different programme designs assume different pathways to support women’s employment and it is not clear what programme approaches and design features are most effective.

WAMBUI DRGICHUHILOISEPAMELA. "Women Income generating activities in Burkina Faso as compared to the Kenyan Women.". In: Non . Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2001.
Njeri KM. "Women Informal Garment Traders in Taveta Road’ Nairobi: From the Margins to the Centre." African Studies Review. 2013;56(03):147-164.
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Women Issues, What Role for Literature?'in Wajibu: A Journal of Social and ReligiousConcern Vol. 3 No. 2.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1988. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
KAMAU W. "WOMEN JUDGES AND MAGISTRATES IN KENYA: CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES AND CONTRIBUTIONS.". In: GENDER AND JUDGING. LONDON: OXFORD HART PUBLISHERS; 2013. Abstractwinnie_kamau_abstract.docwinnie_kamau_abstract.docwinnie_kamau_abstract.pdf

Women in Kenya are under-represented in the legal sphere, both as professionals in legal practice and in the judiciary. In particular, they have been excluded or marginalized in the higher courts and are more concentrated in the subordinate courts which have lower status and less attractive terms and conditions. There are various structural and institutional barriers to women’s selection and upward mobility in the judiciary, which need to be addressed. It is laudable that despite women being a minority in Kenyan judiciary, they have made their marks in terms of articulation of gender issues within the judiciary, particularly through the Kenya Women Judges Association and the Jurisprudence of Equality Project. The Constitution of 2010 has introduced important reforms in the structure and organization in the judiciary and have already produced some positive results. However, there is need for more concrete policies and measures specifically targeted at ensuring gender equality and equity in the Kenyan courts.

Masumi OH. "Women Literature in Japan's Heian Era: A Study of The Kagero Diary."." The Nairobi Journal of Liteatue. 2007;5.
Litondo, kato, Ntale. "Women Micro and Small Enterprises as a Platform for Human Development in Kenya: A Case of Kisumu City." Strategic Management Quarterly. 2015;vol.3( No. 4):23-37. Abstractwomen_micro_and_small_enterprises_as_a_platform_for_human_development_in.pdf

Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) are contributing a lot to the Kenyan national
development in general and human development in particular. However, it was observed
that many of the women MSEs in the informal sector of Kisumu city are performing
poorly. Nevertheless, limited use of strategic management practices has been cited as one
of the main causes of poor business performance. This study therefore investigated the
best strategic management practices of women MSEs and their effect on human
development. Best strategic management practices investigated were: closing time, locus
of planning, planning horizon, change in government regulations, and possession of a
business plan, stock, change in technology, creditors, sales, debtors, competitors, profits
and opening time. A cross sectional survey design was used and systematic random
sampling employed to collect data from the women MSEs in Kisumu city. Descriptive
statistics, correlation analysis and linear probability model were used to analyze the
collected data. The results revealed that most of the women in Kisumu city are literate
and have at least attained primary level of education. The study established that strategic
management practices of women MSEs have a significant effect on human development.
However, few women MSEs apply best strategic management practices. The study also
shows that the women who keep records of their business transactions and involve their
employees in their business planning process have high chances of improving their
livelihoods by buying land, building permanent houses, getting business premises, and
joining Savings and Credit Co-operative Societies (SACCOs). The study recommends
that the Kisumu County government, church leaders, civil society groups and NonGovernmental
Organizations should organize workshops and seminars to sensitize
women entrepreneurs on the best strategic management practices. Microfinance
institutions should be prevailed over to give loans at reasonable interest rates to
prospective women entrepreneurs.

k litondo, Ntale F, Kato C. "Women Micro and Small Enterprises as a Platform for Human Development in Kenya: A Case of Kisumu City." Strategic Management Quarterly. 2016;3(4):23-37.women_micro.pdf
Njeri KM. "Women must determine their own destiny." Daily Nation (2013).
Mugivane F. "Women Performance in Livestock technology transfer in Vihiga,Kenya." The Kenya Veterinarian. 1999;24.
J B, C N, P M. Women Professionals in the Agricultural Sector: Kenya Case Study. Arkansas: Winrock International; 1992.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Women Scholars' role in perpetrating change : How the participation of Women in the Education Sector can encourage positive Development in Kenya".". In: The International Womens' Day Seminar on Woman, Her Diversity at the United States International University Africa (USIU-A) Nairobi. Kenya. 5 th March 2003. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2003.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Women Scholars' role in perpetrating change : How the participation of Women in the Education Sector can encourage positive Development in Kenya".". In: The International Womens' Day Seminar on Woman, Her Diversity at the United States International University Africa (USIU-A) Nairobi. Kenya. 5 th March 2003. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2003. Abstract

Tetralones were converted to tetralinylamines via Leuckart reaction.These were then used to protect carboxamide side-chains of glutamine and asparagine. Clevage studies using trifluoroacetic acid and boron tristrifluoroacetate were then done on these derivatives. The groups 1-tetralinyl, 5,7-dimethyl-1-tetralinyl and 7-methoxy-1-tetralinyl were found to be good carboxamide protecting groups in asparagine.

A. PM. "Women Should Focus on Whole Judiciary." Nairobi Star, July 24, 2023.
Alila PO, Mitullah WV, Kamau AW. Women street vendors.; 2002.Website
Mitullah WV, Alila PO, Kamau AW. Women street vendors.; 2002.Website
Alila PO, Mitullah WV, Kamau AW. Women street vendors. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2002.
K. M, Mbote PK, Musembi C. Women's Access to Land Land-based Resources among Forest-dwelling Communities in East Africa:. Nairobi: CASELAP, University of Nairobi; Submitted.
K. M, Mbote PK, Musembi C. Women's Access to Land Land-based Resources among Forest-dwelling Communities in East Africa:. Nairobi: CASELAP, University of Nairobi; Submitted.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Women's Agenda for a Democratic Kenya: Political Participation.". In: Paper presented at the National Women's Convention, KICC, Nairobi 22 February.; 1992. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. ""Women's Alliance for the Restoration of Lake Victoria", in Dying Lake Victoria (1996). Annex XI pp 85.". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1996.
MBURUGU PROFEDWARDK. ""Women's Income and Fertility in Rural Kenya", Working Paper No.441, Institute for Development Studies (IDS, Univ.". In: Proceedings of the 9th Internaitonal Conference of the Geological Society of Africa . Kisipan, M.L.; 1986. Abstract
Families in Kenya. In Handbook of World Families, edited by B.N. Adams and J. Trest. Sage Publication, 2005.
N. KC, Kimani MW. "Women's Indigenous Knowledge in Management of Natural Resources in Africa.". In: Association of Women in Development (AWID) Conference. Washington DC; 1993.
N. KC, Kimani MW. "Women's Indigenous Knowledge in Management of Natural Resources in Africa.". In: Association of Women in Development (AWID) Conference. Washington DC; 1993.
musimbi kavai M, Chepchirchir A, Kayugira R. "Women's knowledge of vesico vaginal fistula in Kenya." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2010;4:177-181. Abstract
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musimbi kavai M, Chepchirchir A, Kayugira R. "Women's knowledge of vesico vaginal fistula in Kenya." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2010;4:177-181. Abstract
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musimbi kavai M, Chepchirchir A, Kayugira R. "Women's knowledge of vesico vaginal fistula in Kenya." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2010;4:177-181. Abstract
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musimbi kavai M, Chepchirchir A, Kayugira R. "Women's knowledge of vesico vaginal fistula in Kenya." African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2013;4. AbstractWebsite

The predominant cause of vesico vaginal fistula (VVF) in developing countries is prolonged
labour accounting for 90%of the cases and the mainstay in management is prevention. A
cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at Kiambu District Hospital among women
attending antenatal care (ANC) where the main objective was to determine their level of
knowledge of VVF and sources of information.
A total of 137 women were recruited through systematic sampling. Interviews and focus
group discussions were conducted to collect data.
Data were analysed and presented using descriptive statistics in the form of percentages and
tables. Results showed that most ANC clients have little or no information about VVF.
It is recommended that health education offered in ANC facilities should incorporate facts
on VVF and its prevention.

MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Women's Land and Property Rights in Conflict SItuation (with N. Karuru).". In: Nairobi: CCR-WLEA. University of Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
African Review of Foreign Policy, Vol.1 No. 3, (Cirino Hiteng)
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Women's participation in decision making and Governance.". In: Trends and Strategies for advancement, Nairobi June.; 1994. Abstract

women's participation on decision making, Nairobi, April 8

Khasiani SA, Sunny G. Women's role in the supply of fuelwood.; 1992.Website
Njeru EHN. Women, Culture and Education. Nairobi: UNESCO; 2002. Abstract

In this preparatory phase of the establishment and regularization process regarding the
UNESCO Chair on "Women, basic education, community health and sustainable
development" to be housed in the Department of Sociology, it was deemed necessary to
hold a multi-disciplinary Strategic Planning Workshop to deliberate on the modalities of
expediency in the management of the Chair. These brief notes are a response to this need,
tailored specifically to addressing the theme 'Women, Culture and Education ", as an
integral component of the basic issues around which the activities of the Chair would
revolve and· evolve. This paper examines in broad outline, the role of culture and
education against the opportunities and involvement of women in health-seeking
behaviour and community health promotion within an overall context of sustainable
development.

"Women, Decision Making and Poverty.". In: Poverty Revised - Analysis and Strategies Towards Poverty Eradication in Kenya. Nairobi: Ruaraka Printing Press; 1998. Abstract

Poverty among women has been linked to r various social, cultural, economic, religious and political factors. This paper presents a sociocultural analysis of structural and psychological forces within social fabric that characterize the manifestation of male chauvinism against any affIrmative action to safeguard the interests of women. The focus is on the relationship between poverty and male violence as directed to women, in the process of which the women are treated and become junior partners in decision-making with regard to resource use, distribution, conservation and consolidation, within and outside the family.
The structural linkages between poverty and male violence against women arise from the fact that the overall impact of such violence is differential access to rights and opportunities by both sexes, denying women the various forms of autonomy in decision making and pursuit of many opportunities in order to compete at par with their male counterparts, especially within the context of income generation, property procurement and management. Under more equitable circumstances, women should own the products
of their labor, rather than having all the ownership rights vested in men, thereby depriving women of their rights in both the ownership and disposal of what they should otherwise be recognized as the major producers and rightful custodians. The empirical data from which the illustrations in this paper are drawn is based on a study of violence against women in Nairobi and Kajiado districts of Kenya By defmition, violence against women has been taken to include all gender-biased violence that
results or is likely to result in physical, psychological and other forms of harm or suffering to women. Violence against women can occur at the family, community and the wider
societal levels. The family-based violence covers physical, sexual and psychological violence within the family and specifically includes incest (against women and children), sexual abuse of female children in the household, marital rape, spousal violence and battering of women. At the community and wider societal levels, violence against women includes rape of women, rape of female children, various forms of sexual harassment, forced prostitution, women battering and denial of various social and economic rights.

W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Women, Development and Democracry in Africa, in W.O. Oyugi and A. Gitonga (eds).". In: Democratic Theory and Practice in Africa (Heinemann, Nairobi.; 1987. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

Kiamba A. "Women, Development and Representation.". In: Perspectives on Political leadership’ Paper presented to Forum for The Brazilian-African Women and their Challenges in this Millennium. Brazil; 2008.
Ngugi EN, Pinkham S, Malinowska-Sempruch K. "Women, harm reduction and HIV.". 2013. Abstract

This paper compares and contrasts number of partners and condom use behaviour for female sex workers and a sample of women working in other economic activities, with both samples drawn from the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi. As expected, univariate analysis revealed much higher numbers of overall sexual partners and higher levels of condom use among female sex workers compared to Kibera women in other occupations. An unexpected finding, however, was that female sex workers with a romantic partner had significantly fewer sexual partners per unit time than female sex workers without such a partner. This finding held for multivariate analysis, with negative binomial regression analyses showing that having a romantic partner was significantly associated with reductions in total number of both sexual partners overall and with sexual partners who did not use condoms. In contrast, HIV status, education, number of immediate family members and levels of alcohol consumption were non-significant factors for both regression analyses. Results suggest that female sex workers' romantic partners act as more than sources of possible HIV infection; rather, romantic partners appear to have an important positive impact on health. We discuss this finding in light of possible harm-reduction programmes focusing on female sex workers and their romantic partners.

Kameri-Mbote P. "Women, land rights and the environment: the Kenyan experience .". 2006. AbstractWebsite

Gender neutral statutory law on land and environment and its interplay with customary, religious and other social norms has impacted significantly on women's rights to access land and environmental resources. To change the prevailing conditions, innovative and radical approaches to land and environmental resources' stewardship are required. Rather than focusing on ownership of land for its own sake, we suggest here that roles that individuals play with regard to the land and environmental resources should determine rights to land and environmental resources. Such a focus would shift the locus of land and environmental resources' control from titular male household heads to the labourers and tenders of land who are mainly women

WINIFRED KAMAU W. "Women, Law and Dispute Resolution in Kenya: The Impact of Legal Pluralism." Presented at the LSA/RCSL International Conference on Law and Society held in Humboldt University, Berlin,; 2007. Abstract
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PATRICIA PROFKAMERMBOTEI. "'Women, Law and the Democratization Processing Kenya' in Wanjiku Kabira et. Al., Democratic Change in Kenya (1992) (with Kivutha Kibwana).". In: journal. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine; 1992. Abstract
Antibody responses to a conventional rabies preexposure regimen of a new purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and a human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) were compared in 80 healthy Kenyan veterinary students. Forty-three of the students received the PVRV and 37 received the HDCV on days 0, 7, and 28. Antibody responses were monitored using the rapid fluorescent-focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA) on days 0, 7, 28, and 49. Both vaccines elicited a rapid antibody response. A good correlation between the RFFIT titers and the INH EIA titers was obtained (r = 0.90). Our results also showed that the INH EIA was more reproducible and might therefore be a suitable substitute for the more expensive and less reproducible RFFIT. The geometric mean titers determined by both tests in the two groups of students were statistically similar during the test period. The RFFIT and the INH EIA gave comparable geometric mean titers, which differed significantly only on day 28 in the PVRV group. The effect of the new PVRV is comparable to that of the more expensive HDCV, as determined by the present test systems. The PVRV could therefore be the vaccine of choice, especially in tropical rabies-endemic areas, where the high cost of the HDCV has confined its use to a privileged few.
W. PROFNZOMOMARIA. "Women, Third World and International Peace, in Atlantis.". In: A Women's Studies Journal Vol. 12 No. 2 Spring.; 1987. Abstract

Journal of Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies

NTHIA PROFNJERUEH. ""Women-Headed Households: A Critical Factor in Urban Development." Co-authored with J.M. Mbula Bahemuka. In Obudho and Aldershot (Eds.) Nairobi and its Environs:.". In: A Geographical Study of Capital City in African, Vol. 1 & 2. Ashgate Publishing Co. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1996. Abstract
This study set out to examine the policy position in Kenyan health care financing, with regard to implementation of the proposed social health scheme (NSHIF) and its performance potential. The specific objectives were to: examine the existing social scheme (NHIF), its role and challenges in health care financing; establish whether or not Kenya has the key pre-requisites for introduction and sustainability of a social health scheme and to provide recommendations on the way forward. This was largely a desk study, supplemented with limited primary data from key informants. The analysis indicates that: i) For a universal social health plan to be sustainable, favorable economic indicators and availability of essential infrastructures are critical prerequisites. Resources must be available, government must be in a position to afford high subsidies, the population must be ready to pay high premiums and the supply of health services must be adequate to cater for the expected increase in demand; ii) Countries that have successfully embraced social health plans introduced their schemes carefully and gradually (overtime) in terms of coverage; iii) Kenya compares unfavorably with these countries in terms of prerequisites for sustainability of a social health scheme, due largely to a poor economy, high poverty levels and shortfalls in facilities and services. The study concludes that Kenya lacks the key prerequisites for introducing and sustaining a universal social health scheme. The scheme can hardly be supported by the current status of the economy and healthcare infrastructures. The study recommends: i) Expansion and development of health care infrastructural capacities through subsidies and tax concessions for those investing in health care and providing subsidized services, particularly to the poor and rehabilitation of the GoK facilities; ii) Increasing the health budget from 7 per cent of government expenditure to above 10 per cent and directing more resources and efforts towards preventive/promotive and primary health care (P&PH); and iii) Other recommendations include subjecting the proposed scheme to an actuarial evaluation and comprehensive policy plan in order to determine the attendant and corresponding premium and benefit levels and pursuing a phased approach in the implementation of the scheme.
Muchiri J. Women’s Autobiography: Voices from Independent Kenya. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag; 2010.
Muriithi EM, Gunga SO, Ngesu LM, K’Odhiambo AK, Wachira LN. "Women’s Contributions to the Philosophy of Education: Hermeneutics of Proverbs." International Journal of Education and Research . 2013;Vol. 1 (No. 3). AbstractWebsite

Abstract
This paper uses hermeneutics to make overt what, somehow, has been covert, as far as women’s contributions are concerned in the discipline of philosophy of education. The approach attempts to interpret proverbs within the axiological milieu with a view to exposing them for proper understanding or documentation that takes cognizance of women’s contributions to the discipline. Cultures such as Judaism where women’s contributions to philosophy of education are overt are also considered. It is concluded that within any axiological milieu, women’s contributions to philosophy of education are immense and they await interpretation, documentation and assimilation into contemporary discourses. It is the contention of this paper that what is exposed and genuinely interpreted will usher in the right critical thinking in education dialectics. The paper proposes the concept of intergenderism as an ideal that seeks to recognize at the same time both men and women’s contributions to the philosophy of education.
Key words: milieu, covert, education, hermeneutics, intergenderism, overt, philosophy and women.

Gunga SO, Muriithi EM, Kodhiambo A K, Ngesu LM. "Women’s Contributions to the Philosophy of Education: Hermeneutics of Proverbs.". 2013.
EM Muriithi, SO Gunga LMNAKK’OLNW. "Women’s Contributions to the Philosophy of Education: Hermeneutics of Proverbs." International Journal of Education and Research. 2013.
P S. "Women’s economic empowerment: From deprivation to sustenance." Kardan Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities . 2022;5(1):1-14.
Kabira WM. "Women’s Experiences as Sources of Public and Legitimate Knowledge: Constitution Making in Kenya." Pathwaysto African Feminism and Development, Journal of the African Women Studies CentreUniversity of Nairobi.. 2013.
Daniel, and Olungah A. "Women’s Indigenous Knowledge in Household Food Security.". In: The Case of Mulili Sub-location, Eastern Keny. Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
Chepchirchir A, others. "Women’s Knowledge of vesicovaginal fistula.". 2001. Abstract
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"Michuki G". "Women’s Land Rights: Cultural Dynamism and Decentralized Land Administration in Kenya." Global Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences. 2015;4(3):131-140.
Ogutu M;, Onglatco M-L;, Kakuyama T;, Matsui T. "Women′s Perceptions of Social-Sexual Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Replication .". 1995. AbstractWebsite

Japanese female undergraduates (N = 258) read a vignette depicting social-sexual behavior toward a woman at work and indicated their perceptions of the incident, the coping responses expected from the target, and their own sex-role attitudes and social self-esteem. Three contextual variables (actor status, actor-target familiarity, and the sexuality of body touching) were manipulated in the vignette. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that women having liberal sex-role attitudes perceived the behavior to be more inappropriate and expected more assertive coping responses of the target than women having conservative sex-role attitudes, and that women having low social self-esteem perceived the behavior to be more sexually intimidating than women having high social self-esteem. Only the sexuality of body touching influenced women′s perceptions. Similarities and differences in the perceptions of Japanese and American women are discussed.

OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "WOOD, S.C., JOHANSEN, K. GLASS, M.L. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1978) Aerobic metabolism of varanid lizards: effect of temperature, size and activity. Journal of Comparative Physiology 127, 331-336.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1978. Abstract

Oxygen consumption ([(V)\dot]O2 )(\dot V_{O_2 } ) was measured at rest and during spontaneous activity at body temperatures of 25 and 35C in 14 fasting Savanna monitor lizards,Varanus exanthematicus ranging in weight from 172 to 7500 g. The allometric relationship between metabolic rate at 25C and body weight (W) is given by: [(V)\dot]O2 \dot V_{O_2 } (ml O2 STPDg–1hr–1)=0.88W –0.43 (Fig. 2). Although statistical comparisons are equivocal, this intraspecific size dependence exceeds that reported for interspecific comparisons among reptiles and other vertebrate groups (Fig 3). A reproducible diurnal pattern of activity was observed in undisturbed animals with minimum values of [(V)\dot]O2 \dot V_{O_2 } between 2400 and 0800 h (Fig. 1). Spontaneous activity and [(V)\dot]O2 \dot V_{O_2 } generally reached peak values between 1200 and 2000 hrs. The average ratio of active aerobic metabolic rate (AMR) to minimum (standard) aerobic metabolic rate (SMR) was 8.2. This voluntary AMR/SMR inVaranus exceeds the AMR/SMR for most reptiles stimulated to exhaustion. The high aerobic capacity is consistent with other evidence for efficient exchange and transport of respiratory gases inV. exanthematicus; e.g., low or absent intracardiac shunt flow resulting in high arterial saturation and low ventilation ([(V)\dot]/[(V)\dot]O2 )(\dot V/\dot V_{O_2 } ) and perfusion ([(Q)\dot]/[(V)\dot]O2 )(\dot Q/\dot V_{O_2 } ) requirements.

OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "WOOD, S.C., LYKKEBOE, G., JOHANSEN, K. and MALOIY, G.M.O.(1978) Temperature acclimation in the pancake tortoise (Malacochoerus tornieri): metabolic rate, blood pH, oxygen affinity and red blood cell organic phospahates. Comparative Biochemistry and Physio.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1978. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "WOOD, S.C., WEBER R.E., MALOIY, G.M.O., and JOHANSEN. K(1975) Oxygen uptake and blood respiratory properties of the caecillian (Boulengerula taitanus). Respiration Physiology 24, 355-363.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1975. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
Mugo FW. "Woodfuel production in social forestry.". In: Professionals from 17 African Countries . KEFRI-Kenya ; 2000.
Mugo FW. "Woodfuel situation in Kenya."; 1993.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Woodlands and livelihoods of African pastoralists: The Maasai of Kajiado, Kenya. Journal of Social Sciences, 5:235-238.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2001. Abstract
A participatory vegetation inventory and research was conducted in Mashuuru Division, Kajiado District of Kenya, with an overall objective of capturing the indigenous knowledge of the Maasai pastoralist community on vegetation resources. Data collection was done through questionnaires, community workshops and meetings whereby the pastoralist, administration and extension personnel, and prominent leaders were invited. Representative pastoralists were engaged during the actual field data collection to assist in naming of vegetation types and uses of plant species encountered. The pastoralists gave detailed information on the status of vegetation degradation, which they considered as a major threat to their sources of livelihood. The information included indicators of vegetation degradation, the possible approaches, and benefits of reversing the degradation trend. The pastoralists also named and categorized plants into those that provide fodder and food for livestock and humans respectively; medicinal value to livestock and humans; woodfuel; construction, poisonous to livestock and humans; and as environmental quality indicators. Finally, they named five plant species which they considered threatened with extinction due to over-harvesting for medicinal and other uses. The study showed that both indigenous knowledge held by farmers and technical knowledge held by researchers are complimentary and they need each other for more responsive research activities. The data collected from such participatory involvement of pastoralists is demand driven and therefore guides the researchers on the type of research interventions for enhanced natural resource management.
"Fungomeli M", Cianciaruso M, Zannini P, Githitho A, Frascaroli F, Fulanda B, Kibet S, Wiemers B, Mbuvi MT. "Woody plant species diversity of the coastal forests of Kenya: filling in knowledge gaps in a biodiversity hotspot." Plant Biosystems-An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology. 2020;154(6):973-982.
JK Omari, Mworia JK, Gichuki N, Mligo C. "Woody Species Composition in Upper Tana River Floodplain of Kenya: Potential Effects of Change in Flood Regimes." Journal of sustainability, environment and peace . 2019;1:91-97.
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Woomer P.L., J.H.P. Kahindi and N.K. Karanja, 1998. Nirogen replenishment in the East African Highlands through Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Legume Inoculation. Agronomie Africaine (Special Issue) No. 1, 387-413.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Woomer P.L., J.H.P. Kahindi and N.K. Karanja, 1998. Nirogen replenishment in the East African Highlands through Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Legume Inoculation. Agronomie Africaine (Special Issue) No. 1, 387-413.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Woomer, P.L., Mateete A. Bekunda, Nancy K. Karanja, Thomas Moorehouse and Robert Okalebo, 1998. Agricultural Resource Management by smallholder farmers in East Africa. Nature and Resources, UNESCO Journal on the Environmental and Natural Resources Researc.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Woomer, P.L., Mateete A. Bekunda, Nancy K. Karanja, Thomas Moorehouse and Robert Okalebo, 1998. Agricultural Resource Management by smallholder farmers in East Africa. Nature and Resources, UNESCO Journal on the Environmental and Natural Resources Researc.". In: In proceedings of the 17th conference of Soil Science Society of East Africa (eds J.S. Tenywa, J.Y.K Zake, P.Ebanyat, O. Semalulu and S.T. NkaluboP pp 189-193.; 1998. Abstract
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Ogana W. "A word on the last word (Literary criticism)." Busara,. 1970;Vol. 3(No. 1):pp. 38-43.
Mungania BG. Word order in the Kiswahili clause: a Minimalist approach. Schroeder H, Okombo O, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018.
Schröder H. Word Order in Toposa: An Aspect of Multiple Feature-Checking. Arlington, US : SIL International and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics 142; 2008.
Nganga W. Word Sense Disambiguation of Swahili: Extending Swahili Language Technology with Machine Learning. Helsinki University Press; 2005. Abstract

This thesis addresses the problem of word sense disambiguation within the context of Swahili-English machine translation. In this setup, the goal of disambiguation is to choose the correct translation of an ambiguous Swahili noun in context. A corpus based approach to disambiguation is taken, where machine learning techniques are applied to a corpus of Swahili, to acquire disambiguation information automatically. In particular, the Self-Organizing Map algorithm is used to obtain a semantic categorization of Swahili nouns from data. The resulting classes form the basis of a class-based solution, where disambiguation is recast as a classification problem. The thesis exploits these semantic classes to automatically obtain annotated training data, addressing a key problem facing supervised word sense disambiguation. The semantic and linguistic characteristics of these classes are modelled as Bayesian belief networks, using the Bayesian Modelling Toolbox. Disambiguation is achieved via probabilistic inferencing.The thesisdevelops a disambiguation solution which does not make extensive resource requirements, but rather capitalizes on freely-available lexical and computational resources for English as a source of additional disambiguation information. A semantic tagger for Swahili is created by altering the configuration of the Bayesian classifiers. The disambiguation solution is tested on a subset of unambiguous nouns and a manually created gold standard of sixteen ambiguous nouns, using standard performance evaluation metrics.

SHEM MRON'GONDO. "Work Essay 1994 LL.M (1994), International Law Protection for Refugees and Stateless Persons.". In: International Journal of BiochemiPhysics Vol. 6 & 7, (Nos. 1 & 2) : 45 . Jane A. Otadoh,, Sheila A. Okoth, James Ochanda, James P. Khaindi; 1994. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Ongong’a JJ, Akaranga SI. "Work ethics for lecturers: An example of Nairobi and Kenyatta Universities." International Journal of Arts and COmmerce. 2013;Vol.21 No.8(8):8-22.work_ethics_for_lecturersan_example_of_nairobi_and_kenyatta_universities.pdf
Ebrahim YH, Muthoni M. "Work place influence health." Standard Newspaper, November 15, 0200:27-28.
Odundo Paul Amolloh, Wanjiru KG, Lilian GK. "Work-based Learning, Procedural Knowledge and Teacher Trainee Preparedness towards Teaching Practice at the University of Nairobi, Kenya. ." The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. . 2018;17(3):96-110.
MUTUKU DRMUTIEPIUS. ""Work-based, Family and Consumer Research into Attitudes and Behaviour Towards Girls' Work in the Urban Informal Sectors in Nairobi, Kisumu, Mombasa, Eldoret, Nakuru, Nyeri and Busia Towns in Kenya" (upcoming publication; funded by ILO/IPEC).". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MUTUKU DRMUTIEPIUS. ""Work-based, Family and Consumer Research into Attitudes and Behaviour Towards Girls' Work in the Urban Informal Sectors in Nairobi, Kisumu, Mombasa, Eldoret, Nakuru, Nyeri and Busia Towns in Kenya" funded by ILO/IPEC.2006.". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2006. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Manyara PO, Mwero JN, Mutua H. "Workability, Compressive, and Tensile Split Strength Behavior of Blue Gum Ash Glass Concrete." International Journal of Science and Research Publications (IJSRP). 2018;Vol 8(4).
Jumba IO, Wandiga SO. "Worker exposure and health risks from volatile organic compounds utilized in the paint manufacturing industry in Kenya.". In: Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene (U.S.A.)16 (11):1035-1042. Association of Africa Universities; 2001. Abstract

This study provides a means for the evaluation of cleaner manufacturing and the provision of cost-effective worker health improvements in developing nations. Individual worker exposure to volatile organic compounds was measured in the paint manufacturing plants of Nairobi, Kenya. A variety of different paint production jobs were monitored, including laboratory researchers, mixers, tinters, fillers, cleaners, raw materials deliverers, and resins producers.
Exposure levels were calculated based on a time-weighted average over an entire 8-10 hour workday. The paint solvents used can cause both acute and chronic health problems for the workers exposed. For example, over half of the or-ganics monitored, i.e. benzene, styrene, and xylene, exhibit carcinogenic properties. The lifetime cancer risk from exposure to these paint solvents was estimated utilizing published cancer potencies, and the risks range from 1.90 x 10-4for raw materials deliverers to 2.60 x 10-2for cleaners.
The highest exposure tasks included cleaning the mixing vats and mixing the paint product, ranging from risks of 8.5 x 10-4 to 2.6 x 10-2, providing evidence that solvent exposure occurs due to point sources. Because of this, simple and inexpensive technologies should significantly reduce the excess exposure of workers in these manufacturing facilities. The cost of minor innovations in the plants themselves, such as fans, drum and mixing vat covers, and respirators, could amount to as much as five times less than the estimated cost of treating workers who develop cancer due to paint solvent exposure.
Keywords Benzene Exposure, Developing Countries, Kenya, Occupational Exposure, Paint Manufacturing, Risk As-assessment, Volatile Organic Compounds

ISAAC PROFJUMBA, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Worker exposure and health risks from volatile organic compounds utilized in the paint manufacturing industry in Kenya.". In: Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene (U.S.A.)16 (11):1035-1042. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2001. Abstract
The world is today faced with the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS that has evolved rapidly since it was first described. The pandemic has been termed the greatest development challenge for sub Saharan Africa and is rapidly evolving in the Asian continent. The pandemic ha had a significantly negative impact on individual families through loss of loved ones, communities by increasing the burden of caring for the ill, and countries through reduced productivity.     As we look forward to the 21st century, the human population is reminded that even in an age where drugs to treat most ailments are available, human behaviour and individual aspirations are critical in the control of disease. Factors that affect human and social behaviour, such as poverty, discrimination and disenfranchisement have to be addressed on a global basis if the HIV/AIDS epidemic is to be controlled. The HIV/AIDS epidemic presents special challenges and new frontiers for public health interventions and research. HIV/AIDS has revealed the gaps in the understanding of how human behaviour is motivated and how it can be changed.     In this publication we present a review of some of the programs that are specifically targeting the youth with HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the countries of   This publication records the stories of men and women in Eastern Africa, who have tremendous commitment to the work they do even with minimal resources, because they have a vision for the youth of the African continent. It is a story of innovation, creativity, determination and partnership between adults and youth, communities and governments, countries, aid agencies and NGOSs.
IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Workers Participation in Decision Making: Joint Consultation Machinery.". In: paper presented at ARLAK Industrial Relations Seminar, Nairobi. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1984. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Manda DK, Nyongesa E. "Workers Rights and the Global Economy” ICFTU Background Paper for the Conference on Defending Workers.". In: Human Rights in the Economy. Nairobi, Kenya; 1998.
ONYANGO M A, OLUOCH M F. "Workforce Diversity and Performance of Kisumu Law Courts, Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2019;10(12):doi:10.30845/ijbss.v10n12p3.
KIRUI G K, J. WANJARE, J. OOKO, OLUOCH M F. "WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF SUGAR CANE OUTGROWER COMPANIES IN KENYA." International Journal of Social Science and Economic Research. 2017;2(4):ISSN: 2455-8834.
Odada E, Zalasiewicz J, Waters CN, Summerhayes CP, Wolfe AP, et al. "The Working Group on the Anthropocene: Summary of evidence and interim recommendations." Anthropocene. 2017;19:55-60. AbstractFull Text

Since 2009, the Working Group on the ‘Anthropocene’ (or, commonly, AWG for Anthropocene Working Group), has been critically analysing the case for formalization of this proposed but still informal geological time unit. The study to date has mainly involved establishing the overall nature of the Anthropocene as a potential chronostratigraphic/geochronologic unit, and exploring the stratigraphic proxies, including several that are novel in geology, that might be applied to its characterization and definition. A preliminary summary of evidence and interim recommendations was presented by the Working Group at the 35th International Geological Congress in Cape Town, South Africa, in August 2016, together with results of voting by members of the AWG indicating the current balance of opinion on major questions surrounding the Anthropocene. The majority opinion within the AWG holds the Anthropocene to be stratigraphically real, and recommends formalization at epoch/series rank based on a mid-20th century boundary. Work is proceeding towards a formal proposal based upon selection of an appropriate Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), as well as auxiliary stratotypes. Among the array of proxies that might be used as a primary marker, anthropogenic radionuclides associated with nuclear arms testing are the most promising; potential secondary markers include plastic, carbon isotope patterns and industrial fly ash. All these proxies have excellent global or near-global correlation potential in a wide variety of sedimentary bodies, both marine and non-marine.

IRAKI WN. "Working Paper 1: Economics of (and) ideas: Using patents as a measure of National Competitiveness.". In: Journal of Environmental Geology (38) 3, pp 259-264. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2010. Abstract

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OWINO MISSOKETCHEMMA. "Working paper for the Belgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU.". In: Strathmore University Press, 2006. Kisipan, M.L.; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) occurs in up to one fourth of patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Some of the factors implicated in its causation include hypergastrinaemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, drugs and, recently, Helicobacter pylori infection. Studies on the latter have been few, with none having been carried out in Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopic findings and to determine the prevalence of H. pylori in CRF patients with dyspepsia. STUDY DESIGN AND POPULATION: A prospective study of seventy seven consecutive patients with CRF and dyspepsia compared with consecutive age, sex and socio-economically matched seventy seven controls (no CRF) with dyspepsia. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the major referral and teaching hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. METHODS: In both the study population and the controls, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was carried out. H. pylori was tested for using the biopsy urease test and histology. Patients were considered to have H. pylori if they tested positive on both tests. OUTCOME MEASURES: Findings at endoscopy and presence of H. pylori. RESULTS: Inflammatory lesions (gastritis, duodenitis) (42%) and duodenal ulcers (18.4%) were the commonest findings in the two groups combined. The prevalence of H. pylori in the 154 subjects studied was 54.5%. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of H. pylori in CRF patients (53.2%) and the controls (55.8%) (p = 0.746). Patients with endoscopically proven PUD had a very high prevalence of H. pylori (87.3%) regardless of their renal function status. CONCLUSION: Dyspepsia in patients with or without CRF was due to multiple causes and over 50% were attributable to H. pylori. The prevalence of H. pylon in dyspeptic CRF patients was similar to that in dyspeptic patients with normal renal function.
Isabella Epiu, Jossy Verel Bahe Tindimwebwa, Cephas Mijumbi, Francois Ndarugirire, Theogene Twagirumugabe, Lugaz ER, Chokwe TM. "Working towards safer surgery in Africa; a survey of utilization of the WHO safe surgical checklist at the main referral hospitals in East Africa ." BMC Anesthesiology . 2016;2016 (16)(BMC series – 2016(16):60).
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Working with Rural Communities, University of Nairobi Press (Chitere, P.O. and Mutiso, R. eds.).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991.
CHEGE DRGITAOGEORGE. "Workshop on Modeling for Rift valley fever. Lilian Towers: AU/IBARApril 2-4, 2003.". In: AU/IBARApril 2-4. D.M.Matheka,T.N kiama; 2003. Abstract
The stability of adrenaline ophthalmic solutions, at pH 5.8 and 7.4, to sterilization and storage conditions has been studied. Solutions sterilized by filtration or heating at 98 degrees C for 30 min showed no detectable degradation at either pH value, whilst sterilization at higher temperatures resulted in losses of up to 30%. Total degradation increased with increasing sterilization temperature at both pH values.
Kiai W. Workshop On Politics Of Transition In Kenya. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation & University of Nairobi, Department of Political Science and Public Administration; 2002.

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