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Odada E, Zalasiewicz J, Waters CN, Williams M, Barnosky AD, et al. "When did the Anthropocene begin? A mid-twentieth century boundary level is stratigraphically optimal." Quaternary International. 2015;383:196-203. AbstractFull Text

We evaluate the boundary of the Anthropocene geological time interval as an epoch, since it is useful to have a consistent temporal definition for this increasingly used unit, whether the presently informal term is eventually formalized or not. Of the three main levels suggested – an ‘early Anthropocene’ level some thousands of years ago; the beginning of the Industrial Revolution at ∼1800 CE (Common Era); and the ‘Great Acceleration’ of the mid-twentieth century – current evidence suggests that the last of these has the most pronounced and globally synchronous signal. A boundary at this time need not have a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP or ‘golden spike’) but can be defined by a Global Standard Stratigraphic Age (GSSA), i.e. a point in time of the human calendar. We propose an appropriate boundary level here to be the time of the world's first nuclear bomb explosion, on July 16th 1945 at Alamogordo, New Mexico; additional bombs were detonated at the average rate of one every 9.6 days until 1988 with attendant worldwide fallout easily identifiable in the chemostratigraphic record. Hence, Anthropocene deposits would be those that may include the globally distributed primary artificial radionuclide signal, while also being recognized using a wide range of other stratigraphic criteria. This suggestion for the Holocene–Anthropocene boundary may ultimately be superseded, as the Anthropocene is only in its early phases, but it should remain practical and effective for use by at least the current generation of scientists.

G.O.Oyoo, E. K. Genga. "When is the last time you looked for diff use infi ltrative lymphocytosis syndrome in HIV patients?" Afr J Rheumatol. 2014;2(2)(1):2-6. Abstractdiff_use_infi_ltrative.pdf

Background: Di use In ltrative
Lymphocytosis Syndrome (DILS) is
characterised by a persistent CD8+
lymphocytosis and lymphocytic
in ltration of various organs. The exact
prevalence isn’t known but some studies
have reported between 0.85 – 3%, and
appears to be more common in African
population. Patients with DILS tend to have higher CD4 cell counts and survive
longer than those patients without DILS.
Most patients present with bilateral
parotid gland enlargement and features
of the Sicca syndrome. Common sites
of extra glandular involvement are the
lungs being the most common site,
followed by peripheral neuropathy and
liver. With the high incidence of HIV in
our population it is likely that DILS is
under diagnosed probably due to our
ignorance of this disease. Awareness of
its various presentations may bring to
light undiscovered patients with DILS.
Objective: To review pathogenesis,
diagnostic approach and current trends
in the management of di use interstitial
lymphocytic syndrome.
Data source:  Literature review of
relevant published literature from both
Africa and the rest of the world.
Data synthesis: Pathologically, under
light microscopy, DILS resembles the
focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren’s
syndrome, although it tends to be less
destructive of the glandular architecture
than in Sjogren’s syndrome. Most of the
in ammatory in ltrate is composed
of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren’s
which are CD4+. Lymphoepithelial
cysts are frequently observed in the
parotid glands of patients with DILS.
The variation in CD8+ count in the
course of HIV disease is less understood.
The variation in CD8+ lymphocytes is
implicated in the pathogenesis of a
number of clinical manifestations in HIV
diseases including Di use In ltrative
Lymphocytic Syndrome (DILS) and
HIV associated CD8+ lymphocytosis
syndrome. Parotid gland enlargement
in a patient with HIV infection should prompt clinicians to suspect DILS. In addition, clinicians should be aware
that the pulmonary process associated
with DILS may mimic clinically and
radiographically the pneumonic process
caused by pneumocystis carinii. Other
manifestations of DILS to consider
include a severe form of peripheral
neuropathy; lymphocytic in ltration of
the liver, evident as hepatitis; myositis;
and lymphocytic interstitial nephritis.
Management of DILS is determined
by the severity of glandular and extra
glandular features. Data on therapeutic
trials are lacking although there are
isolated reports of good response to
antiretroviral and steroid therapy.
Conclusion: DILS, a subset of HIV
disease manifestation, may present as
parotid gland swellings. In general, an
HIV patient presenting with DILS has a
better prognosis than a patient with HIV
alone. With the high incidence of HIV
in our population it is likely that DILS is
under diagnosed probably due to our
ignorance of this disease. Awareness of
its various presentations may bring to
light undiscovered patients with DILS.
Clinicians should watch for the possible
transformation into B-cell lymphoma.
There is still paucity of data about
this disease from pathophysiology to
treatment to studies correlating the
plasma viral load with CD8+ lymphocyte
count in patients with HIV disease.

Genga EK, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF. "WHEN IS THE LAST TIME YOU LOOKED FOR DIFFUSE INFILTRATIVE LYMPHOCYTOSIS SYNDROME (DILS) IN HIV PATIENT?" African Journal of Rheumatology. 2014;2(2):3-6. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) is characterised by a persistent CD8+ lymphocytosis and lymphocytic infiltration of various organs. The exact prevalence isn’t known but some studies have reported between 0.85 – 3%, and appears to be more common in African population. Patients with DILS tend to have higher CD4cell counts and survive longer than those patients without DILS. Most patients present with bilateral parotid gland enlargement and features of the Sicca syndrome. Common sites of extra glandular involvement are the lungs being the most common site, followed by peripheral neuropathy and liver. With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS.
OBJECTIVE: To review pathogenesis, diagnostic approach and current trends in the management of Diffuse interstitial lymphocytic syndrome
DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world.
DATA SYNTHESIS:Pathologically, under light microscopy, DILS resembles the focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren’s syndrome, although it tends to be less destructive of the glandular architecture than in Sjogren’s syndrome. Most of the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren’s which are CD4+. Lymphoepithelial cysts are frequently observed in the parotid glands of patients with DILS. The variation in CD8 count in the course of HIV disease is less understood. The variation in CD8 lymphocytes is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical manifestations in HIV diseases including diffuse infiltrative lymphocytic syndrome (DILS) and HIV associated CD8+ lymphocytosis syndrome.Parotid gland enlargement in a patient with HIV infection should prompt clinicians to suspect DILS. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the pulmonary process associated with DILS may mimic clinically and radiographically the pneumonic process caused by Pneumocystis carinii. Other manifestations of DILS to consider include a severe form of peripheral neuropathy; lymphocytic infiltration of the liver, evident as hepatitis; myositis; and lymphocytic interstitial nephritis.Management of DILS is determined by the severity of glandular and extra glandularfeatures.Data on therapeutic trials are lacking although there are isolated reports of good response to antiretroviral and steroid therapy.

CONCLUSION: DILS, a subset of HIV disease manifestation, may present as parotid gland swellings. In general, an HIV patient presenting with DILS has a better prognosis than a patient with HIV alone.With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS. Clinicians should watch for the possible transformation into B-cell lymphoma. There is still paucity of data about this disease from pathophysiology to treatment to studies correlating the plasma viral load with CD8 lymphocyte count in patients with HIV disease.

Genga EK, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF. "WHEN IS THE LAST TIME YOU LOOKED FOR DIFFUSE INFILTRATIVE LYMPHOCYTOSIS SYNDROME (DILS) IN HIV PATIENT?" African Journal of Rheumatology. 2014;2(2):3-6. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) is characterised by a persistent CD8+ lymphocytosis and lymphocytic infiltration of various organs. The exact prevalence isn’t known but some studies have reported between 0.85 – 3%, and appears to be more common in African population. Patients with DILS tend to have higher CD4cell counts and survive longer than those patients without DILS. Most patients present with bilateral parotid gland enlargement and features of the Sicca syndrome. Common sites of extra glandular involvement are the lungs being the most common site, followed by peripheral neuropathy and liver. With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS.
OBJECTIVE: To review pathogenesis, diagnostic approach and current trends in the management of Diffuse interstitial lymphocytic syndrome
DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world.
DATA SYNTHESIS:Pathologically, under light microscopy, DILS resembles the focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren’s syndrome, although it tends to be less destructive of the glandular architecture than in Sjogren’s syndrome. Most of the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren’s which are CD4+. Lymphoepithelial cysts are frequently observed in the parotid glands of patients with DILS. The variation in CD8 count in the course of HIV disease is less understood. The variation in CD8 lymphocytes is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical manifestations in HIV diseases including diffuse infiltrative lymphocytic syndrome (DILS) and HIV associated CD8+ lymphocytosis syndrome.Parotid gland enlargement in a patient with HIV infection should prompt clinicians to suspect DILS. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the pulmonary process associated with DILS may mimic clinically and radiographically the pneumonic process caused by Pneumocystis carinii. Other manifestations of DILS to consider include a severe form of peripheral neuropathy; lymphocytic infiltration of the liver, evident as hepatitis; myositis; and lymphocytic interstitial nephritis.Management of DILS is determined by the severity of glandular and extra glandularfeatures.Data on therapeutic trials are lacking although there are isolated reports of good response to antiretroviral and steroid therapy.

CONCLUSION: DILS, a subset of HIV disease manifestation, may present as parotid gland swellings. In general, an HIV patient presenting with DILS has a better prognosis than a patient with HIV alone.With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS. Clinicians should watch for the possible transformation into B-cell lymphoma. There is still paucity of data about this disease from pathophysiology to treatment to studies correlating the plasma viral load with CD8 lymphocyte count in patients with HIV disease.

Genga EK, Oyoo GO, Otieno CF. "WHEN IS THE LAST TIME YOU LOOKED FOR DIFFUSE INFILTRATIVE LYMPHOCYTOSIS SYNDROME (DILS) IN HIV PATIENT?" African Journal of Rheumatology. 2014;2(2):3-6. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS) is characterised by a persistent CD8+ lymphocytosis and lymphocytic infiltration of various organs. The exact prevalence isn’t known but some studies have reported between 0.85 – 3%, and appears to be more common in African population. Patients with DILS tend to have higher CD4cell counts and survive longer than those patients without DILS. Most patients present with bilateral parotid gland enlargement and features of the Sicca syndrome. Common sites of extra glandular involvement are the lungs being the most common site, followed by peripheral neuropathy and liver. With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS.
OBJECTIVE: To review pathogenesis, diagnostic approach and current trends in the management of Diffuse interstitial lymphocytic syndrome
DATA SOURCE: Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world.
DATA SYNTHESIS:Pathologically, under light microscopy, DILS resembles the focal sialadenitis seen with Sjogren’s syndrome, although it tends to be less destructive of the glandular architecture than in Sjogren’s syndrome. Most of the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of CD8+ lymphocytes unlike Sjogren’s which are CD4+. Lymphoepithelial cysts are frequently observed in the parotid glands of patients with DILS. The variation in CD8 count in the course of HIV disease is less understood. The variation in CD8 lymphocytes is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of clinical manifestations in HIV diseases including diffuse infiltrative lymphocytic syndrome (DILS) and HIV associated CD8+ lymphocytosis syndrome.Parotid gland enlargement in a patient with HIV infection should prompt clinicians to suspect DILS. In addition, clinicians should be aware that the pulmonary process associated with DILS may mimic clinically and radiographically the pneumonic process caused by Pneumocystis carinii. Other manifestations of DILS to consider include a severe form of peripheral neuropathy; lymphocytic infiltration of the liver, evident as hepatitis; myositis; and lymphocytic interstitial nephritis.Management of DILS is determined by the severity of glandular and extra glandularfeatures.Data on therapeutic trials are lacking although there are isolated reports of good response to antiretroviral and steroid therapy.

CONCLUSION: DILS, a subset of HIV disease manifestation, may present as parotid gland swellings. In general, an HIV patient presenting with DILS has a better prognosis than a patient with HIV alone.With the high incidence of HIV in our population it is likely that DILS is under diagnosed probably due to our ignorance of this disease. Awareness of its various presentations may bring to light undiscovered patients with DILS. Clinicians should watch for the possible transformation into B-cell lymphoma. There is still paucity of data about this disease from pathophysiology to treatment to studies correlating the plasma viral load with CD8 lymphocyte count in patients with HIV disease.

Okeng'o GO'a. "When the dark-sector components``talk''to each other." IAU General Assembly. 2015;22. Abstract
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Lund, JF; Larsen HO; CBK; RNOJ; OCSS;. "When Theory Meets Reality – How To Do Forest Income Surveys In Practice."; 2008.
"When to operate in strabismus.". In: ollege of Ophthalmology of Eastern Central and Southern Africa (COECSA. Naivasha,Kenya; 2015.when_to_operate_in_strabismus-_njambi-_coecsa_2015.pdf
Manyuira W. "When you stick out like a sore thumb at the office." Daily Nation, September 25, 2023:DN 2.
Iraki XN. "Where America derives her greatness from." The Standard, July 25, 2023.
Mustalahti I. "Where and how can participatory forest management succeed? Learning from Tanzania, Mozambique, and Laos.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

This article deals with participatory forest management (PFM) in Tanzania, Mozambique, and Laos, focusing on the degree to which the legislation supports local communities' security of rights to the forest resources and access to resource benefits, as well as the degree to which the legislation is implemented. The findings are that local communities' security of rights and access to benefits differ markedly among the three countries, whereas there is a striking similarity in the absence of efforts to implement PFM, in particular in areas with valuable timber resources. The underlying reasons for the differences are poor institutional setups and conflicting economic interests at various levels. We argue that the approach to support PFM should acknowledge differences between countries and areas, and that, under all conditions, assistance to communities in building advocacy organizations that can assert their legal rights and demand commitment of national governments is a fundamental prerequisite for success.

Ondicho TG. "Where are African Women in Governance." Just Change. 2010;17(21).
TOM DONDICHO. "Where are the women in African governance?". In: International Journal of Business and Economic Review, , Vol. 10, No. 1, (2012): 97-111. Just Change 17:21; 2010.
TOM DONDICHO. "Where are the women in African governance?". In: Journal of Dental Research, 2002. Just Change 17:21; 2010. Abstract
Objective: To remove or modify fluorotic enamel stains using a combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique. Design: An in-vivo study was carried out. A sample of 21 participants was randomly selected from patients presenting with brown staining due to flourosis as the chief complaint. Eighty nine teeth were selected based on the Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index [TFI] with a score of 4 as the acceptable maximum. Only upper anterior teeth were included in the study. Setting: The study was undertaken at the University Of Nairobi Dental Hospital, Kenya. Subjects: Patients with an expressed need for treatment of their discoloured teeth who consented to a clearly demonstrated treatment procedure constituted the sample. Results: Enamel discolouration was removed or modified yielding a uniform colour and lustre depending on the initial depth of the stain. All patients appreciated the colour change. Conclusion: A combined chemical micro-abrasion and bleaching technique is a feasible treatment modality in selected cases of enamel fluorosis.
Lafort Y, Greener R, Roy A, Greener L, Ombidi W, Lessitala F, Haghparast-Bidgoli H, Beksinska M, P G, Reza-Paul S, Smit JA, Chersich M, W D. "Where Do Female Sex Workers Seek HIV and Reproductive Health Care and What Motivates These Choices? A Survey in 4 Cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa. ." PLoS One. . 2016;11(8):e0160730. doi: 10.1371.peter_gichangi_differ_paper_2.pdf.pdf
J. DRMAINASYLVESTER. "Where do Textile Design Students Go After Training at Dept. of Design U.O.N. A look at the Textile Syllabus of the dept.". In: The African Academy of Sciences Nairobi. Elsevier; 2004. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Ngugi M. "Where in the World are the Jobs for Communication Graduates?" The Anvil Sourvenir Issue (2011):28-29.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""Where is Ngugi", in Black Phoenix, 2, 23-24.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1981. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Ngugi M. "Where the Media Go Wrong." The People (1996).
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Where will this illness take me? Reactions to HIV Diagnosis From Women Living with HIV in Kenya. Authors : Peninnah M. Kako; Patricia E. Stevens, (University of Wisconsin .". In: Health Care For Women International. Health Care For Women International; 2011. Abstract

The purpose of the study was to develop an in-depth  understanding of reactions of 40 urban and rural HIV-infected Kenyan women to HIV diagnosis. We employed narrative inquiry principles to guide this qualitative cross-sectional study. We conducted individual in-depth interviews using open- ended questions in April and May 2006. In this article we focus on women

Wanjala G. "Which Factor Influences Social Interaction? Answer provided on 30th March 2016 on ResearchGate. ." ResearchGate. 2016;(https://www.researchgate.net ).
WAMBUI JANE. "Which way forward Kenya?". Paper presented at the Centre for African Studies, Edinburgh University. Britain; 2008. Abstract
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Ampt FH, Mudogo C  , P G, Lim MSC, Manguro G, Chersich M, W J, Temmerman M, Laini M, Comrie-Thomson L, Stoové M, Agius PA, Hellard M, L'Engle K, S L. "WHISPER or SHOUT study: protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial assessing mHealth sexual reproductive health and nutrition interventions among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya." BMJ Open. 2017;7(8):e017388.
Onyango G. "Whistleblowing behaviours and anti-corruption approaches in public administration in Kenya.". 2020. Abstract

This article demonstrates that whistleblowing often receives little attention in public administration due to ambivalence regarding administrative roles held by public administrators, the fluid scalar chain and horizontal linkages, and competitive and intricate public, organisational and private interests. Drawing on comparative analysis to elucidate the broader scope of anti-corruption reforms and whistleblowing in public administration, the article explores the influence of the administrative culture on the relationship between whistleblowing behaviours and implementation of anti-corruption reforms in public administration in Kenya. It illustrates how bureaucratic oversight mechanisms such as internal auditing procedures and ethical guidelines tend to underperform where administrative environments largely feature autocratic bureaucratic authority, parochial management styles and centralised decision-making processes. Despite the functional specialty of public institutions, these cultural composites potentially elicit administrative behaviours that generally make whistleblowing anti-organisational, anti-social and an outright illegality in public administration. The absence of whistleblowing legislation or weak whistleblowing laws exacerbate these conditions. Whistleblowing becomes even more complex at the local-state level as social networks and working groups tend to be strengthened by the collectivist associational culture in public administration. Consequently, non-performance of anti-corruption reforms were found to stem from the collective chastisement of whistleblowing practices in public organisations in Kenya. Furthermore, institutional deficits typical in local-state administration seemingly made it riskier for potential whistleblowers to come forth, mainly attendant to loose and inconsistent legislation on corruption. Therefore, to enhance whistleblowing, there is a need to insulate potential whistleblowers from legal retaliation, including cultural retaliations that come in forms of emotional and professional ‘attacks’.

Akala, H.M. "The white architects of black education:Ideology and power inAmerica, 1865-1954." New york teachers College Press,. 2005;2001(37(6)):733-735.
RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""White Collar Crime".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 2011. Abstract
n/a
RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""White Collar Crime" (November).". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 1990. Abstract
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Awange DO. "White patches of the Oral Mucosa.". 1992.
MBAABU DRMATHIUPETER. "Whittow, G.C., Mathiu, P.M.; and Dawson, W.R. (1992). The ontogeny of thermoregulation in tropical seabirds.National Geographic Research and Exploration. (96-107).". In: VI International Symposium on Avian Endocrinology, Alberta, Canada. Elsevier; 1992. Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Traditional medicines play an important role in the management of chronically painful and debilitating joint conditions, particularly in the rural Africa. However, their potential use as sources of medicines has not been fully exploited. The present study was carried to find the medicinal plants traditionally used to manage chronic joint pains in Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya. Materials and methods: To obtain this ethnobotanical information, 30 consenting traditional herbal med-ical practitioners were interviewed exclusively on medicinal plant use in the management of chronic joint pains, in a pre-planned workshop. Results and discussion: In this survey, a total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 23 families were cited as being important for treatment of chronic joint pains. The most commonly cited plant species were Pavetta crassipes K. Schum, Strychnos henningsii Gilg., Carissa spinarum L., Fagaropsis hildebrandtii (Engl.) Milve-Redh. and Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Acacia mellifera (Vahl) Benth., Amaranthus albus L., Balanites glabra Mildbr. & Schltr., Grewia fallax K. Schum., Lactuca capensis, Launaea cornuta (Oliv. & Hiern) O. Jeffrey, Lippia kituiensis Vatke, Pappea capensis Eckl. & Zeyh. and Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. are documented for the first time as being important in the management of chronic joint pains. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that a variety of medicinal plants are used in the management of chronic joint pains and the main mode of administration is oral. Keywords: Ethnobotanical survey; Medicinal plants; Chronic joint pains; Rheumatoid arthritis; Akamba; Machakos-Kenya
Nzuma, Jonathan M; Sarker R. Who Are The Real Gainers Of Trade Liberalization In Kenya’s Maize Sector?.; 2010. Abstract

In Kenya, trade policy reforms in the cereals sector were initiated as a key component of the economy-wide structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) during the mid 1980s. The SAPs were later strengthened and made irreversible by Kenya’s commitments at the multilateral trade negotiations. However, the welfare effects of these trade policy reforms remain controversial. This paper to quantifies the market and welfare impacts of trade liberalization in Kenya’s maize sector using a partial equilibrium model with market interrelationships at the farm, wholesale and retail levels. The model is calibrated to simulate a 24 percent reduction in maize import tariffs and a complete abolition of tariffs. The simulations results suggest that tariff reductions yield price decreases across the three market levels. The declining prices increase maize consumption but reduce domestic production. Consequently, consumer surplus increases while producer surplus decreases. However, the gain in consumer surplus is not sufficient to compensate the loss in producer surplus. Thus, the implementation of the multilateral agricultural trade agreement is likely to leave Kenya’s maize sector worse off and cannot be considered as a viable policy based on the compensation principle.

Foster C, Graham M, Mann L, Waema T, Friederici N. "Who controls the digital? Value chains and the challenges of connectivity for East African firms." Economic Geography. 2018;94(1):68-86. AbstractFull text link

In recent years, Internet connectivity has greatly improved across the African continent. This article examines the consequences that this shift has had for East African firms that are part of global value chains (GVCs). Prior work yielded contradictory expectations: firms might benefit from connectivity through increased efficiencies and improved access to markets, although they might also be further marginalized through increasing control of lead firms. Drawing on extensive qualitative research in Kenya and Rwanda,including 264 interviews, we examine 3 sectors (tea, tourism, and business process outsourcing) exploring overarching, cross-cutting themes. The findings support more pessimistic expectations: small African producers are only thinly digitally integrated in GVCs. Moreover, shifting modes of value chain governance, supported by lead firms and facilitated by digital information platforms and data standards are leading to new challenges for firms looking to digitally integrate. Nevertheless, we also find examples in these sectors of opportunities where small firms are able to cater to emerging niche customers, and local or regional markets. Overall, the study shows that improving connectivity does not inherently benefit African firms in GVCs without support for complementary capacity and competitive advantages.

McGuire E, Ambuko J, Jarman A, Mitcham E. "Who Is Fortunate Enough to Eat All Their Fruits and Veggies?". In: 2020 ASHS Annual Conference. ASHS; 2020. Abstract
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WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Who Is Jesus in Africa: Priest, Prophet and King in J.N.K. Mugambi and L. Magesa, Eds., Jesus in African Christianity: Experimentation and Diversity in African Christology, Nairobi Initiatives.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "Who Is Jesus in Africa? Priest, Prophet and King in J.N.K.". In: All Africa Journal of Theology, Sponsored by the All Africa Conference of Churches (AACC) and Conference of African Theological Institutions (CATI), Vol. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1998. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CIARUNJI PROFCHESAINA. "'Who is on Trial in The Trial of Dedan Kimathi?' in Busara Vol. 8 No.2.". In: Macmillan Kenya. uon press; 1976. Abstract
coming soon at the webstie
Olenja JM, Nyabola LO, Laving AMR, Opwora AS. "Who is to blame?". 2011. Abstract

Kenya, like many developing nations, continues to experience high childhood mortality in spite of the many efforts put in place by governments and international bodies to curb it. This study sought to investigate the barriers to accessing healthcare services for children aged less than five years in Butere District, a rural district experiencing high rates of mortality and morbidity despite having relatively better conditions for child survival. Methods: Exit interviews were conducted among caregivers seeking healthcare for their children in mid 2007 in all the 6 public health facilities. Additionally, views from caregivers in the community, health workers and district health managers were sought through focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIs). Results: Three hundred and ninety-seven respondents were surveyed in exit interviews while 45 respondents participated in FGDs and KIs. Some practices by caregivers including early onset of child bearing, early supplementation, and utilization of traditional healers were thought to increase the risk of mortality and morbidity, although reported rates of mosquito net utilization and immunization coverage were high. The healthcare system posed barriers to access of healthcare for the under fives, through long waiting time, lack of drugs and poor services, incompetence and perceived poor attitudes of the health workers. FGDs also revealed wide-spread concerns and misconceptions about health care among the caregivers. Conclusion: Caregivers’ actions were thought to influence children’s progression to illness or health while the healthcare delivery system posed recurrent barriers to the accessing of healthcare for the under-fives. Actions on both fronts are necessary to reduce childhood mortality

Olenja JM, Nyabola LO, Laving AMR, Opwora AS. "Who is to blame?". 2011. Abstract

Kenya, like many developing nations, continues to experience high childhood mortality in spite of the many efforts put in place by governments and international bodies to curb it. This study sought to investigate the barriers to accessing healthcare services for children aged less than five years in Butere District, a rural district experiencing high rates of mortality and morbidity despite having relatively better conditions for child survival. Methods: Exit interviews were conducted among caregivers seeking healthcare for their children in mid 2007 in all the 6 public health facilities. Additionally, views from caregivers in the community, health workers and district health managers were sought through focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIs). Results: Three hundred and ninety-seven respondents were surveyed in exit interviews while 45 respondents participated in FGDs and KIs. Some practices by caregivers including early onset of child bearing, early supplementation, and utilization of traditional healers were thought to increase the risk of mortality and morbidity, although reported rates of mosquito net utilization and immunization coverage were high. The healthcare system posed barriers to access of healthcare for the under fives, through long waiting time, lack of drugs and poor services, incompetence and perceived poor attitudes of the health workers. FGDs also revealed wide-spread concerns and misconceptions about health care among the caregivers. Conclusion: Caregivers’ actions were thought to influence children’s progression to illness or health while the healthcare delivery system posed recurrent barriers to the accessing of healthcare for the under-fives. Actions on both fronts are necessary to reduce childhood mortality

Maj M, Janssen R, Starace F, Zaudig M, Satz P, Sughondhabirom B, Luabeya MA, Riedel R, Ndetei DM, Calil HM, et al. WHO Neuropsychiatric AIDS study, cross-sectional phase I.; 1994.
Maj M, Satz P, Janssen R, Zaudig M, Starace F, D'Elia L, Sughondhabirom B, Mussa M, Naber D, Ndetei MD, et al. "WHO Neuropsychiatric AIDS study, cross-sectional phase II."; 1994.
Musingi JK. "Who stole the Rain? The Case of Recent Severe Droughts in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2013;9, No. 05(Febrauary, 2013):29-40.
J.K MUSINGI. "Who stole the Rain? The Case of Recent Severe Droughts in Kenya.". In: (Re)membering Kenya after 2007 PEV. GOETHE INSTITUTE Nairobi ; 2009.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Who wants to be a surgeon? A survery of medical students at the University of Nairobi. Mwachaka P, Mbugua E, Saidi H. Ann Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 26-31.". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
14.00 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} Variant anatomy of the superior thyroid artery is important during surgical procedures, interpretation of angiograms, and interventional radiography in the neck. Pattern of the variations shows population differences but there is no data from the Kenyan population. This study therefore investigated the variations in origin of the superior thyroid artery in a Kenyan population. Forty six necks (36 males and 10 females) from 46 cadavers of black Kenyans in Department of Human Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya were bilaterally dissected to expose the origin of the superior thyroid artery. Pattern of origin of the vessel was determined on both sides in males and females. It originated from the external carotid artery common carotid artery and linguo-facial trunk in 80%, 13% and 6.5% of the cadavers respectively on the right side. All but one of the superior thyroid arteries were ventral branches. There was asymmetric origin in 6.5% of cases. Origin from the common carotid artery was associated with high carotid bifurcation. Nearly 20% of superior thyroid arteries showed variant origin. Of these, 6.5% arose from the linguo-facial trunk, much higher than in the Caucasian and Oriental populations. Origin from common carotid artery is substantially lower than prevailing figures from other populations. These findings support ethnic variations. Preoperative angiographic evaluation is recommended.
Mwachaka P, Mbugua E. "Who Wants to be a Surgeon? A Survey of Medical Students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya." Annals of African Surgery. 2010;6:26-13. AbstractWebsite

In Sub Saharan Africa, surgical conditions account for a significant disease burden. Surgical workforce is however inadequate, and thus strategies such as attracting medical students to surgical specialties could avert the situation. This study determined the proportion of students interested in pursuing surgical career and factors that influence choice of this specialty. Although surgery is the most preferred specialty among medical students at the University of Nairobi, there appears to be a declining interest among the clinical students. In order to attract and maintain student interest in the specialty, there is need for early and active mentoring.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Who wants to be surgeon?". In: Clinical Anatomy. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
A survey of Medical studen Outcome and Complications in Women undergoing cervical cerclage in a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Webmedcentral:Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2010;(9);WMC000793ts at the University Nairobi, Kenya. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 26-31
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Who Will Bell the Cat? Article 3(2) of the OAU Charter and the Crisis of OAU Conflict Manageemnt,.". In: Nairobi: CCR-WLEA. University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
Iraki XN. "Who will defend Kenya's intellectual space?" The Standard, March 10, 2015.
Watkins B, Kokwaro G, Galinski M, Mutabingwa TK, Trape JF. "WHO, the Global Fund, and medical malpractice in malaria treatment.". 2004.
Gachara G, Symekher S, Otieno M, Magana J, Opot B, Bulimo W. "Whole genome characterization of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from Kenya during the 2009 pandemic." Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2016:-. Abstractwhole_genome_of_pandemic_h1n1_paper.pdfWebsite

Abstract An influenza pandemic caused by a novel influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 spread worldwide in 2009 and is estimated to have caused between 151,700 and 575,400 deaths globally. While whole genome data on new virus enables a deeper insight in the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and drug sensitivities of the circulating viruses, there are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from African countries. We describe herein the full genome analysis of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated in Kenya between June 2009 and August 2010. A total of 40 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated during the pandemic were selected. The segments from each isolate were amplified and directly sequenced. The resulting sequences of individual gene segments were concatenated and used for subsequent analysis. These were used to infer phylogenetic relationships and also to reconstruct the time of most recent ancestor, time of introduction into the country, rates of substitution and to estimate a time-resolved phylogeny. The Kenyan complete genome sequences clustered with globally distributed clade 2 and clade 7 sequences but local clade 2 viruses did not circulate beyond the introductory foci while clade 7 viruses disseminated country wide. The time of the most recent common ancestor was estimated between April and June 2009, and distinct clusters circulated during the pandemic. The complete genome had an estimated rate of nucleotide substitution of 4.9 × 10− 3 substitutions/site/year and greater diversity in surface expressed proteins was observed. We show that two clades of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were introduced into Kenya from the \{UK\} and the pandemic was sustained as a result of importations. Several closely related but distinct clusters co-circulated locally during the peak pandemic phase but only one cluster dominated in the late phase of the pandemic suggesting that it possessed greater adaptability.

Gachara G, Symekher S, Otieno M, Magana J, Opot B, Bulimo W. "Whole genome characterization of human influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from Kenya during the 2009 pandemic." Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2016. AbstractWebsite
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Pope WH, Bowman CA, Russell DA, Jacobs-Sera D, Asai DJ, Cresawn SG, Jacobs WR, Hendrix RW, Lawrence JG, Hatfull GF. "Whole genome comparison of a large collection of mycobacteriophages reveals a continuum of phage genetic diversity." Elife. 2015;4:e06416. Abstract

The bacteriophage population is large, dynamic, ancient, and genetically diverse. Limited genomic information shows that phage genomes are mosaic, and the genetic architecture of phage populations remains ill-defined. To understand the population structure of phages infecting a single host strain, we isolated, sequenced, and compared 627 phages of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Their genetic diversity is considerable, and there are 28 distinct genomic types (clusters) with related nucleotide sequences. However, amino acid sequence comparisons show pervasive genomic mosaicism, and quantification of inter-cluster and intra-cluster relatedness reveals a continuum of genetic diversity, albeit with uneven representation of different phages. Furthermore, rarefaction analysis shows that the mycobacteriophage population is not closed, and there is a constant influx of genes from other sources. Phage isolation and analysis was performed by a large consortium of academic institutions, illustrating the substantial benefits of a disseminated, structured program involving large numbers of freshman undergraduates in scientific discovery.

Gage GJ, Kipke DR, Shain W. "Whole {Animal} {Perfusion} {Fixation} for {Rodents}." Journal of Visualized Experiments. 2012. AbstractWebsite
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Bwibo NO. "Whooping cough in Uganda.". 1971.
Muthoni M, Levine T, and Asaah AH. "Who’s Afraid of Female Sexuality.". In: Empathy and Rage: Female genital Mutilation in African Literature. Ayebia Clark. UK; 2009.
SOLOMON PROFMONYENYE. "Why African Surrogate Concept is Most Ideal.". In: The Standard (Nairobi: June 27, 1988), p. 14. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1988. Abstract
This article reveals that the concept of education as a process of growth is a difficult one. Philosophers are, therefore, justified in being weary when pondering over its meaning, both in theory and practice. By way of conclusion, the article appreciates the complexities inherent in the growth theory of education, summarizing its major strength and weaknesses. Then it cautions educational planners and practitioners to be weary when, and if, they translate the theory into practice, so that they utilize the strengths inherent in the theory whilst paying attention to the dangers of its inherent weaknesses.
Njeri KM. "Why are we producing grade D mindset?" Daily Nation (2011).
Gausset Q, Nathan I. "Why combine private and communal tree management? A case-study based in Majawanga (Gairo, Tanzania).". 2007. Abstract

Despite the focus on the importance of trees in Africa and the many projects that try to improve their management, there is very little research and few development projects which address tree related problems in a holistic manner. With respect to forest management arrangements, focus tends to be either exclusively on community forestry, or on private tree planting. Such a divided focus makes it difficult to understand the complementarities and possible synergetic effects of these two approaches in solving common problems and improving local livelihoods. The present article argues that interdisciplinary projects are needed to develop a holistic approach to tree management and to improve the use of trees. This argument builds on the results from the PETREA (People, Trees and Agriculture) research programme in Majawanga (Gairo, Tanzania). In this village, private and collective tree management is characterized by very different uses, opportunities and problems. Common woodlands play an important role in providing villagers with Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFP) from indigenous species that are important for local livelihoods as they provide food, medicine, and grazing areas. The constraints linked to the management of common woodlands pertain to group dynamics and resemble, at first glance, a “tragedy of the commons” as described by Hardin (1968). Private tree planting, on the other hand, provides both local services (including providing fruits, firewood or securing boundaries between fields) and cash from the selling of poles. The constraints characterizing private tree management are linked to land-tenure, tree seedling cost and season for planting. Land tenure is of paramount importance as trees cannot be planted on borrowed or rented land, or at the expense of cropland needed to sustain the household. The season for planting seedlings is a constraint because of a conflict with labour demands for crops needed to survive. Despite being characterized by very different uses and constraints, the management of private and common trees also share common constraints as both require that grazing is under control and that there exist clear rules and efficient institutions able to solve management conflicts. Both types of management should therefore be analyzed together as improving one can help relieve the pressure on the other.

Mwabu G, Bold T, Kimenyi M, Sandefur J. "Why Did Abolishing Fees Not Increase Public School Enrollment in Kenya?". In: Center for Global Development, Washington, D.C., Working Paper No. 271.; 2011.
Nkonya E, Xiong W, Deustua J, Kato E. "Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt improved land management practices which can improve yields and incomes? The reason is not always because these practices are uneconomical but sometimes it is because resource poverty prevents farmers from tak.". Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Why do many smallholder farmers fail to adopt improved land management practices which can improve yields and incomes? The reason is not always because these practices are uneconomical but sometimes it is because resource poverty prevents farmers from taking advantage of yield and income enhancing agricultural practices. In this study we examine the relative merits of using a carbon payment scheme compared to a subsidy policy to help reduce the cost of specific land management practices with productivity and ecosystem benefits such as carbon sequestration. Using a 30-year crop simulation model, we examine the impacts of different soil fertility management treatments (SFTs) on yields and soil carbon and proceed to compute discounted incremental revenue streams over the same period. We find that the SFTs simulated are on average profitable given the conditions assumed in our DSSAT simulations. When carbon was priced at $8 or $12/t CO2e, the increase in incremental incomes generated from a carbon payment were invariably higher than those imputed from a 50% fertilizer subsidy. When carbon was priced at $4/Co2e, the increase was almost similar and sometimes higher than that from the imputed income transfer from a 50% subsidy. If these indications hold in further research, it could imply that using fertilizer subsidies as the sole mechanism for stimulating adoption of improved soil fertility management practices may unnecessarily forgo other complementary and possibly superior alternatives. Depending on the specific economic equity considerations, we conclude that either of these instruments can be used to help farmers break through resource barriers that prevent them from adopting productivity-enhancing and environmentally beneficial agricultural practices. However, given the fiscal burden on public finances and possible opportunity costs of any substantial subsidy program, it is possible that a carbon payment system can be a reasonable alternative assuming the range of carbon prices used in this study and especially if accompanied by measures to ameliorate the costs of fertilizer to farmers.

MUTHONI DRWAGURAPRISCA. "Why Do People Marry Published by Pauline Publications & Translated in Kiswahili 2005 by the same publishers.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1996. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Kanyinga K. "Why elections are becoming dangerous affair." Daily Nation, May 22, 2016.
Kanyinga K. "Why elections fail integrity test." Daily Nation, July 30, 2016.
Kanyinga K. "Why government and NGOs aren’t friends." Sunday Nation, January 15, 2017.
Nzila A, Ochong E, Nduati E, Gilbert K, Winstanley P, Ward S, Marsh K. "Why has the dihydrofolate reductase 164 mutation not consistently been found in Africa yet?". 2005. Abstract

Resistance to the antifolate sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP), the current mass-treatment antimalarial drug, is associated with selection of point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase. Among these mutations, the leucine 164 dihydrofolate reductase mutation (Leu-164) is associated with higher levels of SP resistance; this mutation is also associated with a decrease in the efficacy of chlorproguanil/dapsone, a newly developed antifolate antimalarial drug. Leu-164 has been detected in Southeast Asia and South America, regions where SP is no longer effective. Surprisingly, this mutation has not yet been detected in Africa, using the standard protocol based on PCR–RFLP, despite high SP resistance. In this paper, we discuss briefly the reasons why Leu-164 has not yet been selected in Africa and we propose a means that may slow down the selection of this mutation.

Kabira WM. "Why hearing the Voices of Kenyan Women is Important for a More Just Future. ." The Conversation-Africa Pilot (https://theconversation.com/why-hearing-the-voices-of-kenyan-women-is-important-for-a-more-just-future-47638). 2015.
Nyasani PJ. "Why is the Pace of Development so Slow.". In: Rethinking Intergral Development in Africa. nairobi: Consolata Institute of Philosophy Press; 2011.
MK N, J D, M N, et al. "Why is There Low Morbidity and Mortality of COVID-19 in Africa." Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021;10.4269/ajtmh.20-0474.
Kanyinga K. "Why Jubilee must embrace rule of law and employ governance." Daily Nation, December 28, 2014.
Kanyinga K. "Why Kenya’s regional powerhouse status is under serious threat." Daily Nation, June 6, 2015.
Shah PS. "Why learning institutions should carry out regular environmental audits." AFEW Giraffe News 14, 2012 (2012):21-22.
Oredo J. "Why Online Shout Marketing Flops." MANAGEMENT September (2014).
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Why patients go to the traditional healers. Katz SH, Kimani VN.East Afr Med J. 1982 Mar;59(3):170-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1982 Mar;59(3):170-4. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1982. Abstract

45 Kenyan traditional healers were interviewed with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Traditional management of eye diseases is based on the healers' concept of the disease causation as well as their knowledge of the herbal, animal and chemical substances that possess (or are reported to possess) remedial effect on the disease. While many of the healers interviewed failed to give a clear distinction between the various eye conditions, diseases such as cataract, foreign bodies and injuries were recognized easily. In almost all cases the medicinal substances were first diluted in water before they were applied to the eyes. Human milk, blood and the white of the egg were the animal substances listed as medicinal to various eye conditions. A solution of sugar was one of the chemical substances used in the treatment of specific eye conditions. Given correct information, some of these healers could f

Oluoch-Kosura WA, Muriuki AW, Olubayo FM. "WHY PESTS AND DISEASES REGULATION SHOULD CONCERN MANKIND.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

Nature, through balancing mechanisms, provides ecosystem services, comprising provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services for the survival of mankind (MEA, Ecosystems and human well-being: biodiversity synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, 2005). The balance and stability is usually upset by interventions or development activities, thereby threatening survival. Maintaining the balance guarantees sustainable development. Pests and disease regulation provides one component of managing the ecosystem. This chapter highlights why pest and disease regulation is important in contributing to sustainable agricultural production and development. Continued multidisciplinary research efforts are needed to enable understanding of the biological interactions between pests, beneficial and host communities on one hand and the interactions between and among cost-effective pest management methods, soil health, climate change, food security and human well-being on the other hand. The holistic approach in developing the understanding of the role of pest and disease regulation in the ecosystem will ultimately contribute to the development of appropriate strategies for the achievement of human well-being

Oluoch KW, Muriuki AW, Olubayo FM, Kilalo D. "WHY PESTS AND DISEASES REGULATION SHOULD CONCERN MANKIND.". 2013.
Kanyinga K. "Why President Museveni beats the opposition." Daily Nation, February 14, 2016.
Kanyinga K. "Why protests are turning violent." Daily Nation, June 4, 2016.
Gathigi G. "Why sit-in exams are not the best assessment tools." Standard, April 17, 2014.
Dorothy McCormick. "Why Small Firms Stay Small Risk and Growth in Nairobi's Small-Scale manufacturing .". 1993. AbstractWebsite

Despite abundant literature on the social and economic benefits of encouraging tiny "informal" firms, scholars generally agree that larger enterprises create more unskilled jobs, use resources more efficiently, and are better at building technological capacity. Yet majority of firms will never grow beyond six workers. This paper argues that one very significant reason why small firms stay small is risk. In Nairobi, the economic and social consequences of business failure are extremely high. Entrepreneurs therefore to protect themselves from failure and, in the process, ensure that their firms remain small. Our research identified four risk-management strategies that work separately and together to discourage firm growth.• First, many entrepreneurs manage risk through flexibility. By working in rent-free quarters, using family labour and little capital, they minimise fixed costs and maximise opportunities for additional income. Second, many small manufacturers also avoid risk by manufacturing standard products for a known market. Third, successful entrepreneurs frequently diversify their income and assetsrather than expanding a single enterprise. Finally, most prefer to preserve their land and other assets unencumbered by debt. These rational responses to a risky 90 business environment ensure that most firms stay small and in the process work against formation of a dynamic manufacturing sector. Policy-makers are challenged to improve the "enabling environment" creating broad policies conducive to firm growth and by targeting specific policies and programmes to small-scale industry. Kenya needs macroeconomic and social policies that indirectly encourage firm growth by removing or reducing business and background risks. It also needs an industrial policy that provides positive incentives for enterprising business owners willing to expand employment, improve efficiency, and upgrade technology and their workers skills

SAMUEL PROFKIBICHO. ""Why teach or study African Traditional Religion in Modern Africa?" Orientation, the Journal of Religious studies in Kenya, Vol. I, No.1 pp. 1 - 12.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1975. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Oluoch-Kosura, W; Karugia JT, W; Karugia JT. Why the early promise for rapid increases in maize productivity in Kenya was not sustained: lessons for sustainable investment in agriculture.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

The influence of climatic, policy and institutional-related (infrastructure, technology, institutional support) factors on the decline in maize output and yields and the subsequent deepening and broadening of food poverty in Kenya is discussed. This chapter provides lessons to enable a re-focusing of attention on ways to achieve sustainable investment in agriculture in order to improve the livelihoods of the majority of households in Kenya.

Oluoch-Kosura W;, Karugia JT. Why the early promise for rapid increases in maize productivity in Kenya was not sustained: lessons for sustainable investment in agriculture.; 2005. AbstractWebsite

The influence of climatic, policy and institutional-related (infrastructure, technology, institutional support) factors on the decline in maize output and yields and the subsequent deepening and broadening of food poverty in Kenya is discussed. This chapter provides lessons to enable a re-focusing of attention on ways to achieve sustainable investment in agriculture in order to improve the livelihoods of the majority of households in Kenya.

Moturi CA, Okemwa VO, Orwa DO. "Why the Insurance Sector Needs Big Data Analytics Capability for Digital Transformation." International Journal of Big Data Management. 2021. Abstract

In order for organisations to generate competitive advantages from big data investments, they need to acquire a unique blend of technology, human skills, financial resources and a data-driven culture. Organisations need to measure their big data analytics capability in order to yield competitive performance. This study sought to examine the relationship between a firms big data analytics capability (BDAC) and competitive performance through mediating role of dynamic and operational capabilities. To test the proposed research model, we used survey data from 110 employees across 54 insurance companies in Kenya. Using partial least squares structural equation modelling, the results provide evidence that BDAC leads to superior firm performance. Various resources that form big data analytics (BDA) capability have been identified and an instrument to measure BDAC proposed. The findings from this study provides a roadmap strategy for implementing BDA projects.

Mugambi JNK. "Why Water: Lenten Meditation for 2017 World Water Day.". In: ”, Ecumenical Water Network. Geneva; 2017.
Iraki XN. "Why we should fear school-bus syndrome." The Standard, July 14, 2023.
ASWANI PROFMWANZIHELLENORONGA. "Widowing and Remarriage. East Africa in Transition. Nairobi.". In: University of Nairobi Press. Elsevier; 2004.
Subbo WK. "Wife Beating among the Abagusero." African Academy of sciences: Discovery and Innovations. 2006;18(4):295-303.
Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. "Wild Edible Fruits of Importance for Human Nutrition in Semiarid Parts of East Shewa Zone, Ethiopia: Associated Indigenous Knowledge and Implications to Food Security." Pakistan journal of Nutrition. 2011;10(1):40-50. Abstract

Nutrient value assessments and ethnobotanical studies of three wild edible fruit species [Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf., Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., Grewia flavescens A. Juss.], were carried out from October 2009 through June 2010 in east Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. Field data collection was combined with laboratory food content analyses with the aim of identifying promising wild edible fruit plants. Also, optimal use of preferred wild edibles particularly in addressing future food security issues of rural people in the drylands was assessed. Composite fruit samples randomly collected in six sites of Fantalle and Boosast districts were subjected to standard laboratory chemical analyses. Values for total carbohydrates, crude protein, crude lipid, moisture and total ash contents of the fruit pulps ranged from 76.67-86.12%, 1.45-4.20%, 3.58-4.02%, 35.18-57.41%, 8.11-16.40% for Z. spina-christi, 85.55-89.61%, 0.001-003, 49.03-68.26%, 10.18-12.88% for B. aegyptiaca; 83.74-93.68%, 0.64-3.14%, 18.90-61.35%, 3.16-7.25% for G. flavescens, respectively. The calculated energy (based on total carbohydrates) was highest for G. flavescens (373.6 Kcal/100 g), followed by B. aegyptiaca (354.24) and Z. spina-christi (344.48 Kcal/100 g). The results indicated that these fruit species, which are popularly used by the local communities, contain appreciable amounts of nutrients and energy and thus are useful food supplements. These species should be integrated into dryland agroforestry systems for sustainable use and conservation, as well as, preservation of the associated knowledge through the positive practice of the indigenous bio-cultural knowledge. In this case, lessons can be drawn from some farmers of Boosat District, who are currently using two of the species in traditional agroforestry practices.

T.K. M. "Wild grains and neglected crops." Resources J. 1989;1:22-23.
Odhiambo T. "Wild Men’ & Emergent Masculinities in Postcolonial Kenyan Popular Fiction.". In: Men in African Film and Fiction. London: James Currey; 2011.
Wambua L, Peninah Nduku Wambua, Allan Maurice Ramogo, Domnic Mijele, Moses Yongo Otiende. "Wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever: perspectives for integrated control of a lymphoproliferative disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa." Archives of virology. 2016;161(1):1-10.
"Wildlife conservation and decline of pastoralism in Kenya." African Journal of Sociology, vol. II, No. 2, pp. 74 ; 1982. Abstract
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Mburu J. Wildlife Conservation and Management in Kenya: Towards a Co-management Approach.; 2004. Abstract

The co-management approach of managing natural resources has increasingly become popular among conservationists and development practitioners since it overcomes the shortcomings of both the centralised management and community-based approaches that hinder harmonization of conflicting interests among diverse stakeholder groups. Considering criteria developed from theoretical advancements on co-management and drawing on empirical studies conducted in Kenya, the paper examines how successful the co-management approach has been in terms of meeting the needs and interests of local communities and conservationists. Further, it analyses some of the factors or conditions that contribute towards the emergence and subsequent adoption of the co-management approach in the conservation and management of wildlife. These factors, which may also be important in other developing countries, include the provision of a favourable policy framework, institutional capacity of organized user groups to co-manage wildlife resources, land tenure conditions and accessibility to wildlife resources. It is emphasised that the co-management approach has had, so far, mixed results and there are certain important factors challenging its successful implementation in Kenya.

Graham MD. "A Wildlife Conservation Strategy for Laikipia County." Laikipia Wildlife Forum. 2012. Abstractlaikipia.org

The earliest records of the particular affinity for wildlife that existed amongst Laikipia’s people date back to the mid 1920’s in the minutes of Laikipia Farmers’ Committee meetings. During that time, large tracts of Kenya, including the Central highlands, Kisii highlands and the Lake Victoria basin were teeming with wildlife. The above areas and much of Kenya lost all their wildlife, other than those which came under state protection in National Parks. Laikipia is one of the most notable exceptions to this trend. This conservation ethic preceded the Laikipia Wildlife Forum, so ours has just been an attempt to give it some structure, hence the Laikipia Wildlife Conservation Strategy. It has now come to be, and with it we hope to open a new era in practice and study of wildlife conservation. I would like to acknowledge the efforts made by Dr. Max Graham and the conservation committee in compiling and synthesizing all the views and information needed in such a strategy. The Laikipia Wildlife Forum does not expect this document to be a prescription of how we are going to preserve wildlife in Laikipia, but a guideline on the issues that will form a basis for the conservation partnerships we must forge for the future of people and wildlife in Laikipia County. Laikipia’s wildlife has always been a challenge, a source of pride, and asset to many people at many levels. However, since this wildlife lives in and amongst people, the context of conservation in Laikipia is wider than what is generally acknowledged. It involves a constant state of negotiations over multiple aspects, including pasture sharing, water sharing, use of forests, crop damage, livestock loss, and security. Over 60% of the issues to be dealt with do not involve any direct dealings with wild animals- they are issues that arise amongst people. The implementation of this strategy therefore will be a process of managing partnerships with ranchers, farmers, law enforcement officers, water users, tourism businesses, scientists and others. Laikipia is changing rapidly, with a high rate of settlement, housing development and land subdivision, forcing people and wildlife into adjustments to meet the reduced availability of resources. The Laikipia Wildlife Forum now faces the task of implementing this strategy. Through this process, we expect that valuable lessons will be learnt by all, resulting in a more cohesive society, environmentally responsible population, secure in their pursuits of various livelihoods. This is the reason why we regard this document as a guideline. It will necessarily evolve as it is implemented, because a static tool cannot ‘repair’ a dynamic problem.

Graham MD. "A Wildlife Conservation Strategy for Laikipia County." by: Laikipia Wildlife Forum, Box 764, Nanyuki, Kenya; 2012. Abstract
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Joram Nduati Kinuthia, Prof A. J. Rodrigues RO. "Wildlife GIS: Spatial Analysis and Visualisation in Masai Mara.". In: Map Africa 2006.; 2006.
Dorothy Syallow Masiga, Mukhovi MS, mwaura F. "Wildlife Population Change in Africa from the Eyes of the Public-The Case of Mara Enoonkishu Conservancy in Southern Kenya." Natural Resources. 2016;7:434-444.
Irandu EM. "Wildlife Tourism and Local Communities in Kenya." Aspects of Tourism in Kenya. 2007.
MULINDI DRSOBBIEAZ. "Wilhelmsen I, Mulindi S, Snakok D, Wilhelmsen A B, Eriksen H R & Ursin H. (2007). Subjective health complaints are more prevalent in Maasais than in Norwegians. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 61 no. 4.". In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 61 no. 4. Springerlink; 2007. Abstract
The aim of this observational, population-based study was to compare subjective health complaints (SHC) in Norwegians, living in a Western welfare society, and Maasai people, living in rural Kenya under primitive conditions. An interview-based version of SHC inventory was used. Data from 320 Maasais were compared to data from 1243 Norwegians. The Maasais had significantly higher score than the Norwegians on 23 of 28 items, involving musculoskeletal, "pseudo-neurological" and gastrointestinal complaints. The Maasais, living under primitive conditions, close to nature, seems to have more SHC than Norwegians, living in a modern, highly developed and industrialized country.
Iraki XN. "Will new money ever win over old money?" The Standard, August 25, 2015.
Wasamba P. "Will public service commission Succeed in appointing VCs competatively." The Standard, February 22, 2019:14.
OKOTH PROFOGENDOHASTINGW. ""William Burnet Harvey: An introduction to the Legal Systems in East Africa".". In: Academics Press, New york. Cent. Afri. J. Pharm.Sci. 5(3): 60-66; 1977. Abstract
The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
P PROFONIANG'OCLEMENTM. "William Howells The Heathens.". In: Makerere Historical Journal, Vol. 1 No. 1 1975 (pp 103-112).; 1975. Abstract
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Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen RP, Kronenberg HM. Williams {Textbook} of {Endocrinology}. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2011. Abstract

The latest edition of Williams Textbook of Endocrinology edited by Drs. Shlomo Melmed, Kenneth S. Polonsky, P. Reed Larsen, and Henry M. Kronenberg, helps you diagnose and treat your patients effectively with up-to-the minute, practical know-how on all endocrine system disorders. Comprehensive yet accessible, this extensively revised 12th Edition updates you on diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity, thyroid disease, testicular disorders, and much more so you can provide your patients with the most successful treatments. Find scientific insight and clinical data interwoven in every chapter, reflecting advances in both areas of this constantly changing discipline, and presented in a truly accessible format. You’ll also access valuable contributions from a dynamic list of expert authors and nearly 2.000 full-color images to help you with every diagnosis. This title has everything you need to manage any and all the clinical endocrinopathies you may encounter. Rely on the one reference that integrates rapidly evolving basic and clinical science in a cohesive, user-friendly format, definitively addresses every topic in the field, and has remained a standard for more than half a century.Update your know-how and skills to diagnose and treat your patients most effectively with exhaustively revised content on diabetes, metabolic disease, thyroid cancer, fertility problems, testicular problems, weight issues, and much more. Apply reliable guidance on endocrine conditions of growing interest like hypothyroidism and testicular disorders, with dedicated new chapters that expound on the latest research findings. Overcome any clinical challenge with comprehensive and easy-to-use coverage of everything from hormone activity, diagnostic techniques, imaging modalities, and molecular genetics, to total care of the patient. Apply the latest practices with guidance from expert authors who contribute fresh perspectives on every topic.

M DRMUNYUASJ. "Williamson P., Penhale J.W., Munyua S.J.M. and Murray J.(1984). Acute reaction of mares uterus of bacterial infection. Proceedings of 10th International Congress of Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination. June 10 14 1984. III 477 480.". In: Proceedings of 10th International Congress of Animal Reproduction and Artificial Insemination. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 1984. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Baeten JM, Curran K, Kurth A, Celum C, Mugo N, Ngure K, Heffron R. "Willingness of Kenyan HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to use antiretroviral-based HIV-1 prevention strategies.". 2012. Abstract

Antiretroviral treatment (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have demonstrated efficacy as new human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) prevention approaches for HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. METHODS: Among Kenyan HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples participating in a clinical trial of PrEP, we conducted a cross-sectional study and used descriptive statistical methods to explore couples' willingness to use antiretrovirals for HIV-1 prevention. The study was conducted before July 2011, when studies among heterosexual populations reported that ART and PrEP reduced HIV-1 risk. RESULTS: For 181 couples in which the HIV-1-infected partner had a CD4 count ≥350 cells per microliter and had not yet initiated ART (and thus did not qualify for ART under Kenyan guidelines), 60.2% of HIV-1 infected partners (69.4% of men and 57.9% of women) were willing to use early ART (at CD4 ≥350 cells per microliter) for HIV-1 prevention. Among HIV-1 uninfected partners, 92.7% (93.8% of men and 86.1% of women) reported willingness to use PrEP. When given a hypothetical choice of early ART or PrEP for HIV-1 prevention, 52.5% of HIV-1-infected participants would prefer to initiate ART early and 56.9% of HIV-1-uninfected participants would prefer to use PrEP. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 40% of Kenyan HIV-1-infected individuals in known HIV-1 serodiscordant partnerships reported reservations about early ART initiation for HIV-1 prevention. PrEP interest in this PrEP-experienced population was high. Strategies to achieve high uptake and sustained adherence to ART and PrEP for HIV-1 prevention in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples will require responding to couples' preferences for prevention strategies.

Ngarachu M, Bore M, Gichuhi S. Willingness to donate eyes and its associated factors among adults in a community in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2019.
THUO DRKARUGIAJOSEPH. "Willis Oluoch-Kosura and Joseph T. Karugia (2005). .". In: Contributed Paper accepted for presentation at the 26th Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists in Brisbane, Australia. African Meteorological Society; 2005. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Kyambi J.M., Kasili E.G. OKJNGW. "Wilm's tumor in Kenya." EAMJ. 1981;(58):424.
Githanga J, Axt J, Abdallah F, Axt M, Hansen E, et al. "Wilms Tumor Survival in Kenya." National institute of health. 2013;48(6)(2013 June ):1254-1262.wilms_paper_githanga__abdalla.pdf
Abdallah F, Axt J, Axt M, Githanga J, Hansen E, Lessan J, Li M, et al. "Wilms Tumor Survival in Kenya." National Institute of Health. 2013;48(6)(june 2013):1254-1262.
Axt J, Abdallah F AGHLLMMNMJEJ, Ndung'u J, Njuguna F NOPTUWO'NJAJLHN 3rd.AOKR. "Wilms tumor survival in Kenya." J Pediatr Surg.. 2013;48(6):1254-1262.
G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Wilmshurst PT, Al-Hasani SF, Semple MJ, Hamblin AS, Kioy PG, Lucas GF, Savidge GF, Webb-Peploe MM. The effects of amrinone on platelet count, survival and function in patients with congestive cardiac failure. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1984 Mar;17(3):317-24.PMI.". In: 1994 Apr;71(4):253-5.PMID: 8062774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1984. Abstract
In a prospective trial, the immediate and long-term haematological effects of amrinone were studied in sixteen patients with refractory cardiac failure. The platelet count was significantly and variably reduced in all patients and the reduction was related to log plasma amrinone concentration. Platelet survival was significantly reduced in those cases studied. No evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or intravascular platelet deposition was observed and the reduced platelet survival was not considered to be the result of an immunological process. Evidence of a marrow response to the reduced platelet count and survival was seen. Although no haemorrhagic symptoms were observed in the patients, the haematological side-effects were considered to be of such severity as to limit the use of this drug in clinical practice.    PMID: 6712864 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Wilson G. Kamundia, Paul M. Shiundu, and John M. Onyari, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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M PROFSHIUNDUPAUL. "Wilson G. Kamundia, Paul M. Shiundu, and John M. Onyari, .". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; Submitted. Abstract
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"Wimbi la Jaha." Short Story (Manuscript). 2011.
MBATIAH PMWENDA. Wimbo Mpya. NAIROBI: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2004.
Ogana W. "Wind energy development in Kenya - A Review." Solar and Wind Technology. 1987;Vol. 5(No. 3):pp. 291-303.
CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Wind: A promising energy alternative for power generation. Solarnet Newsletter Magazine, Vol. 1, No. 1. pp 31-43.". In: United Nations University, 2001, Hong Kong. pp. 123. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 1999.
Ogoma SB, Kannady K, Sikulu M, Chaki PP, Govella NJ, Mukabana W.R., GF K. "Window screening, ceilings and closed eaves as sustainable ways to control malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania." Malaria Journal. 2009;8:221.
Wamitila KW. Wingu la kupita.; 1990.Website
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "The Winner and other Stories. With other editors. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1994. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Oketch E. Winning Strategies for Women Politicians: A Study of Kenya. Caucus for Women’s Leadership; 2007.
H A, T. T. "Wire-Frame Approximation of Surface from Contour Data by GA." Trans. IEEJ. 1997;117-C(2):207-208.
Mutungi OK. "Witchcraft and the Criminal Law in East Africa." Valparasio U.L., Review, Vol. 5 1971, 524; 1971. Abstract
n/a
Mugambi JNK. "Witchcraft as Abuse of Religion." Sapientia. 2015.
Mwisukha A, Rintaugu EG, Mwangi PW. "Witchcraft Practices in Kenyan Football: A Reality or Myth?" International Journal of Sports Technology Management and Allied sciences. 2012;1(1):1-10.
A. PROFODHIAMBOPETER. "Witchcraft Psychiatry?". In: East Africa Journal. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the bacteriology and antibiotic sensitivity of the bacterial isolates in chronic maxillary sinusitis patients seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, ENT department. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients had bilateral sntral washout done and the lavage submitted for culture and anti-microbial sensitivity between January and June 1996. RESULTS: Antral lavage yielded secretions in 63% of patients but bacteria were cultured in only 28.8% of the specimens. The isolates included Streptococcus pneumonia (22.2%), Staphylocococus albus (18.5%), Staphylocococus aureus (11.1%) and Enterobactericiae (11.1%). Anaerobic bacteria were cultured in 22.2% of the specimens. Of the commonly used antibiotics, there was high sensitivity to erythromycin, cefadroxyl, chloramphenicol and amoxicillin and poor sensitivity to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and perfloxacin. CONCLUSION: The bacteriology of chronic maxillary sinusitis at Kenyatta National Hospital is generally similar to that found elsewhere. The bacteria are susceptible to relatively affordable antibiotics like amoxicillin, erythromycin and cefadroxyl.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. "With Adams Oloo "Pluralist Politics and Democratization in Kenya: Prospects and Obstacles," in A. Bujra and S. Adejumobi (eds.), Democracy, Civil Society and Governance in Africa, New Jersey: Africa World Press.". In: Siriba Teachers Colege, Maseno, Kenya. IPPNW; 2001. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Aliber, M., Walkers, C., Machera, M., Kamau, P., and Omondi, C., The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Land Rights. Case Studies from Kenya. Rome: FAO.". In: The Politics of Transition in Kenya: From Kanu to Narc. Nairobi: Heinrich Boll Foundation. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "With Aliber, M., Walkers, C., Machera, M., Kamau, P., and Omondi, C., The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Land Rights. Case Studies from Kenya. Rome: FAO.". In: South African Journal of Philosophy, 1998, 17(2): 152-159. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. With Asingo, Patrick: `Implementing Road Transport Safety Measures in Kenya: Policy Issues and Challenges. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2006. AbstractWebsite

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "With Chege, G.Wa E.A.E.P Primary English 6 Nairobi: East African Education Publishers.". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1993. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. "With D. K. Leonard, "Procedures for Decentralised Programming, Budgeting and Work Planning: Lessons from Kenya.". In: Agricultural Administration (Essex) Vol. 19, No. 3,pp. 123-137. IPPNW; 1985. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
N. DRIRAKIW. "With Dharam Rana, .". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2002.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. With Dorothy McCormick and Mary Kinyanjui: `Enhancing Institutional Capacity for Policy Development, Dialogue, and Advocacy: Role of Associations and Other Community Based Organisations. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. AbstractWebsite

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "With Fonseca G.M. Heinemann Primary English 2. Nairobi: Heinemann Kenya Ltd.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1988. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "With Fonseca, G.M. Heinemann Primary English 1. Nairobi: Heinemann Kenya Ltd.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1988. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "With Fonseca, G.M. Heinemann Primary English 3. Nairobi: Heinemann Kenya Ltd.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1988. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "With Fonseca, G.M. Heinemann Primary English 4. Nairobi: Heinemann Kenya Ltd.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1990. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "With Fonseca, G.M. Heinemann Primary English 5. Nairobi: Heinemann Kenya Ltd.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1990. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "with G. K. Ikiara, 20 Years After: The Bank on the Move, The Co-operative Bank of Kenya Limited, Nairobi, November 1988.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1988. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "With G. wa Chege E.A.E.P Primary English 7 Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers.". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1995. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "With Githinji wa Chege E.A.E.P Primary English 8 Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers.". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1997. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "With J. Barbour (Eds.) Kenyan pots and potters. Nairobi.". In: Oxford University Press. Taylor & Francis; 1985. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
MUTUKU DRMUTIEPIUS. "With Judith Bahemuka: "Culture and Communication: Traditional Modes and New Technologies", History of Humanity Vol. III, UNESCO.". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2004. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MUTUKU DRMUTIEPIUS. "With Judith Bahemuka: "Culture and Communication: Traditional Modes and New Technologies", History of Humanity Vol. III, UNESCO. 2004.". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2004. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Nzomo M. "With K.Staudt,."; 1994. Abstract
n/a
OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "With KSLRP staff Introduction to KSL Teachers Mannual. Nairobi KSLRP/SHIA.". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1997. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
SIMIYU PROFWANDIBBA. "With L.A. Muruli. The role of family structure on children's health in sub-Saharan Africa. Paper read at the ".". In: First International Conference on Social Science and Medicine, Africa Network (SOMA-NET), Nairobi, 10-13 August, 1992. Taylor & Francis; 1992. Abstract
Although early diagnosis and treatment are key factors in the effective control of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), many cases of the disease delay taking appropriate action, leading to untold suffering. As a better understanding of treatment-seeking behaviour should help in identifying the obstacles to early diagnosis and effective treatment, the treatment pathways followed by 203 former HAT cases in western Kenya and eastern Uganda have recently been explored. About 86% of the HAT cases had utilized more than two different healthcare options before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, with about 70% each using more than three different health facilities. Only about 8% of the cases reported that they had been correctly diagnosed the first time they sought treatment. Just over half (51%) of the HAT cases had been symptomatic for >2 months before being correctly diagnosed for HAT, and such time lags in diagnosis contributed to 72% of the cases receiving their first appropriate treatment only in the late stage of the disease. The likelihood of a correct diagnosis increased with the time the case had been symptomatic. These observations indicate an urgent need to build the diagnostic capacity of the primary healthcare facilities in the study area, so that all HAT cases can be identified and treated in the early stage of the disease.
MUTUKU DRMUTIEPIUS. "With Makumi Mwagiru: "Governance and Conflict Management", in P. Wanyande, M. Omosa and L. Chweya (eds.), Governance and Transition Politics in Kenya, Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. 2007.". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 2007. Abstract
n/a
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Mary Kinyanjui and Dorothy McCormick: `Network Brokers and Small Scale Production: The Case of Kariobangi Weighing Scales Cluster.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; Forthcoming. Abstract

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, D. and Kimuyu, P., 'Firm Level Institutions in Small Scale Garment Producers in Nairobi.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, D. and Mittulah, W., 'Enhancing Institutional Capacity for Policy Development, Dialogue and Advocacy: Strengthening Capacity of Associations and Other Community Based Organizations, Unpublished Consultancy Report Submitted to UNDP and Mini.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1987.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, Dorothy, 'Finance, Markets, and Business Environment: A Review of Literature on Small Scale Enterprises in Kenya.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
N. DRKINYANJUIMARY. "With McCormick, Dorothy, Barriers to Small Enterprise Growth in Nairobi: Markets and Networks.". In: Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya: Agenda for Improving the Policy Environment, Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth. Pp 143-157. University of Nairobi.; 1994.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With McCormick, Dorothy: `Global Markets and Local Responses: The Changing Institutions in the Lake Victoria Fish Cluster.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2007. Abstract

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "With Misinjila, M. Teaching Oral Literature Nairobi: KOLA.". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1994. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
AMOLO PROFACHOLAMILCAH. "With N. Senkomago: Themes in East African History.". In: University of Nairobi Press.; 1991. Abstract

Colonial policy makers argued that they were  bringing civilization and better standards of living to Africans.  One perceived problem they had to contend with  was the “ignorance” of their subject peoples.  In health delivery, in particular, colonial administrators believed that ignorance accounted for the poor levels of health among Africans, and that knowledge and that knowledge and other preventive measures would greatly enhance standards of living, for instance, among urban Africans. In this paper we test this philosophy against colonial urban health policy’s and show that racism in the delivery of services  greatly undermined African and Asian health in order to afford  high quality services for Europeans in Nairobi.

V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Ng'ethe, Njuguna.; .". In: The Politics of Development Space in Kenya: The state and NGOs in the Delivery of Basic Services in Kenya, Working Paper No. 486, IDS, University of Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
V. DRMITULLAHWINNIE. "With Rosemary Atieno and Benjamin Okech `Linkages and Business Competition in Kenya.". In: The Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 3223 . ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2007. Abstract

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Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products.
This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.

OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "With Rottaland, f. The Suba of Kenya: A Case of Growing Ethnicity with Receding Languages Competence.' In AAP Vol. 1, 115-126.". In: A book review in Journal of African Languages and Linguistics Vol. 15 - 1, 80-85. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1986. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;

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