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MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: Conjunctival normal flora at Kenyatta national Hospital and Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: Conjunctival normal flora at Kenyatta national Hospital and Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. University of Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.   Design: Cross sectional hospital based.   Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.   Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.   Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.   Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: Conjunctival normal flora at Kenyatta national Hospital and Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: Conjunctival normal flora at Kenyatta national Hospital and Kikuyu Eye Unit, Kenya; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract

Universit

MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci; a major ocular normal flora; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 3 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci; a major ocular normal flora; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 3 (2007).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. University of Nairobi.; 2007. Abstract
Objectives: To describe the pattern of ocular abnormalities, their correlation with the physical disorders and describe associated risk factors in children attending the Occupational therapy clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital.   Design: Cross sectional hospital based.   Subjects: A hundred and eighty seven children, aged between three months and 13 years with cerebral palsy and sensory integration deficits.   Results: Majority of the patients had cerebral palsy(CP), 160(85.6%), while in those with sensory integration deficit(SID), attention- deficit / hyperactive disorder and autism had almost equal proportions, 20(10.7%) and 18(9.6%) respectively. Among all the children, 62% had ocular anomalies. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence (58.3%) compared to SID group (3.7%). The common ocular abnormalities included cortical visual impairment (48.7%), refractive errors (39%) and squints (34.2%). Association between physical disability and ocular anomalies was noted more in patients with CP compared with SID. Strabismus, cortical visual impairment and myopia were more likely to occur in patients with CP. Significant hyperopia was noted only in CP patients. Strabismus and cortical visual impairment were more likely to occur in patient with neonatal jaundice, while refractive errors in patients with congenital causes and optic atrophy in patients with meningitis.   Conclusion: Visual disabilities in children with physical disabilities were common. Cortical visual impairment, refractive errors and squints were more common. Children with CP had a much higher prevalence compared to the SID group.   Recommendation: All Children with CP and SID should be referred to ophthalmologist and low vision specialist for assessment.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci; a major ocular normal flora; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 3 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, M DRWANYOIKEMILICENT, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "S Jafferji, DR Ilako, KHM Kollmann, MM Kariuki, UC Schaller: The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci; a major ocular normal flora; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 3 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2007. Abstract

Universit

B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "S. Brooker, S. Clarke, JK Njagi, S. Polack, B. Mugo, B. Estambale, E. Muchiri, P. Magnussen, J. Cox (2004). Spatial clustering of malaria and associated risk factors during an epidemic in a highland area of western Kenya. Trop Med & Int. Health 9 (7) 757 .". In: Trop Med & Int. Health 9 (7) 757 . Taylor & Francis; 2004. Abstract
We conducted a longitudinal study among 827 pregnant women in Nyanza Province, western Kenya, to determine the effect of earth-eating on geohelminth reinfection after treatment. The women were recruited at a gestational age of 14-24 weeks (median: 17) and followed up to 6 months postpartum. The median age was 23 (range: 14-47) years, the median parity 2 (range: 0-11). After deworming with mebendazole (500 mg, single dose) of those found infected at 32 weeks gestation, 700 women were uninfected with Ascaris lumbricoides, 670 with Trichuris trichiura and 479 with hookworm. At delivery, 11.2%, 4.6% and 3.8% of these women were reinfected with hookworm, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides respectively. The reinfection rate for hookworm was 14.8%, for T. trichiura 6.65, and for A. lumbricoides 5.2% at 3 months postpartum, and 16.0, 5.9 and 9.4% at 6 months postpartum. There was a significant difference in hookworm intensity at delivery between geophagous and non-geophagous women (P=0.03). Women who ate termite mound earth were more often and more intensely infected with hookworm at delivery than those eating other types of earth (P=0.07 and P=0.02 respectively). There were significant differences in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides between geophagous and non-geophagous women at 3 (P=0.001) and at 6 months postpartum (P=0.001). Women who ate termite mound earth had a higher prevalence of A. lumbricoides, compared with those eating other kinds of earth, at delivery (P=0.02), 3 months postpartum (P=0.001) and at 6 months postpartum (P=0.001). The intensity of infections with T. trichiura at 6 months postpartum was significantly different between geophagous and non-geophagous women (P=0.005). Our study shows that geophagy is associated with A. lumbricoides reinfection among pregnant and lactating women and that intensities built up more rapidly among geophagous women. Geophagy might be associated with reinfection with hookworm and T. trichiura, although these results were less unequivocal. These findings call for increased emphasis, in antenatal care, on the potential risks of earth-eating, and for deworming of women after delivery.
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "S. G. Kibicho and D. W. Waruta, African 'Religion in BRP 201 and 202 Lecture Series.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1989. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
STEPHEN DRGICHUHI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "S. Gichuhi, K. H. M. Kollmann, P.V. Choksey The prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma in black diabetics East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 10, No. 1, Nairobi (2000).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 10, No. 1, Nairobi (2000). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "S. Gressner, C. A. Omwandho, V. Klingmueller, R. M. Bohle (2004): Effect of intermittent uterine occlusion on hemodynamic changes in pre-term and near term ovine twin fetuses .". In: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 24:341.; 2004. Abstract

Recurrent pregnancy loss has been associated with autoimmune responses to membrane phospholipids and alloimmune reactions against paternally derived molecules on the trophoblast. The problem is psychologically and economically stressful as it undermines the capacity of some couples to reproduce and participate effectively in the day-to-day economic activities. This article reviews the adoption of intravenous immunoglobulin as a form of therapy for the clinical management of recurrent pregnancy loss and of selected autoimmune disorders. Side effects, contraindications and safety of use are discussed.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "S. Gruessner, C. A. Omwandho, V. Klingmueller, R. M., Bohle, H.-R Tinneberg. Cerebro and cardiovascular responses and oxygen consumption during prolonged hypoxia in fetal sheep. In Proceedings of the 15th World Congress on Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gyn.". In: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 26: 449.; 2005. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study re-association pattern of human placental eluate immunoglobulins with acid treated isologous and third party trophoblast derived placental microvesicles. DESIGN: Laboratory based experimentation. SETTING: Biological Sciences Department and Discipline for Reproductive Medicine University of Newcastle, Australia and the Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. RESULTS: Placental eluate immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles in three distinct patterns. I: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated more strongly with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles, II: eluate immunoglobulins re-associated strongly with isologous but weakly with third party acid treated placental microvesicles, III: eluate immunoglobulins did not show preferential re-association with isologous and third party acid treated placental microvesicles. CONCLUSION: Two types of antigenic epitopes I and II may be expressed on the human placentae. Type I antigens may be present on all human placentae while type II epitopes may be paternally derived hence unique to each pregnancy. Also, immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the human placental trophoblast.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "S. Kangethe, A. Karani, J. Njagi, E Kamaara, C, Syallow, J.M. Ole Kiu, Mengich, Gladys. ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Pediatricians, for example spend most of their time catering to the needs of children, while nurses, pharmacists and dentists in their own areas. Medical Educators, however, spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "S. Kangethe, A. Karani, J. Njagi, E Kamaara, C, Syallow, J.M. Ole Kiu, Mengich, Gladys. ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Pediatricians, for example spend most of their time catering to the needs of children, while nurses, pharmacists and dentists in their own areas. Medical Educators, however, spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "S. M. GITHIGIA, W. K. MUNYUA, P.W. N. KANYARI (1993). " Prevalence of coccidiosis in Kenya.". In: Kenya." Second Seminar on the DANIDA Ruminant Gastro-intestinal Helminth Research Project. University of Nairobi, Kabete College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Kenya. 24 January18th-22nd. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1993. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "S. M.GITHIGIA, MUNYUA W. K. AND KANYARI P. W. N. (1992). " Observations of the pathology of natural Eimeria infection in kids in Kenya". Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 50: 235 - 237.". In: Kenya." Second Seminar on the DANIDA Ruminant Gastro-intestinal Helminth Research Project. University of Nairobi, Kabete College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Kenya. 24 January18th-22nd. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "S. M.GITHIGIA, MUNYUA W. K. and KANYARI P. W. N. (1992). Prevalence of Eimeria species in goats from parts of Central Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 40:283-285.". In: Kenya." Second Seminar on the DANIDA Ruminant Gastro-intestinal Helminth Research Project. University of Nairobi, Kabete College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Kenya. 24 January18th-22nd. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1992. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "S. M.Njoroge, S.K.Ngari and B.N.K.Njoroge .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2001. Abstract
Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.
MAHINDRA DRMARUSHITAL. "S. Maru (2005). Formulation and evaluation of Tenoxicam niosomes. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8:62 .". In: The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Taylor & Francis; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MAHINDRA DRMARUSHITAL. "S. Maru and F.V. Manvi (2005). Formulation and evaluation of Tenoxicam Topical Gels. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8:14 .". In: The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Taylor & Francis; 2005. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "S. O. Otieno, A. W. Mwang.". In: African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, vol.4 pp.479-487 (1999) (ISSN 1023-070X/99). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1998. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
"S. Vugigi, I.O. Kibwage , E.O. Ogaja, K.O. Mangera, H.K. Chepkwony, A.N. Mac hine and J. Kathanzu. Drug quality control work in DARU: Observations during 1991-1992." Pharm. J. of Kenya. 1997;8(2):23-25. Abstract

The Drug Analysis Research Unit
analysed 161 samples during the period
January 1991 and December 1992. Of the
samples ana lysed, 125 were locally manufactured
and 36 were imported. The
Central Medical Supplies Coordinating
Unit accounted for 100 samples while the
rest were from various hospitals and '
research institutions. 46 samples failed to
meet quality specifications. 37 of those
that failed were locally manufactured and
included two counterfeits, while 9 were
imported.

N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "S. Wangaruro, N.K. Karanja, E.T. Makatiani, D.W. Odee and P.L. Woomer, 1998. Chemical properties, initial microbial populations and survival of rhizobia in peat, 14 vermiculite and filtermud. (eds. S.M. Mpepereki and F.I. Makonese). pp 160-164. In Harness.". In: Proceedings of the sixth International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF), 12-17 September, 1994, Harare, Zimbabwe ISBN 0-908307-58-6.; 1998. Abstract
n/a
KANYUA PROFMUGAMBIJESSENDWIGA. "S. Yide and T. Groenewegen, Luke's Gospel, Weekly Review.".; 1986. Abstract

Introduction to Philosophy of Religion, University of Nairobi, 1988

F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "S.H. Ominde & F.F. Ojany, The Kano Plains: A Geographical Challenge. African Sceientist, No.1 pp.7-20 (personal contribution being pp.7-14, Figures 1-7 Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the First World Congress on Water Resources vol.II, pp.19-44. UN-HABITAT; 1969. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "S.J. Gaciri, R. Altherr, C.M. Nyamai and E.M. Mathu (1993) .". In: 5th Conference on the Geology of Kenya. Geological Society of Kenya, Nairobi, pp. 1-4. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
JOHN PROFNJENGAMUNENE, M DRMUNYUASJ. "S.J.M Munyua .,D.I Karioki, D.M Chibeu, J.K Wabacha, A.G Thaiya J.M Njenga, J.M Gathuma,,and B.Mitaru (2000). Prognostic indicators of post partum viability of kids born of Escherichia coli-vaccinated or unvaccinated does.". In: Journal of South African Veterinary Association 71 (1): 47-52. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2000. Abstract
A case of dystocia resulting in rupture of he middle uterine artery and subsequent death in a cow is reported
JOHN PROFNJENGAMUNENE, M DRMUNYUASJ. "S.J.M Munyua .,D.I Karioki, D.M Chibeu, J.K Wabacha, A.G Thaiya J.M Njenga, J.M Gathuma,,and B.Mitaru (2000). Prognostic indicators of post partum viability of kids born of Escherichia coli-vaccinated or unvaccinated does.". In: Journal of South African Veterinary Association 71 (1): 47-52. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass.; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria
K PROFWABACHAJAMES, M DRMUNYUASJ. "S.J.M. Munyua and J.K. Wabacha. Community based animal Health in Kenya: Kenya.". In: Law Journal,Issue No.4. Materials Research Society; 2003. Abstract
A study was conducted in sixty-two randomly selected herds in Kikuyu division, Kiambu District in Central Kenyan Highlands to obtain prevalence, spectrum and intensity of gastrointestinal helminths in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Faecal samples from a total of 598 pigs of various age-group categories (piglets, weaners, growers and adults) were taken during a period of a 4 months in 1999 ad examined for helminthes eggs (EPG) using modified McMaster technique. Gastrintestinal helminth eggs wewre observed in 57 (91.9%) of the herds. The Helminths observed were Strongles (35.1%). Ascarids (10%), Trichuris (4), Strongloids (3.2%) and Tapeworms (0.3%). The overall prevalence of the helminaths was 43.5%. the prevalence among the various age groups differed significantly (p<0.01) with the highest prevalence in the weaners (55.6%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%). The prevalence of Strongles and Strongloids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups. The highest prevalence for Strongyles was in the growers (41.7%) and the lowest in the piglets (22.9%) while the highest prevalence for lowest in the adults (0.8%). The prevalence of Ascarids differed significantly (p<0.01) among the age groups with the highest prevalence in weaners (27.8%) and the lowest in the piglets (3.6%). The prevalence of Trichuris worms was significantly (p<0.5) higher in the weaners than in the piglets. The high prevalence of the Gatrointestinal helmnths observed indicates the need to control these parasites due to their detrimental effects on productivity and also due to their public health significance.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES, M DRMUNYUASJ. "S.J.M. Munyua and J.K. Wabacha. Community based animal Health in Kenya: Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific Conference, Nairobi, 3rd . Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2003. Abstract
A longitudinal study was carried out in Kikuyu Division (a peri-urban area in central Kenyan highlands) between January 1999 and December 1999 to estimate the baseline parameters on reproductive performance of the sow, as well as health and productivity of grower and preweaning pigs of smallholder herds. Data were collected on 155 breeding pigs, 795 grower pigs and 801 preweaning piglets in 74, 50 and 40 smallholder herds, respectively, using record cards that were updated during monthly visits. The sow-level medians were: weaning-to-service interval 3 months; interfarrowing interval 6.4 months; number of live-born piglets 9.0; and number of piglets weaned per litter 7.5. The piglet crude morbidity incidence risk was 29%. The cause-specific incidence risks for the important health problems encountered in preweaned piglets were diarrhea (4.3%), pruritus (17.1%), and skin necrosis (4.2%). The estimated crude mortality incidence risk to 8 weeks of age was 18.7%. The cause-specific mortality incidence risks to 8 weeks of age for the important causes of mortality were overlying (9.9%), savaging (2.4%), unviable piglets (2.0%) and unknown (1.9%). Overall, 78.8% of the total live-born piglet mortality occurred during the first week postpartum with 69% of these deaths being caused by overlying. The grower-pig crude morbidity incidence risk was 20% and the cause-specific incidence risks of the important health problems encountered were gut edema (1.3%), pruritus (21.1%), and unknown (2.3%). The crude mortality incidence risk was 3.8% and the important causes were gut edema and unknown causes (cause-specific mortality incidence risks of 1.3 and 1.6%, respectively). The median weight:age ratio and average daily weight gain for the grower pigs were 5.1 kg/month of age and 0.13 kg/day, respectively. For preweaning pigs, the median average daily weight gain was 0.13 g/day.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "S.J.M. Munyua, S.J. Kassim O. Farah and J.K. Wabacha. Alternative Veterinary Service Delivery Systems In Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya: Suggested Satructural, Policy and Legal Amendments.". In: Proceedings of PINEP National Workshop, ' Sustainable Pastoral Production Systems and Environmental Securities in the Drylands of North -eastern Kenya' 14-15th Octomber 1999; Machakos, Kenya pp 79-95. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1999. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "S.J.M.Munyua, D.I. Karioki, D.M. Chibeu, J.K. Wabacha, A.G. Thaiya, and J.M. Njenga, J.M. Gathuma, B. Mitaru, B (2000). Prognostic indicators of postpartum viability of kids born of E.coli vaccinated or unvaccinated does.". In: Journal of south Africa Veterinary Association 71(1):47-52. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2000. Abstract
The short-term farm level economic impact of Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak in a large-scale dairy scale dairy farm was assessed during the quarantine period (35 days) and 60 days after lifting of the quarantine. Direct and indirect areas that contributed to the financial losses were identified for the period of observation (85 days). The greatest direct financial impact was due to milk losses (42.0%) followed by purchase pf additional feeds (13.65) and culling of milking cows that developed chronic mastitis (12.5%). The other direct costs were; extra labout inputs (8.9%), veterinary fees (3.350, transport (3.05), death (3.0%), drugs (2.9%), abortions (1.4%) and chemicals (0.5%). The indirect costs (9.4%) were associated with the effects of the quarantine period on other farm enterprises. During the quarantine period there were no sales of pigs and hay, and the retained additional feeds. The overall short-term farm level direct and indirect costs associated to US$16,026 (1US$=75ksh). This colossal economic loss within such a short period of time indicates that the control of FMD is of paramount economic importance in the diary farming sector in Kenya. The factors that would determine the magnitude of the financial losses due to an outbreak of FMD are discussed
N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "S.K. Kimani, B.A. Osborne, C.J. Pilbeam, M. Wood and N.K. Karanja, 1998. Agricultural production in semi-arid regions: Use of legume-based mixed cropping systems in Kenya. (eds. S.M. Mpepereki and F.I. Makonese) pp. 207-209. In Harvessing Biological Nitro.". In: Proceedings of the sixth International Conference of the African Association for Biological Nitrogen Fixation (AABNF) 12-17 September, 1994, Harare, Zimbabwe.; 1998. Abstract
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N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M. Mbiuki, G.M. Mugera and P.N. Nyaga. Effects of the technique in intestinal anastomosis in cattle. Modern Vet. pr. (1984). 11: 891-895.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1984. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M. Mbiuki, G.M. Mugera and P.N. Nyaga. Intestinal anastomosis in cattle: Comparison of appositional techniques.". In: Proceedings of 14th World Congress on diseases of cattle (1986): 20. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M. Mbiuki, P.N. Nyaga, and G.M. Mugera. Healing of intestinal anastomoses in cattle: An evaluation of end to end approximating techniques.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1986. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "S.M.Njiro, P.N.Nyaga and Kofi-Tsekpo (1993) Immunosuppresive effect of Spirostachys venenifera pax on the response of mice to sheep red blood cells. Bull. Anim. Hlth. and Prod. 42:47-50.". In: Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Jerusalem, Israel, 4-9th August, 1996. au-ibar; 1993. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

O. DRDULOSIMEON. "S.O Dulo (1990). "Sanitation a Priority".". In: Proceedings of the annual seminar of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. University of Nairobi. HABRI,UoN; 1990.
O. DRDULOSIMEON. "S.O Dulo and J. Malombe (1991). Infrastructure of Housing Schemes in Nyeri Municipality.". In: Proceedings of the United Nations Training Program in Housing at the University of Nairobi. Pg 325-335. HABRI,UoN; 1991.
"S.O Dulo. Use of Cement Stabilised Soil blocks.". In: Proceedings of the Annual Seminar for the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers, held at the Jomo Kenyatta University College of Agriculture and Technology, Juja, Kiambu. HABRI,UoN; 1992.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "S.O. McLigeyo, J.K. Kayima Evolution of nephrology in East Africa in the last seventy years .". In: East African Medical Journal, 70(6): 362 - 368; 1993. University of Nairobi.; 1993. Abstract
Interest in renal disease and practice in East Africa started as far back as the first quarter of this century. Work in this colonial era concentrated on establishing the existence of renal diseases and identifying the nature and incidence of these diseases. This was achieved by case identification and reporting as well as retrospective studies on post mortem and medical notes. The post independence period has not only identified the existence of even more renal diseases but also concentrated on getting a deeper understanding of the aetiology, nature, pattern, regional variations, complications and outcome of these diseases as seen in our environment. Apart from the better understanding of the prevalent renal diseases, emphasis has also been put on the expansion and delivery of renal services. Investigative and treatment facilities have been improved and a lot has been put into the training of the required local team of experts to man these services. This article reviews what has gone on in the last 70 years from the pure case-report and postmortem reports era to the era of locally available modern facilities including haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation.
O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH, K DRKAYIMAJOSHUA. "S.O. McLigeyo, J.K. Kayima Evolution of nephrology in East Africa in the last seventy years .". In: East African Medical Journal, 70(6): 362 - 368; 1993. East African Medical Journal.71(4): 253-5; 1994.; 1993. Abstract
Interest in renal disease and practice in East Africa started as far back as the first quarter of this century. Work in this colonial era concentrated on establishing the existence of renal diseases and identifying the nature and incidence of these diseases. This was achieved by case identification and reporting as well as retrospective studies on post mortem and medical notes. The post independence period has not only identified the existence of even more renal diseases but also concentrated on getting a deeper understanding of the aetiology, nature, pattern, regional variations, complications and outcome of these diseases as seen in our environment. Apart from the better understanding of the prevalent renal diseases, emphasis has also been put on the expansion and delivery of renal services. Investigative and treatment facilities have been improved and a lot has been put into the training of the required local team of experts to man these services. This article reviews what has gone on in the last 70 years from the pure case-report and postmortem reports era to the era of locally available modern facilities including haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation.
Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM, Mwangi JN, Mbuthia PG, Mbugua, M. "S.W. A systematic review of analgesia practices in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy." Veterinary World. 2018;11(12):1725-1735.
ODUOR PROFOGENDOSTEPHEN. "S.W.O. Ogendo. Post Oesophagectomy Leakage at The Kenyatta National Hospital .". In: The East and Central African Journal of Surgery. December 2005:10(2) 77 1 83. The East and Central African Journal of Surgery.; 2005. Abstract
Background: Post oesophagectomy leakage is a common postoperative complication. This present review was aimed at documenting the problem of post-oesophagectomy leakage and associated variables at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) between January 1998 and December 2004. Methods: All patients presenting with carcinoma of the oesophagus and who underwent an oesophagectomy were included into the study. Analysis of data was carried out to determine the leakage rate as well as determining the association of leaks with other preoperative and postoperative variables. Statistical analysis performed on Microsoft Excel (10.2614.2625), and Epinfo 2002. The Chi2 test was used to determine statistical significance. Level of significance was achieved if the p value was < 0.05. Results: A total of 201 oesophagectomies were carried out in the period under review. The male to female sex ratio was 1.6:1. The average age was 57 years with a range of 24 years to 88 years. Two thirds (67.1%) of the anastomoses were fashioned within the thoracic cavity while the rest were fashioned within the cervical area. A total 16.4% of anastomoses leaked. The in-hospital mortality rate for all oesophagectomies was 28.9%. The in-hospital mortality for the post anastomotic leakage patients was 48.4% as compared to 27.2% among those patients who did not develop anastomotic leakage. Conclusion: Post oesophagectomy leakage remains common complication at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).
Schroeder H. "S/A pivot in Toposa clause chaining.". In: Nilo-Saharan-Colloqium 2013. Cologne, Germany ; 2013.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Sabina Wakasiaka, Job Bwayo, Jeckonia Ndinya-Achola, Gloria Omosa, Walter Jaoko, Wambui Waruingi & Hilda Ogutu (2004) Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative HIV Vaccine Peer Leaders Training Manual.". In: Peer Leaders Training Manual. AIDS 24(6):891-7; 2004. Abstract
MRC Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. The IFN-y enzyme-linked immunospot (ELI-Spot) assay is often used to map HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses. We compared overlapping 15-mer pools with optimized CD8 epitopes to screen ELISpot responses in HIV-infected individuals. The 15-mer pools detected responses to previously undefined epitopes, but often missed low-level responses to predefined epitopes, particularly when the epitope was central in the 15-mer, rather than at the N-terminus or C-terminus. These factors should be considered in the monitoring of HIV vaccine trials.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Sabuni Z A abd, Mbuthia P G a, Maingi Na, Nyaga P Na, Njagi L Wa, Bebora L Ca and Michieka J N. 2010. Prevalence of ectoparasites infestation in indigenous free-ranging village chickens in different agro-ecological zones in Kenya. Livestock Research for R.". In: Livestock Research for Rural development. Livestock Research for Rural development; 2010. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Sabuni Z A, Mbuthia P G, Maingi N, Nyaga P N, Njagi L W, Bebora L C and Michieka J N. 2011. Prevalence of haemoparasites infection in indigenous chicken in Eastern Province of Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development23(11)2011. http://www.lrrd.org/.". In: Livestock research for Rural development. Livestock research for Rural Development; 2011. Abstract
Indigenous chickens constitute over 81% of poultry in Kenya and produce 71% of eggs and poultry meat. Ecto- and haemoparasites limit production of these birds in the rural areas. However, there exists scanty information on these parasites infection in indigenous chicken. This study was conducted to determine and document the type and prevalence of haemoparasites affecting different ages and sex groups of free range indigenous chicken from two agro ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower Midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District in Eastern Province, Kenya. Of the 144 birds examined, 79.2% were infected with haemoparasites, with 62.3% single and 37.7% mixed haemoparasitic infections. Plasmodium gallinaceum was the most prevalent haemoparasite (53.5%) followed by Leucocytozoon schoutedeni (52.1%) and Hemoproteus spp., (3.5%). Grower birds had a prevalence of 83.3% for haemoparasites compared to 81.3% of adults, and 72.9% of chicks (p> 0.05). Male birds had 83.3% prevalence, while female birds had 75.0% (p> 0.05). LH1 was found to have a slightly high prevalence of 81.9% compared to LM5, 76.4% (p> 0.05). Hemoproteus spp were isolated in chickens from LH1 but not from LM5. This study has documented a high prevalence of haemoparasites, hence further studies to determine the impact of infection on the health and productivity of these birds, and evaluation of cost benefit of various control strategies need to be undertaken.
GICHOHI DRMBUTHIAPAUL. "Sabuni, A.Z., Mbuthia, P.G., Maingi,N., P. N. Nyaga. 2008. Ectoparasitism in indigenous chickens and available integrated control alternatives. A case study in Kenya. A paper presented at the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, Colleg.". In: the 6th biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition, 2008, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract
Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with poor production of village indigenous chickens. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites in free ranging indigenous chicken from two different agro-ecological zones: Lower highland 1 (LH1) in Embu District and Lower midland 5 (LM5) in Mbeere District, Kenya. A total of 144 chickens of matched age (chicks, growers and adults) and sex groups were examined for the presence of ectoparasites. Of these, 138 (95.8%) had one or more types of ectoparasites, namely; lice, mites, fleas and soft ticks. One thirty one birds had lice, 107 mites, 42 sticktight fleas and 8 had soft ticks. Of the 138 infested birds, 25 had single while 113 had mixed infestations. Lice were the most prevalent parasites. The study documents Epidermoptes species, Laminosioptes cysticola and Megninia species for the first time in Africa as well as Lipeurus caponis and Goniodes gigas in Kenya. All adult birds were infected with ectoparasites followed by 97.7% grower and 89.6% chicks. Both male and female birds had same prevalence (95.8%) of ectoparasites. Lower midland 5 had a slightly higher prevalence of ectoparasites (98.6%) compared to LH1 (93.1%) though not statistically significant. Parasite intensity was significantly different among age groups of chicken and between agro-ecological zones (p<0.05), but not between sexes of birds (p>0.05). Because of the high prevalence of ectoparasites revealed by this study, it is imperative that integrated control strategies need to be put in place to improve chicken productivity and enhance smallholder livelihood in these areas.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Sack D A, Slack, RCB, WAMOLA I.A and Kamnisky. Travellers.". In: John Hopkins Medical Journal Vol. 14:63-79. (Aug. 1977). IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
A study that devised a modified method of reporting antibiotic sensitivity results was undertaken. Enterobacteriaceae and Gram positive cocci were tested for drug sensitivity by a disc diffusion method. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured, dividing the isolates into four groups: the highly sensitive, the moderately sensitive, the slightly sensitive and the resistant ones. The slightly sensitive isolates were taken as indicators of antibiotic resistance acquisition. By that system, when more than 50% of the isolates fell into the slightly and resistant groups, that meant that the antibiotic concerned would be discontinued for some time until the bacteria reverted to being moderately sensitive. The study also provided a method of making antibiotic discs from local blotting papers, and a sample of a form on which antibiotic sensitivity results could be recorded was presented. The method is considered to be easy and very appropriate for developing countries in detecting gradual and abrupt acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.
SAMUEL PROFKIBICHO. ""Sacramental Nature of the Universe: African Religion and Environmental Concerns, "God, Humanity & Mother Nature, ed. G.E.M. Ogutu (Nairobi and Masaki publishers) pp.101 -118.". In: Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. On bearing capacity of roads and airfields PP 743-756, Trondeihm, Norway. Longhorn; 1992. Abstract
 Journal of Civil Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology Vol.7 PP
Cunningham M, Scouten CW. "Sacrifice {Perfusion} in {Animal} {Research}.". 2012. AbstractWebsite
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M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Sacrifices for Africa A commentary on Caribbean Literature.". In: VLIRIUC-UoN International Conference, 2002. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2006. Abstract

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Samanta P. "SADCC and Regional Cooperation.". In: MSU & University of Michigan.; 1983.
Samanta P. "SADCC Mining Sector Five - year Strategy, 1986 - 90.". In: Mining Sector Coordinating Unit. Lusaka, Zambia; 1985.
Ocharo R.M. Alain VR, Yonahton B. "Safari."; 2003. Abstractsafari.pdf

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HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Safari ya Lamu. Nairobi, Kenya: Longhorn Publishers; 2011.
Mogambi H. Safari ya Ushindi. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 2010.
A DRRAJABJAMILLA. "Safe blood transfusion module 4 STI control and prevention manual for postgraduate diploma.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Mar;82(3):123-7. VDM Verlag; 1999. Abstract
Rajab J.A. Unit 4: Safe blood transfusion module 4 STI control and prevention manual for postgraduate diploma in the control and management of sexually transmitted infections by distance learning. Ministry of Health and the Belgian Development Cooperation, 1999.
Gall AM, Madadi V, Shisler JL, Mariñas BJ. The Safe Global Water Institute: An integrated, collaborative approach for improving drinking water and sanitation globally. USA: Water Environment Federation; 2013.
Schmeltz LR. "Safe insulin use in the hospital setting." Hosp Pract. 2009;37:2009-2051. AbstractWebsite
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MUIGUA" "KARIUKI, FRANCIS" "KARIUKI. "Safeguarding Environmental Rights in Kenya." Kenya Law Review . 2013;Vol. IV ((2012-2013)):279-294.
Maundu P, Bosibori E, Kibet S, Morimoto Y, Odubo A, Kapeta B, Muiruri P, Adeka R, Ombonya J. Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage: a practical guide to documenting traditional foodways. Paris: UNESCO; 2013.
HM M, CM M, P M F M. "Safeguarding livestock during drought disasters in Kenya can safeguard livelihoods and food security in affected regions." Safeguarding livestock during drought disasters in Kenya can safeguard livelihoods and food security in affected regions. 2014;IJFAND manuscript No. 14050.
b) J.M Ogola. "Safeguarding the Health and Safety of Female Workers on Horticultural farms in Kenya." Publication of International Congress on Work and Health Workshop, New Delhi, India.. 2005.
"Safety and effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1: the Kesho Bora Multicentre Collaborative Study rationale, design, and implementation challenges." Contemp Clin Trials. 2011;32(1):74-85. Abstract

To evaluate strategies to reduce HIV-1 transmission through breastfeeding, a multicentre study including a nested randomized controlled trial was implemented in five research sites in West, East and South Africa (The Kesho Bora Study). The aim was to optimize the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (PMTCT) and to preserve the health of the HIV-1-infected mother. The study included long-term ARV treatment for women with advanced disease, and short-course ARV prophylaxis stopped at delivery for women with early disease. Women with intermediate disease participated in a randomized controlled trial to compare safety and efficacy of triple-ARV prophylaxis prolonged during breastfeeding with short-course ARV prophylaxis stopped at delivery. Between January 2005 and August 2008 a total of 1140 women were enrolled. This paper describes the study design, interventions and protocol amendments introduced to adapt to evolving scientific knowledge, international guidelines and availability of ARV treatment. The paper highlights the successes and challenges during the conduct of the trial. The Kesho Bora Study included one of the few randomized controlled trials to assess safety and efficacy of ARV prophylaxis continued during breastfeeding and the only randomized trial to assess maternal prophylaxis started during pregnancy. The findings have been important for informing international and national guidelines on MTCT prevention in developing countries where, due to poverty, lack of reliable and affordable supply of replacement feed and stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, HIV-infected women have little or no option other than to breastfeed their infants. (ISRCTN71468401).

Walter Jaoko, Frederick N Nakwagala OAGOMJ, Birungi, Annet Nanvubya FBKBHOSWLM, Wambui Waruingi, Jane Odada MOJIJN-ACKEM, Patricia Fast, Claudia Schmidt JGTTCSBBLD,, Bruce Johnson AMLNPHMBPHT´aˇs HAMM, Job Bwayo PK. "Safety and immunogenicity of recombinant low-dosage HIV-1 A vaccine candidates vectored by plasmid pTHr DNA or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) in humans in East Africa." Vaccine. 2008:2788-2795.
Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bhatta K, Ogutu H, Wakasiaka S, Matu L, Waruingi W, Odada J, Oyaro M, Indangasi J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Konde C, Mugisha E, Fast P, Schmidt C, Gilmour J, Tarragona T, Smith C, Barin B, Dally L, Johnson B, Muluubya A, Nielsen L, Hayes P, Boaz M, Hughes P, Hanke T´aˇs, McMichael A, Bwayo JJ, Kaleebu P. "Safety and immunogenicity of recombinant low-dosage HIV-1 A vaccine candidates vectored by plasmid pTHr DNA or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) in humans in East Africa.". 2008. Abstract

The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN- ) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.

Walter Jaoko, Frederick N Nakwagala OAGOMJ, Birungi, Annet Nanvubya FBKBHOSWLM, Wambui Waruingi, Jane Odada MOJIJN-ACK, Emmanuel Mugisha, Patricia Fast CSJGTTCSBBLD, Bruce Johnson, Andrew Muluubya LNPHMB, and Peter Hughes, Tomas Hanke AMMJBPK. "Safety and immunogenicity of recombinant low-dosage HIV-1 A vaccine candidates vectored by plasmid pTHr DNA or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) in humans in East Africa." Vaccine,. 2008;26(22):2788-95.
OMOSA DRMANYONYISUSANGLORIAK. "Safety and immunogenicity of recombinant low-dosage HIV-1 A vaccine candidates vectored by plasmid pTHr DNA or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) in humans in East Africa. Jaoko W, Nakwagala FN, Anzala O, Manyonyi GO, Birungi J, Nanvubya A, Bashir F, Bh.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. IBIMA Publishing; 2008. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
Jaoko, W. KKO-MATAEMGBSKRABEKG, RT., Smith DFANZALAMCMBT-FBPJHHCLB, M., Loughran KSTBMJCJHSGNGJFKWG. "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Multiclade HIV-1 Adenoviral Vector Vaccine Alone or as Boost following a Multiclade HIV-1 DNA Vaccine in Africa." PLoS ONE . 2010;5(9).
Walter Jaoko, Etienne Karita KKGO-MSASTEABMS, Graham, Richard A. Koup RBCSLDBFOAT, Claude M. Muvunyi, Jean Bizimana TT-FPBPHJ, Martin Ho, Kelley Loughran WKGSHTMBJ, Josephine H. Cox, Claudia Schmidt JGGNPFJBJ. "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Multiclade HIV-1 Adenoviral Vector Vaccine Alone or as Boost following a Multiclade HIV-1 DNA Vaccine in Africa." PLoS ONE . 2010;5( 9):e12873.
Huchko MJ;, Maloba M;, Bukusi EA. "Safety of the loop electrosurgical excision procedure performed by clinical officers in an HIV primary care setting. .". 2010. AbstractWebsite

The increasing availability of HIV clinics providing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically reduced AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in resource-limited settings. However, the impact of HAART on development and progression of cervical neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer remains uncertain [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Destroy user interface control1]. The longer life expectancy among HIV-infected women receiving HAART may actually increase the overall risk for cervical cancer, underscoring the need for prevention strategies for this high-risk population. A potentially cost-effective way of providing this “primary” care may be through HIV clinics, which are generally well staffed and have more resources than government or private clinics [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Destroy user interface control2]. In addition to utilizing the staffing and infrastructure in place to provide HIV care and HAART, incorporating cervical cancer screening into an HIV clinic visit may increase screening uptake and follow up. One key element of cervical cancer prevention is the coupling of accurate screening methodologies with safe and effective outpatient treatment for cervical neoplasia. The loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) has better efficacy among HIV-infected women than cryotherapy [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Destroy user interface control3], and although LEEP requires electricity, it has been used successfully in resource-limited settings [ The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version. Destroy user interface control4]. However, LEEP is generally considered a surgical procedure to be performed by physicians or highly-trained midwives. We sought to establish the feasibility and safety of training midlevel HIV primary care providers to perform LEEP in an HIV care and treatment clinic in Kisumu, Kenya. Ethical approval was obtained from all collaborating institutions prior to initiation of screening and treatment. This evaluation took place at the Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES) clinic in Kisumu, Kenya. Kisumu, Kenya’s third largest city, has a population of 400 000. FACES partners with the Kenyan Government to provide free HIV care services as per Ministry of Health guidelines. Most visits are done by clinical officers (physician assistants), with medical officers available for consultation. As part of the cervical cancer screening program, all interested clinical officers at FACES were offered LEEP training. Between October 2007 and October 2009, 4 clinical officers underwent training and certification, and performed 181 LEEPs. Women were followed up for complications by telephone at 1 week and during a return visit at 1 month. All women were seen within 6 weeks of LEEP. Five women (3%) had procedure-related complications (Table 1). With the exception of the antibiotics, no additional treatment or referral was required. In our experience, LEEP was performed safely by clinical officers within an HIV-care clinic, expanding potential options for cervical cancer screening programs.

Ojuka DK. "Safety Of Thyroidectomy At A Rural District Hospital In Kenya.". 2007. Abstract

The clinical outcome of thyroidectomy may be influenced by among other things, the experience of the surgeon performing the procedure. Furthermore, auditing of any surgical procedure helps in monitoring the safety of the procedure in the hands of the operator. Objective This study is an audit of outcome of thyroidectomy performed by the author within the first 18 months of qualification from a local residency program. It aims to record the outcomes as baseline to facilitate future personal and institutional trends of thyroid disease, prevalent in the area. Setting Kapenguria District hospital in Kenya. The author was posted to this facility immediately after completion of surgical residency at the University of Nairobi. Design This was a retrospective audit from April 2007 to September 2008 Patients The patients who underwent thyroidectomy by the author from April 2007 to September 2008. The period was divided into three separate six month blocks of time (A-April to September 2007, B-October 2007 to March 2009, and C- April to September 2008. Main outcome measures Complications and length of stay. Results Thirty nine patients underwent thyroidectomy during this period. The most common type of goiter was multinodular goiter (69.2%, 27) while the most common type of surgery was total thyroidectomy (35.9%, 14). The number of days in hospital did not differ across the periods- 1.92 for period A, 1.75 for B and 1.07 for C. Two complications occurred during period A and were associated with total thyroidectomy Conclusion Subtotal and total thyroidectomy can be safely performed by general surgeons qualifying from our local training institutions. Institutional audits are important to document future improvements in outcomes.

KD O. "Safety of thyroidectomy at a rural district hospital in Kenya." Annals of African Surgery. 2010;5(1):16-18.
Onkoba N, Mumo RM, Ochanda H, Omwandho C, Ozwara HS, Egwang TG. "Safety, immunogenicity, and cross-species protection of a plasmid DNA encoding Plasmodium falciparum SERA5 polypeptide, microbial epitopes and chemokine genes in mice and olive baboons." Journal of biomedical research. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Incorporation of biomolecular epitopes to malarial antigens should be explored in the development of straintranscending
malarial vaccines. The present study sought to determine safety, immunogenicity and cross-species
ef cacy of Plasmodium falciparumserine repeat antigen 5 polypeptide co-expressed with epitopes of BacilleCalmette
Guerin (BCG), tetanus toxoid (TT) and a chemokine gene. Olive baboons and BALB/c mice were randomly
assigned into vaccine and control groups. The vaccine group animals were primed and boosted twice with pIRES
plasmids encoding the SERA5+ BCG+ TT alone, or with either CCL5 or CCL20 and the control group with pIRES
plasmid vector backbone. Mice and baboons were challenged with P. bergheiANKA and P. knowlesiH strain
parasites, respectively. Safety was determined by observing for injection sites reactogenicities, hematology and
clinical chemistry. Parasitaemia and survivorship pro les were used to determine cross-species ef cacy, and T cell
phenotypes, Th1-, Th2-type, T-regulatory immune responses and antibody responses were assessed to determine
vaccine immunogenicity. The pSeBCGTT plasmid DNA vaccines were safe and induced Th1-, Th2-type, and Tregulatory
responses vaccinated animals showed enhanced CD4 + (P< 0.01), CD 8+ T cells (P< 0.001) activation and
IgG anti-SE36 antibodies responses ( P< 0.001) at week 4 and 8 post vaccination compared to the control group.
Vaccinated mice had a 31.45-68.69 % cumulative parasite load reduction and 60 % suppression in baboons ( P< 0.05)
and enhanced survivorship ( P< 0.001) with no clinical signs of malaria compared to the control group. The results
showed that the vaccines were safe, immunogenic and conferred partial cross-species protection.
Keywords: malaria, DNA vaccines, serine repeat antigen, chemokines, cross-species, protection, immunogenicity,
safety

HAMU PROFHABWEJOHN. Safina na Kima wa Ajabu. Longhorn Publishers; 2007.
Nyarwath O. "Sagacity and Freedom.". In: Sagacious Reasoning: Henry Odera Oruka in memoriam. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang; 1997.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Sagar M, Lavreys L, Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss JK, Overbaugh J.Identification of modifiable factors that affect the genetic diversity of the transmitted HIV-1 population.AIDS. 2004 Mar 5;18(4):615-9.". In: AIDS. 2004 Mar 5;18(4):615-9. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have shown that the majority of African women were infected with multiple HIV-1 genetic variants, while in the remaining women only a single viral genotype was detected early in infection. Infection with multiple viral variants was associated with higher plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and faster CD4 T-cell decline. METHOD: Socio-behavioral characteristics, use of hormonal contraceptives, and the presence of sexually transmitted diseases were prospectively assessed at approximately monthly intervals around the time of HIV-1 acquisition in female sex workers in Kenya. We assessed the relationship between these factors and HIV-1 genetic complexity early in infection. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-six women were included in this analysis, of whom 89 had multiple viral genotypes and 67 had a single genotype at primary infection. Women with multiple variants were more likely to have a genital tract infection [odds ratio (OR), 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-18.1] or to be using hormonal contraceptives (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.6) at the time of their infection than those with a single variant. In multivariate analyses, these factors were independent predictors of early HIV-1 genetic complexity, and the presence of multiple viral variants early in infection remained significantly associated with a higher steady state plasma HIV-1 RNA level. CONCLUSION: The presence of genital tract infections and hormonal contraceptive use at the time of transmission were associated with the acquisition of multiple HIV-1 variants.
Owakah F. "Sage Philosophy: Past, Present and Future.". In: Seminario de Abertura dos Doutoramentos em Filosofia e am Geografia qu decorreu. Centro de Linguas da UP-Sede Maputo, Mozambique; 2013.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Said, A.N. and P. N. Mbugua (1985). Present situation of compounded feed industry in Kenya and perspectives for use of local feed resources.". In: In proceedings: FAO experts consultative meeting on animal feeds in the tropics, Bangkok, Thailand. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1985.
A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Saidi H, Anangwe D, Ogeng.". In: Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 2007. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Saidi H, Karanja TM, Ogengo JA.Variant anatomy of the cystic artery in adult Kenyans. Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5.". In: Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 2007. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H, Karanja TM, Ogengo JA.Variant anatomy of the cystic artery in adult Kenyans. Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5.". In: Clin Anat. 2007 Nov;20(8):943-5. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007. Abstract

Knowledge of the variant vascular anatomy of the subhepatic region is important for hepatobiliary surgeons in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The pattern of arterial blood supply of 102 gallbladders was studied by gross dissection. The cystic artery originated from the right hepatic artery in 92.2% of cases. The rest were aberrant and originated from the proper hepatic artery. Accessory arteries were observed to originate from proper hepatic artery (n = 5), left hepatic artery (n = 2), and right hepatic artery (n = 1). Most of the arteries approached the gallbladder in relation to the common hepatic duct (anterior 45.1%, posterior, 46.1%). The other vessels passed anterior to common bile duct (2.9%), posterior to common bile duct (3.9%), or were given off in Calot's triangle. Cystic arteries in this data set show wide variations in terms of relationship to the duct systems. In about one tenth of patients, an accessory cystic artery may need to be ligated or clipped during cholecystectomy. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H, Kitunguu P., Ogengo JA. Variant anatomy of the anterior cerebral artery in Adult Kenyans. Afr. J. Neurol. Sci.2008; 27: 97 - 105.". In: Afr. J. Neurol. Sci.2008; 27: 97 - 105. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract

Background Aneurysms of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries are common and their microvascular surgical management requires sound knowledge of the normal and variant vascular anatomy. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate variations of the anterior cerebral and anterior communicating arteries. Methods: Thirty six cadaveric brains (72 hemispheres) were studied by gross dissection for the pattern of arterial blood supply. Results The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was observed to originate from the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) in all the cases studied. The most common type of termination of the ACA was bifurcation into pericallosal (PerA) and callosomarginal (CMA) arteries with the PerA-CMA junction being supracallosal (60%), infracallosal (27%) or precallosal (5%). Unique variations observed include an accessory ACA from the ACoA, 'bihemispheric pericallosal arteries', intertwining course of the A2 segments of the ACAs and crossing branches from 1 hemisphere to another. Variations of the ACoA were also observed including fenestration (26%) and duplication (13%). Conclusions The majority of ACA bifurcations, in the current study, were supracallosal suggesting the need for exploration of the interhemispheric fissure during surgical corrections of distal ACA aneurysms. Further, the incidence of the callosomarginal artery in this series appears to be at variance with other studies highlighting the need to standardize the definition of the artery. Anterior communicating artery fenestration was the most common variation raising concern as this has been shown to compromise collateral flow and predispose to aneurysm formation. Key Words: Anterior Cerebral artery, Anterior Communicating Artery, Kenya, Variations

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Saidi H, Kitunguu PK, Ogeng.". In: East African Orthopaedic Journal. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 2008. Abstract
Background: Prolapsed intervertebral disk (PID) disease can be managed conservatively or surgically with different reported outcomes.Objective: The present study aimed at assessing the management and outcomes of slipped intervertebral disk disease at the Kenyatta National hospital.Study Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study.Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) a referral and teaching Hospital in Kenya.Patients and Methods: Consecutive files of all cases of slipped intervertebral disk disease from January1997 to December 2007 were retrieved from the Medical records at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The biodata, management methods and the outcomes of the procedures were recorded. The collecteddata was analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 for Windows.Results: Six hundred and three cases were reviewed. All patients received analgesics and bed rest.Five percent of the patients were put on bilateral traction for two weeks while 4% of the patients had corsets. Thirty five per cent of the patients were surgically managed. Over a third of the surgically managed patients had laminectomies. Microdiscectomy was increasingly popular in the latter half ofthe study period. Of the managed patients 95% reported improvement while 92% were complication free. The rate of reherniation and reoperation was 1.5% and 1.2% respectively.Conclusion: The management of PID at Kenyatta National Hospital is largely successful with few cases of complications. In selected patients both conservative and surgical care are used in tandem. Microdiscectomy is an increasingly popular surgical procedure at the KNH.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H, Mohammed U, Machoki M.An unusual abdominal mass: case report.East Afr Med J. 2007 Feb;84(2):88-92.". In: East Afr Med J. 2007 Feb;84(2):88-92. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007. Abstract
The causes of intra-abdominal masses associated with chronic abdominal pain range from the benign to malignant; common to bizarre and some raise major medical-legal issues. We present a case of a 40-year old African lady who presented with chronic right-sided abdominal pain with an associated mass on the right mid-abdomen. She had had a Caesarian section one year prior to presentation. Antecedent history of surgery and typical imaging features enabled a preoperative diagnosis of abdominal mass secondary to retained surgical gauze. The case illustrates the fallibility of the men and women in the operating theatres and the vital role of correct instrument and sponge counts.
W DRGITHAIGAJOSEPH. "Saidi H, Nyaim EO, Githaiga JW, Karuri D.CRC surgery trends in Kenya, 1993-2005.World J Surg. 2008 Feb;32(2):217-23.". In: World J Surg. 2008 Feb;32(2):217-23. University of Nairobi Press; 2008. Abstract

BACKGROUND: CRC (CRC) rates are low but increasing in Africa. Data on detection, treatment, and outcome are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the presentation, treatment, and outcome pattern of CRC and to compare the care processes for two time periods. SETTING: The setting was Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a teaching and referral center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 259 patients seen over two time periods (1993-1998 and 1999-2005) were analyzed for admission date, sex, subsite involvement, diagnostic process, treatment, follow-up, and outcome. The distribution of variables between the time periods were analyzed using Student's t-test and chi2 as appropriate. Survival trends were generated using Kaplan Meier method; p<0.05 was statistically significant. RESULTS: The average number of CRC diagnoses showed a 2.7-fold increase during the study periods. The mean age at presentation was 49.7 years. The mean duration of symptoms was 29.6 weeks; and the commonest subsite was the rectum (55.3%). The overall resection rate was 67.7%. For rectal tumors the abdominoperineal rate was 51.4%. Mortality was higher for poorly differentiated cancer, advanced disease, age>50 years, and emergency surgery. There was no change in the age, duration of symptoms, proportion of patients<40 years, or the colon/rectal ratios of the cancer site. The second time period saw more adjuncts for diagnosis, less in-hospital mortality, and better staging data. CONCLUSION: CRC peaks during the fifth decade of life in Kenyans. The disease is characterized by late presentation, rectal preponderance, and inadequate pathology data. Improved patient follow-up will unravel the true pattern of disease outcome.

KIRSTEEN DRAWORI. "Saidi H, Odula P, Awori K.Child maltreatment at a violence recovery centre in Kenya. Trop Doct. 2008 Apr;38(2):87-9.". In: Trop Doct. 2008 Apr;38(2):87-9. Folio Morphol; 2008. Abstract

Kenyan media reports indicate escalating levels of child maltreatment, but the characteristics of the offence are undefined. At the Gender and Violence recovery Center of the Nairobi Women's Hospital, we analysed 342 consecutive children for age, gender, perpetrator characteristics, time and scene of assault and the nature of injuries between February 2003 and April 2004. The children comprised 43.5% of all assault survivors. The mean age was 10.0 years and about 20% of the children were < or =5 years. Most (71.5%) of the child sexual abuse (CSA) was perpetrated by people known to the victim. Intra-family CSA (incest) was highest among the one to five year olds. The proportion of assaults committed against boys reduced with the age of the child. Older children were more likely to be assaulted later in the day and by multiple perpetrators. Most recorded injuries were perineal. The majority of children are assaulted by people they had trusted. The epidemiological correlates of maltreatment differ for younger and older children. More effort is needed to further characterize child violence and protect this vulnerable section of the population.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H, Ongeti KW, Ogengo J. Morphology f human myocardial bridges and association with coronary artery disease. Afr Health Sci;2010: 10: 242-47.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:39-43. Surgical society of Kenya; 2010. Abstract
A survey of Medical studen Outcome and Complications in Women undergoing cervical cerclage in a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Webmedcentral:Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2010;(9);WMC000793ts at the University Nairobi, Kenya. Ann. Afr. Surg. 2010; 6: 26-31
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H. Firearm injuries: surgical perspective. East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):105-6.". In: ECAJS, 2009; 14 (1): 13-17. Surgical society of Kenya; 2008. Abstract
No abstract available. 
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H., Anangwe D., Ogeng.". In: Ann. Afr. Surgery 2007; 1: 56-59. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007. Abstract
Background: The sigmoid colon in Africans is commonly affected by volvulus formation. Anatomical characteristics of this part of the colon could provide some of the contributory explanations for male gender predisposition. Method: Ninety five sigmoid colons (fifty  male subjects) were harvested at autopsy. The following measurements were made: length of the sigmoid colon, length of the mesocolon root, height of the mesocolon. The sigmoid length.mesocolic root length ratio and sigmoid length:mesocolic height ratios were also calculated. All means and ratios were compared for gender using the Student t-test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean sigmoid colon length was higher in males (36.9cm) than in females (32.6cm) (p=0.007). Most (41.7%) of the sigmoid colons measured 30-34.9cm long. Males had shorter mesocolon roots and longer mesocolon heights. Conclusion: The greater colon length and smaller mesocolic root lengths in males may be the anatomical basis for the higher incidence of sigmoid volvulus in males.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H., Macharia W, Atinga J. Crash and road-user characteristics in non-fatal motor vehicle collisions in Nairobi, Kenya Afr. Safety Promotion Journal 2006; 4: 50-58.". In: Afr. Safety Promotion Journal 2006; 4: 50-58. Surgical society of Kenya; 2006. Abstract

Only 2% of patients with Meckel's diverticulae (MD) will manifest clinical problems. Diverticulitis occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with symptomatic MD and more often in the elderly population. We report a case of Meckels diverticulitis presenting with perforation and mesenteric abscess in a young African man. The authors present information on diagnostic pitfalls and advise a lower threshold for consideration of MD as a differential diagnosis of acute right iliac fossa pain especially when the CT scan denotes a normal appendix in a male patient.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H.S. Initial injury care in Nairobi, Kenya: a call for trauma care regionalisation..East Afr Med J. 2003 Sep;80(9):480-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Sep;80(9):480-3. Surgical society of Kenya; 2003. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To describe the emergency care of injuries at a main city hospital. DESIGN: A prospective study. SETTING: Data were collected between February 1st, 1999 and 30th April, 1999 from the records of the 2000 bed Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and forty injury patients admitted at KNH were analysed. METHODS: All patients were analysed for demographics, environment of injury hospital arrival and Emergency Department times. The effects of injury severity, place of injury and time of day on these time intervals were analysed statistically. RESULTS: Road injury admissions formed 31% of all injury admissions. The mean age was 30 years. Males comprised 84.6% of all patients. The proportions of patients under 20 years of age was 20% with a peak age of 20-29 years. Majority (43.3%) of the injured resided in deprived neighbourhood of East Nairobi. The mean pre-hospital time was 2.56 hours. The Emergency Department disposition time was 3.36 hours. Injuries of all severities, as determined by the Injury Severity Score (ISS), were treated. The pace of care did not match severity of the injuries. Only 17.5% reached their areas of definitive care within sixty minutes. CONCLUSION: Injuries following road traffic accidents (RTAs) are common in Nairobi. The response to injury is slow and haphazard. The insitution of a care incorporating the city's health centers and pre-hospital triage may optimise care.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi H.S., Chavda S.K.Use of a modified Alvorado score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):411-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Aug;80(8):411-4. Surgical society of Kenya; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The negative appendicectomy rates have remained high. The integration of clinical scores into the diagnostic process in acute appendicitis has had the purposes of improving decision making and reducing the negative rates in this common condition. The performance of these score systems have however, not been uniform. OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of a modified Alvorado score (1986) to predict groups of patients with suspected appendicitis for definite surgery, observation or discharge from hospital. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a central referral and teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS: One hundred and eighty nine patients with suspected acute appendicitis were studied over a period of twelve months. METHODS: Five symptoms and four signs were assigned numerical values and the patients scored out of a total of 10 points. A score of >7 predicted mandatory operation, 5-6 observation and score 1-4 predicted those not considered for surgery. The decision to operate was the prerogative of the surgeon or surgical resident based on overall clinical suspicion and not the diagnostic score. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with scores >7 was 40.7%. The mean score was 6.02. The mean ages and the gender ratios were similar across score groups. The negative appendicectomy rate was 17.6% for group 1-4, 16.5% for 5-6 and 19.7% for >7. These were similar to the overall negative rate of 18% based on clinical suspicion. The overall sensitivity and sensitivity for the scoring system was 80.3% and 16.8% respectively. CONCLUSION: High scores were found to perform poorly in predicting diagnosis of acute appendicitis preoperatively and in the reduction of negative appendicectomies. The integration of a scoring system does not offer advantage over degree of clinical suspicion.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi Hassan, Chavda SK , Magoha GA. Appendicectomy for recurrent and chronic appendicitis Tropical Doctor 2007; 37: 56-57.". In: Tropical Doctor 2007; 37: 56-57. Surgical society of Kenya; 2007. Abstract
In recent years, several reports have underlined the possible existence of chronic appendicitis. Up to 38% of spontaneously resolving acute appendicitis may recur. We studied 41 patients operated on between July 2000 and June 2001 for chronic and recurrent appendicitis at a teaching hospital in the city of Nairobi. The patients comprised 17.8% of all patients undergoing surgery for appendicitis during the study period. The majority (65.9%) were females. The faecolith rate was 51.2%. About half of appendices removed for these symptoms were normal at histology. Nearly 70% of the normal appendices contained faecoliths. Symptoms resolved in 90% of faecolith-containing appendices and 87.5% of non-faecolith-containing appendices that were normal on histology.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Awori M, Kibira G. Blunt colon injury and multiple organ failure (MOF) syndrome; a case report. EAMSJ 2002; 1(1) 34-36.". In: EAMSJ 2002; 1(1) 34-36. Surgical society of Kenya; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, injury patterns, offender-victim characteristics, treatment and outcome of firearm-related injuries at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: The Aga Khan Hospital, a major private hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seven patients who presented at the Aga Khan Hospital Accident and Emergency Department (January 1993-December 1998) with firearm injuries and were subsequently hospitalised. There were 97 males and 10 females aged four to 94 years. The mean age was 39 years. RESULTS: The peak incidence was in the 40-49 year age group. The male to female ratio was 10:1. The victim offender was a thug, thief or robber in 74.7% of cases. Law enforcement officers were responsible for 9.4% of the injuries. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) ranged from one to 32 with mean score of 8.25. Injuries involving the extremities were the most prevalent. There were 31 major operations performed. The complication rate was 35.5%. Six (6.5%) of these patients died. CONCLUSION: Gunshot injuries cause profound morbidity and significant mortality. A wider and larger study needs to be undertaken to elucidate the true nature of firearm injuries.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Kabiru J Fifty consecutive renal transplants- an audit I: 30-day mortality and morbidity. Nairobi hospital proceedings 2001 5(1): 21-28.". In: Nairobi hospital proceedings 2001 5(1): 21-28. Surgical society of Kenya; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and epidemiological data on automobile injuries and to assess the adequacy of road trauma documentation at the Nairobi Hospital. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: The Accident and Emergency Centre of the Nairobi Hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Medical records of randomly selected road trauma patients who presented at The Accident Centre between 1st July 1997 and 31st August 1998 were analysed. RESULTS: The mean age was 32 years with a peak incidence in the 21-30 year age group. Males comprised 63.1% of the injured. The predominant category of the road user injured was the vehicle occupant (70%). Pedestrians only constituted 21.3%. Major city roads or highways were the commonest scenes of injury (38.3%). Most of the responsible vehicles were small personal cars (65.8%). The public service minibuses (popularly known as matatu) caused 20% of the injuries. Most of the injuries were mild and transport of the injured to hospital was uniformly haphazard. A quarter of the injuries were severe enough to warrant admission. Trauma documentation was poor with less than 30% accuracy in most parameters. CONCLUSION: The pre-hospital and initial care of the injured is not systematized. The study calls for re-orientation of trauma care departments to the care of the injured.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Kahoro P. East Afr Med J.Experience with road traffic accident victims at The Nairobi Hospital. 2001 Aug;78(8):441-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 2001 Aug;78(8):441-4. Surgical society of Kenya; 2001. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and epidemiological data on automobile injuries and to assess the adequacy of road trauma documentation at the Nairobi Hospital. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: The Accident and Emergency Centre of the Nairobi Hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Medical records of randomly selected road trauma patients who presented at The Accident Centre between 1st July 1997 and 31st August 1998 were analysed. RESULTS: The mean age was 32 years with a peak incidence in the 21-30 year age group. Males comprised 63.1% of the injured. The predominant category of the road user injured was the vehicle occupant (70%). Pedestrians only constituted 21.3%. Major city roads or highways were the commonest scenes of injury (38.3%). Most of the responsible vehicles were small personal cars (65.8%). The public service minibuses (popularly known as matatu) caused 20% of the injuries. Most of the injuries were mild and transport of the injured to hospital was uniformly haphazard. A quarter of the injuries were severe enough to warrant admission. Trauma documentation was poor with less than 30% accuracy in most parameters. CONCLUSION: The pre-hospital and initial care of the injured is not systematized. The study calls for re-orientation of trauma care departments to the care of the injured.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Macharia WM, Atinga JEO Outcome for hospitalized road trauma patients at a tertiary hospital in Kenya. Eur. J. Trauma; 2005; 31: 401-6.". In: Eur. J. Trauma; 2005; 31: 401-6. Surgical society of Kenya; 2005. Abstract

Only 2% of patients with Meckel's diverticulae (MD) will manifest clinical problems. Diverticulitis occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with symptomatic MD and more often in the elderly population. We report a case of Meckels diverticulitis presenting with perforation and mesenteric abscess in a young African man. The authors present information on diagnostic pitfalls and advise a lower threshold for consideration of MD as a differential diagnosis of acute right iliac fossa pain especially when the CT scan denotes a normal appendix in a male patient.

HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Ndonga A Patient and allograft survival after transplantation with living donor kidneys; 14 years experience East & Centr. Afr. J Surg. 2003; 8(1); 19-24.". In: East & Centr. Afr. J Surg. 2003; 8(1); 19-24. Surgical society of Kenya; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: The negative appendicectomy rates have remained high. The integration of clinical scores into the diagnostic process in acute appendicitis has had the purposes of improving decision making and reducing the negative rates in this common condition. The performance of these score systems have however, not been uniform. OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of a modified Alvorado score (1986) to predict groups of patients with suspected appendicitis for definite surgery, observation or discharge from hospital. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a central referral and teaching hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS: One hundred and eighty nine patients with suspected acute appendicitis were studied over a period of twelve months. METHODS: Five symptoms and four signs were assigned numerical values and the patients scored out of a total of 10 points. A score of >7 predicted mandatory operation, 5-6 observation and score 1-4 predicted those not considered for surgery. The decision to operate was the prerogative of the surgeon or surgical resident based on overall clinical suspicion and not the diagnostic score. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with scores >7 was 40.7%. The mean score was 6.02. The mean ages and the gender ratios were similar across score groups. The negative appendicectomy rate was 17.6% for group 1-4, 16.5% for 5-6 and 19.7% for >7. These were similar to the overall negative rate of 18% based on clinical suspicion. The overall sensitivity and sensitivity for the scoring system was 80.3% and 16.8% respectively. CONCLUSION: High scores were found to perform poorly in predicting diagnosis of acute appendicitis preoperatively and in the reduction of negative appendicectomies. The integration of a scoring system does not offer advantage over degree of clinical suspicion.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Nyakiamo J, Faya S.Gunshot injuries as seen at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):188-92.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Apr;79(4):188-92. Surgical society of Kenya; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, injury patterns, offender-victim characteristics, treatment and outcome of firearm-related injuries at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: The Aga Khan Hospital, a major private hospital in Nairobi. SUBJECTS: One hundred and seven patients who presented at the Aga Khan Hospital Accident and Emergency Department (January 1993-December 1998) with firearm injuries and were subsequently hospitalised. There were 97 males and 10 females aged four to 94 years. The mean age was 39 years. RESULTS: The peak incidence was in the 40-49 year age group. The male to female ratio was 10:1. The victim offender was a thug, thief or robber in 74.7% of cases. Law enforcement officers were responsible for 9.4% of the injuries. The Injury Severity Scores (ISS) ranged from one to 32 with mean score of 8.25. Injuries involving the extremities were the most prevalent. There were 31 major operations performed. The complication rate was 35.5%. Six (6.5%) of these patients died. CONCLUSION: Gunshot injuries cause profound morbidity and significant mortality. A wider and larger study needs to be undertaken to elucidate the true nature of firearm injuries.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Saidi HS, Olumbe AO, Kalebi. Anatomy and pathology of coronary artery in adult black Kenyans. A.East Afr Med J. 2002 Jun;79(6):323-7.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 Jun;79(6):323-7. Surgical society of Kenya; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern of coronary arterial anatomy and prevalence of postmortem coronary pathology in adult Kenyan Africans. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The Nairobi City Mortuary and the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. METHOD: One hundred hearts were retrieved during consecutive autopsies over a three month duration and systematically dissected. Details on coronary ramification, dominance, atherosclerosis, tunnelling and hypoplastic segments were obtained and statistically analysed. RESULTS: Seven patterns of left coronary ramifications were identified. The right coronary artery anomalously exited from the left coronary sinus in one situation. There were separate ostia for the coronary artery branches in 2% and 31 % of cases on the left and right coronary systems respectively. The right coronary artery was dominant in 82% of the hearts. Coronary ostial sizes and luminal dimensions showed wide variations. Only two of the hearts had atheromatous luminal narrowing greater than 75% of the cross-sectional area. Muscle bridges of average depths of 1.1-2 mm were demonstrable in 29% of the autopsies. Diminutive left anterior descending artery was present in four cases. The right coronary artery was diminutive in one case. CONCLUSION: Coronary atherosclerosis is still a rarity in the setting within which the study was undertaken. The diverse patterns of ramifications of the coronary tree begs for caution during coronary investigations and interventional procedures. Coronary arterial anomalies, myocardial bridges, atheroma and diminutive arteries should be considered in cases of sudden cardiac death in the absence of other pathologies.
JOHN PROFADWOK. "Saidi, H.S., Adwok, J.A. Acute Appendicitis .". In: East Afr. Med. J. 2000; 77: 152-156. AIBUMA Publishing; 2000. Abstract
The decision to pay out earnings or retain dividends has been a subject of debate for many scholars. The effect of dividend on the firm value and cost of capital have been covered in attempt to resolve the dividend puzzle. This research paper tests the applicability of constant dividend model by companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Data was collected from annual reports and share price schedules obtained from Nairobi stock exchange and Capital market Authority for a population of 20 companies that paid dividends consistently from 2002 to 2008. The data was then analyzed by re-computing the dividends that should have been paid if the dividend constant model was applied. This recomputed figure was later compared to the dividend as paid out by the companies thought the years of study. Paired sample t-test statistic was also performed to determine whether there is a significant difference between the two dividend figures. The findings of the research established that the dividend model was not employed by the companies listed at the Nairobi stock exchange. Most firms instead adopted stable and predictable policy where a specific amount of dividend per share each year was paid periodically. In some years there was a slight adjustment of the dividend paid after an increase in earnings, but only by a sustainable amount. The study shows that the relationship between the stock market prices and the dividend paid from the constant dividend model is uneven from one year to another and where there was a relationship it was insignificant. Though a share would be highly priced, a high dividend per share was not always declared.
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "SAKAI, JUN; EIJI INOUE and M. F. ODUORI (1993). Combine harvester reel stagger.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
FRANK DRODUORIMOSES. "SAKAI, JUN; M. F. ODUORI and EIJI INOUE (1991). Research on the combine harvester reel mechanism.". In: M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi. Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering; 1991. Abstract
Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated. PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Salah, A.M., Gathumbi, J., Vierling W. (2002). Inhibition of intestinal motility by methanol extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (malvoceae) in rats. Phytotherapy Research 163: 283-285.". In: 6th Biennial Conference of the African Crop Science Society held in on October 12-17th, 2003. University of nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
K DRGATHUMBIJAMES. "Salah, A.M., Gathumbi, J., Vierling W. and Wagner, H. (2002). Estrogenic and cholinergic properties of methanol extract of Ruellia praetermissa Sceinf.ex.Lindau (Acanthaceae) in female rats. Phytomedicine 9: 52-55.". In: 6th Biennial Conference of the African Crop Science Society held in on October 12-17th, 2003. University of nairobi; 2002. Abstract
Abstract in Bellamy, M. and B. Greenshields (eds), Issues in Agricultural Development: Sustainability and Cooperation. IAAE Occasional Paper No. 6. Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, Aldershot.
ABDEL PROFMALEKADELKAMEL. "Saleh MN, Abdel Malek AK, Galal At, Mahmoud FY. 1992. Effect of hypothyroidism on postnatal development of mouse thalamus. 10th Ann Conf Fac Med Assiut Univ. April 1992.". In: 10th Ann Conf Fac Med Assiut Univ. April 1992. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 1992. Abstract
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Kinoti M. "Sales management distance learning manual." Nairobi publishers; 2009. Abstract
n/a
M M, TK M, G WE. "Salivary flow rate in adult Kenyans and its relationship with chronic periodontitis." Journal of Dentistry and Oral Hygiene 2016. 2016;8(7):37-42.
Onyango JF, Awange DO, Muthamia JM, Muga BIO. "Salivary Gland Tumours in Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

Four hundred and seventeen tumours of salivary glands in Kenya were analysed. There is no evidence ofhig~~r incidence of salivary tumours than in non-African countries. The pattern of distribution 'differed from that of western countries, but in conformity with most African series showed a low proportion of tumours of the parotid gland and high proportion of tumours in the submandibular gland and the palate. The involvement of the palate by salivary gland tumour isvery prominent in the African series and particularly more so in the females. Malignant tumours of the palate and parotid glands were frequent but were lower than those reported in other African series. On the other hand malignant salivary gland tumours of the submandibular glands while lower than those of the western countries, were higher than those of other African series.

Farquhar C, VanCott T, Bosire R, Bermudez C, Mbori-Ngacha D, Lohman-Payne B, Nduati R, Otieno P, John-Stewart G. "Salivary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-specific immunoglobulin A in HIV-1-exposed infants in Kenya.". 2008.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Salivary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-specific immunoglobulin A in HIV-1-exposed infants in Kenya. Clin Exp Immunol . 2008 Jul; 153 ( 1 ): 37-43 . Epub 2008 May 23. PMID: 18505437 [PubMed - in process] Farquhar C, VanCott T, Bosire R, Bermudez C, .". In: Clin Exp Immunol . 2008 Jul; 153 ( 1 ): 37-43 . Epub 2008 May 23. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2008. Abstract
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104-2499, USA. cfarq@u.washington.edu Humoral immunity, and specifically immunoglobulin A (IgA) that is directed against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, may contribute to protection against HIV-1 acquisition at mucosal surfaces. HIV-1-specific IgA has been detected in genital tract secretions of HIV-1-uninfected commercial sex workers with HIV-1 exposure, and may be produced in parotid saliva by infants exposed orally to HIV-1 during delivery and breastfeeding. To explore this hypothesis, we collected saliva from 145 infants aged < or = 6 months enrolled in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study in Nairobi and from 55 control infants without HIV-1 exposure who were born to HIV-1-seronegative mothers. Among the 145 infants, 115 (79%) remained uninfected during the 12-month study period and 30 (21%) became HIV-1-infected during follow-up. Nine (8%) of the 115 HIV-1-exposed, uninfected infants had detectable levels of HIV-1 gp160-specific IgA compared with four (13%) of 30 infected infants and none of 55 control infants (P = 0.47 and P = 0.03 respectively). Among the nine HIV-1-exposed, uninfected infants with positive assays, median age was 1 month and none acquired HIV-1 during follow-up. We conclude that HIV-1-specific salivary IgA responses may be generated by very young infants exposed perinatally to maternal HIV-1. Mucosal responses would be an appropriate target for paediatric vaccines against breast milk HIV-1 transmission. PMID: 18505437 [PubMed - in process]
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Salmonella enteritidis.". In: journal.; 2010. Abstract

A mini review of contamination routes and limitations to effective control. Japanesegricultural Quarterly Journal 2010; 44 (1) 7-16.

Nesbitt A, Odhiambo F, Mirza NB, Achola N. "Salmonella meningitis: the emergence of multi drug resistance.". 1988.
Jumba MM, Mirza NB, Mwaura FB. "Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi antibodies in Kenya.". 1995. AbstractWebsite

The distribution of Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi A. and S. paratyphi C. agglutinins among 364 sera from a randomly selected group of healthy individuals in Nairobi and Naivasha (Kenya) were analysed in relation to bacteriologically confirmed cases of typhoid fever at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Out of these, 30% of the healthy individuals had no detectable Widal titres. Overall agglutinin titres obtained for the healthy population showed that 96% of the individuals had low level reactivity with titres < 1:80 for both H and O antigens of S. typhi, while 4% had titres of 1:160 or above. Agglutinins for S. paratyphi A and C were rarely present in the sera tested. Age and sex were found to have no effect on antibody titre distribution in the two populations but differences in the water source may have affected the percentage of positive tests recorded. In this typhoid endemic region titres upto 1:80 are not uncommon but both H and O titres of 1:160 and above found in conjunction with the clinical picture may be taken to be suggestive of typhoid fever.

Mirza NB, Wamola IA. "Salmonella typhimurium outbreak at Kenyatta National Hospital (1985).". 1985. Abstract

A total of 560 Salmonellae species were isolated from Jan-Dec 1985. Of these, 347 (62%) were from blood cultures, 180 (32%) from stools and 33 (6%) were from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and other body aspirates. S. typhimurium were the highest isolated. These were, 291 (52%) from blood cultures, 94 (17%) from stool cultures and 32 (6%) from CSF. S. typhimurium was also multi-drug resistant. More than 50% strains of S. typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, kanamycin and chloramphenicol. The need for coordination between the laboratory and clinical staff to prevent the spill-over of infection with S. typhimurium and its epidemic spread is discussed.

Rugangazi BM;, Maloiy GMO. "Salt excretion and saline drinking in the dik-dik antelope (Rhynchotragus kirkii).". 2013. AbstractWebsite

1.1. The ability of the dik-dik antelope to survive while drinking saline solutions was tested in controlled laboratory experiments by providing drinking water containing up to 0.5 M NaCl.2.2. Fluid intake increased from 230.5 ml/day when fresh water was offered to a maximum of 373.9 ml/day when 0.3 M NaCl solution was offered.3.3. At concentrations higher than 0.3 M animals lost weight, were anorexic and developed diarrhoea.4.4. It is concluded that the dik-dik antelope will probably tolerate drinking water containing 0.24 M NaCl.

J PROFMULAAFRANCIS. "A salt lake extremophile, Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov., efficiently produces xanthophyll carotenoids.". In: African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 3(8) pp. 426-433 August, 2009. Academic Journals; 2009. Abstract
A Gram-negative obligate alkaliphilic bacterium (BOG6T) that secretes carotenoids was isolated fromthe outflow of Lake Bogoria hot spring located in the Kenyan Rift Valley. The bacterium is motile bymeans of a polar flagellum, and forms red colonies due to the production of xanthophyll carotenoidpigments. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed this strain to cluster phylogenetically within thegenus Paracoccus. Strain BOG6T is aerobic, positive for both catalase and oxidase, and nonmethylotrophic.The major fatty acid of the isolate is C18: 1w7c. It accumulated polyhydroxybutyrategranules. Strain BOG6T gave astaxanthin yield of 0.4 mg/g of wet cells indicating a potential forapplication in commercial production of carotenoids. On the basis of its genotypic characteristics, fattyacid composition and physiological reaction profiles, it is proposed that the isolate may be assigned tothe genus Paracoccus as Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov. The type strain is BOG6T (=DSM16578=LMG22798). The GenBank 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence accession number is AJ580352.
Osanjo GO, Muthike EW, Tsuma L, others. "A salt lake extremophile, Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov., efficiently produces xanthophyll carotenoids." African Journal of Microbiology Research . 2009;3(8):426-433.
Osanjo GO, Muthike EW, Tsuma L, Okoth MW, Bulimo WD, Lünsdorf H, Abraham W-R, Dion M, Timmis KN, Golyshin PN, Mulaa FJ. "A salt lake extremophile, Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov., efficiently produces xanthophyll carotenoids." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2009;3:426-433. Abstractosanjo_et_al_2009.pdfWebsite

A Gram-negative obligate alkaliphilic bacterium (BOG6T) that secretes carotenoids was isolated from the outflow of Lake Bogoria hot spring located in the Kenyan Rift Valley. The bacterium is motile bymeans of a polar flagellum, and forms red colonies due to the production of xanthophyll carotenoid pigments. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed this strain to cluster phylogenetically within thegenus Paracoccus. Strain BOG6T is aerobic, positive for both catalase and oxidase, and nonmethylotrophic. The major fatty acid of the isolate is C18: 1w7c. It accumulated polyhydroxybutyrategranules. Strain BOG6T gave astaxanthin yield of 0.4 mg/g of wet cells indicating a potential for application in commercial production of carotenoids. On the basis of its genotypic characteristics, fattyacid composition and physiological reaction profiles, it is proposed that the isolate may be assigned to the genus Paracoccus as Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov. The type strain is BOG6T (=DSM16578=LMG22798). The GenBank 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence accession number is AJ580352.

Osanjo GO, Muthike EW, Tsuma L, Okoth MW, Bulimo WD, Lünsdorf H, A W-R, Dion M, Timmis KN, Golyshin PN, Mulaa FJ. "A salt lake extremophile, Paracoccus bogoriensis sp. nov., efficiently produces xanthophyll carotenoids." African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2009;3(8):426-433.osanjo_2009_a_salt_lake_extremophile.pdf
Mathai LW, Varma V. Salter Harris Type 1 fracture in a German shepherd dog: a Case Report.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013.orthopaedics.pdf
N. DRWACHEGEPATRICK. "Salvation and Being Saved, Nairobi: Media Options, 2000.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2000.
WACHEGE PATRICK. "Salvation and Being Saved: An African Socio-Religio-Philosophical Touch, Nairobi: Media Options, 2000.". In: Published by the Polytechnic of Berlin, Berlin. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 2000.abstract.pdf
Kadam P, Bhalerao S. "Sample size calculation." International Journal of Ayurveda Research. 2010;1:55-57. AbstractWebsite
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Suresh KP, Chandrashekara S. "Sample size estimation and power analysis for clinical research studies." Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences. 2012;5:7-13. AbstractWebsite

Determining the optimal sample size for a study assures an adequate power to detect statistical significance. Hence, it is a critical step in the design of a planned research protocol. Using too many participants in a study is expensive and exposes more number of subjects to procedure. Similarly, if study is underpowered, it will be statistically inconclusive and may make the whole protocol a failure. This paper covers the essentials in calculating power and sample size for a variety of applied study designs. Sample size computation for single group mean, survey type of studies, 2 group studies based on means and proportions or rates, correlation studies and for case-control for assessing the categorical outcome are presented in detail.

Sakpal TV. "Sample {Size} {Estimation} in {Clinical} {Trial}." Perspectives in Clinical Research. 2010;1:67-69. AbstractWebsite

Every clinical trial should be planned. This plan should include the objective of trial, primary and secondary end-point, method of collecting data, sample to be included, sample size with scientific justification, method of handling data, statistical methods and assumptions. This plan is termed as clinical trial protocol. One of the key aspects of this protocol is sample size estimation. The aim of this article is to discuss how important sample size estimation is for a clinical trial, and also to understand the effects of sample size over- estimation or under-estimation on outcome of a trial. Also an attempt is made to understand importance of minimum sample to detect a clinically important difference. This article is also an attempt to provide inputs on different parameters that impact sample size and basic rules for these parameters with the help of some simple examples.

Sakpal TV. "Sample {Size} {Estimation} in {Clinical} {Trial}." Perspectives in Clinical Research. 2010;1:67-69. AbstractWebsite

Every clinical trial should be planned. This plan should include the objective of trial, primary and secondary end-point, method of collecting data, sample to be included, sample size with scientific justification, method of handling data, statistical methods and assumptions. This plan is termed as clinical trial protocol. One of the key aspects of this protocol is sample size estimation. The aim of this article is to discuss how important sample size estimation is for a clinical trial, and also to understand the effects of sample size over- estimation or under-estimation on outcome of a trial. Also an attempt is made to understand importance of minimum sample to detect a clinically important difference. This article is also an attempt to provide inputs on different parameters that impact sample size and basic rules for these parameters with the help of some simple examples.

Sakpal TV. "Sample {Size} {Estimation} in {Clinical} {Trial}." Perspectives in Clinical Research. 2010;1:67-69. AbstractWebsite

Every clinical trial should be planned. This plan should include the objective of trial, primary and secondary end-point, method of collecting data, sample to be included, sample size with scientific justification, method of handling data, statistical methods and assumptions. This plan is termed as clinical trial protocol. One of the key aspects of this protocol is sample size estimation. The aim of this article is to discuss how important sample size estimation is for a clinical trial, and also to understand the effects of sample size over- estimation or under-estimation on outcome of a trial. Also an attempt is made to understand importance of minimum sample to detect a clinically important difference. This article is also an attempt to provide inputs on different parameters that impact sample size and basic rules for these parameters with the help of some simple examples.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Ngau P. and Kumssa(E)A. "Sampling Methods in Data Collection and Analysis.". In: UNCRD Textbook series,. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract

This paper examines the role of institutions in the development process of African countries. It has been show that, whereas institutions have played a greater role in the economic development of several East Asian countries, in Africa they are weaker and ineffective because of poor enforcement of the rule of law, corruption, mismanagement, absence of strong civil society and political interference. It is argued that well-functioning institutions can promote growth and reduce poverty in Africa by providing a conducive environment for implementation and sustainable development programmes Therefore, African countries should Endeavour to establish effective, responsive and democratic institutions that will promote accountable and transparent governance and sustainable socioeconomic development.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Ngau P. and Kumssa(E)A. "Sampling Methods in Data Collection and Analysis.". In: UNCRD Textbook series,. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract

This paper examines the role of institutions in the development process of African countries. It has been show that, whereas institutions have played a greater role in the economic development of several East Asian countries, in Africa they are weaker and ineffective because of poor enforcement of the rule of law, corruption, mismanagement, absence of strong civil society and political interference. It is argued that well-functioning institutions can promote growth and reduce poverty in Africa by providing a conducive environment for implementation and sustainable development programmes Therefore, African countries should Endeavour to establish effective, responsive and democratic institutions that will promote accountable and transparent governance and sustainable socioeconomic development.

AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Sampling of small-scale farmers for involvement in farm adoption studies. In: Eastern African Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 23.". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1993.
Odiere M, Bayoh MN, Gimnig J, Vulule J, Irungu LW, Walker E. "Sampling Outdoor, Resting Anopheles gambiae and Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Western Kenya with Clay Pots." Journal of medical entomology. 2007;44(1):14-22. AbstractPubMed link

Clay pots were analyzed as devices for sampling the outdoor resting fraction of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquito species in a rural, western Kenya. Clay pots (Anopheles gambiae resting pots, herein AgREPOTs), outdoor pit shelters, indoor pyrethrum spray collections (PSC), and Colombian curtain exit traps were compared in collections done biweekly for nine intervals from April to June 2005 in 20 housing compounds. Of 10,517 mosquitoes sampled, 4,668 An. gambiae s.l. were sampled in total of which 63% were An. gambiae s.s. (46% female) and 37% were An. arabiensis (66% female). The clay pots were useful and practical for sampling both sexes of An. gambiae s.l. Additionally, 617 An. funestus (58% female) and 5,232 Culex spp. (males and females together) were collected. Temporal changes in abundance of An. gambiae s.l. were similarly revealed by all four sampling methods, indicating that the clay pots could be used as devices to quantify variation in mosquito population density. Dispersion patterns of the different species and sexes fit well the negative binomial distribution, indicating that the mosquitoes were aggregated in distribution. Aside from providing a useful sampling tool, the AgREPOT also may be useful as a delivery vehicle for insecticides or pathogens to males and females that enter and rest in them.

Odiere M, Irungu L, Vulule J, Bayoh N, Gimnig J, Hawley W, Walker E. Sampling resting Anopheles gambiae with clay pots. Washington D.C.; 2005.
PROF. KHAMALA CANUTEPM. "Sampling techniques for Populations of Pine Woolly Aphid Pineus pini (Gmelin) (Homoptera).". In: Kenya Sci. & Tech., 3:9-18. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1982. Abstract
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OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Samson Gunga (1995). .". In: Kenya Adult Education Association. 2003; 1995. Abstract

This paper argues that problems in education are caused by non-professional teachers who are employed when trained teachers move in search of promotion friendly activities or financially rewarding duties. This shift of focus means that policy makers in education act without adequate professional guidance. The problems in education, therefore, result from demands made on mainstream education based on misconceptions about what education can offer. It is argued that the implementation of e-learning in education faces the risk of developing on the basis of unproven theories. This scenario increasingly sees the replacement of formal education activities in institutions of learning with non-formal and informal education practices. Given that the contents and influences of non-formal and informal education are not under the control of the teacher, the experiences that learners bring to education settings are increasingly difficult to manage. The paper proposes that by integrating e-learning in teacher education and rewarding 'good teaching', there is a potential for a successful e-learning revolution in education.

OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Samson Gunga (1996) .". In: Kenya Adult Education Association. 2003; 1996. Abstract

This paper argues that problems in education are caused by non-professional teachers who are employed when trained teachers move in search of promotion friendly activities or financially rewarding duties. This shift of focus means that policy makers in education act without adequate professional guidance. The problems in education, therefore, result from demands made on mainstream education based on misconceptions about what education can offer. It is argued that the implementation of e-learning in education faces the risk of developing on the basis of unproven theories. This scenario increasingly sees the replacement of formal education activities in institutions of learning with non-formal and informal education practices. Given that the contents and influences of non-formal and informal education are not under the control of the teacher, the experiences that learners bring to education settings are increasingly difficult to manage. The paper proposes that by integrating e-learning in teacher education and rewarding 'good teaching', there is a potential for a successful e-learning revolution in education.

OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Samson Gunga (2002) The Fountain, Journal of the Faculty of Education of the University of Nairobi, Number 1, 2002. .". In: University of Nairobi. 2003; 2002. Abstract

This paper argues that problems in education are caused by non-professional teachers who are employed when trained teachers move in search of promotion friendly activities or financially rewarding duties. This shift of focus means that policy makers in education act without adequate professional guidance. The problems in education, therefore, result from demands made on mainstream education based on misconceptions about what education can offer. It is argued that the implementation of e-learning in education faces the risk of developing on the basis of unproven theories. This scenario increasingly sees the replacement of formal education activities in institutions of learning with non-formal and informal education practices. Given that the contents and influences of non-formal and informal education are not under the control of the teacher, the experiences that learners bring to education settings are increasingly difficult to manage. The paper proposes that by integrating e-learning in teacher education and rewarding 'good teaching', there is a potential for a successful e-learning revolution in education.

OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Samson Gunga (2006) .". In: University of Nairobi. 2003; 2006. Abstract

E-learning emphasizes the development of students' self-study capabilities and habits. Based on constructivist theories, it is believed that a community of students can form learning teams able to share experiences online to achieve appropriate educational objectives. The scenario poses a challenge to curricula based teaching requirements, designed around instructional strategies, aimed at allowing students to learn certain things rather than others. This traditional approach is based on the assumption that not all learning experiences that students encounter are educative. The World Wide Web (WWW) from which online education draws it content is a 'network' of all conceivable knowledge and ideas that encourage informal, non-formal and formal education practices. The merger of the three forms of education is a new phenomenon occasioned by the inevitable integration of ICT in education. Since education is about acquisition of knowledge, skills and dispositions that are valued by society, its content is inherently selective. This study proposes that for e-learning to convert to online education, educators need to identify and harmonize principles that define online educational experiences.

OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Samson Gunga (2006). .". In: Grande Resort, Ocho Rios, Jamaica. 2003; 2006. Abstract

E-learning emphasizes the development of students' self-study capabilities and habits. Based on constructivist theories, it is believed that a community of students can form learning teams able to share experiences online to achieve appropriate educational objectives. The scenario poses a challenge to curricula based teaching requirements, designed around instructional strategies, aimed at allowing students to learn certain things rather than others. This traditional approach is based on the assumption that not all learning experiences that students encounter are educative. The World Wide Web (WWW) from which online education draws it content is a 'network' of all conceivable knowledge and ideas that encourage informal, non-formal and formal education practices. The merger of the three forms of education is a new phenomenon occasioned by the inevitable integration of ICT in education. Since education is about acquisition of knowledge, skills and dispositions that are valued by society, its content is inherently selective. This study proposes that for e-learning to convert to online education, educators need to identify and harmonize principles that define online educational experiences.

OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Samson Gunga (2006). .". In: The National College for School Leadership, Jubilee Campus, University of Nottingham, Uk (Conference proceedings). 2003; 2006. Abstract

As the school going age population increases in Africa, the demand for education rises while the number of trained teachers diminishes due to limited training resources. However, Africa has the potential to use e-learning technology, as a viable means of reaching large numbers of students, with reduced outlay of resources. E-learning therefore holds a pivotal position for achieving education for all in the 21st Century. There are educational principles that are universally agreed as worthwhile and which can be promoted through global online education. Such include scientific and technological advancement, environmental maintenance, healthy life style and social responsibility. Knowledge based on these can be harnessed for the common good and made available freely to all. Issues of contextual validity and adaptation can be resolved by local amendments appropriate to the prevailing conditions.The introduction of Course Management Systems or Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) is the way forward towards globalization of higher education. This paper highlights the advantages of VLEs and explores the processes involved in successful deployment of course management systems as means of enhancing African universities' participation in global education networks.

OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Samson Gunga (2006). .". In: University of Nairobi. 2003; 2006. Abstract
This paper examines the nature of philocounseling and its possible application in education. It contends that school counseling continues to respond to ever changing expectations of learners created by enhanced understanding of school going age as a result of early intellectual maturity afforded by both the print and electronic media.The need for counseling in schools does not have to only respond to career issues, mental health, and educational and socio-ethical concerns. There is also a need to assess and respond to the impact of multifarious meanings afforded by current information on the purposes and responsibilities of learners in schools.This paper proposes that as the youth become more informed, counselors ought to learn to take cognizance of the contribution that philosophical insight could make within or as a complementary to psychotherapeutic dialogues that are traditionally carried out under Guidance and counseling in learning institutions. Philosophical counseling (Philocounseling) take care conceptual and meaning variations that forms of
OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Samson Gunga, Ian Ricketts (2006). Facing the challenges of e-learning initiatives in African universities, British Journal of Educational Technology (Accepted for publication-British Journal of Educational Technology (2006) doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2006.0.". In: British Journal of Educational Technology. 2003; 2006. Abstract

This paper explores bringing e-learning to African universities through collaborative networks of public-private partnerships (PPPs). It is envisaged that this approach will solve the dual problem of infrastructural barriers and weak ICT policies. As technology is used more in education, the teachers' roles are increasingly integrated with those of support staff, administrators and technical staff. The needs of e-learning environments suggest the viability of a multi-stakeholder networks to share expertise and resolve issues related to training needs. The paper concludes that collaboration networks that include e-learning sponsors, policy makers, telecommunication network service providers and educators are required to solve the problems of online education in Africa.

OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Samson Gunga, Ian Ricketts (2006). The Prospects for E-Learning Revolution in Education: A philosophical analysis, Educational Philosophy and Theory (Accepted for publication in Educational Philosophy and Theor).". In: British Journal of Educational Technology. 2003; 2006. Abstract

This paper explores bringing e-learning to African universities through collaborative networks of public-private partnerships (PPPs). It is envisaged that this approach will solve the dual problem of infrastructural barriers and weak ICT policies. As technology is used more in education, the teachers' roles are increasingly integrated with those of support staff, administrators and technical staff. The needs of e-learning environments suggest the viability of a multi-stakeholder networks to share expertise and resolve issues related to training needs. The paper concludes that collaboration networks that include e-learning sponsors, policy makers, telecommunication network service providers and educators are required to solve the problems of online education in Africa.

OKURO DRGUNGASAMSON. "Samson Gunga, Ian Ricketts (2006). The Prospects for E-Learning Revolution in Education: A philosophical analysis, Educational Philosophy and Theory (Accepted for publication in Educational Philosophy and Theory).". In: University of Nairobi. 2003; 2006. Abstract

This paper argues that problems in education are caused by non-professional teachers who are employed when trained teachers move in search of promotion friendly activities or financially rewarding duties. This shift of focus means that policy makers in education act without adequate professional guidance. The problems in education, therefore, result from demands made on mainstream education based on misconceptions about what education can offer. It is argued that the implementation of e-learning in education faces the risk of developing on the basis of unproven theories. This scenario increasingly sees the replacement of formal education activities in institutions of learning with non-formal and informal education practices. Given that the contents and influences of non-formal and informal education are not under the control of the teacher, the experiences that learners bring to education settings are increasingly difficult to manage. The paper proposes that by integrating e-learning in teacher education and rewarding 'good teaching', there is a potential for a successful e-learning revolution in education.

O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Samuel N. Gatiti, M. Muchiri, Elisha T. O. Opiyo, William Okello-Odongo(2011). A Decision Support Systems tool for Forest Biodiversity, Conservation and Climate Change: A Case Study of Grevillea robusta Tree in Kenya.". In: In International Conference on Trocpical Forest Resources, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST), Kenya. June 6-9, 2011. Accepted, yet to be presented. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2011.
KARIMI DRMUTUNGIALICE. "Samuel R, Almedom AM, Hagos G, Albin S, Mutungi A. Promotion of handwashing as a measure of quality of care and prevention of hospital-acquired infections in Eritrea: the Keren study. Afr Health Sci. 2005 Mar;5(1):4-13.". In: Afr Health Sci. 2005 Mar;5(1):4-13. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2005. Abstract

A complex interplay of cognitive, socio-economic and technical factors may determine hand-washing practice among hospital-based health workers, particularly doctors, regardless of the location of the country or hospital they work in. OBJECTIVES: To assess quality of care with respect to handwashing practice as a routine measure of infection prevention in Keren hospital, a provincial referral hospital, second largest in Eritrea; with a view to putting in place quality standards and effective means of monitoring and evaluation. DESIGN: Qualitative study with a participatory and iterative/dynamic design. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were held with 34 members of the hospital staff; and a total of 30 patients in the medical, surgical and obstetric wards were interviewed. Direct observation of handwashing practice and facilities were also employed. RESULTS: Although only 30% of health workers routinely washed their hands between patient contact, the study revealed genuine interest in training and the need to reward good practice in order to motivate health workers. Educational intervention and technical training resulted in significant improvements in health workers' compliance with hospital infection prevention standards. Patient satisfaction with health workers' hygiene practices also improved significantly. CONCLUSION: Hospital-based health workers' handwashing practice needs to improve globally. There is no room for complacency, however, in Eritrea (as indeed in other African countries) where public health services need to keep patients' welfare at heart; particularly with respect to women in childbirth, as mothers continue to bear the lion's share of post-war rebuilding of lives, livelihoods, and the country as a whole.

Oguge NO, Hutterer R. "Sancus aequatorius Taita Dwarf Shrew; pp 172-173 )." The Mammals of Africa Volume IV. Bloomsbury Publishing, London.; 2013. Abstract
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N. PROFKARANJANANCYK. "Sande, S.O., Ogol, K.P, Woomer, P. and Karanja, N.K, 2000. The influence of soil fertility management practises on population sizes of soil fauna in Central highlands of Kenya.". In: Extended abstract in proceedings of the 4th regional Meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry (RF) 10-14th July 2000, Lilongwe, Malawi (pp. 227- 228).; 2000. Abstract
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M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Sanderman S, Dech H, Othieno C J, Kathuku D M & Ndetei D M (1996). NOK-African-Depression-Scale: Die Generierung einer kulturspezifischen Symptomskala zur Depressionsmessung in Afrika (NOK-African depression scale: the generation of a culture-specific sym.". In: Paper presented at the XI World Congress of Psychiatry, August 6-11, 1999, Hanburg, Germany. Equinet; 1996. Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Sandermann S, Dech H, Othieno CJ, Kathuku DM, Ndetei DM (1996): Die Generierung einer kulturspezifischen Symptomskala zur Depressionsmessung. , 19: 283-294.". In: Curare. Curare; 1996. Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

MIINDA DROKEMWAPARMENAS. "Sanders EJ, Borus P, Ademba G, Kuria G, Tukei PM, LeDuc JW. Sentinel surveillance for yellow fever in Kenya, 1993 to 1995. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996 Jul-Sep;2(3):236-8.". In: Emerg Infect Dis. 1996 Jul-Sep;2(3):236-8. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); 1996. Abstract
Virus Research Centre, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya. PMID: 8903238 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "Sandwich enzyme immunoassay for specialization of cooked meats and for detecting trace amounts of adulterants in phylogenically related species. A. Afr. Agric. For J. 59: 205 .". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1994. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "SANDWICH ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR SPECIATION OF COOKED MEATS AND FOR DETECTING TRACE AMOUNTS OF ADULTERANTS IN PHYLOGENICALLY RELATED SPECIES.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1994. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "SANDWICH ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR SPECIATION OF COOKED MEATS AND FOR DETECTING TRACE AMOUNTS OF ADULTERANTS IN PHYLOGENICALLY RELATED SPECIES.". In: journal. UN-HABITAT; 1994. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, A MRKABURIAHF, MWIHURIH PROFNJERUHF. "SANDWICH ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR SPECIATION OF COOKED MEATS AND FOR DETECTING TRACE AMOUNTS OF ADULTERANTS IN PHYLOGENICALLY RELATED SPECIES.". In: journal. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1994. Abstract
A double antibody enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for identification of thermostable muscle antigens of autoclaved meat samples is described. The assay differentiates heterologous thermostable muscle antigens from homologous at P 0.001. In model meat mixtures, the assay detects adulterants at the level of 1% at p0.001 even in phylogenetically related species such as buffalo and cattle.
S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "Sang CK, Kigondu CS, Muchiri L.Correlation between cytology and thyroid function test.East Afr Med J. 2006 Oct;83(10):533-8. PMID: 17310678 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE].". In: East Afr Med J. 2006 Oct;83(10):533-8. uon press; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Thyroid dysfunction can be evaluated by measuring serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total tri-iodothyronine (T3) and total thyroxine (T4) which will establish euthyroidism, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is the diagnostic test of choice in determining whether a nodule is benign or malignant. OBJECTIVE: To correlate hormonal levels to FNA cytologic findings. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). RESULTS: Forty two patients had their thyroid profiles done and the results were correlated with FNA diagnosis. Majority of patients had nodular goiter (83.3%), of which 47.6% had euthyroidism, 16.7% had biochemical euthyroidism, 11.9% had hyperthyroidism, 4.8% had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism and 2.4% had sub-clinical hypothyroidism. Three patients (7.1%) with FNA diagnosis of non-diagnostic sample had euthyroidism while 2.4% each with papillary carcinoma, thyroglossal cyst, and atypia, had a hormonal profile of euthyroidism. There was no significant statistical difference (p > 0.05) of the mean levels of T4 (0.406), T3 (0.311), and TSH (0.90), between and within the various groups of FNA cytological diagnoses. CONCLUSION: The study showed that there was no correlation between T4, T3, and TSH measurements and FNA cytological diagnoses.
OTIENO PROFOGUTUELLY. "Sang F.C., Lule G.N., Ogutu E.O. Evaluation of culture media and antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter Pylori. EAMJ 68: 865, 1991.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Dec;82(12):603-8. Journal of British Ceramic Transactions, 99 [5], 206-211.; 1991. Abstract
Departmnent of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine drug susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline in patients presenting with dyspepsia at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and sixty-seven patients aged 15 to 85 years, presenting with dyspepsia and referred for upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy were recruited into the study. RESULTS: Between October 2003 and April 2004, 138 male and 129 female patients aged 15-85 years, with a mean age of 45.4 years were studied. Gastritis was the most common endoscopic finding, occurring in 55%, followed by normal-looking mucosa in 27% and peptic ulcer disease in 16% of the patients. The rapid urease test was positive in 184 patients (69%). The culture yield was 62% of these CLO (Campylobacter like organisms) positive biopsies. The MIC90 (minimum inhibitory concentration) was 256 mg/l for metronidazole, 1.5 mg/l for clarithromycin, 1.5 mg/l for tetracycline and 0.75 mg/l for amoxicillin. The MIC values for amoxicillin were significantly higher in the female patients (p = 0.02) but showed no significant variation for age. The MIC values for metronidazole, tetracycline and clarithromycin showed no significant difference for age or gender. MIC values for tetracycline were significantly higher for patients with duodenitis and duodenal ulcer p = 0.009 and 0.02, respectively. CONCLUSION: All isolated H. pylori organisms were resistant to metronidazole. The susceptibility of the H. pylori isolates was 93.6% for clarithromycin, 95.4% for amoxicillin and 98.1% for tetracycline. The MIC90 for amoxicillin and clarithromycin were found to be close to the upper limit of the susceptibility range. There was a rising MIC90 for tetracycline and metronidazole compared to that found in a previous study in 1991.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 1. Muriuki D, Ng'ang'a E, eds.; 2011.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 2. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 3. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2011.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 4. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 5. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.
Otieno SPV, Ng'ang'a E. Sango 6. Muriuki D, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2012.

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