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Awori MN. I AM- the meaning of life. USA: Kindle direct publish; 2017.
Awori MN. I AM-healing health and happiness. USA: Kindle direct publish; 2018.
Oranga, J.O. (Eds.). I choose to Serve.; 2012.
Mumma-Martinon CA. "I Implications of Debt-Trap Diplomacy: The Case of Kenya Standard Gauge Railway from Mombasa to Nairobi.". In: From Sino Africa to Afro-China Engagement in the 21st Century: Emerging Interdisciplinary Issues and Research Gaps . University of Nairobi ; 2019.
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""I'll Love my Country" and "If I Were Old." Poems in Sing me a Song. Ed. Ole Sunkuli. Nairobi: Heinemann.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1992. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
K'Odhiambo AK. "i) The impact of interactions between verbal and mathematical languages in education." , Journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya. 2010;2(2):79-99.
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "I, a Woman, Insincerity, Living Dead and On Marriage,Arthur Luvai (Ed), Boundless Voices: Poems from Kenya, Nairobi: Heinemann (59-63).". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1988. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

BHALENDU PROFBHATT. "I-Tetraliny group for asparagine side-chain protection, and application to Boc-solid-phase peptide synthesis of mesoticin,'.". In: Journal of the Kenya Chemical Society, Vol.2 no. 1. B.M. Bhatt and P.M. Gitu; 2004. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "I-Tetralinyl group for asparagine side-chainprotection and application for Boc-solid phase peptide synthesis of mesotocin.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society, 2004, 2(1), 14-18. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2004. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "I. Buishi, E. Njoroge, E. Zeyhle, M. T. Rogan and P. S. Craig (2006) Canine echinococcosis in Turkana (north.". In: United Nations Environment Programme. ISBN: 92-807-2691-9. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
Biodiversity offers multiple opportunities for development and improving human well-being. It is the basis for essential environmental services upon which life on Earth depends. Thus, its conservation and sustainable use are of critical importance. The opportunities and challenges associated with biodiversity typically apply over large geographical extents, although one or two issues may be more important at any given location. To avoid repetition, particular issues are highlighted in the sub-regional sections, not because they are restricted to those areas, but because they are best illustrated there. Deforestation is discussed under Central Africa, while relations between protected areas and adjacent populations are dealt with under Eastern Africa. Riparian biodiversity is discussed in Northern Africa, climate change and invasive alien species (IAS) in Southern Africa, desertification in Western Africa, and endemism in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) islands. Habitat degradation and resource overexploitation are discussed in this regional synthesis, because they are overwhelmingly important as drivers of biodiversity loss throughout Africa.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "I. N. Wagara, A. W. Mwang.". In: African Crop Science Journal vol.13 (no.3): 163-172 (2005). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2004. Abstract
Genetic diversity of 50 Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates collected from different agro ecological zones in Kenya were studied using group specific primers and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Group-specific primers differentiated the isolates into Andean and Mesoamerican groups, corresponding to the two common-bean gene pools. Significant polymorphisms were observed with all the AFLP primer combinations used, reflecting a wide genetic diversity in the P. griseola population. A total of 207 finger prints was generated, of which 178 were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of the polymorphic bands also separated the isolates into the two groups defined by group specific primers. All the isolates examined were grouped into three virulence populations; Andean, Afro-Andean and Mesoamerican, and their genetic diversity measured. On average, greater diversity (91%) was detected within populations than between populations (9%). The genetic distance between Andean and Mesoamerican populations was higher (D = 0.0269) than between Andean and Afro-Andean (D = 0.0095). The wide genetic diversity reported here has significant implications in breeding for resistance -to angular leaf spot and should be taken into consideration when screening and deploying resistant bean genotypes. Keywords: Angular leaf spot, genetic diversity, Phaeoisariopsis griseola, virulence, Kenya.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "I. N. Wagara, A. W. Mwang.". In: Journal of Phytopathology 152, 235-242, 2004. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2004. Abstract
Genetic diversity of 50 Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates collected from different agro ecological zones in Kenya were studied using group specific primers and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Group-specific primers differentiated the isolates into Andean and Mesoamerican groups, corresponding to the two common-bean gene pools. Significant polymorphisms were observed with all the AFLP primer combinations used, reflecting a wide genetic diversity in the P. griseola population. A total of 207 finger prints was generated, of which 178 were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of the polymorphic bands also separated the isolates into the two groups defined by group specific primers. All the isolates examined were grouped into three virulence populations; Andean, Afro-Andean and Mesoamerican, and their genetic diversity measured. On average, greater diversity (91%) was detected within populations than between populations (9%). The genetic distance between Andean and Mesoamerican populations was higher (D = 0.0269) than between Andean and Afro-Andean (D = 0.0095). The wide genetic diversity reported here has significant implications in breeding for resistance -to angular leaf spot and should be taken into consideration when screening and deploying resistant bean genotypes.
"I.0. KIBW AGE, J.W. MWANGI, G.N. THOITHI. Quality Control of Herbal Medicines. .". 2005. Abstract

The use of traditional and herbal medicines is gaining recognition globally. To
safeguard the patient, there are legitimate demands that all medicines be safe,
efficacious and of good quality. The required parameters for their quality
- --evaluation-indude-assessment-for-inorganic matter-Idustj+absence of-adulterationmicrobial
load, identification and profile of contents and where possible
quantitation of the active compound or marker compounds. Also of importance are
heavy metals, pesticides and product stability. The mixture of portions of herbs in
traditional medicines complicates the quality control tests of these preparations.
The content profile becomes difficult to replicate from batch to batch, while
quantification of the active compound(s) in such multi-component products would
require prior processing to isolate and identify the chemical compounds.

DEMESI DRMANDEJOHN. "I.B.J. BUORO, J.D.MANDE, S.B. NYAMWANGE (1993) Isolation of Norcardia Asteroides from a dog with Hemorrhagic Cystitis. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 31, 99-102.". In: Abstracts of the 13th International Veterinary Radiology Association 2003 Congress held 18th . ICASTOR Journal of Engineering; 1993. Abstract
Ventrodorsal pelvic radiographs were made of 32 adult dogs under general anaesthesis. The hip jints were evaluated according to the severity of osteorthritic changes graded as 0,1,2 or 3. the dogs were euthanized, the hip joints opened and the ligamentum capitis femoris dissected out in toto. The volume of each ligament was determined using a water displacement technique and the mean volume compared to the four radiographic grades of osteoarthritis. There was an inverse correlation (r=075) between the mean volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris and the increasing ceverity of osteoarthritis as assesses by radiography. The results confirmed the crucial role of radiography in the clinical evaluation of hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis in the adult dog. Assessment of the volume of the ligamentum capitis femoris revealed that it is an important tool for research in canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis. Keywords: hip dysplasia, hip join, ligamentum capitis femoris, osteoarthritis ventrodorsal pelvic radiography.,
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "I.B.J. Buoro; R.B. Atwell; M.K. Njenga and P.K. Gathumbi (1990) Polymyositis associated with Ehrlichia canis infection in two dogs. J. Small. Anim. Prac. 31: 624-627.". In: Proceedings of 9th SR-CRISP Scientific Workshop, KETRI Muguga, Kenya, 27-28th February 1991. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 1990. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "I.E. Buishi, E.M. Njoroge, O. Bouamra, P.S. Craig (2005) Canine echinococcosis in northwest Libya: assessment of coproantigen ELISA, and a survey of infection with analysis of risk factors.". In: Veterinary Parasitology 130: 223 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
{ In order to determine the prevalence and risk factors for canine echinococcosis in different endemic localities in the Tripoli area of northwest Libya, stray dogs were examined post-mortem, and owned dogs screened for Echinococcus granulosus infection using a standardised genus specific coproantigen ELISA. The prevalence of E. granulosus infection at necropsy in stray-dogs was 25.8% (15/58, 95% CI 15.3-39.0%), and 21.6% (72/334, 95% CI 17.3-26.4%) of owned dogs tested were positive by coproantigen ELISA. Sheepdogs appeared to have a significantly higher copro-positive prevalence (19/19 positive
"I.O. Kibwage (1982). Isolation and Identification of metabolites, and their degradation products from a strain of Streptomyces erythreus. Master of Pharmaceutical Sciences Thesis, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985 Nov;28(5):630-3; 1982. Abstract

The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.

I.O. Kibwage (1985). A study on new metabolites of streptomyces erythreus and on the metabolism of erythromycin. Doctor of Pharmaceutical Sciences Thesis, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium..; 1985. Abstract

The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-O-beta-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of C13––C11 trans-lactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.

"I.O. Kibwage (1992). An overview of quality control in the pharmaceutical industry in Kenya. 4(3): 55-57." . Pharm. J. of Kenya. 4(3): 55 ; 1992. Abstract

During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.

"I.O. Kibwage (1992). Quality of penicillin products in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit during 1983-1990. Pharmacother.". Bull. 2(1): 16- 17.; 1992. Abstract

During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.

"I.O. Kibwage , E. Roets, A. Verbruggen, J. Hoogmartens and H. Va nderhaeghe. Thin layer chromatographic study of the metabolites of erythromycins in the wistar rat. J.Chromatogr (Biochemical applications).". 1988;(434):177-186. Abstract

The metabolites of erythromycin A, anhydroerythromycin A, Nedemethylervthromycin A and
erythromycin B in the Wister rat were studied by thin-layer chromatography. In some experiments
germ-free rats, rats with a cannulated bile duct and a gastrectomized rat were used. The erythromycins
examined were shown to undergo two principal changes, N-demethylation and acid-catalysed
degradation. It was demonstrated that the stomach and the liver are not the solesites of acid degradation
and demethylation oferythromycins, respectively. Erythromycin A gives three principal metabolites,
anhydroerythromycin A,anhydro-N-demethylerythromycin Aand N-demethylerythromycin
A,and erythromycin A enol ether and N-demethylerythromycin A enol ether are present to a minor
extent. 5-0-Desosaminyleryt.ironolide A was also identified, suggesting the presence of an erythromycin
glycosidase.

"I.O. Kibwage , G. Janssen, E. Roets, J. Hoogmartens and H. Vand erhaeghe. Isolation of erythromycins and related substances f rom fermentation residues of Streptomyces erythreus by high performance liquid chromatography on silica gel. ." J. Chromatogr. . 1985;346:309-319. Abstract

Preparative high-performance liquid chromatography on silica gel allows the
isolation of erythromycins and related substances from mother-liquor concentrates.
Three mobile phases were used consecutively: A. ethyl acetate-methanol-25% ammonia
(100:8: I, v v); B. diethyl ether-methanol-25% ammonia (100:7: I. vjv) and C.
dichloromethane-methanol-25% ammonia (100:5:0.5. v v), The separation and purification
was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography. Thirteen pure substances were
isolated among which are erythromycins A. S, C and D. 8,9-anhydroerythromycin
A-6.9-hemiketal. erythromycins A and C-6.9;6.12-spiroketals and N-demethylerythromycin
A-6.9:9,12-spiroketaL

"I.O. Kibwage , G. Janssen, R. Busson, L. Verbist, H. Vanderhaegh e (1987) . Identification of Novel erythromycin derivatives in mother liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythreus. ." J. Antibiot. 1987;40:1-6. Abstract

The identification of five novel compounds, pseudo-erythromycin A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9anhydro-pseudo-erythromycin
A-6,9-hemiketal, 8,9-anhydro-pseudo-N-demethylerythromycin
A-6,9-hemiketal, 5-0-,B-D-desosaminylerythronolide A and 15-nor-erythromycin C, in mother
liquor concentrates of Streptomyces erythraeus is described. The pseudo-erythromycin
derivatives are characterized by a 12-membered macrocyclic ring as a result of CW->Cll
trans-Iactonization. The five compounds have very little antimicrobial activity.
In a study" dealing with the isolation and the identification of compounds present in the mother
liquor concentrates from commercial crystallization of erythromycin, a number of compounds were
obtained. Some of these compounds were identified as erythromycins A, B, C and D, erythromycin
A enol ether, anhydroerythromycin A, anhydroerythrornycin C and anhydro-N-demethylerythromycin
A. Five other compounds denoted Ml to M5 were not identified. The determination of the structure
of the latter group of compounds is the subject of this paper.

"I.O. Kibwage , J. Hoogmartens, E. Roets, H. Vanderhaeghe, L. Ver bist, M. Dubost, C. Pascal, P. Petitjean and G. Levol. Antibacterial activity of erythromycins A,B,C and D and some of their derivatives. J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 28(5) : 630 - 633.". 1985. Abstract

The MICs of erythromycins A, B, C, and D and some of their derivatives wcrc determined against 21
gram-positive and 15 gram-negative microorganisms. Antibacterial activity was conlined 10 gram-positive and
very few gram-ncgative bacteria. Erythromycin It was somewhat less active than crythromycin A, and
erythromycin C and D showed about half Ihal activity or even less. Most olher derivatives had negligible
activity. Determination of potency by diffusion and turbidimetric assays were in line with MICs. The
cxuminauon of Ihe results of these assays, however, revealed that Ihere are differences between thc data of
dittcrent laboratories, depending on the microorganisms and conditions used,

"I.O. Kibwage , R. Busson, G. Janssen, J. Hoogmartens, H. Vanderh aeghe and J. Brake. Translactonization in erythromycins. ." J. Org. Chem.. 1987;52(6):990-996. Abstract

When erythromycin A is heated in diethylamine-acetic acid, an erythromycin hemiketal is obtained, which
can be further transformed into a new enol ether and spiroketal. The new enol ether is also obtained in equilibrium
with the normal one on heating erythromycin A or B in pyridine-acetic acid. The novel compounds, which will
be called pseudoerythromycin derivatives, are characterized by a translactonization between the Cwhydroxyl
and the lactone group. Their structure was proved by mass and IHand 13CNMR spectrometry, by acetylation
experiments, and by degradation with lead tetraacetate.

"I.O. Kibwage and C.O. Ondari (1988). Quality control of Aspirin tablet products on the Kenyan market." Pharm. J. of Kenya. 1988;1(3):80. Abstract

A comparatlve evaluation of •••
alpirln tablets products on the Kenyan
rmlrket found that three of the products
failed to meet compendlal requlntfTMtnts.
A fourth had poor friability. The only
Imported product among' those
evaluated failed weight unlformlry test.
One local product failed In diameter
requirement while another had an
aspirin content of 111'10 of the lable
claim.

"I.O. Kibwage and J.K. Ngugi. Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine tablet products on the Kenyan Market. Quality concerns . ." East Cent Afr. J.. 2000;3(1):14-19. Abstract

Sulfadoxine/Pyrimethamine tablets preparations were recently made the first line
antimalarial drug. In response to reports on falciparum malaria resistance to such
products, sulfadoxinelpyrimetbamine tablets in Kenya were evaluated for their invitro
performance using the parameters of content and dissolution test for the Active
Pharmaceutical Ingredient. One brand product had a content of both sulfadoxioe and
pyrimethamine well below allowed limits. Amongst the brands analysed only 44%
had batches that released more thanQ=60% of labelled dose in 30 minutes. Batches
of some brands bad wide variations in content with some failing the dissolution test.
Other brands released less than 60% in 60 minutes. Most brands failed the
dissolution test for pyrimethamine and 33% for both sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine.
Tbe quality of sulfadoxinelpyrimethamine products on the Kenyan market should be
a cause for concern to the drug regulatory autbority and the Malaria Control
Program.

"I.O. Kibwage and J.M. Nguyo (1993). In vitro evaluation of carbamazepine 200 mg tablets.". J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1994 Dec;12(12):1483-8.; 1993. Abstract

A comparative in-vitro performance of carbamazepine 200mg tablet products available on the Kenyan market was evaluated. The products which include the innovator product, Tegretol, have similar quality consonant with pharmacopoeial specifications. A batch of one of the products had a carbamazepine content of 106.6% label claim which was outside the upper limits of 105%. One product packaged in multiple-unit containers of a 1000, had an unacceptable high friability of 6.82% loss in weight. All products had good dissolution profiles and released at least 70% of the dose within 45 minutes. Drug dissolution from tablets was found to vary between batches for one product. At each sampling time, most generics had wide variations in amount of dissolved drug. The effect of such variations on tablet efficacy cannot be ascertained in the absence of bioavailability data.

MR. NGUYO JOSEPHM. "I.O. Kibwage and J.M. Nguyo (1993): In Vitro evaluation of Carbamazepine 200g tablets. East African Medical Journal Vol. 70 (8): 512-514.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; 1993. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
"I.O. Kibwage and J.N. Ombega (1989). Pharmacy practice: Past present and future.". In: Pharm J. of Kenya. 2(3): 75 & 89. Pharmacother. Bull. 1(1): 6 - 7.; 1989. Abstract

The relative bioavailability of two brands of chlorpropamide, Dibonis, and Diabinese has been evaluated in four healthy male volunteers in a randomized, balanced, cross-over study. No statistically significant differences were observed in the absorption rate constant, ka, time to reach peak serum concentration, tp, maximum serum concentration, Cmax, the overall elimination rate constant, kel, and the area under the curve, AUC, at 95% confidence level.

"I.O. Kibwage and S. Vugigi (1991). Quality of Phenoxymethylpenicillin dry suspensions.". Pharmacother. Bull. 1(1): 6 - 7.; 1991. Abstract

During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.

"I.O. Kibwage, A. Maina, B. Hagos and J. Hoogmartens (1995). The neutralizing capacity and sodium content of antacid brands on the Kenyan market.". E. Afr. Med. J. 72 (3): 194-197; 1995. Abstract

Seventeen brands of antacid products available on the Kenya market were investigated for their acid neutralising capacity and sodium content. Thirteen tablet products gave neutralising capacity per tablet of between 4.7 to 14.12 mMol hydrochloric acid. The neutralising capacities for the suspensions ranged between 11.97 to 34.32 mMol hydrochloric acid for 10ml suspension. The lowest neutralising capacities were obtained for products based on compound magnesium trisilicate and higher capacities for those containing magaldrate, or magnesium hydroxide or magnesium carbonate in combination with other ingredients. The fastest rate of neutralization was obtained with preparations containing carbonates and the lowest by compound magnesium trisilicate. The sodium content for the preparations was between < 0.001 mEq to 0.732 mEq sodium per minimum recommended dose. The study shows a high degree of variation in both the acid neutralising capacities and the sodium content of the different brands investigated.

"I.O. Kibwage, C. K. Maitai and I.G. Mureithi. (1998). Alcohol content of traditional Brews and Miti ni Dawa in Kenya: East Cent. Afr. J Pharm. Sci. 1(3):54-57." East Cent. Afr. J Pharm.Sci 2(3): 63-71; 1998. Abstract

Field trips to herbalists' practices in an area about 200 miles around Nairobi (Kenya) enabled us to make a list of medicinal plant species preferentially used to treat malaria. Ajuga remota and Caesalpinia volkensii were further investigated as being the most frequently used species. Aqueous decoctions, ethanol macerates, and petroleum ether, methanol and water Soxhlet extracts of these plants were further tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties in a chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The activity was assessed by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay method. There was a concentration-dependent inhibition by the vegetal extracts of both plants. The IC(50) of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 55 and 57 microg/ml against FCA/20GHA and W2, respectively. For C. volkensii, it was the Soxhlet-water extract which was most active against FCA/20GHA with an IC(50) of 404 microg/ml while the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most activity against W2 with an IC(50) of 250 microg/ml. Further phytochemical work is being done in order to identify the active principles.

"I.O. Kibwage, C. Ondari, I.G. Mureithi, J. Thuranira and J. Hoogmartens. (1998). Analysis of Co-trimoxazole products on the Kenyan market: East Cent. Afr. J Pharm.Sci. 1(2)34-38." East Cent. Afr. J Pharm.Sci 2(3): 63-71; 1998. Abstract

Field trips to herbalists' practices in an area about 200 miles around Nairobi (Kenya) enabled us to make a list of medicinal plant species preferentially used to treat malaria. Ajuga remota and Caesalpinia volkensii were further investigated as being the most frequently used species. Aqueous decoctions, ethanol macerates, and petroleum ether, methanol and water Soxhlet extracts of these plants were further tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties in a chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The activity was assessed by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay method. There was a concentration-dependent inhibition by the vegetal extracts of both plants. The IC(50) of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 55 and 57 microg/ml against FCA/20GHA and W2, respectively. For C. volkensii, it was the Soxhlet-water extract which was most active against FCA/20GHA with an IC(50) of 404 microg/ml while the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most activity against W2 with an IC(50) of 250 microg/ml. Further phytochemical work is being done in order to identify the active principles.

"I.O. Kibwage, E. Ayiemba and C.O. Ondari (1998). Drug utilization and cost patterns in selected health care facilities in Kenya: East Cent. Afr.J Pharm.Sci. 1(1):11-14." East Cent. Afr. J Pharm.Sci 2(3): 63-71; 1998. Abstract

Field trips to herbalists' practices in an area about 200 miles around Nairobi (Kenya) enabled us to make a list of medicinal plant species preferentially used to treat malaria. Ajuga remota and Caesalpinia volkensii were further investigated as being the most frequently used species. Aqueous decoctions, ethanol macerates, and petroleum ether, methanol and water Soxhlet extracts of these plants were further tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties in a chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The activity was assessed by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay method. There was a concentration-dependent inhibition by the vegetal extracts of both plants. The IC(50) of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 55 and 57 microg/ml against FCA/20GHA and W2, respectively. For C. volkensii, it was the Soxhlet-water extract which was most active against FCA/20GHA with an IC(50) of 404 microg/ml while the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most activity against W2 with an IC(50) of 250 microg/ml. Further phytochemical work is being done in order to identify the active principles.

"I.O. Kibwage, E. Roets and J. Hoogmartens. Thin layer chromatography of erythromycins and other macrolides. J. Chromatogr. 256:164-171.". 1983. Abstract

The literature on the thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of macrolides has recently
been reviewed'>'. An improved separation of the components of erythromycin
has been reported by Vanderhaeghe and Kerremans '. The use of high-performance
thin-layer chromatography in the analysis of some macrolides has been the subject of
a recent publication".
The best TLC system known, described for the separation of erythromycins,
uses plates coated with silanized silica gel and methanol-water-15 % ammonium
acetate buffer pH 7.0 (50:20:10) as the mobile phase:'. This system (R-VI in Table I)
allows very good separation of erythromycin A (EA), B (EB) and C (EC), but erythromycin
D (ED) is not separated from EA. Small amounts of acid degradation
products of erythromycin such as anhydroerythromycin A (AEA) and erythromycin
A enol ether (EAEN) were found by high-performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC) of commercial samples'': TLC with system R-VI did not separate AEA
from EB. Preparative chromatography of the mother liquors of the erythromycin
purification indicated the presence of des-N-methylerythromycin A (dMeEA). As this
compound was not separated from erythromycin A with TLC system R-VI, other
mobile phases were examined. In the present study a system using silica gel as the
coating material and diisopropyJ ether-methanol-25 % ammonia (75:35:2) as the
mobile phase was found to separate EA, EB, Ee, ED, EAEN, AEA and dMeEA. The
results obtained with several other mobile phases are also discussed, together with
their application in the identification and purity control of other macrolides

"I.O. Kibwage, J. Thuranira and D. Migosi (1991). Quality performance of metronidazole tablet products on the Kenyan market.". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 68(5): 365-371. Pharmacother. Bull. 1(1): 6 - 7.; 1991. Abstract

The in vitro performance of metronidazole tablet products by different manufacturers available on the Kenyan market was evaluated. It was found that a number of generic metronidazole tablet products have quality performance equal to that of Flagyl–the innovator product. All products confirmed to pharmacopoeial specifications. Three products with percent weight loss of 1.4, 11.08 and 14.93 failed the crucial friability test, for multidose packs. Two products failed the dissolution test releasing 46.8% and 45.8% of drug in 40 minutes. Drug release from tablet was found to vary between batches for one product. Ageing appears to decrease amount of drug released from tablets but longer storage periods and more samples are required before definite conclusions are drawn.

MR. NGUYO JOSEPHM. "I.O. Kibwage, J.K. Thuranira, Lilly Gathu, I.M. Githiga, J.M. Nguyo, J.K. Ngugi and O. King.". In: East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 1999. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
"I.O. Kibwage, J.K. Thuranira, Lily Gathu, I.M. Githiga, J.M. Nguyo, J.K. Ngugi and O. Kingo'ndu. (1999). Drug Quality Control Work in Drug Analysis and Research Unit. Observation during 1991-1995.East Cent Afr.J. Pharm.Sci. 2(2):32-36." East Cent Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 3(1): 14-19.; 1999. Abstract

Field trips to herbalists' practices in an area about 200 miles around Nairobi (Kenya) enabled us to make a list of medicinal plant species preferentially used to treat malaria. Ajuga remota and Caesalpinia volkensii were further investigated as being the most frequently used species. Aqueous decoctions, ethanol macerates, and petroleum ether, methanol and water Soxhlet extracts of these plants were further tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties in a chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The activity was assessed by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay method. There was a concentration-dependent inhibition by the vegetal extracts of both plants. The IC(50) of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 55 and 57 microg/ml against FCA/20GHA and W2, respectively. For C. volkensii, it was the Soxhlet-water extract which was most active against FCA/20GHA with an IC(50) of 404 microg/ml while the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most activity against W2 with an IC(50) of 250 microg/ml. Further phytochemical work is being done in order to identify the active principles.

"I.O. Kibwage, J.O. Ogeto, C.K. Maitai, G. Rutere, J.K. Thuranira and J. Ochieng (1992). Drug Quality Control Work in DARU. Observations during 1983-1986. E. Afr. J. 69(10): 577-580." Pharm. J. of Kenya. 5(1): 10 - 11.; 1992. Abstract

During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.

"I.O. Kibwage, M. Michiels, R. Hendiricks,Cachet, A. Verbruggen, J. Hoogmartens and H. Vanderhaeghe.Tissue distribution and excretion of radioactivity in the Wistar rat after administration of (N-methyl-14c) erythromycin A.Eur.J.Drug Metab Pharm 14(1):7-14." Pharmacother. Bull. 1(1): 6 - 7.; 1989. Abstract

Tissue distribution and excretion of radioactively labelled compounds was studied in the Wistar rat after i.v. administration of [N-methyl-14C]-erythromycin A. Whole-body autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting was used to investigate the tissue localization of radioactivity in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. Tissue levels were maximal within 20 min, except for lachrymal glands, thymus and brain. Large amounts of radioactively labelled compounds, partly originating from active secretion, were present in the small intestine and caecum. Marked concentration of radioactively labelled compounds was also observed in the liver, spleen, lachrymal and salivary glands, lymph nodes, mammary glands, skin, bone marrow, and, to a lesser extent, in the lung, kidney and skeletal muscle. During six hours of experimental follow-up, plasma levels remained lower than corresponding tissue levels. At 1 h the radioactivity in fetuses was about three times lower than that in maternal blood. Within 48 h, more than 90% of the administered radioactivity was excreted. The amounts of radioactivity recovered in urine, faeces and expired air were about 19%, 48% and 24% respectively. After 48 h, 8% of the administered radioactivity was found in the carcass.

"I.O. Kibwage. (1991). Specialization in Pharmacy Practice: An Overview. Abstract.". In: Pharm. J. of Kenya. 3(1): 107 - 108. . Pharm. J. of Kenya. 4(3): 55 ; 1991. Abstract

During a 4 year period (January 1983 to December 1986), 418 requests for drug analysis were received in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi. Of these requests, 212 were from Medical Supplies Coordination Unit, 190 from Government hospitals and health research institutions, 11 from the Ministry of Health Headquarters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist) and 5 came from local pharmaceutical manufacturers. Of the samples analysed, 70.8% were from local manufacturers, 26.1% were imported and 3.1% were from undeclared sources. Failure to comply with test for quality, as set out in official compendia (B.P. Eur. ph. Ip, etc.) were observed at 45.8% for locally manufactured drugs and 31.4% for imported drug products.

"I.O. Kibwage. (1998). Quality of Pharmaceuticals in Kenya: An overview. East Cent Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. 1(3): 47- 49.". East Cent. Afr. J Pharm.Sci 2(3): 63-71; 1998. Abstract

Field trips to herbalists' practices in an area about 200 miles around Nairobi (Kenya) enabled us to make a list of medicinal plant species preferentially used to treat malaria. Ajuga remota and Caesalpinia volkensii were further investigated as being the most frequently used species. Aqueous decoctions, ethanol macerates, and petroleum ether, methanol and water Soxhlet extracts of these plants were further tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties in a chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The activity was assessed by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay method. There was a concentration-dependent inhibition by the vegetal extracts of both plants. The IC(50) of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 55 and 57 microg/ml against FCA/20GHA and W2, respectively. For C. volkensii, it was the Soxhlet-water extract which was most active against FCA/20GHA with an IC(50) of 404 microg/ml while the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most activity against W2 with an IC(50) of 250 microg/ml. Further phytochemical work is being done in order to identify the active principles.

"I.O. Kibwage.Essential oils Composition of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from Kenya and their inhibitory effects on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticilliodes. Innovative Food Sciences and Emerging Technologies. 11:410-414.". 2010. Abstract

This work investigated the constiw6nts and the efficacy against Fusarium verticillioides infection and fumonisin production of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. from
different locations in Kenya.
The oil of leaves and flowering tops of 0. basilicum from Sagan a contained mainly Iinalool (95%). The flowering tops and leaves from Yatta contained mainly camphor (32.6 and 3 I.0%, respectively) and
linalool (28.2 and 29.3, respectively). Eugenol was the main constituent in the oil of O. gratissimum leaves from both Sagana (95.5%) and Yarta (70.1 %). The oil ofthe flowering tops had significantly less
eugenol. The main component of the oil of flowering tops from Yalta was Z-~-ocim~ne (34.1 %). Oil from both species had some antifungal activity. The oils of 0. basilicum and 0. gratissimum from
different locations showed chemical variation, antifungal activity, free radical scavenging capacity and antimycotoxicogenic property. These properties are attributed to the phenolic compound eugenol.

MATHU PROFMUTHUMBIELIUD. "I.O. Nyambok, J. Chorowicz, and E.M. Mathu (1993) .". In: 5th Conference on the Geology of Kenya, Geological Society of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya pp. 69-. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
Tala Quarrry in African Geoscience Review Vol. 9 Number 4 pp. 385-396.  
OLUOCH DRAMIMOJOSHUA. "I.S. Kosgey, S.M. Mbuku, A.M. Okeyo, J. Amimo, J. Philipsson and J.M. Ojango (2011) Institutional and organizational frameworks for dairy and beef cattle recording in Kenya: a review and opportunities for improvement.". In: Animal Genetic Resources, 2011, 48, 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2011; 2011. Abstract
SummaryTo facilitate livestock improvement in developing countries, records on animal populations and their various productivity levels are important. However, in these countries, livestock recording presents a huge challenge. This paper presents an outline of the historical developments and the current scenario in dairy and beef recording in Kenya, where a recording scheme has been in place since 1963, yet the productive potential of most animals in the country remains unknown. The paper brings into context the state of recording in relation to the potential for future developments in dairy and beef production within the country. Despite the enormous existing potential, low numbers of livestock records are captured due to multiple challenges, which include limited funding, lack of incentives to record, limited feedback on records, a fragmented organizational structure, poor infrastructure, limited numbers of skilled personnel and lack of supporting policies. Strategies to overcome the challenges and achieve more sustainable utilization of the existing livestock populations are discussed. Linking recording to key service providers within the livestock production sector could enhance data collection, processing and feedback to livestock producers. The quality of extension services provided must be improved in order to holisticallysupport livestock production. Recent international regulations on the traceability of livestock products sold within different countries mean that unless Kenya implements a robust animal recording programme, the country will be locked out of markets for its livestock products.
Kanyinga K. "ICC may change the balance of power in 2012." Sunday Nation, January 8, 2012.
Olag D, Wolff C, Verschuren D, Daele MEV, Waldmann N, Meyer I, Lane CS, der Meeren VT, Ombori T, Kasanzu C. "ICDP Project DeepCHALLA: Reconstructing 250,000 Years of Climate Change and Environmental History on the East African Equator." AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. 2017. AbstractFull Text

Sediments on the bottom of Lake Challa, a 92-m deep crater lake on the border of Kenya and Tanzania near Mt. Kilimanjaro, contain a uniquely long and continuous record of past climate and environmental change in easternmost equatorial Africa. Supported in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP), the DeepCHALLA project has now recovered this sediment record down to 214.8 m below the lake floor, with 100% recovery of the uppermost 121.3 m (the last 160 kyr BP) and ca.85% recovery of the older part of the sequence, down to the lowermost distinct reflector identified in seismic stratigraphy. This acoustic basement represents a ca.2-m thick layer of coarsely laminated, diatom-rich organic mud mixed with volcanic sand and silt deposited 250 kyr ago, overlying an estimated 20-30 m of unsampled lacustrine deposits representing the earliest phase of lake development. Down-hole logging produced profiles of in-situ sediment composition that confer an absolute depth- scale to both the recovered cores and the seismic stratigraphy. An estimated 74% of the recovered sequence is finely laminated (varved), and continuously so over the upper 72.3 m (the last 90 kyr). All other sections display at least cm-scale lamination, demonstrating persistence of a tranquil, profundal depositional environment throughout lake history. The sequence is interrupted only by 32 visible tephra layers 2 to 9 mm thick; and by several dozen fine-grained turbidites up to 108 cm thick, most of which are clearly bracketed between a non-erosive base and a diatom-laden cap. Tie points between sediment markers and the corresponding seismic reflectors support a preliminary age model inferring a near-constant rate of sediment accumulation over at least the last glacial cycle (140 kyr BP to present). This great time span combined with the exquisite temporal resolution of the Lake Challa sediments provides great opportunities to study past tropical climate dynamics at both short (inter-annual to decadal) and long (glacial-interglacial) time scales; and to assess the multi-faceted impact of this climate change on the region's freshwater resources, the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and the history of the African landscape in which modern humans (our species, Homo sapiens) originally evolved and have lived ever since.

Olago D, Verschuren D, Daele MV, Wolff C, Waldmann N. "ICDP project DeepCHALLA: reconstructing East African climate change and environmental history over the past 250,000 years.". In: 19th EGU General Assembly, EGU2017. Vienna, Austria; 2017. Abstract

Sediments on the bottom of Lake Challa, a 92-meter deep crater lake on the border of Kenya and Tanzania near Mt. Kilimanjaro, contain a uniquely long and continuous record of past climate and environmental change. The near-equatorial location and exceptional quality of this natural archive provide great opportunities to study tropical climate variability at both short (inter-annual to decadal) and long (glacial-interglacial) time scales; and the influence of this climate variability on the region's freshwater resources, the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and the history of the East African landscape in which modern humans (our species, Homo sapiens) evolved and have lived ever since. Supported in part by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP), the DeepCHALLA project has now recovered the sediment record of Lake Challa down to 214.8 meter below the lake floor, with almost certain 100% cover of the uppermost 121.3 meter (ca.150,000 year BP to present) and estimated 85% cover over the lower part of the sequence, down to the lowermost distinct reflector in the available seismic stratigraphy. This reflector represents a 2 meter thick layer of volcanic sand and silt deposited ca.250,000 years ago, and overlies still older silty lacustrine clays deposited during early lake development. Down-hole logging produced continuous profiles of in-situ sediment composition that confer an absolute depth scale to both the recovered cores and their three-dimensional representation in seismic stratigraphy. As readily observed through the transparent core liners, Lake Challa sediments are finely laminated throughout most of the recovered sequence. Combined with the great time span, the exquisite temporal resolution of these sediments promises to greatly increase our understanding of tropical climate and ecosystem dynamics, and create a long-awaited equatorial counterpart to the high-latitude climate records extracted from the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica.

W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "Ichang.". In: Geological Society of Kenya 8th Conference Abstracts Volume, 21- 22. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
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W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "Ichang.". In: Report and recommendations of the First Kenya Gemstone and Dealers Workshop. Geological Society of Kenya Bulletin, 1, 6 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1997. Abstract
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W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "Ichang.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1990. Abstract
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W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "Ichang.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1983. Abstract
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W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "Ichang'i, D.W. A lithostratigraphic framework for the Migori segment of the Archean Nyanza greenstone belt, Tanzanian Craton, East Africa. In: Regional.". In: Trends in African Geology (Edited by J.W. Peters, G.O. Kesse and P.C. Acquah), Proceedings, Geological Society of Africa 9th. Int. Conference, Accra, Ghana, 200-215. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1992. Abstract
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W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "Ichang'i, D.W. and MacLean , W.H. The Archean Volcanic facies in the Migori segment, Nyanza greenstone belt, Kenya: stratigraphy, geochemistry and mineralisation.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, 413, 277-290. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
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W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "Ichang'i, D.W. Lithostratigraphic setting of the mineralisation in the Migori segment of the Nyanza greenstone belt, Kenya. In:.". In: Geology for Sustainable Development (Edited by N. Opiyo-Akech), Proceedings, Geological Society of Kenya 5th. Conference, 78-84. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract
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W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "Ichang'i, D.W. Proposal for the formation of a working group to revise the stratigraphic nomenclature applied to the Archaean terrane of western Kenya. In:.". In: Geology for Sustainable Development (Edited by N. Opiyo - Akech), Proceedings, Geological Society of Kenya 5th. Conference, 122-129. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1993. Abstract
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W DRICHANGIDANIEL. "Ichang'i, D.W., Nyambok, I.O. and Gaciri, S.J. Geological Setting of the Bukura-Mbesa Kavirondian turbidite-hosted massive sulphide deposit in western Kenya.". In: Journal of African Earth Sciences, Special Abstracts Vol., 28, 30-31. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
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D PROFJUMAFRANCIS. "Ichimaru M, Nakatani N, Takahashi T, Nishiyama Y, Moriyasu M, Kato A, Mathenge SG, Juma FD, Nganga JN.Cytotoxic C-benzylated dihydrochalcones from Uvaria acuminata.Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004 Jan;52(1):138-41.". In: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004 Jan;52(1):138-41. UN-HABITAT; 2004. Abstract
Two new C-benzylated dihydrochalcones, isochamuvaritin (1) and acumitin (2), have been isolated from the African medicinal plant Uvaria acuminata, together with the previously reported benzylbenzoate (3), uvaretin (4), isouvaretin (5), diuvaretin (6), and uvangoletin (7). The structural elucidation of compounds 1 and 2 in spectroscopic studies is described. C-Benzylated dihydrochalcones, especially 1, 2, 4, and 6, showed considerable cytotoxicity toward human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.
KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "ICPD +10 Kenya.". In: Chapter 7, Demographic and Health Survey.Columbia, MD: CBS, NCPD and IRD/Macro International. James Murimi; 2004. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
K'Oyugi BO. ICPD+10 Kenya’s Progress in Implementing the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action 1994-2004. Nairobi: National Coordinating Agency for Population and Development; 2004.
Moturi CA, B Otieno. "ICT and Food Security: Case of GIS in Food Emergency Response." International Journal of Applied Information Systems. 2013;6(1):40-47.ijais_published_paper.pdf
Ndushabandi JB, Wausi AN. "ICT Governance Drivers and Effective ICT Governance at the University of Rwanda." American Journal of Information Systems. 2016;4(2):45-58.
Nichols K, et al. "ICT in Education study." New York: Erickson and Earth Institute.. 2013.
Orwa OD. ICT in Kenya's Economic Recovery. Nairobi: KEPSA and UNDP; 2003.
NW G, AW N. ""ICT Infrastructure - A Key Prerequisite for Adoption of Open and Distance Learning in Public Universities in Kenya.". 2014." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies. 2014;2(3):46-53.
Malungu CB, Moturi CA. "ICT Infrastructure Sharing Framework for Developing Countries: Case of Mobile Operators in Kenya." International Journal of Applied Information Systems, . 2015;9(4):17-24. Abstractict_infrastructure_sharing_framework_for_developing_-_ijais.pdf

The lack of infrastructure in Africa especially south of the Sahara is widely recognized as one of the continent’s greatest impediments to sustainable development )[(1)]. Even with this challenge, ICT operators in Kenya prefer to invest in own infrastructure despite the availability of underutilized ICT resources from other operators and players. This has led to wastage of scarce resources, high cost of services, poor quality services, environmental degradation and low investment in rural areas among others. The research sought to propose an adoption framework for ICT infrastructure sharing for mobile operators in Kenya after establishing the levels, drivers and challenges of infrastructure sharing. Data was collected from ICT staff of the four mobile operators Safaricom, Airtel, Essar and Telkom Kenya Orange across the country using a questionnaire. To supplement and increase reliability, data was also collected from other ICT stakeholders such CAK, ICTA, submarine operators, ICT vendors, KBC and non ICT related firms Equity, Barclays and Kenya Power Company. The research found out that the level of ICT infrastructure sharing among mobile operators was low at 20.4%. The five key drivers were identified as new market entrants, cost optimization, environmental conservation, operators focus on core business and network deployment to underserved and un served areas. The five main challenges were lack of regulatory framework, high capital, complexity of the sharing process, high charges by infrastructure owners and operators unwillingness to share. The TOE framework can be adopted for ICT infrastructure sharing with organizational factors having a greater influence than technology and external factors. Operator controlled infrastructure rollout had worked previously but due to changes in local and global market, there was need to change the way ICT resources were utilized. To achieve quick wins, operators had to partner with competitors by leasing and undertaking joint ventures. Infrastructure sharing was beneficial hence strategies to promote the same by use of incentives license fee and tax concessions, having a legal framework, government investment in backbone infrastructure and attracting independent firms will ensure competitiveness and a knowledge economy status

(Phd) DRNAOMIGIKONYOWM. "ICT INTEGRATION FOR LIBERATIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING IN SCHOOLS: ARE THE EDUCATIONAL MANAGERS EQUIPPED?". In: 7th Annual International Conference. Eldoret Town, Kenya; 2011.conference_paper_abstract_moi_univ.doc
Ndiritu AW, Mburu D, Kimani G. "ICT integration in Early Childhood Development teacher training Curriculum: Need to start from the beginning.". In: 3rd KIE Education symposium. KENYA INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION; 2013. Abstract

Vision 2030 was developed by Kenya government as a roadmap for development. This aims to transform Kenya into a middle-income industrialized country and is anchored on three pillars: economic, social and political. This development is likely to be an illusion unless Kenya is able to achieve its educational goals. Education and training has been isolated in the vision 2030 as the only mechanism that will translate Kenya into a middle-income economy. The vision of education service provision is to have a globally competitive quality education, training and research for Kenya’s sustainable development. Countries that have succeeded in harnessing the potential of ICT have been said to have taken a positive step towards a greatly expanded economic growth, improved human welfare and stronger forms of democratic governance. It is in this regard that the Kenyan government has invested a lot of funds in ICT infrastructure including digitization of educational materials through Kenya Institute of Education. This is geared towards the improvement in the quality of education. The investment is likely not to bear fruits unless the training of teachers is put on the forefront. There should therefore be an emphasis of training teachers in ICT because they are the central forces in tapping the learning potentials created by ICT. Teachers for all levels from pre-primary to university must be trained in ICT if the vision is to be realized. The quality and orientation of education at each level and the link with the demand for skills are critical for mastering technology. Although research has suggested that part of the difficulty in adopting innovation or reform relates to teachers themselves, it is important to find out the part that the government is playing in teacher preparation in ICT in teaching and learning. The purpose of this study was to explore the ICT skills possessed by the ECD teachers. Further, the study explored the integration of ICT in teaching and learning of preschool children selected in Kenyan preschools. A researcher developed questionnaire was used to gather the required information from the ECD teachers who were in their training sessions. The sample consisted of 395 pre-school teachers. The findings indicated that majority (60.83%) of the teachers had no knowledge in ICT. The findings also indicated that only 13.01% of the ECD teachers had attended any seminar related to ICT compared to the majority (86.99) who had never attended. All the teachers felt that their teaching would be highly enhanced by ICT integration in teaching and learning. Based on these findings, it was recommended that there is need for the government to invest more in the training of pre-school teachers in ICT integration.
Key words: Information Communication and Technology, Early Childhood education, Teacher Training, Integration

Sikuku. "ICT Matters - Kenya." ICT consultancy. 2006;no 1(6). Abstract

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Mindila AN, Anthony Rodrigues, Dorothy McCormick, Mwangi RW. "ICT Powered Strategic Flexibility System Dynamic Model: A Pillar for Economic Development in Micro and Small Enterprises." International Journal of System Dynamics Applications . 2014;3(1):21 99.
JUMA MROMOLLOPETER. "ICT Relevance to the remote lake region." P Juma; 2010. Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Waema TM. "ICT4D and Global Connectivity." The International Encyclopedia of Digital Communication and Society. 2015:1-4.
K.C C, Mugwanya R, G M, E. B. ICTD Interventions: Trends over the Last Decade. Atlanta, USA: ACM; 2012.
K.C C, E. B, Marsden G. ICTs and Survival Tactics for the Day-labour Workers: Implications for Design. Nairobi, Kenya: IST-Africa; 2013.
Chepken K c, Blake E, Marsden G. ICTs and Survival Tactics for the Day-labour Workers: Implications for Design.. Nairobi, Kenya: IST-Africa; 2013.
OPIYO MRROMANUSOTIENO. "ICTs Application in the Informal Sector: The Case of Kariokor Market Cluster in Nairobi, Kenya (Urban Forum Journal Paper).". In: Paris 2011 World Cup in Paris, France. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
In contrast with mammalian cells, little is known about the control of Ca2+ entry into primitive protozoans. Here we report that Ca2+ influx in pathogenic Trypanosoma brucei can be regulated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA). Several PLA2 inhibitors blocked Ca2+ entry; 3-(4-octadecyl)-benzoylacrylic acid (OBAA; IC50 0.4+/-0.1 microM) was the most potent. We identified in live trypanosomes PLA2 activity that was sensitive to OBAA and could be stimulated by Ca2+, suggesting the presence of positive feedback control. The cell-associated PLA2 activity was able to release [14C]AA from labelled phospholipid substrates. Exogenous AA (5-50 microM) also initiated Ca2+ entry in a manner that was inhibited by the Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (100 microM). Ca2+ entry did not depend on AA metabolism or protein kinase activation. The cell response was specific for AA, and fatty acids with greater saturation than tetraeicosanoic acid (AA) or with chain lengths less than C20 exhibited greatly diminished ability to initiate Ca2+ influx. Myristate and palmitate inhibited PLA2 activity and also inhibited Ca2+ influx. Overall, these results demonstrate that Ca2+ entry into T. brucei can result from phospholipid hydrolysis and the release of eicosanoic acids.
Yohannis MA. ICTS As A Bridge Between Climate Information And Livelihood Strategies Among Rural Women In Kitui County, Kenya.; 2019. Abstract

The study was motivated by the increasing challenges of climate variability and climate change, which create problems, such as food insecurity in Kitui County in Kenya. In the current digital age, ICTs are core to all sectors to facilitate access to and enhance efficiency across various services. Although the role of ICTs in improving life in Kenya is widely acknowledged, the focus of most ICT-related developments has been on human experiences at the level of disease and needs for communication and mobility. Less obvious is how such technological interventions may be used to address seemingly abstract yet grave concerns like climate change and its impact on the quality of human life. This study, therefore, investigated the various scenarios where ICTs were deployed in relaying relevant localized climate information to help rural women farmers in Kitui County to make relevant decisions to improve their farm productivity and their livelihoods by extension. The study incorporated an ICT system to the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) that consisted of Digital Capital and ICT Tools, thereby improving on the SLF. This modified SLF, mainstreamed ICT-driven climate information and provided the ideal means by which such information was leveraged to ensure enhanced sustainable livelihoods. Gender and Development (GAD) theory, Bourdieu’s ideas of social capital theory, and the Information Needs Assessment Model (INAM) further strengthened the SLF by addressing household power dynamics and climate information relevance in the rural communities. The research drew from emerging variables to demonstrate that regardless of the context in which the SLF was formulated, its versatility makes it the most appropriate tool for such studies in rural Kenya. The specific objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to assess the extent to which rural women access and use ICT tools in the utilization of climate information including weather, seasonal forecasts and agro-advisories; (2) to analyze the extent to which the use of ICT-based climate information by rural women influence maximize access and utilization of livelihood assets; and (3) to examine the livelihood strategies employed with the increasing availability and use of ICT-based climate information. The author adopted a mixed-methods approach for data collection and analysis that was guided by the SLF. Specific methods used, apart from on-desk review, were a household survey of 419 respondents, 14 key informant interviews, and two focus group discussions. The study merged theoretical and applied research outcomes to narrow the gap between the theory and practice of ICTs use while linking it to climate information and enhanced rural livelihood strategies. The outcome from the research findings highlighted the need for interventions to empower rural women in the use of ICT tools in exploiting the full potential of climate information, the need for tailoring modern scientific climate information to local needs, translated into simple formats and the local Kikamba language, the need for complementary services such as affordable credit, insurance, livelihood diversification opportunities and access to livelihood assets that can further strengthen their household resilience to climate variability. The results show that community radios combined with mobile phones are the most accessible and cost-effective ICT tools for rural women’s access to real-time, relevant climate and agro-advisory information. There is evidence that the women’s livelihood strategies have been enhanced which strengthened their livelihood assets, thereby improving their livelihoods under the wider rubric of the sustainable livelihood framework. The contribution to knowledge for this research was an enhanced SLF where the various responses and systematic analysis made the framework relevant in gaining insights into the link between climate information and livelihood strategies through ICTs among women in ii rural communities in Kitui. The modified framework and the research findings are also timely in light of the increasing realization of ICTs potential in contributing to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Also, the thesis builds on the growing body of literature that generated a rich repository that other researchers can use to advance knowledge, and the outcomes are eight peer-reviewed articles. The output of this study is replicable to other counties in Kenya because rural households depend on agriculture for their livelihood and this economic sector is not exempt to climate change and variability necessitating the need for local specific climate information. The recommendations to the research are that it can be extended to examine outcomes that will look at improved income, sustainable resource utilization, and food security, physical and emotional wellbeing. Further we provide policy recommendations and made suggestions to shape future climate change adaptation policies, plans, and strategies in Kenya that integrates gender equality into ICT and climate change to help farmers adapt to climate change/variability for sustainable development. Keywords: ICT Tools; Digital Capital; Climate Information; Enhanced Sustainable livelihood Framework; Livelihood Strategies

Wangai J;, Thairu K;, Bharaj BS;, Telang BV. "Identification and isolation of three acetylcholinesterase inactivating fractions in the venom of Dendroaspis angusticeps.". 1982. Abstract

Three fractions were isolated from the venom of Dendroaspis angusticeps by column chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-25. All the three fractions were shown to possess acetylcholinesterase inhibiting activity. The toxicity of the fractions as tested on mice were variable. Although the toxic signs were identical, fraction DaVI was highly lethal (LD50 1.9 microgram/g) whereas fractions DaIV and T39 were less lethal, the LD50 being 3.6 micrograms/g and 4.1 micrograms/g respectively. The three fractions significantly inhibited true acetylcholinesterase to the extent of 91-95%.

ALUOCH DRAUSTINOCHIENG. "Identification and Quantitation of Bacillus globigii using Metal Enhanced Electrochemical Detection and Capillary Biosensor.". In: Analytical Chemistry. Elsevier; 2009. Abstract
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Vors E, Sirven J-B, AlixDehayem-Massop, Gallou G. Identification and sorting of materials with portable LIBS before decommissioning.; 2016. Abstract
n/a
Dion M, Osanjo G, Andre C, others. "Identification by saturation mutagenesis of a single residue involved in the a-galactosidase AgaB regioselectivity." Glycoconjugate Journal. 2001;18:457-464.
Oyamo GO. Identification by saturation mutagenesis of a single residue involved in the a-galactosidase agab regioselectivity.; 2002. Abstract

a-Galactosidase AgaB from Bacillus stearothermophilus displays a major a(1~6) and a minor a(1~3) regioselectivity in hydrolysis and transglycosylation. Its corresponding gene, agaB, was subjected to saturation mutagenesis at codon 442 in order to change its regioselectivity. The mutant genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli using pBTac2 as vector. The regioselective activity of the mutants was determined using thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A single point mutation, G442R, resulted in a mutant displaying an a(1~2) regioselectivity. Other amino acid substitutions at this site also gave mutants with altered regioselectivity and transglycosylation profiles. This is the first demonstration that single point mutations can lead to a strong modification of the regioselectivity of a glycosyl hydrolase. The kinetic parameters of the enzyme variants were determined and a preliminary investigation of possible substrates for condensation reactions conducted.

Okoth S. "Identification Key for Aspergillus Species Isolated from Maize and Soil of Nandi County, Kenya." Advances in Microbiology. 2015;5(04):205. AbstractWebsite

The aim of this study was to identify Aspergillus species isolated from maize kernels and soils of
maize fields of Nandi County using macro and micro morphological characteristics. A cross sectional
research design was used in the study and purposive sampling was employed to determine
districts of Nandi County and sub locations where sampling was done. This study was part of a
larger project whose aim was to survey aflatoxin exposure in the maize value chain. Aspergillus
species were isolated from maize and soil samples using quarter strength potato dextrose agar
and modified Rose Bengal agar respectively. Pure cultures of the isolates were sub cultured and
transferred onto differential media; malt extract agar, czapek yeast extract agar and czapek dox
agar for species identification using macro morphological characteristics. Fungal slides were prepared
from pure cultures on potato dextrose agar media after three days to identify micro morphological
characteristics. Based on morphological characteristics, seven sections of Aspergillus
namely: Flavi, Fumigati, Nigri, Circumdati, Clavati, Nidulantes and Candidi were identified. Aspergillus
section Flavi was the most predominant with 57% followed by section Nigri with 27% from
maize and 58% of section Flavi followed by 26% of section Nigri from the soil across the three locations.
Aspergillus sections Nidulantes and Candidi were rare and only recovered from the soil
samples of Kaptumo location. All the Aspergillius flavus that formed sclerotia both from the soils
or maize kernels were of the L strains. In conclusion Aspergillus section Flavi was most frequent
during the isolation process and dominated with Aspergillus flavus from both the maize and soil.
Morphological characteristics remain the primary tool for detection and identification of Aspergillus
species. The significance for high incidence of Aspergillus section Flavi is in regard to their
aflatoxin production profiles that poses a health threat to the community and it is of public health
concern. Morphological characteristics as a primary tool for Aspergillus identification should be
embraced and more personnel with the knowledge are required since modern and faster techniques
are scarce and expensive.

WANGAI DRKIAMAPETER. "Identification of a novel HLA B*57 restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope within HIV-1 rev. Makadzange AT, Gillespie G, Kimani J, Kiama P, Easterbrook P, Bwayo JJ, Rowland-Jones SL. AIDS. 2006 Feb 14;20(3):462-4.". In: AIDS. 2006 Feb 14;20(3):462-4. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; 2006. Abstract
HLA-B5701 and its related allele B5703 have been shown to be strongly associated with slow HIV-1 disease progression. To elucidate the effect of these alleles fully on disease progression it is essential to identify key HIV-1 epitopes that are restricted by these alleles. Here we describe the identification of a novel HLA-B5701, B5703 restricted epitope within HIV-1 rev, which accounted for up to 25 and 40% of the total cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in two patients.
Kopp N, Diaz D, Amacker M, Odongo DO, Beier K, Nitsch C, Bishop RP, Daubenberger CA. "Identification of a synthetic peptide inducing cross-reactive antibodies binding to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus BM86 homologues." Vaccine. 2009;28(1):261-9. Abstract

The BM86 antigen, originally identified in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is the basis of the only commercialized anti-tick vaccine. The long-term goal of our study is to improve BM86 based vaccines by induction of high levels of tick gut binding antibodies that are also cross-reactive with a range of BM86 homologues expressed in other important tick species. Here we have used a BD86 derived synthetic peptide, BD86-3, to raise a series of mouse monoclonal antibodies. One of these mAbs, named 12.1, recognized BM86 homologues in immuno-histochemical analyses in four out of five tick species including R. (B.) microplus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Our results indicate that broadly cross-reactive tick gut binding antibodies can be induced after immunization with a synthetic peptide derived from the protein BD86.

Mulaku GC, Siriba DN. "Identification of alternative solid waste disposal sites in Nairobi, Kenya: The GIS approach." Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice (Kenya)[ISSN 1729-5769]. 2005;2(2):39-47. Abstract

Towers are typical structures that can be found in many urban and rural landscapes the world over. From their basic design, they are usually exposed to severe environmental loads. It is therefore prudent to carry out periodic maintenance that includes checking that they are correctly aligned. This paper describes a method that was used for the re-alignment of a guyed tower in Limuru, Kenya. Angular and distance observations, made from two observation points detected a vertical misalignment that was larger than the acceptable tolerance of l/400. An iterative re-alignment procedure was then applied, resulting in an acceptable final misalignment of 1 / 520.

Mulaku GC, Siriba DN. "Identification of Alternative Solid Waste Disposal Sites in Nairobi, Kenya: The GIS Approach." Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice. 2005;2(2):39-47.
and Njue LG., Ombui JN. KLWGJKMJO. "Identification of antimicrobial compounds in garlic grown in Laikipia county." Journal of Agricultural research and review,. 2017;5(5):636-643.
Smallegange RC, GK Bukovinszkin´e, B Otieno, PA Mbadi, Takken W, Mukabana WR, vanLoon JA. "Identification of candidate volatiles that affect the behavioural response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to an active kairomone blend: laboratory and semi-field assays." Physiological Entomology. 2012;37:60-71.
BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN, BUURI MRKABURIAMARTIN. "Identification of determinants of infant mortality in Rwanda using a shared frailty model.". In: European Journal of Scientific Research. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2010. Abstract
n/a
O DRACHIATHOMASN. "Identification of determinants of infant mortality in Rwanda using a shared frailty model.". In: European Journal of Scientific Research. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2010. Abstract
"
Mwega BW, Mati B, Mulwa JK, Kituu GM. "Identification of groundwater potential zones using remote sensing and GIS in Lake Chala watershed, Kenya.". In: Mechanical Engineering Annual Conference on sustainable research and innovation. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Thika, Kenya; 2013. Abstract

Groundwater is a natural resource of the earth that sustains and supports domestic, agricultural and industrial activities. It is distributed fairly and evenly throughout the world and over half of the world’s population depends on groundwater for drinking water supplies. Its usage is increasing due to rapid population growth, high rate of urbanization, industrial growth and agricultural utilizations. This has resulted to rapid depletion of groundwater which leads to water stress and degradation of these resources. The situation is further worsened by inadequate information on groundwater resource which has been and is still a big obstacle to the proper management of these resources. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have emerged as very effective and reliable tools in the assessment, monitoring and conservation of groundwater resources. This paper has made an attempt to identify and delineate groundwater potential zones in Lake Chala Basin in Kenya using Remote sensing and GIS. In the process of groundwater delineation in the area, different thematic maps on lithology, land use/land cover, drainage density, slope and rainfall were prepared, assigned with different weighting values as per their importance on groundwater occurrence and overlaid using spatial analyst tool in ArcGis 10 to generate groundwater potential map. The generated groundwater potential zone map was classified into four groundwater potential zones namely, very high, high, moderate and low. The study revealed that the area has very high groundwater potential. The generated groundwater potential map will be used for further groundwater exploration, proper planning, sustainable utilization and management of groundwater resources in the Lake Chala Watershed.

IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Identification of High-linakge sectors using Input-Output Analysis.". In: paper presented to the National Symposium on Industrial Research and Development,Nairobi). Asian Economic and Social Society; 1981. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
E. GICHURE, O. AGWANDAC, C. COMBESM, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE, K. NGUGIEC, B. BERCRAND, P. LASHERMES. Identification of Molecular Markers linked to a gene conferring resistance to coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum Kahawae in Coffee arabica..; 2008.
Karaya H, Kiarie N, Mugo S, Kanampiu F, Ariga E, Nderitu J. "Identification of new inbred lines with resistance to Striga hermonthica ." Journal of Crop Protection. 2012; I (2):131-142.
Karaya H, Kiarie N, Mugo S, Kanampiu F, Ariga E, Nderitu J. "Identification of new inbred lines with resistance to Striga hermonthica (del.) Benth." Journal of Crop Protection. 2012;1(2):131-142.
A. O. Adero, P. Baki, P. K, and Mito CO. "Identification of Night-Time F-Region Currents from CHAMP Satellite Observations over Equatorial Africa." International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences. 2013;3(1):9-14.
Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Maher ER. "Identification of novel VHL target genes and relationship to hypoxic response pathways." Oncogene. 2005;24(28):4549-58. Abstract

Upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors HIF-1 and HIF-2 is frequent in human cancers and may result from tissue hypoxia or genetic mechanisms, in particular the inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene (TSG). Tumours with VHL inactivation are highly vascular, but it is unclear to what extent HIF-dependent and HIF-independent mechanisms account for pVHL tumour suppressor activity. As the identification of novel pVHL targets might provide insights into pVHL tumour suppressor activity, we performed gene expression microarray analysis in VHL-wild-type and VHL-null renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. We identified 30 differentially regulated pVHL targets (26 of which were 'novel') and the results of microarray analysis were confirmed in all 11 novel targets further analysed by real-time RT-PCR or Western blotting. Furthermore, nine of 11 targets were dysregulated in the majority of a series of primary clear cell RCC with VHL inactivation. Three of the nine targets had been identified previously as candidate TSGs (DOC-2/DAB2, CDKN1C and SPARC) and all were upregulated by wild-type pVHL. The significance for pVHL function of two further genes upregulated by wild-type pVHL was initially unclear, but re-expression of GNG4 (G protein gamma-4 subunit/guanine nucleotide-binding protein-4) and MLC2 (myosin light chain) in a RCC cell line suppressed tumour cell growth. pVHL regulation of CDKN1C, SPARC and GNG4 was not mimicked by hypoxia, whereas for six of 11 novel targets analysed (including DOC-2/DAB2 and MLC2) the effects of pVHL inactivation and hypoxia were similar. For GPR56 there was evidence of a tissue-specific hypoxia response. Such a phenomenon might, in part, explain organ-specific tumorigenesis in VHL disease. These provide insights into mechanisms of pVHL tumour suppressor function and identify novel hypoxia-responsive targets that might be implicated in tumorigenesis in both VHL disease and in other cancers with HIF upregulation.

Abdulrahman M, Maina EN, Morris MR, Zatyka M, Raval RR, Banks RE, Wiesener MS, Richards FM, Johnson CM, Latif F, Maher ER. "Identification of novel VHL targets that are associated with the development of renal cell carcinoma." Oncogene. 2007;26(11):1661-72. Abstract

von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a dominantly inherited family cancer syndrome characterized by the development of retinal and central nervous system haemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and phaeochromocytoma. Specific germline VHL mutations may predispose to haemangioblastomas, RCC and phaeochromocytoma to a varying extent. Although dysregulation of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-2 and JunB have been linked to the development of RCC and phaeochromocytoma, respectively, the precise basis for genotype-phenotype correlations in VHL disease have not been defined. To gain insights into the pathogenesis of RCC in VHL disease we compared gene expression microarray profiles in a RCC cell line expressing a Type 1 or Type 2B mutant pVHL (RCC-associated) to those of a Type 2A or 2C mutant (not associated with RCC). We identified 19 differentially expressed novel VHL target genes linked to RCC development. Eight targets were studied in detail by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (three downregulated and five upregulated by wild-type VHL) and for six genes the effect of VHL inactivation was mimicked by hypoxia (but hypoxic-induction of smooth muscle alpha-actin 2 was specific for a RCC cell line). The potential role of four RCC-associated VHL target genes was assessed in vitro. NB thymosin beta (TMSNB) and proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) (both downregulated by wt pVHL) increased cell growth and motility in a RCC cell line, but aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)1 and ALDH7 had no effect. These findings implicate TMSNB and PAR2 candidate oncogenes in the pathogenesis of VHL-associated RCC.

Muriithi BK, Muthomi JW, Chemining'wa GN, Mutitu EW. "Identification of predisposing factors to aflatoxin contamination of maize value chain in eastern Kenya." East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 2013;78(4):217-226.
Akello MO, Nzuve F, Olubayo F, Macharia G, Muthomi J. "Identification of Resistance Sources to Wheat Stem Rust from Introduced Genotypes in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2017;9(2):73-87.
OLUOCH KEVINRAYMOND. Identification of schizont cDNAs located on a subtelomeric fragment of the Theileria parva genome. Nene DV, Mulaa PFJ, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
MAINA MRMUIRUWILLIAM. "Identification of selected actinomycete isolates and characterization of their antibiotic metabolites.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Biological Sciences; 2008. Abstract
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M. MW, W. PROFMUTITUEUNICE, MUNGE PROFMUKUNYAD. "Identification of Selected Actinomycete Isolates and Characterization of Their Antibiotic Metabolites." Journal of Biological Sciences . 2008;8(6):1021-1026.
J.P. E, Ekesi S, Kabaru J, Irungu LW, Torto B. "Identification of sex pheromones of the coconut bug, Pseudtheraptus wayi.". In: icipe science day. ICIPE, NAIROBI - KENYA; 2011.
Onditi JO, Njoroge K, I.S. S. "Identification of suitable parents and temperatures for breeding potato virus Y (PVX) and potato virus X (PVX) resistant potatoes. ." Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America.. 2011;2(12):1409-1415.
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "IDENTIFICATION OF THE SPECIES OF ORIGIN OF FRESH, COOKED AND CANNED MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS USING ANTISERA TO THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS BY OUCHTERLONY’S DOUBLE DIFFUSION TEST.". In: journal. Kisipan, M.L.; 1987. Abstract
Antisera to thermosable muscle antigens (TMA) from 14 species of bovidae were raised in goats and/or sheep. To achieve species specificity the antisera were absorbed with serum from the other species. While the absorbed antisera to TMA to buffalo, impala, eland, waterbuck, wildebeest and oryx were rendered specific, the antiserum to cattle TMA cross-reacted with buffalo fresh meat antigens (FMA) and cooked meat antigens (CMA) but not with buffalo thermostable muscle antigens. Fresh and cooked muscle antigens from these two species could be differentiated by the antiserum to buffalo TMA. A similar approach was used to differentiate the FMA, CMA and TMA of kongoni, topi and wildebeest. Antiserum to cattle TMA proved useful in detecting the presence of beef meat in meat products that had undergone commercial sterilization.   Keywords: meat; meat products; thermostable muscle antitgens; immunodiffusion; antibodies; species identification
KIAMBI PROFKANGETHEE, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "IDENTIFICATION OF THE SPECIES OF ORIGIN OF FRESH, COOKED AND CANNED MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS USING ANTISERA TO THERMOSTABLE MUSCLE ANTIGENS BY OUCHTERLONY’S DOUBLE DIFFUSION TEST.". In: journal. au-ibar; 1987. Abstract
Antisera to thermosable muscle antigens (TMA) from 14 species of bovidae were raised in goats and/or sheep. To achieve species specificity the antisera were absorbed with serum from the other species. While the absorbed antisera to TMA to buffalo, impala, eland, waterbuck, wildebeest and oryx were rendered specific, the antiserum to cattle TMA cross-reacted with buffalo fresh meat antigens (FMA) and cooked meat antigens (CMA) but not with buffalo thermostable muscle antigens. Fresh and cooked muscle antigens from these two species could be differentiated by the antiserum to buffalo TMA. A similar approach was used to differentiate the FMA, CMA and TMA of kongoni, topi and wildebeest. Antiserum to cattle TMA proved useful in detecting the presence of beef meat in meat products that had undergone commercial sterilization.   Keywords: meat; meat products; thermostable muscle antitgens; immunodiffusion; antibodies; species identification
Kinyuru JN;, Konyole SO;, Kenji GM;, Onyango CA;, Owino VO;, Owuor BO;, Estambale BB;, Friis H;, Roos N. "Identification of Traditional Foods with Public Health Potential for Complementary Feeding in Western Kenya.". 2012. Abstract

The diversity of traditional foods in Kisumu West District of Western Kenya was assessed with an aim to identify the foods with a potential for complementary feeding. Leaves were the most consumed plant part amongst vegetables, while a few fruits were consumed together with their seeds. Amaranthus cruentus L. was found to be consumed as a leafy vegetable while another variety, Amaranthus hybridus L. was found to be consumed as a grain. Four species of winged termites, a grasshopper, black ant and dagaa fish were also identified. Twelve of the traditional foods were found to be associated with nutritional and health benefits as perceived by the locals. Traditional food processing methods such as boiling, fermentation and sun drying were identified. Thus exploitation of the species possessing nutrient, health and processing benefits needs to be explored in complementary feeding.

MAINA LW, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO. "Identification of Vegetable Oil Manufactured in Kenya.". 2016. Abstract

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OBIERO DRSAMUELV. "Identification Process as a Factor in Project Implementation: Case studies from Kenya.". In: Vaccine. 2008 May 23;26(22):2788-95. Epub 2008 Mar 31. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of plasmid pTHr DNA, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates were evaluated in four Phase I clinical trials in Kenya and Uganda. Both vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype A gag p24/p17 and a string of CD8 T-cell epitopes (HIVA), were generally safe and well-tolerated. At the dosage levels and intervals tested, the percentage of vaccine recipients with HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immune responses, assessed by a validated ex vivo interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISPOT assay and Cytokine Flow Cytometry (CFC), did not significantly differ from placebo recipients. These trials demonstrated the feasibility of conducting high-quality Phase 1 trials in Africa.
Oluoch KR, Nene V, Mulaa FJ. "Identifictaion of schizont cDNAs located on a subtelomeric fragment of the Theileria parva genome.". In: 18th IUBMB Congress of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology . Birmingham, UK; 2000.
E.N. PN. "Identifying at-risk populations in Kenya and South Africa HIV incidence in cohorts of men who report sex with men, sex workers, and youth.". 2012. Abstract

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Feb 1;59(2):185-93. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31823d8693.
Identifying at-risk populations in Kenya and South Africa: HIV incidence in cohorts of men who report sex with men, sex workers, and youth.
Price MA, Rida W, Mwangome M, Mutua G, Middelkoop K, Roux S, Okuku HS, Bekker LG, Anzala O, Ngugi E, Stevens G, Chetty P, Amornkul PN, Sanders EJ.
Source
Department of Medical Affairs, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, New York, NY, USA. mprice@iavi.org
Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
To identify and describe populations at risk for HIV in 3 clinical research centers in Kenya and South Africa.
DESIGN:
Prospective cohort study.
METHODS:
Volunteers reporting recent sexual activity, multiple partners, transactional sex, sex with an HIV-positive partner, or, if male, sex with men (MSM; in Kenya only) were enrolled. Sexually active minors were enrolled in South Africa only. Risk behavior, HIV testing, and clinical data were obtained at follow-up visits.
RESULTS:
From 2005 to 2008, 3023 volunteers were screened, 2113 enrolled, and 1834 contributed data on HIV incidence. MSM had the highest HIV incidence rate of 6.8 cases per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.9 to 9.2] followed by women in Kilifi and Cape Town (2.7 cases per 100 person-years, 95% CI: 1.7 to 4.2). No seroconversions were observed in Nairobi women or men in Nairobi or Cape Town who were not MSM. In 327 MSM, predictors of HIV acquisition included report of genital ulcer (Hazard Ratio: 4.5, 95% CI: 1.7 to 11.6), not completing secondary school education (HR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6 to 7.2) and reporting receptive anal
intercourse (HR: 8.2, 95% CI: 2.7 to 25.0). Paying for sex was inversely associated with HIV infection (HR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.8). 279 (13.0%) volunteers did not return after the first visit; subsequent attrition rates ranged from 10.4 to 21.8 volunteers per 100 person-years across clinical research centers.
CONCLUSIONS:
Finding, enrolling, and retaining risk populations for HIV prevention trials is challenging in Africa. African MSM are not frequently engaged for research, have high HIV incidence, need urgent risk reduction counseling, and may represent a suitable population for future HIV prevention trials.

Price MA, Rida W MMMROHSBLGANSCMGKS, Amornkul PN SEJ. "Identifying at-risk populations in Kenya and South Africa: HIV incidence in cohorts of men who report sex with men, sex workers, and youth." J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.. 2012;59(2):185-93.
Price MA;, Rida W;, Mwangome M;, Mutua G;, Middelkoop K;, Roux S;, Okuku HS;, Bekker LG;, Anzala O;, Ngugi EN;, Stevens, G; Chetty P;, Amornkul PN;, Sanders EJ. "Identifying at-risk populations in Kenya and South Africa: HIV incidence in cohorts of men who report sex with men, sex workers, and youth.". 2012. Abstract

To identify and describe populations at risk for HIV in 3 clinical research centers in Kenya and South Africa. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Volunteers reporting recent sexual activity, multiple partners, transactional sex, sex with an HIV-positive partner, or, if male, sex with men (MSM; in Kenya only) were enrolled. Sexually active minors were enrolled in South Africa only. Risk behavior, HIV testing, and clinical data were obtained at follow-up visits. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2008, 3023 volunteers were screened, 2113 enrolled, and 1834 contributed data on HIV incidence. MSM had the highest HIV incidence rate of 6.8 cases per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.9 to 9.2] followed by women in Kilifi and Cape Town (2.7 cases per 100 person-years, 95% CI: 1.7 to 4.2). No seroconversions were observed in Nairobi women or men in Nairobi or Cape Town who were not MSM. In 327 MSM, predictors of HIV acquisition included report of genital ulcer (Hazard Ratio: 4.5, 95% CI: 1.7 to 11.6), not completing secondary school education (HR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6 to 7.2) and reporting receptive anal intercourse (HR: 8.2, 95% CI: 2.7 to 25.0). Paying for sex was inversely associated with HIV infection (HR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.8). 279 (13.0%) volunteers did not return after the first visit; subsequent attrition rates ranged from 10.4 to 21.8 volunteers per 100 person-years across clinical research centers. CONCLUSIONS: Finding, enrolling, and retaining risk populations for HIV prevention trials is challenging in Africa. African MSM are not frequently engaged for research, have high HIV incidence, need urgent risk reduction counseling, and may represent a suitable population for future HIV prevention trials.

Orao J. "Identity and Nationalism in MG Vassanji’s ‚The In-Between World of Vikram Lall’.". In: Samosa Festival. University of Nairobi; 2017.
"identity, belong and the challenges of citizenship in Kenya.". In: Society for International Development stakeholders meeting. Southern Sun Hotel, Nairobi.; 2012.
joshua Kivuva. "Identity, belonging and the challenges of citizenship in Kenya." SID Working Paper Series. 2012;(August 2012).
DR Oduor RMJ. "Identity.Politics.in.the.Twenty-first.Century:. A.Kenyan.Perspective." Identity.Politics.in.the.Twenty-first.CA.Kenyan.Perspective. . Reginald.M.J..Oduor. (Universität.Nairobi,.Kenia). 2014.rmj_oduor_identity_politics_in_the_twenty-first_century_a_kenyan_perspective_abstract_free_university_berlin_2014.pdf
R.M O. "Ideological Components of the Concepts of Ethnicity and Violence vis - a - vis Human Rights and National Solidarity: The Kenya Case.". In: Constitutional Reform Process - The Challenges Ahead. the A.C.K. Guesthouse, Nairobi; 1998.
M MRNJOKAJOHN. "Ideology and Governance in Kenya. In Governance in Kenya Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: East African Medical Journal. East African Medical Journal; Forthcoming. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
Chweya L, Omosa M, P. W. "Ideology and Governance in Kenya: Reflections on the Theory and Practice, ." Governance and Political Transition in Kenya. 2006.
Njai DM;, Ajusi JD. "Idiopathic peripheral gangrene: a case report and literature review.". 1989. Abstract

An 11-month old male infant presented with dry idiopathic peripheral gangrene (IPG) of both feet. Subsequently spontaneous autoamputation occurred and the stump healed. Including this patient, 8 cases of IPG under 12 years of age seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital between 1978 and 1986 were analysed. 5 were males and 3 were females. All the 8 children except one had an illness preceding IPG. The literature is reviewed and the management is discussed

Mwakimako H, Gona G. "IDP’s Narratives as Political Discourse of Identity." the Hague, Institute for Historical Justice and Reconciliation,. 2011.
PETER DRODOCHJOHN. "If Laivino Dead: An Aesthetic.". In: University of Nairobi-Great Lakes Colleges Association, Nairobi. University of Nairobi Press; 2002. Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
Njue C, Nzioka C, Maina-Ahlberg, Pertet A. "If you do not abstain, you will die of AIDS” AIDS Education in Kenya Public Schools." AIDS Education and Prevention . 2009;21 (2):156-167.
Kiriti-Nganga TW. "IFC Gender - Entrepreneurship - Markets and Foreign Investment Advisory Service." International Journal of Women, Social Justice and Human Rights . 2006;1(2):269-272.
K'Odhiambo AK. "ii) Argument for a historical foundation of African Philosophy of Education." A Journal of Philosophy (The Consolata Institute of Philosophy Journal). 2010;1:113-129.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Ijumba, J.N., Beir, J.C. and Mwangi, R.W. (1990). Malaria transmission potential of Anopheles mosquitoes in the Mwea-Tebere Irrigation Scheme, Kenya. Med. Vet.Entomol. 4: 425-432.". In: Proc. Mosq. Vector Control assoc. 59:62-63.40. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1990.
PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Ijumba, J.N., Mwangi, R.W. and Beir, J.C. (1988). Malaria transmission potential of Anopheles mosquitoes in the irrigation scheme of Mwea- Tebere, Kenya.". In: Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress for Tropical Medicine and Malaria, June. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1988.
D.E. DRIKAMARILAWRENCE. "Ikamari, L.D.E 2001,.". In: Anthropological Perspectives.pp 23-44. ISCTRC; 2001. Abstract
This paper discusses in the use of both qualitative and quantitative research methods in differential mortality. It uses both quantitative data and several case studies drawn from Western and Central provinces of Kenya to illustrate that both research approaches can be used simultaneously and in a complimentary way.
D.E. DRIKAMARILAWRENCE. "Ikamari, L.D.E. 2000. Regional variation in infant mortality in Kenya: A search for explanations. Pp: 119-139.". In: Population and Development in Kenya. Editors: Oucho, J, Ocholla-Ayayo ABC, Ayiemba, E.H.O, and Omwanda, L. O. ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract
This paper seeks to identify some the factors that underlie regional variation in infant mortality in Kenya. The data drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used for this purpose. Logistic regression is used to analyse the data. On the basis of infant mortality estimates obtained, provinces were grouped into two groups: High (HMP) and low (LMP). The results obtained show that the values of explanatory variables in LMP region than in the high mortality region. However, their differences did not explain much of the variation in infant mortality between the two mortality regions. Decomposing the results revealed that the differences were largely due to the differences in the nature or structure of relationships, as represented by logit coefficients, between mortality and explanatory variables. The results indicate that the lower average level of maternal education, higher proportion of preceding child loss, higher proportion mothers belonging to low economic status households and a lower proportion of mothers belonging to households possessing livestock and lower use of modern contraception modestly contributed to high infant mortality in the high mortality region
D.E. DRIKAMARILAWRENCE. "Ikamari, L.D.E., 2000. .". In: Journal of Population Studies and Development, Volume 7(1 & 2): 187-200. ISCTRC; 2000. Abstract
This paper illustrates in details how to use decomposition procedures to account for areal and temporal differences in the level of mortality, using the case of infant mortality in Kenya. Logistic regression is used to decompose the effects of various factors on the risk of mortality. The major advantage of the methodology described here is that it can identify the factors that account for differences in mortality levels between two or more places, and, if used or temporal mortality changes in the same place. In essence, these methods if used correctly, disentangle differences in the values of explanatory variables of mortality between two regions, or between two different time periods in the same place that are due to the differences in the values of the explanatory variables , and those that are due to the structure of relations between mortality and the explanatory variables.
MARANGA DRMUSONYEMIRIAMWANGU. "Ike Oguine.". In: The Nairobi Journal of Literature, The Academic Journal of Literature Department, University of Nairobi. FARA; 2008. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
ABDI PROFJAMAMOHAMUD. "Ikiara, G. K., Jama, M. A. , Amadi, J. O. (1997), "Structural Adjustment and its Impact on Private Trading Structures and Networks in Kenya".". In: Edward Elger Publishing Inc. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1997. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
ABDI PROFJAMAMOHAMUD. "Ikiara, G. K., Jama, M. A., Amadi, J. O., "The Cereals Chain in Kenya: Actors, reforms and Politics" in Markets, Civil Society and Democracy in Kenya.". In: Nordiska Afrikainstitutel, (ed. Peter Gibbon). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1995. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
ABDI PROFJAMAMOHAMUD. "Ikiara, G. K., Jama, M.A., Amadi J. O. "Agriculture Decline, Politics and Structural Adjustment in Kenya, in Social Change and Economic Reform in Africa, ed. Peter Gibbon Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.". In: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1993. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Products of gene modification have vast implications. Creating public awareness and disseminating information on the subject seeks to demystify some of the widely held falsehoods regarding genetically modified products. This is an informative, thorough and easy to understand guidebook that aims to enlighten and debunk some of the commonly held misconceptions on products of gene modification and to give the reader a better understanding of the role genetic modification will play. The review sheds light on the safety, and application of these products in medicine, the food industry and other areas, especially those where genetic modification may represent a cheap, faster, credible, viable alternative in achieving sustainable development among resource-poor communities.
N PROFLULEGODFREY. "Ilako FM, McLigeyo SO, Riyat MS, Lule GN, Okoth FA, Kaptich D. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies in renal patients, blood donors and patients with chronic liver disease in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1995 Jun;72(6):362-4.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Jun;72(6):362-4. test; 1995. Abstract

We tested serum samples from four categories of patients with nephrological problems (nephrotic syndrome, stable chronic renal failure, haemodialysis patients and renal transplant recipients), patients with chronic liver disease and volunteer blood donors for the presence of antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Screening was done by second-generation enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmation with second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Of all the renal patients, only 6.3% of the transplant patients tested positive for anti-HCV, while in patients with chronic liver disease anti-HCV was detected in 2.6% of the patients with chronic hepatitis and in none with liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. This finding of low prevalence in these patient groups was not in keeping with findings in studies done elsewhere. Our anti-HCV prevalence of 0.9% in blood donors was comparable to that found in Europe, USA and Taiwan. We recommend that the low prevalence of anti-HCV in some of our high risk groups should not lead to complacence and hence further studies are necessary to evaluate the infectivity of anti-HCV positive patients and the potential for cross infection.

O PROFMCLIGEYOSETH. "Ilako FM, McLigeyo SO, Riyat MS, Lule GN, Okoth FA, Kaptich D.The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies in renal patients, blood donors and patients with chronic liver disease in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1995 Jun;72(6):362-4.". In: African Journal of Medical Practice 2(3): 91-93, 1995. University of Nairobi.; 1995. Abstract
We tested serum samples from four categories of patients with nephrological problems (nephrotic syndrome, stable chronic renal failure, haemodialysis patients and renal transplant recipients), patients with chronic liver disease and volunteer blood donors for the presence of antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Screening was done by second-generation enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmation with second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Of all the renal patients, only 6.3% of the transplant patients tested positive for anti-HCV, while in patients with chronic liver disease anti-HCV was detected in 2.6% of the patients with chronic hepatitis and in none with liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. This finding of low prevalence in these patient groups was not in keeping with findings in studies done elsewhere. Our anti-HCV prevalence of 0.9% in blood donors was comparable to that found in Europe, USA and Taiwan. We recommend that the low prevalence of anti-HCV in some of our high risk groups should not lead to complacence and hence further studies are necessary to evaluate the infectivity of anti-HCV positive patients and the potential for cross infection.
Omondi O;G, Bartlett SJ;, Colmegna I. "The ILAR-East Africa initiative: current needs and progress in the globalization of rheumatology.". 2012. Abstract

n early 2009, the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) funded a program known as the “East Africa Initiative.” The long-term goal of this program is to unite the international rheumatology community to aid in enhancing clinical rheumatology services in an area that carries 25% of the world’s disease burden but has only 2% of the world’s human resources for health. This paper provides an overview of the rationale and progress to date of this collaborative effort toward the globalization of rheumatology.

Akyıldız Hızır, Biri I, Akcan A, Küçük C, Sözüer E, others. "Ileal lipoma: case report." Erciyes Med J. 2011;33:83-6. AbstractWebsite
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Burke LF, Clark E. "Ileocolic intussusception—a case report." Journal of Clinical Ultrasound. 1977;5:346-347. AbstractWebsite
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Farquhar C;, Mbori-Ngacha DA;, Overbaugh J;, Wamalwa D;, Harris J;, Bosire R;, John-Stewart G. "Illness during pregnancy and bacterial vaginosis are associated with in-utero HIV-1 transmission.". 2010. Abstract

HIV-1 transmission in utero accounts for 20-30% of vertical transmission events in breast-feeding populations. In a prospective study of 463 HIV-1-infected mothers and infants, illness during pregnancy was associated with 2.6-fold increased risk of in-utero HIV-1 transmission [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.8] and bacterial vaginosis with a three-fold increase (95% CI 1.0-7.0) after adjusting for maternal HIV-1 viral load. Interventions targeting these novel risk factors could lead to more effective prevention of transmission during pregnancy

Farquhar C, Overbaugh J, Wamalwa D, Farquhar C, Harris J, Bosire R, G. J-S. "Illness during pregnancy and bacterial vaginosis are associated with in-utero HIV-1 transmission." AIDS. 2010 Jan 2;24(1):153-5. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832326d8.. 2010. Abstract

Abstract
HIV-1 transmission in utero accounts for 20-30% of vertical transmission events in breast-feeding populations. In a prospective study of 463 HIV-1-infected mothers and infants, illness during pregnancy was associated with 2.6-fold increased risk of in-utero HIV-1 transmission [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.8] and bacterial vaginosis with a three-fold increase (95% CI 1.0-7.0) after adjusting for maternal HIV-1 viral load. Interventions targeting these novel risk factors could lead to more effective prevention of transmission during pregnancy.

JAMES PROFODEK. "The illusion of trips agreements to promote creativity and innovation in developing countries: case study on Kenya.". In: Phytochemistry Reviews, 1,311-323 (2002). Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2012. Abstract
J. O. Midiwo, A. Yenesew, B. F. Juma, S. Dereses, J. A. Ayoo, A. Aluoch and S. Guchu There are several described medicinal plants in Kenya from a flora of approximately 10,000 members. Strong cross-medical information from the 42 ethnic groups points to the high potential of some of these species. The Myrsinaceae are well established ethno-anthelmintics and anti-bacterials. They are harbingers of long alkyl side chain benzoquinones which clearly have a protective function from their histochemical disposition. The main benzoquinone in the sub-family Myrsinodae is embelin while for the Maesodae it is maesaquinone together with its 5-acetyl derivative; the distribution of these benzoquinones by their alkyl side chain length or the presence/absence of a 6-methyl group is in accord with morphological sub-family de-limitation. The benzoquinones showed anti-feedant, anti-microbial, phytotoxic, acaricidal, insecticidal and nematicidal activity. Many other benzoquinones of medium and minor concentration were also isolated and characterised. Some plants belonging to the Polygonaceae which are widely used as ethno-anthelmintics have been studied. The common anthelmintic anthraquinones were obtained from all five Rumex species while the naphthalenic acetogenin derivative, nepodin was more selectively distributed. The leaf of Polygonum senegalense is up to 17% surface exudate; about thirteen non polar flavonoid derivatives (chalcones, dihydrochalcones, flavanones and a flavone) have been isolated from it. From the internal aerial tissues of this plant, the major flavonoids were common flavonoids, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin and their glycosides. The only unique compound isolated from this plant was 2prime-glucosyl-6prime-hydroxy-4prime-methoxydihydrochalcone whose aglycone, uvangolatin is part of the exudate mixture. Other leaf exudate plants studied include the stomach-ache medicine, Psiadia punctulata (Compositae) from which novel methylated flavonoids, kaurene and trachyloban diterpenes have been found
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Illustrations and design of understanding Family Planning.". In: Family Private Sector, Nairobi. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1992. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Illustrations for Development.". In: Afrolit Society. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1980. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Image Interpretation and Analysis.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

The interpretation and analysis of remote sensing imagery involves the identification and/or measurement of various targets or objects in an image in order to extract useful information about them. More specifically, this seeks to extract qualitative (thematic) and quantitative (metric) information from remote sensing data. Qualitative information provides descriptive data about earth surface features like structure, characteristics, quality, condition, relationship of and between objects.

Berry CJ, Johnson FL, Cabuay BM, Chase J SAHBG-GSMWRMA, Stolpen AH, Bashir A, Gabriel-Griggs SM WRM. "Images in cardiovascular medicine. Evanescent asymmetrical septal hypertrophy and rapidly progressive heart failure in a 32-year-old man." Circulation. 2008 Aug 19;118(8):e126-8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.769000.. 2008.
Ocharo RM. "The images of Africa - images of Europe.". In: African, Caribbean, Pacific and European Youth. Silver Springs Hotel, Nairobi; 1993.
R.M O. "The images of Africa - images of Europe.". In: the African, Caribbean, Pacific and European countries. the Hotel Silver Springs; 1993.
Indangasi H. "Images of Africa and Africans in Japanese Literature.". In: African Affairs. Japan; 2007.

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