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W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Singwaya Myth and the Settlement History of the Kenya Coast." World ArchaeologicalCongress2,Baraquismento,Venezuela,1990.". In: World ArchaeologicalCongress2,Baraquismento,Venezuela,1990. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Tana Ware and the Settlement Archaeology of the Kenya Coastal Hinterland." AZANIA, Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa, 1996.". In: AZANIA, Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa, 1996. Elsevier; 1996. Abstract
The precolonial trading systems of the East African interior have a great antiquity ml can best be understood by employing a multidisciplinary approach including archaeology, oral traditions, linguistic evidence and documentary sources. Two types oj trade, namely subsistence-oriented and nonsubsistence-oriented or long-distance frai, can be identified. In general, the nonsubsistence-oriented trade was a response demands for unevenly distributed resources at both local and international levels, This is demonstrated by some of the coastal and hinterland settlements for which there is evidence for periods of prosperity. Archaeological evidence from the pre-tenth-century AD settlements on the coast, and documentary evidence of the same period, show how this prosperity emanated from trade transactions between the coast and the interior in response to industrial and labor-force demands in the lands beyond the Indian Ocean, particularly the Orient and Mediterranean Europe. The steadily expanding market for commodities from the interior, particularly ivory and slaves, provided by the international maritime trade especially after the fifteenth century, brought new opportunities for the expansion of long-distance trade. These created and strengthened contacts between the East African interior and the coast, in order to satisfy the needs of the expanding markets in Europe and the Orient, for instance, the Akamba, the Nyamwezi, and the Yao caravans, to name just a few, collaborated with the Mijikenda, the Swahili, and Arab caravan traders to deplete tht interior of its resources for the markets overseas. Trade with the interior not only increased in volume but also witnessed the supplementing of traditional commodities with new ones. From the coast, for example, interior communities got luxury items such as cloth, beads, porcelain, glass, and later guns, which had not been seen in the interior before. In addition to these were cowrie shells, now as a form of currency, certain foodstuffs, and salt. These were exchanged for interior products of the hunt and jar slaves. It seems that interior communities never took the first initiative in tk international trade that characterized this region in the period under review. Ik initiative was always taken by coastal communities in response to industrial growth and labor-force demands overseas. Analyzing the balance sheet of this trade, it my k concluded that precolonial African societies in the interior were not what we would now call astute business people with long-term investment programs. There is little evidence to show that they benefited very much from these transactions, in spite of the active role that they played.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Tana Ware and the Settlement Archaeology of the Kenya Coastal Hinterland." AZANIA, Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa, 1996.". In: AZANIA, Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa, 1996. Elsevier; 1996. Abstract
The precolonial trading systems of the East African interior have a great antiquity ml can best be understood by employing a multidisciplinary approach including archaeology, oral traditions, linguistic evidence and documentary sources. Two types oj trade, namely subsistence-oriented and nonsubsistence-oriented or long-distance frai, can be identified. In general, the nonsubsistence-oriented trade was a response demands for unevenly distributed resources at both local and international levels, This is demonstrated by some of the coastal and hinterland settlements for which there is evidence for periods of prosperity. Archaeological evidence from the pre-tenth-century AD settlements on the coast, and documentary evidence of the same period, show how this prosperity emanated from trade transactions between the coast and the interior in response to industrial and labor-force demands in the lands beyond the Indian Ocean, particularly the Orient and Mediterranean Europe. The steadily expanding market for commodities from the interior, particularly ivory and slaves, provided by the international maritime trade especially after the fifteenth century, brought new opportunities for the expansion of long-distance trade. These created and strengthened contacts between the East African interior and the coast, in order to satisfy the needs of the expanding markets in Europe and the Orient, for instance, the Akamba, the Nyamwezi, and the Yao caravans, to name just a few, collaborated with the Mijikenda, the Swahili, and Arab caravan traders to deplete tht interior of its resources for the markets overseas. Trade with the interior not only increased in volume but also witnessed the supplementing of traditional commodities with new ones. From the coast, for example, interior communities got luxury items such as cloth, beads, porcelain, glass, and later guns, which had not been seen in the interior before. In addition to these were cowrie shells, now as a form of currency, certain foodstuffs, and salt. These were exchanged for interior products of the hunt and jar slaves. It seems that interior communities never took the first initiative in tk international trade that characterized this region in the period under review. Ik initiative was always taken by coastal communities in response to industrial growth and labor-force demands overseas. Analyzing the balance sheet of this trade, it my k concluded that precolonial African societies in the interior were not what we would now call astute business people with long-term investment programs. There is little evidence to show that they benefited very much from these transactions, in spite of the active role that they played.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Teaching of Scriptures as a Guide to Realization of divinity in Humankind: A Historical Perspective." Vision 2000: centenary of Swami Vivekananda's World Parliament of Religions, Nairobi, 1993.". In: Vision 2000: centenary of Swami Vivekananda's World Parliament of Religions, Nairobi, 1993. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Techniques of Pottery Manufacture Among the Mijikenda: Use and Discard, Implications for Archaeological Interpretation." Anthropology of Urban Origins in Eastern Africa Workshop, Maputo, Mozambique, 1990.". In: Anthropology of Urban Origins in Eastern Africa Workshop, Maputo, Mozambique, 1990. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "The Development of Settlement Pattern Studies on the Kenya Coast.' Panafrican Association of Anthropologists Congress,Nairobi, 1990.". In: Panafrican Association of Anthropologists Congress,Nairobi, 1990. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "The Mijikenda Kaya as a Sacred Site." Sacred Sites, Sacred Places 1994; pp. 132-139.". In: Sacred Sites, Sacred Places 1994; pp. 132-139. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
A sacred site is a place which is considered holy, and is partially or wholly reserved for magico-religious or ceremonial functions. Because of this it is venerated and revered and is kept free from contamination by sin and evil. Sacred sites vary in size from very small places covering a few square metres to large areas covering several hectares of land. They are usually characterized by the presence of artefacts, ecofacts and features that are unique to them; they may be in the open air, or in rockshelters, caves and forests. In many cases, sacred sites have frightening tales told about them, in order to scare off those who would want to destroy or defile them. In the archaeological record, sacred sites may initially be identifiable as burial sites, ceremonial sites or butchery sites. It is on the basis of such clues that other attributes that are typical of sacred sites can be identified, isolated and studied. It is against this background that this chapter discusses the Mijikenda kaya (pi. makaya) as a sacred site.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "The Origins and Developments of Early Settlements on the East African Coast." Work-in-Progress Seminar, Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University, Canberra, 1995.". In: Work-in-Progress Seminar, Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University, Canberra, 1995. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
The precolonial trading systems of the East African interior have a great antiquity ml can best be understood by employing a multidisciplinary approach including archaeology, oral traditions, linguistic evidence and documentary sources. Two types oj trade, namely subsistence-oriented and nonsubsistence-oriented or long-distance frai, can be identified. In general, the nonsubsistence-oriented trade was a response demands for unevenly distributed resources at both local and international levels, This is demonstrated by some of the coastal and hinterland settlements for which there is evidence for periods of prosperity. Archaeological evidence from the pre-tenth-century AD settlements on the coast, and documentary evidence of the same period, show how this prosperity emanated from trade transactions between the coast and the interior in response to industrial and labor-force demands in the lands beyond the Indian Ocean, particularly the Orient and Mediterranean Europe. The steadily expanding market for commodities from the interior, particularly ivory and slaves, provided by the international maritime trade especially after the fifteenth century, brought new opportunities for the expansion of long-distance trade. These created and strengthened contacts between the East African interior and the coast, in order to satisfy the needs of the expanding markets in Europe and the Orient, for instance, the Akamba, the Nyamwezi, and the Yao caravans, to name just a few, collaborated with the Mijikenda, the Swahili, and Arab caravan traders to deplete tht interior of its resources for the markets overseas. Trade with the interior not only increased in volume but also witnessed the supplementing of traditional commodities with new ones. From the coast, for example, interior communities got luxury items such as cloth, beads, porcelain, glass, and later guns, which had not been seen in the interior before. In addition to these were cowrie shells, now as a form of currency, certain foodstuffs, and salt. These were exchanged for interior products of the hunt and jar slaves. It seems that interior communities never took the first initiative in tk international trade that characterized this region in the period under review. Ik initiative was always taken by coastal communities in response to industrial growth and labor-force demands overseas. Analyzing the balance sheet of this trade, it my k concluded that precolonial African societies in the interior were not what we would now call astute business people with long-term investment programs. There is little evidence to show that they benefited very much from these transactions, in spite of the active role that they played.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "The Spatial Distribution of the Mijikenda Kaya settlements on the hinterland kenya coast", transAfrican journal of history. Vol.14, 1985,pp.78-100.". In: transAfrican journal of history. Vol.14, 1985,pp.78-100. Elsevier; 1985. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Theory and Practice: A Case of Coastal Hinterland Settlements on Kenya Coastal Hinterland." Urban Origins Workshop, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 1989.". In: Urban Origins Workshop, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 1989. Elsevier; 1989. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "TL Dating of Hinterland Ceramics." Urban Origins Specialist Workshop, Mombasa, Kenya, 1988.". In: Urban Origins Specialist Workshop, Mombasa, Kenya, 1988. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W.Mutoro, Herman O. Kiriama and Lazarus Ngaru : Iron working in the Upper Tana valley,Kenya.In Aspects of African archaeology. Albert Pwiti and Robert sopur(eds) 1996, pp.505-507.University of Zimbabwe Publications.". In: In Aspects of African archaeology. Albert Pwiti and Robert sopur(eds) 1996, pp.505-507.University of Zimbabwe Publications. Elsevier; 1996. Abstract
The precolonial trading systems of the East African interior have a great antiquity ml can best be understood by employing a multidisciplinary approach including archaeology, oral traditions, linguistic evidence and documentary sources. Two types oj trade, namely subsistence-oriented and nonsubsistence-oriented or long-distance frai, can be identified. In general, the nonsubsistence-oriented trade was a response demands for unevenly distributed resources at both local and international levels, This is demonstrated by some of the coastal and hinterland settlements for which there is evidence for periods of prosperity. Archaeological evidence from the pre-tenth-century AD settlements on the coast, and documentary evidence of the same period, show how this prosperity emanated from trade transactions between the coast and the interior in response to industrial and labor-force demands in the lands beyond the Indian Ocean, particularly the Orient and Mediterranean Europe. The steadily expanding market for commodities from the interior, particularly ivory and slaves, provided by the international maritime trade especially after the fifteenth century, brought new opportunities for the expansion of long-distance trade. These created and strengthened contacts between the East African interior and the coast, in order to satisfy the needs of the expanding markets in Europe and the Orient, for instance, the Akamba, the Nyamwezi, and the Yao caravans, to name just a few, collaborated with the Mijikenda, the Swahili, and Arab caravan traders to deplete tht interior of its resources for the markets overseas. Trade with the interior not only increased in volume but also witnessed the supplementing of traditional commodities with new ones. From the coast, for example, interior communities got luxury items such as cloth, beads, porcelain, glass, and later guns, which had not been seen in the interior before. In addition to these were cowrie shells, now as a form of currency, certain foodstuffs, and salt. These were exchanged for interior products of the hunt and jar slaves. It seems that interior communities never took the first initiative in tk international trade that characterized this region in the period under review. Ik initiative was always taken by coastal communities in response to industrial growth and labor-force demands overseas. Analyzing the balance sheet of this trade, it my k concluded that precolonial African societies in the interior were not what we would now call astute business people with long-term investment programs. There is little evidence to show that they benefited very much from these transactions, in spite of the active role that they played.
Mbaya VB. "Hepatic changes induced by Schrebera alata (Hochst): a preliminary report on the toxicology of II kau kawa.". 1976. Abstract

Schrebera alata is a deciduous fuel tree from which the Samburu people in Northern Kenya obtain bark for medicinal purposes. A pharmacologically active principle that produces analgesic effects can be extracted from the bark with hot water. When administered to rats daily for a period of 6 weeks, the extract of bark (referred to as II kau kawa by the Samburu) caused reduced activities of succinic dehydrogenase, an enzyme that is involved in oxidative processes, and cholinesterase in heart and liver tissues. Histological sections from the liver revealed extensive cellular degeneration and small areas with necrotic lesions. Only that fraction of the bark extracts which contained components less soluble in alcohol produced such lesions within a 2 weeks period. The same fraction is associated with pharmacological activity. Since hepatic injuries occur frequently and the incidence of primary hepatic carcinoma is high in tropical areas, the role of natural toxins as aetiologic factors for cirrhotic conditions must be adequately clarified. It is apparent that bark from S.alata possesses some toxicity and its effects on the liver indicate it can contribute significantly to prevalent hepatocellular damages.

Arora, A; Sharma MP; AKS, Seth S;, Sharma MP;, Sharma MP;, Acharya KS. "Hepatic coma as a presenting feature of constrictive pericarditis.". 1993.
al-Moflehal-Tuwaijri, IA; al-Khuwaitir SA; MAA; KDB; AS. "Hepatic microsomal protein and cytochrome P-450 in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania.". 1989. Abstract

The effects of infection of mice with Leishmania major on liver microsomal protein and cytochrome P-450 were examined. The levels of hepatic microsomal protein and cytochrome P-450 were monitored at 6, 7, 9 and 12 weeks post-infection. The results indicated that the amount of hepatic microsomal protein and cytochrome P-450 were unchanged throughout the course of infection with L. major, despite the high degree of parasite proliferation in Kupffer cells and marked reduction in phagocytosis. The current results clearly indicate that Leishmania-induced macrophage suppression has no inhibitory effect on hepatic microsomal protein and cytochrome P-450

Zuzarte JC;, Kasili EG. "Hepatitis B antigen--a review.". 1978.
Ochwoto M, Kimotho JH, Julius Oyugi, Okoth F, Kioko H, Mining S, Budambula NLM, Giles E, Andonov A, Songok E, Osiowy C. "Hepatitis B infection is highly prevalent among patients presenting with jaundice in Kenya." BMC Infect. Dis.. 2016;16:101. Abstract

Viral hepatitis is a major concern worldwide, with hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) viruses showing sporadic outbreaks while hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses are associated with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study determined the proportion, geographic distribution and molecular characterization of hepatitis viruses among patients seeking medical services at hospitals throughout Kenya.

Greenfield, C; Fowler MJ. "Hepatitis B Virus And Primary Liver Cell Carcinoma. The Application Of Molecular Biology.". 1986. Abstract

Worldwide, primary liver cell carcinoma (PLC) is one of the most common tumours. Epidemiological evidence has implicated hepatitis B virus (HBV) in its aetiology and the mechanisms whereby HBV could operate at the genomic level have been investigated using the techniques of molecular biology. The resemblance of certain features of HBV to the retroviruses has also suggested mechanisms whereby malignant transformation may take place, but as yet there is no clear evidence for HBV being directly oncogenic. This has suggested to some that it is the persistent inflammatory reaction caused by HBV infection that is instrumental in causing PLC. We believe, however, that HBV can act independently of this mechanism and that the failure so far to show this at the molecular level may be due to technical reasons.

de cock, km; Govindarajan VRAGS; B;. "Hepatitis B virus DNA in fulminant hepatitis B.". 1986.
WANJIRU DRMWANGIJANE, G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Hepatitis B virus, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):34-6.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Apr;70(4 Suppl):34-6. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1993. Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common malignancy in Kenyan males occurring with a peak incidence at 40 years of age. A worldwide correlation has been noted between the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and prevalence of hepatitis B virus. Liver biopsies with histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis and the normals were reviewed by the authors. They were then stained for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis e core antigen (HBcAg). Only 2.5% of normal livers were positive for HBsAg compared with 33% of HCC and 25% of cirrhosis respectively. Hepatitis core antigen was not demonstrated in normal liver biopsies but it was present in 11.5% of HCC and 14% of cirrhosis. Background cirrhosis was noted in 52% of biopsies showing HCC. It is clear that a causal association exists between hepatitis B virus (HBV) and both liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Higher antigen markers, up to 80% have been reported in South East Asia and India. This difference may be due to the type of biopsy examined (needle biopsy vs open biopsy) but the possibility that other factors such as aflatoxin and non A/non B hepatitis viruses play a more significant role in the causation of liver disease in Kenya than has previously been assumed should be explored.
Farci, P; Osidiana MRZFJTWGV; CN;, et al. "Hepatitis delta virus infection in Kenya. Its geographic and tribal distribution.". 1986. Abstract

In 1982-1984, an epidemiologic survey of the prevalence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) in circulating blood (HBs-antigenemia) and of hepatitis delta virus infection was performed in Kenya. The distributions of hepatitis B virus and the delta virus were shown to be very variable. In southern Kenya, only two of 202 sera from HBsAg-positive individuals with no known liver disease and none from 123 HBsAg-positive patients with hepatitis B-related liver disease were positive for delta antibody. In contrast, in northern Kenya, there was an overall prevalence of delta antibody in healthy individuals of 31%. The distribution of delta infection is discussed in relation to lifestyle, ethnic group, and geographic area.

LULE GN. "Hepatitis E Virus." East African Medical Journal. 2009:357.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Hepatitis E virus infection: where are we? Natl Med J India. 1998 Mar-Apr;11(2):56-8.". In: Natl Med J India. 1998 Mar-Apr;11(2):56-8. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1998. Abstract
To evolve a simple oxygen electrode-based method to estimate alternative respiration, one needs to develop a procedure to prevent switch-over of electrons to either pathway upon inhibition by cyanide or salicylhydroxamic acid. It was hypothesized that the inclusion of appropriate electron acceptor, possessing redox potential close to one of the electron transport carriers in between ubiquinone (branch point) and cytochrome a-a3, should be able to stop switch-over of electrons to either pathway by working as an electron sink. To test the hypothesis, 2,6-dichloro-phenol indophenol (DCPIP; redox potential +0.217 V), an artificial electron acceptor having a redox potential quite similar to the site near cytochrome c1 (redox potential +0.22 V) on the cyanide-sensitive pathway, was used with isolated mitochondria and leaf discs in the absence and presence of inhibitors (potassium cyanide, antimycin A, and salicylhydroxamic acid). Polarographic data confirmed electron acceptance by DCPIP only from the inhibited (by cyanide or salicylhydroxamic acid) mitochondrial electron transport chain, hence preventing switch-over of electrons between the cyanide-sensitive and cyanide-insensitive pathway of respiration. Results with antimycin A and reduction status of DCPIP further confirmed electron acceptance by DCPIP from the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Possible implications of the results have been discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Hepatitis G virus in multitransfused thalassaemics from India. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998 Sep;13(9):902-6.". In: J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998 Sep;13(9):902-6. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1988. Abstract
Hepatitis G virus (HGV)/GB virus-C (GBV-C) has been identified as a blood-borne agent with disputed pathogenicity. This virus belongs to the flaviviridae with a distant relationship to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Genetically divergent HGV isolates have been reported from different parts of the world. This study describes the prevalence of HGV in multitransfused thalassaemic children in India and genomic sequence variations in 11 HGV isolates from the same geographical location. Hepatitis G virus RNA was detected in 39.7% multitransfused thalassaemic children. The seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV was 23.8% and 17.1%, respectively, and 11.4% had dual infection. The nucleotide sequence of a 166 bp HGV genomic segment from the putative capsid-envelope region (nucleotide; nt 578-743) from 11 Indian isolates was compared to the sequences available in the nucleotide databases. The isolates from India were 81.3-94.5% homologous to the isolates from other parts of the world. On phylogenetic analysis, it was observed that HGV isolates from India may belong to two genetically divergent types.
96. Musibi A, Saidi H NWAO-ANAOEIA. "Hepatocellular Carcinoma.". In: National Guidelines for Cancer Management Kenya. Nairobi: Ministry of Health, Kenya; 2013.
Macharia FK, Mwangi PW, Yenesew A, Bukachi F, Nyaga NM, Wafula DK. "Hepatoprotective effects of Erythrina abyssinica Lam Ex Dc against Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Sprague Dawley Rats." BioRxiv. 2019:577-607. Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome recognized as the most prevalent chronic liver disease across all age groups. NFLD is strongly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Extensive research efforts are geared, through pharmacological approach, towards preventing or reversing this. Erythrina abyssinica Lam ex DC is an indigenous tree used widely used in traditional medicine, including for the treatment of liver related diseases, and has been shown to possess hypoglycemic, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial and anti-plasmodia effects. The present study is aimed at establishing the effects of E. abyssinica on the development of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease induced by a high-fat and high-sugar diet in rats, in-vivo model. Methods: Forty rats (40) were randomly divided into five groups: positive control (pioglitazone), Negative control (high fat/high sugar diet), low test dose (200 mg/kg), high test dose (400 mg/kg) and normal group (standard chow pellets and fresh water). The inhibitory effect of the stem bark extract of E. abyssinica on the development of NAFLD was evaluated by chronic administration the herb extracts to rats on a high-fat/high-sugar diet. Biochemical indices of hepatic function including serum lipid profile, serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels were then determined. Histological analysis of liver samples was carried out to quantify the degree of steato-hepatitis. Liver weights were taken and used to determine the hepatic index. The data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA, and Tukey9s post-hoc tests

de Cock, K. M; Hodgen LSLRAN; JE;. "Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in Kenya: an assessment of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).". 1985. Abstract

Sera from 124 adult Kenyan patients with chronic splenomegaly and from 93 geographically matched controls without splenomegaly were tested for evidence of Schistosoma mansoni infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ova of S. mansoni were detected on stool or rectal snip examination in 23.4% of all patients, whereas 57.3% had a positive ELISA. All patients with parasitological or histological evidence of schistosomal infection had a positive ELISA, and a negative test reliably excluded schistosomiasis. On the basis of liver histology, 23 patients (18.5%) were considered to have hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, of whom 17 (73.9%) had a positive stool or snip. The ELISA was positive in 47.5% of cases of non-schistosomal splenomegaly, and in 52.7% of apparently normal controls. This high seropositive rate in the latter two groups emphasizes that schistosomal infection does not signify disease, and limits the diagnostic value of the test in individual cases of splenomegaly. Marked tribal and, therefore geographical, differences were noted in the prevalence of infection.

Casals-Pascual, C HL-LTKNR; H; S. "Hepcidin demonstrates a biphasic association with anemia in acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria.". 2012. Abstractabstract4.pdf

Hepcidin levels are high and iron absorption is limited in acute malaria. The mechanism(s) that regulate hepcidin secretion remain undefined. We have measured hepcidin concentration and cytokines in 100 Kenyan children with acute falciparum malaria and different degrees of anemia. Hepcidin was increased on admission and fell significantly one week and one month after treatment. The association of hepcidin with hemoglobin was not linear and hepcidin was very low in severe malarial anemia. Parasite density, IL-10 and IL-6 were significantly associated with hepcidin concentration. Hepcidin response to acute malaria supports the notion of iron sequestration during acute malaria infection and suggests that iron administration during acute malaria is futile. These data suggest iron supplementation policies should take into account the high hepcidin levels and probable poor utilization of iron for up to one week after treatment for the majority of patients with acute malaria.

A AH, Emily R, TM O, Ndaguatha PLW. "HER2/Neu Protein Over-Expression in Patients with Gastric and Gastro- Esophageal Junction Carcinoma Seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." Journal of Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis. 2014;5(186):doi: 10.4172/2157-2518.1000186.
DR.KARIUKI, DAVID MUIGUA. "Heralding a New Dawn: Achieving Justice through effective application of Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms (ADR) in Kenya." The Chartered Institute of Arbitrators, Kenya -. 2013;Volume 1 Number 1 (2013):43-78.
N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Herbaceous vegetation productivity in an arid rehabilitated rangeland in Kenya. A paper presented at the VIIth International Rangeland Congress, Durban, South Africa, 26th July .". In: Journal of Human Ecology , 16: 83-89. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003. Abstract
This study was conducted in the northern part of Kenya, in Kakuma division, Turkana district. Kakuma is a semi-arid area under nomadic pastoralism as the main activity. The presence of a refugee camp has attracted many people from within the Turkana community and also the outside community. The study aimed at documenting the effects of emergent land use changes on vegetation resources and the socio-economic environment in Kakuma. Data on vegetation density and cover was collected. Socio-economic data was collected from the local Turkana population and the settlement camp. The data was analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive statistics. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in vegetation cover and density with increasing distance away from the settlement camp. The mean tree crown cover was low near the settlement camp (6.2%) but high away from the settlement camp (57.7%). Mean tree density was high near the settlement camp (13 individuals/ 100m2). Shrub crown cover was low (0.9%) in the areas that had settlements. The need for fencing and building materials was the main cause of low shrub cover. The density of the shrub species generally increased as one moved away from the settlement camp (17 individuals/ 16m2). Herb species cover and density was high near the settlement camp(68% and 202 individuals/ 1m2 respectively) but this comprised mostly of species unpalatable to livestock like Tribulus terrestris and Portulaca oleraceae. The study revealed that droughts and livestock raids in the previous years had set in motion social and ecological changes. The loss of livestock through raids and droughts encouraged sedenterization. This affected the cultural patterns and has had an effect on the rangeland condition. Lack of mobility concentrated livestock in specific areas, thus depleting the forage resources and creating conditions for soil erosion. Trading activities between the refugees and the Turkana had both positive and negative impact on the economic, social and cultural setup of the local community. The increase in population around Kakuma and the settlement camp has set in motion changes that have affected vegetation and social structures. The immediate social and economic returns from the exploitation of resources have overridden the long-term benefits. In regard to this there is a need for education on the impacts, both short-term and long-term, of the various activities on the vegetation, livestock resources and also the pastoral lifestyle. Key words: Pastoralism, Settlement, Land use, Environmental impact.
Ndwigah SN. "Herbal medicines require regulation like conventional medicines." Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya. 2019;24:20.
Chege IN, Okalebo FA, Guantai AN, Karanja S, Derese S. "Herbal Product Processing Practices of Traditional Medicine Practitioners in Kenya- Key Informant Interviews." Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing. 2015;16:11-23. Abstract2015_-_herbal_product_processing_practices.pdf

Introduction: Herbalists in Kenya use self-taught processing practices which are inadequate. The objective of
this study was to conduct an assessment of selected practices used by herbalists during drug processing and to identify knowledge gaps.

Method: Four long practicing traditional medicinal practitioners were identified using purposive sampling. An
interview guide and field visits were used to gather data. Data analysis was done using content thematic
approach.

Results: Sources of herbal knowledge were varied with the use of internet being a key finding. Regulatory
compliance presented various challenges to the herbalists. The wild and cultivation of herbs were identified as key medicinal sources although the protection of biodiversity was a key concern of the herbalists. The facilities, area of practice and general hygiene were inadequate. Positive and negative practices were identified in processing of the herbal medicines.

Conclusions: Secrecy by the herbalists has resulted in limited in innovation. More training of herbalists is
required to improve on the quality of their drugs. It is however encouraging that they have adopted some
modern methods in their practice.

Keywords: Herbalists, processing practices, herbal drugs

Irene Njeri Chege, Faith Apolot Okalebo ANGSKSD. "Herbal Product Processing Practices of Traditional Medicine Practitioners in Kenya-Key Informant Interviews." Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing. 2015;16:11-23. Abstract24799-27406-1-pb_1.pdf

Herbal Product Processing Practices of Traditional Medicine Practitioners in Kenya-Key Informant Interviews
Irene Njeri Chege, Faith Apolot Okalebo, Anastasia Nkatha Guantai, Simon Karanja, Solomon Derese
Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing, 2015, 16, 11-23

Abstract
Introduction: Herbalists in Kenya use self-taught processing practices which are inadequate. The objective of
this study was to conduct an assessment of selected practices used by herbalists during drug processing and to
identify knowledge gaps.
Method: Four long practicing traditional medicinal practitioners were identified using purposive sampling. An
interview guide and field visits were used to gather data. Data analysis was done using content thematic
approach.
Results: Sources of herbal knowledge were varied with the use of internet being a key finding. Regulatory
compliance presented various challenges to the herbalists. The wild and cultivation of herbs were identified as
key medicinal sources although the protection of biodiversity was a key concern of the herbalists. The facilities,
area of practice and general hygiene were inadequate. Positive and negative practices were identified in
processing of the herbal medicines.
Conclusions: Secrecy by the herbalists has resulted in limited in innovation. More training of herbalists is
required to improve on the quality of their drugs. It is however encouraging that they have adopted some
modern methods in their practice.
Keywords: Herbalists, processing practices, herbal drugs

Kaburi AN, Oluka MO, Kosgei RJ, Mulwa NC, Maitai CK. "Herbal remedies and other risk factors for preterm birth in rural Kenya." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2015;4(4):135-142. Abstractkaburi_et_al_2015.pdf

Background: Premature infants contribute substantially to infant morbidity and mortality especially in low resource settings. Information on herbal remedy use, previous preterm birth and low social-economic status and their association with incidence of preterm birth in Kenya is scanty.
Objectives: To determine the use of herbal remedy use in pregnancy, previous preterm birth and low socio-economic status as risk factors for Preterm Birth in Kitui County among the immediate post-partum mothers.
Methods: Unmatched case control study with a 1:4 ratio of cases to controls. The study was done in Kitui and Mwingi District Hospitals. A total of 107 mothers with preterm birth (cases) and 453 mothers with term births (controls) were eligible and administered structured interviews.
Results: Of the sample, 98% of cases resided in rural areas compared to 90% of controls. The cases had a higher parity and were more likely to belong to the lowest three and four levels of socio-economic status. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, predictors of preterm birth were: preeclampsia (OR=9.06 [2.60-31.63], p=0.001), previous preterm, (OR=9.31 [2.82-30.68], p<0.001), low socioeconomic status (OR=1.51 [1.05-2.16], p=0.03), herbal use in first trimester for 2-5 days (OR=11.10 [4.34-28.41], p<0.001), herbal use in first trimester for 6-10 days (OR=44.87,[4.99-403.87] p=0.001), and herbal use in second trimester for 6-10 days (OR=16.43 [4.53-59.57], p<0.001). Use of prescribed folic acid in second trimester for more than 31 days was associated with lower risk of preterm birth (OR=0.20 [0.12-0.34], p<0.001).
Conclusion: Herbal use in pregnancy regardless of gestation, previous preterm birth and low socio-economic status and are risk factors for preterm birth in Kitui County Kenya. Interventions targeted to reduction of these risk factors will be an important additional prong in the reduction of preterm birth.
Key words: Preterm birth, herbal remedy, risk factors

Johns T, Kokwaro JO, Kimanani EK. "Herbal remedies of the Luo of Siaya District, Kenya." Economic Botany . 1990;44(3):369-381.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Herbal remedies of the Luo of Siaya District, Kenya:.". In: Establishing Quantitative criteria for consensus. Economic Botany 44(3): 369-381. University of Nairobi Press; 1990. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
PROF. KOKWARO JOHNO. "Herbal remedies of the Luo of Siaya District, Kenya:.". In: establishing quantitative criteria for consensus. Economic Botany, 44 (3): 369-381. University of Nairobi Press; 1990. Abstract
Total number of pages: 515, including 35 pages of colour illustrations.
Jeruto P, Lukhoba CW, Ouma G, Otieno D, Mutai C. "Herbal treatments in Aldai Division in Nandi District, Rift Valley Province, Kenya. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines." African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 5(1)103-105. 2008;5(5):103-105.Website
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "HERBRARD, J.J., MALOIY, G.M.O. and ALLIANGANA, D.M.I.(1992) Notes on the habitat and diet of Afrocaecilian taitana (Amphibia,Gymnophinoa). Journal of Herpetology 26, 513-514.". In: Annual Conference Society for integrative and Comparative Biology New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A. EAMJ; 1992. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
Kitonyi, G.W; Kasili EG. "Hereditary bleeding disorders in Kenya.". 1981. Abstract

This is a retrospective study of 105 patients with herediatry haemorrhagic disorders seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), between March 1975 and July 1980. Haemophilia forms 63% of the cases, Christmas disease 22% and von Willebrarid's disease (VWD) 9.5%. Rarer disorders encountered are factors X and VIII deficiency and one case of Glauzmann's disease. The study includes 3 subjects of Asian descent. Haernophilia co-existed witlt B-thalassaemia trait in 2 of the Asian subjects. Co-existing Christmas disease' and sickle cell anaemia was seen in one case. The clinical picture and course ' of the disorders are very similar to what is described elsewhere in the literature. It is. noted that although complications of replacement therapy in bleeding disorders are well documented elsewhere, only one of these patients' showed clinical evidence of such complications. There is now ample evidence that haemophilia is quite common in Africans, contrary to some reports in the past. This report serves as further evidence that haemophilia is not uncommon in Kenya and adds on to the already documented cases of hereditary haemorrhagic diseases in Kenya (1). With improving diagnostic and therapeutic facilities and increased use of hospital services more of these cases will be diagnosed

E.G KKGW. "Hereditary bleeding disorders in Kenya." EAMJ. 1981;(58):738-747 . Abstract

This is a retrospective study of 105 patients with herediatry haemorrhagic disorders seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), between March 1975 and July 1980. Haemophilia forms 63% of the cases, Christmas disease 22% and von Willebrarid's disease (VWD) 9.5%. Rarer disorders encountered are factors X and VIII deficiency and one case of Glauzmann's disease. The study includes 3 subjects of Asian descent. Haernophilia co-existed witlt B-thalassaemia trait in 2 of the Asian subjects. Co-existing Christmas disease' and sickle cell anaemia was seen in one case. The clinical picture and course ' of the disorders are very similar to what is described elsewhere in the literature. It is. noted that although complications of replacement therapy in bleeding disorders are well documented elsewhere, only one of these patients' showed clinical evidence of such complications. There is now ample evidence that haemophilia is quite common in Africans, contrary to some reports in the past. This report serves as further evidence that haemophilia is not uncommon in Kenya and adds on to the already documented cases of hereditary haemorrhagic diseases in Kenya (1). With improving diagnostic and therapeutic facilities and increased use of hospital services more of these cases will be diagnosed

Mukiibi, JM; Field LSES;. "Hereditary Bleeding Disorders In Zimbabweans.". 1987.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia: a case report.". In: African Journal of oral health sciences, Vol 5 No 2, 269-270, june 2004. Mwang; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Chindia ML;, Wetende AM. "Hereditary Gingival Enlargement.". 2009.
Wagaiyu EG, Ng’ang’a RN, Kemoli AM. "Hereditary gingival fibromatosis: report of family case series." E Afr Med J. 2009;66(10):491-493. Abstract

Hereditary gingival hyperplasia (HGF) is a rare condition characterised by hyperplastic, dense fibrous connective tissue with acanthotic gingival epithelium. A family presented at the School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi with a complaint that some of the children developed swollen gums very early in life and that this got worse with eruption of the permanent teeth. The first born, a 23- year- old male, had had the swellings for over ten years. Other siblings aged 5,9 and 12 years were also affected. The swellings had affected the appearance, speech and the psychosocial wellbeing of the children. The parents were unaffected with apparently negative family histories. Following oral examination and appropriate investigations, conventional gingivectomy was performed of the maxillary and the mandibular gingivae for the siblings: the 23 -12- and the nine- year olds. The fourth affected child, a five- year- old, was still in primary dentition and had just started showing mild signs of gingival hyperplasia. The histopathological examination of the specimens from the present cases confirmed features consistent with those of HGF. This article highlights a familial presentation of HGF.

Wagaiyu, E G; Kemoli AM, Ng’ang’a RN;, Kemoli AM. "HEREDITARY GINGIVAL FIBROMATOSIS: REPORT OF FAMILY CASE SERIES.". 2009. Abstract

Hereditary gingival hyperplasia (HGF) is a rare condition characterised by hyperplastic, dense fibrous connective tissue with acanthotic gingival epithelium. A family presented at the School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi with a complaint that some of the children developed swollen gums very early in life and that this got worse with eruption of the permanent teeth. The first born, a 23- year- old male, had had the swellings for over ten years. Other siblings aged 5,9 and 12 years were also affected. The swellings had affected the appearance, speech and the psychosocial wellbeing of the children. The parents were unaffected with apparently negative family histories. Following oral examination and appropriate investigations, conventional gingivectomy was performed of the maxillary and the mandibular gingivae for the siblings: the 23 -12- and the nine- year olds. The fourth affected child, a five- year- old, was still in primary dentition and had just started showing mild signs of gingival hyperplasia. The histopathological examination of the specimens from the present cases confirmed features consistent with those of HGF. This article highlights a familial presentation of HGF.

and Kitonyi GW, Wambugu PM OHOIJM. "Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia in a black adult male." East African Medical Journal . 2008;85(8):412-416.
Kitonyi, G W; Oburra IHO; JM, Wambugu PM;, Oburra HO;, Ireri JM. "Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia in a black adult male: case report.". 2008. Abstract

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia, (HHT) or Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder that is characterised by telangiectasias, (small vascular malformations), in mucocutaneous tissues and arterial venous malformations, (AVMs), in various internal organs. Although HHT is relatively common in whites, the disorder has been reported to be rare in people of black African descent. Majority of HHT patients present with recurrent epistaxis, which in a significant proportion of patients is severe, warranting repeated blood transfusions and iron supplementation. Telangiectasias are most frequent on the tongue, hands, nose, lips and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). AVMs occur in internal organs, particularly the lungs, brain, and the liver. Early and correct diagnosis of HHT is crucial as patients derive benefit from certain specific treatment modalities. Besides, AVMs which occur in various organs pose serious complications that may lead to death and therefore require early detection. We report a 55 year old black African male with HHT who presented with severe recurrent epistaxis and haematochezia leading to severe anaemia requiring repeated blood transfusions. His son, daughter and a maternal uncle experience milder recurrent epistaxis. The management of this patient and a brief review of the clinical features and management of HHT is presented. Our aim is to raise awareness of the occurrence of HHT in Kenya, in order to enhance early diagnosis and appropriate management

Kitonyi G.W., Wambugu P.M. OH. "Hereditary Telangiectasis in a Black African male." EAMJ. 2008;(85):412-416.
Bahemuka, M; Brown JD. "Heredofamilial syndrome of spastic paraplegia, dysarthria and cutaneous lesions in ive siblings.". 1982. Abstract

Five children, three sisters and two brothers aged between three months and 12 years, are described. They all developed a facial desquamating rash of butterfly distribution at the age of about two months, and motor retardation which later was characterized by spasticity, predominantly affecting the lower limbs. The three children who were old enough for speech to be tested had dysarthria. There was no family history of neurological disease, nor was there consanguinity among the parents or grandparents. EEGs were diffusely abnormal in four of the five children, but did not show any specific or diagnostic features. Plasma immunoglobulin tests were normal, and tests for collagen disease were negative. The authors are not aware of previous reports of this condition, but believe that it is a variant of familial spastic paraplegia, with atypical features.

P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "Heritability and Heterosis for Yield and its Components in Maize (Zea Mays).". In: KJS (B) 10 (1&2) pp. 101-105. Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; 1989. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
Njoroge K, Welch W, Habgood RM. "Heritability and selection for grain nitrogen yield and its components in F2 populations of spring barley." Journal of Plant Breeding. (Z. Pflanzensunchtg). 1982;90:305-315.
Coombes AE, Hughes L, Karega-Munene, Wahome EW. "Heritage, making peace, history, identity and memory in contemporary Kenya." Awaaz. 2016;46(1):46-49.
Mukhungulu MJ, Jephthar M, Kibogo ZK, Musyoki MS, K’Odhiambo AK. "Hermeneutics of aesthetics: Influence of Women Teachers’ Body Grooming on the Education of Preschoolers." International Journal of Education and Social Science. 2015;Vol. 2( No. 12):106-111. AbstractWebsite

Abstract
Whereas aesthetics and ethics form the axiological branch of philosophy, the latter’s prominence in the discourse of philosophy of education is quite obvious. More attention needs to be given on the role of aesthetics, especially the influence of women teachers’ body grooming on the education of preschoolers. This paper hermeneutically interprets the philosophical ideals of women teacher’s body grooming on preschoolers. The philosophical sensitisation of young minds for educational purposes is grounded on what they observe in preschool learning environments such as Kindergartens or Montessori centres or nursery schools where majority of teachers are females. Philosophic tenets for education which have long lasting impact on the human mind are greatly influenced by women teachers’ body grooming and clothing during the preschool days where the mind is stimulated to think, reason and produce knowledge. The paper contends that more interpretations can be discerned from body grooming of any gender that can lay the foundation of education.

Akaranga SI, Makau BK. "The hermeneutics of education management Information Systems for Kitinga primary school in Mwingi central, Kenya." Journal of Education and Practice. 2016;7(35):36-40.
K’Odhiambo DAK, Khanani BS, Njogu GN. "Hermeneutics of Pythagoreanism in relation to the historicity of holistic African philosophy of education that starts from Egypt." International Journal of Education and Research. 2015;Vol. 3(No. 2):311-324.
Akaranga SI, Ongong'a JJ. "The hermeneutics of the phenomenon of dialogue between Christians and Muslims in contemporary Kenya." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2016;6(5):157-162.
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Herpes simplex virus type 2 and risk of intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Obstet Gynecol . 2007 Feb; 109 ( 2 Pt 1 ): 403-9 . Erratum in: Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;109(4):1002-3. PMID: 17267842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Drake AL, J.". In: Obstet Gynecol . 2007 Feb; 109 ( 2 Pt 1 ): 403-9 . Erratum in: Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;109(4):1002-3. Wasonga, C, Sheila O. Okoth, Joseph C. Mukuria and Charles C.O.A.; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was associated with risk of intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and to define correlates of HSV-2 infection among HIV-1-seropositive pregnant women. METHODS: We performed a nested case control study within a perinatal cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. Herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus and the presence of genital ulcers were ascertained at 32 weeks of gestation. Maternal cervical and plasma HIV-1 RNA and cervical HSV DNA were measured at delivery. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two (87%) of 175 HIV-1-infected mothers were HSV-2-seropositive. Among the 152 HSV-2-seropositive women, nine (6%) had genital ulcers at 32 weeks of gestation, and 13 (9%) were shedding HSV in cervical secretions. Genital ulcers were associated with increased plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (P=.02) and an increased risk of intrapartum HIV-1 transmission (16% of transmitters versus 3% of nontransmitters had ulcers; P = .003), an association which was maintained in multivariable analysis adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (P=.04). We found a borderline association for higher plasma HIV-1 RNA among women shedding HSV (P=.07) and no association between cervical HSV shedding and either cervical HIV-1 RNA levels or intrapartum HIV-1 transmission (P=.4 and P=.5, [corrected] respectively). CONCLUSION: Herpes simplex virus type 2 is the leading cause of genital ulcers among women in sub-Saharan Africa and was highly prevalent in this cohort of pregnant women receiving prophylactic zidovudine. After adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, genital ulcers were associated with increased risk of intrapartum HIV-1 transmission. These data suggest that management of HSV-2 during pregnancy may enhance mother-to-child HIV-1 prevention efforts. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II

C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "Herpes simplex virus type 2 and risk of intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Obstet Gynecol . 2007 Feb; 109 ( 2 Pt 1 ): 403-9 . Erratum in: Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;109(4):1002-3. PMID: 17267842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Drake AL, J.". In: Obstet Gynecol . 2007 Feb; 109 ( 2 Pt 1 ): 403-9 . Erratum in: Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;109(4):1002-3. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
Departments of Epidemiology and Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. adrake2@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To determine whether herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was associated with risk of intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and to define correlates of HSV-2 infection among HIV-1-seropositive pregnant women. METHODS: We performed a nested case control study within a perinatal cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. Herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus and the presence of genital ulcers were ascertained at 32 weeks of gestation. Maternal cervical and plasma HIV-1 RNA and cervical HSV DNA were measured at delivery. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two (87%) of 175 HIV-1-infected mothers were HSV-2-seropositive. Among the 152 HSV-2-seropositive women, nine (6%) had genital ulcers at 32 weeks of gestation, and 13 (9%) were shedding HSV in cervical secretions. Genital ulcers were associated with increased plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (P=.02) and an increased risk of intrapartum HIV-1 transmission (16% of transmitters versus 3% of nontransmitters had ulcers; P = .003), an association which was maintained in multivariable analysis adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (P=.04). We found a borderline association for higher plasma HIV-1 RNA among women shedding HSV (P=.07) and no association between cervical HSV shedding and either cervical HIV-1 RNA levels or intrapartum HIV-1 transmission (P=.4 and P=.5, [corrected] respectively). CONCLUSION: Herpes simplex virus type 2 is the leading cause of genital ulcers among women in sub-Saharan Africa and was highly prevalent in this cohort of pregnant women receiving prophylactic zidovudine. After adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, genital ulcers were associated with increased risk of intrapartum HIV-1 transmission. These data suggest that management of HSV-2 during pregnancy may enhance mother-to-child HIV-1 prevention efforts. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II. PMID: 17267842 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Baeten JM, Lingappa J, Beck I, Frenkel LM, Pepper G, Celum C, Wald A, Fife KH, Were E, Mugo N, Sanchez J, Essex M, Makhema J, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Corey L. "Herpes simplex virus type 2 suppressive therapy with acyclovir or valacyclovir does not select for specific HIV-1 resistance in HIV-1/HSV-2 dually infected persons." J. Infect. Dis.. 2011;203(1):117-21. Abstract

Recent in vitro studies suggest that acyclovir may directly inhibit HIV-1 replication and can select for a specific HIV-1 reverse transcriptase mutation (V75I) with concomitant loss of an anti-HIV-1 effect. We tested for HIV-1 genotypic resistance at reverse transcriptase codon 75 in plasma from 168 HIV-1-infected persons from Botswana, Kenya, Peru, and the United States taking daily acyclovir or valacyclovir for between 8 weeks and 24 months. No V75I cases were detected (95% confidence interval, 0%-2.2%). These prospective in vivo studies suggest that standard-dose acyclovir or valacyclovir does not select for HIV-1 resistance.

SO ML. "Herpes zoster in HIV/AIDS–a little recognised opportunistic infection with important clinical and cost implications. .". In: East African Medical Journal. 75(7)377-378, 1998. University of Nairobi.; 1998. Abstract

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease [ADPKB] is one of the commonest genetic diseases. Apart from the involvement of the kidneys, several other organs, viz. the liver, the central nervous system, the pancreas, the spleen, the ovaries and the gut, amongst others, are also sometimes involved. This makes ADFKD more of a systemic rather than an isolated renal disorder. This becomes more so considering that the involvement of the other organs contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality of ADPKD. This review looks at the pattern and prevalence of involvement of other organs, apart from the kidney in ADPKD.

O DRKWASATHOMASO. "Herpes zoster myelitis: report of two cases. East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):279-80.". In: East Afr Med J. 2002 May;79(5):279-80. uon; 2002. Abstract
Two male patients aged 40 and 45 years with HIV infection and paraplegia are presented. The two had sub-acute onset paraplegia with a sensory level, which developed 10 days after herpes zoster dermatomal rash. They both had asymmetrically involvement of the lower limbs. Investigation including imaging of the spinal cord did not reveal any other cause of the neurological deficit. The two responded very well to treatment with acyclovir. Herpes zoster myelitis is a condition likely to rise with the upsurge of HIV infection and there is a need to identify the condition early. We also review the literature on the subject.
Awan, HR; Adala HS. "Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus in a child with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.". 1990. Abstract

A case is described of an 8 year old child who presented with Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus involving the left eye. He had a positive history of pulmonary tuberculosis, repeated hospital admissions and blood transfusion. He was confirmed to have Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. During the course of his followup, he developed cotton-wool spots and perivasculitis in the right eye. The mother was found to be seropositive while the father was seronegative

KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "Hesbon Z. Amenya, Peter K.Gathumbi and James M. Mbaria ACUTE TOXICITY AND CYTOTOXICITY OF AQUEOUS AND CHLOROFORMIC EXTRACTS OF RAPANEA MELANOPHLOEOS.". In: 7TH BIENNIAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE 2010, DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH, PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY AUDITORIUM, UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND VETERINARY SCIENCES. J.M. Nguta,, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama; 2010.
Greenfield, CL; Lartin KM; SFS; DRR. "Heterochromatin Staining Pattern Of Quail-chicken Hybrid Lymphocytes.". 1986. Abstract

Feulgen-Rossenbeck staining of lymphoid cells of quail-chicken hybrids in histologic sections revealed a pattern of heterochromatin arrangement distinguishable from that of either parental type. During interphase, hybrid lymphocytes exhibited combined characteristics of both the parental quail and the parental chicken. Hybrid heterochromatin was arranged in a large central mass as in the quail and in fairly evenly distributed small chromacenters around the periphery of the nucleus similar to the arrangement in the chicken. It is suggested that this pattern of staining can be used as a marker for hybrid cells in studies of genetic interactions.

Mwaniki JM. Heterocyclic Chemistry Volume 1. 2006: University of Nairobi; 2006.
Mwaniki DJM. Heterocyclic Chemistry Volume 2. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2006.
de; Nagelkerke, Nico J D; Vlas SJP; LM; PFKRJA;. "Heterogeneity in host HIV susceptibility as a potential contributor to recent HIV prevalence declines in Africa.". 2009. Abstract

Background HIV prevalence has recently declined in several African countries, and prior to this the risk of HIV acquisition per unprotected sex contact also declined in Kenyan sex workers. We hypothesized that heterogeneity in HIV host susceptibility might underpin both of these observations. Methods A compartmental mathematical model was used to explore the potential impact of heterogeneity in susceptibility to HIV infection on epidemic behavior, in the absence of other causative mechanisms. Results Studies indicated that a substantial heterogeneity in susceptibility to HIV infection,, may lead to an epidemic that peaks and then declines due to a depletion of the most susceptible individuals, even without changes in sexual behavior. This effect was most notable in high-risk groups such as female sex workers, and was consistent with empirical data. Discussion Declines in HIV prevalence may have other causes in addition to behavior change, including heterogeneity in host HIV susceptibility. There is a need to further study this heterogeneity and its correlates, particularly as it confounds the ability to attribute HIV epidemic shifts to specific interventions, including behavior change.

Ogeng’o JA, Malek AK. "HETEROGENEITY OF SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS IN TUNICA MEDIA OF AORTA IN GOAT (Capra hircus)." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2014;3(3):417-423. Abstract

Knowledge of the characteristics of vascular smooth muscle cells is important in understanding
physicomechanical properties, functions, mechanisms of development, remodelling,
regeneration of blood vessels, development and progression of their diseases like
atherosclerosis. As the latter diseases become more common, there is need to understand their
pathogenesis to inform mitigation strategies. Goat is a suitable model for vascular studies but
the organization of vascular smooth muscle cells in its aorta have not been elucidated. This
study therefore examined the characteristics of smooth muscle cells in the aorta of goat.
Materials were obtained from aortae of six healthy young adult male domestic goats (Capra
hircus) [age range 12 – 36 months]. Specimens from thoracic aorta were fixed in
glutaraldehyde, post fixed in osmium tetroxide and processed for ducurpan embedding.
Ultrathin sections stained with uranyl acetate, counterstained with lead citrate were examined
by transmission electron microscope. The aortic tunica media contained several phenotypic
dispositions of smooth muscle cells; spindle shaped or elongated organelle - poor cells;
irregularly shaped cells rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and a prominent
nucleus. The smooth muscle cells also ran in various directions: transverse, oblique and
longitudinal. These findings reveal that the smooth muscle cells of the tunica media of goat
aorta are phenotypically heterogeneous and run in multiple directions. These characteristics
probably confer mechanical strength and functional plasticity to the aortic wall. Designers of
aortic substitutes should bear this in mind.

Mitema A, Rafudeen S, Okoth S, Iyer R. "Heterokaryon incompatibility and phenotypic characterisation of Aspergillus flavus isolates in low and high risk zones in Kenya.". In: The 14th International Aspergillus Meeting Asperfest 14. Asilomar Conference Center, PG, CA, USA; 2017.
Mitema A, Rafudeen S, Okoth S, Revel I. "Heterokaryon incompatibility/compatibility and phenotypic characterisation of Aspergillus flavus isolates in low and high risk zones in Kenya.". In: 38th Mycotoxin Workshop, Berlin, Germany. Berlin, Germany; 2016.
Mitema A, Okoth S, Rafudeen SM. "Heterokaryon incompatibility/compatibility and phenotypic characterization of A. flavus isolates in low and high-risk zones in Kenya.". In: 13th International conference on molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics of infectious diseases. Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; 2016.
Shiningavamwe AN, Obiero, G.O, Albetyn, K, Nicaud J-M, Smit MS. "Heterologous expression of the benzoate para-hydroxylase encoding gene (CYP53B1) from Rhodotorula minuta by Yarrowia lipolytic." Journal of Applied Biotechnology and Biotechnology. 2006;72:323-329.
Smit M, Obiero G, Andreas Shiningavamwe, Albertyn J, Jean-Marc. "Heterologous expression of the benzoate para-hydroxylase encoding gene (CYP53B1) from Rhodotorula minuta by Yarrowia lipolytica." Applied Microibiology and Biotechnology. 2014;72(2):323-329.
"Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis.". 2010;Vol 375 June 12, 2010. AbstractWebsite

High plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with increased risk of
Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations. We aimed to assess the effect of ART

use by patients infected with HIV-1 on risk of transmission to their uninfected partners

Deborah D;, Jared B;M, Kiarie J;, Katherine, Thomas; K, Wendy S;, Craig C;R, McIntyre J;, Lingappa JR;, Connie C. "Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis.". 2010. Abstract

Background High plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations, but little empiric data are available on the rate of sexual HIV-1 transmission from persons receiving ART. Methods 3381 African heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples were followed prospectively for up to 24 months. At enrollment, HIV-1 infected partners had CD4 counts ≥250 cells/mm3 and did not meet country guidelines for ART initiation; during follow-up, CD4 counts were measured every 6 months and ART initiated following national guidelines. HIV-1 uninfected partners were tested for HIV-1 every 3 months. We compared genetically-linked HIV-1 transmission rates by ART initiation. Results 349 (10%) HIV-1 infected partners initiated ART, at a median CD4 count of 198 cells/mm3. Only one of 103 linked HIV-1 transmissions was observed from an HIV-1 infected partner who had initiated ART corresponding to HIV-1 transmission rates of 0.37 versus 2.24 per 100 person-years for those who had initiated versus not initiated ART, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.08, 95% confidence interval 0.002–0.57, p=0.004). After ART initiation, plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations decreased significantly (from median 4.88 to <2.38 log10 copies/mL, p<0.001) as did unprotected sex (6.2% of visits before to 3.7% of visits after ART initiation, p=0.03). Among those not on ART, the highest HIV-1 transmission rate (8.79 per 100 person-years) was from HIV-1 infected persons with CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3. In couples in which the HIV-1 infected partner had a CD4 ≥200 cells/mm3, 70% of transmissions occurred when plasma HIV-1 concentrations exceeded 50,000 copies/mL. Conclusions Among African heterosexual couples, ART initiation was followed by a 92% reduction in HIV-1 transmission risk, likely due to significantly reduced plasma HIV-1 levels, and was accompanied by increased self-reported condom use. The highest HIV-1 risk and greatest relative prevention benefit from ART was among couples in which the HIV-1 infected partner had CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3 or plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations >50,000 copies/mL.

Donnell D, Baeten JM, Kiarie J, Thomas KK, Stevens W, Cohen CR, McIntyre J, Lingappa JR, Celum C. "Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis." Lancet. 2010;375(9731):2092-8. Abstract

High plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations. We aimed to assess the effect of ART use by patients infected with HIV-1 on risk of transmission to their uninfected partners.

H. A, Y. I, T. T. A Heuristic Approach to Solution of Industrial Optimisation Problems. Cape Technikon, Cape Town, South Africa; 1999.
JA O’o, PM M, BO O, NM O’o, J G. "Hexafurcation of Basilar Artery in a Black Kenyan Population." Austin Journal of Anatomy. 2016;3(1):1046. Abstracthexafurcation_of_basilar_artery_in_a_black_kenyan.pdfAustin Publishing Group

The Basilar Artery (BA), usually terminates by dividing into two posterior cerebral arteries [1,2]. Variant terminations described include double posterior cerebral arteries and common trunks for Posterior Cerebral Arteries (PCA) and Superior Cerebellar Arteries (SCA) trifurcation, quadrifurcation and pentafurcation [3-5]. Such variant branching patterns of arteries predisposes them to atherosclerosis and aneurysms [6,7], and may complicate surgery at basilar bifurcation angle and clivus [8]. The abnormalities may also alter the relationships with and compress occulomotor nerve [9]. There are, however, few reports on variant termination of the basilar artery. We recently reported up to 5 branches. In all cases of trifurcation, qudrifurcation and pentafurcation, the variation was due to duplication and rostral shift of superior cerebellar artery [4]. Potentially, more than five branches is possible but hitherto unreported in spite its importance. This study, therefore investigated the pattern of termination of the basilar artery in a black Kenyan population, for cases where there were more than five terminal branches.

MACHATHA PROFGITUPETER. "HF Cleavage of Carboxamide Protected Asparagine and Glutamine Derivatives.". In: Inter. J. Biochem. Phy. 3, 20. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 1994. Abstract
The Rose-Bengal plate test (RBPT) was performed on 488 patients with flu-like symptoms from Narok district. There was poor agreement between RBPT results from four health facilities in Narok and from the central veterinary laboratory (CVL). Agreement was poorer for the three rural dispensaries than for the District Hospital. On the other hand, for tests conducted at the CVL, there was good agreement between RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) results, indicating that all these tests were probably performing well. Better training and quality control and the use of white rather than a clear background surface for judging agglutination results are recommended to improve the performance of test results in Narok District health facilities.
Ogeng’o JA, Pulei AN, Olabu BO, Fidel O Gwala. "HIBISCUS EXTRACT MITIGATES SALT INDUCED CAROTID ADVENTITIAL CHANGES IN RATS." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2018;8(1):1342-1350. Abstract

The tunica adventitia is an active vascular compartment that actively participates in modulation of
vascular structure, function and pathophysiology. Adventitial thickness has recently been accepted as a
surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The effects of salt and chemicals that ameliorate those effects are
important in understanding vascular structure, function and pathology. There are few studies on
hibiscus and high salt induced vascular pathology. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of
hibiscus on salt induced vascular changes on rat carotid artery. The experimental animals were divided
into 3 groups of 8 animals each – (i) controls; (ii) high salt diet alone and (iii) high salt + hibiscus
extract for a period of eight weeks. At ages 2, 5 and 8weeks 2 – 3 animals were sacrificed for study.
They were anaesthetized with ether and perfused with formal saline. Specimens were then obtained
from the middle of common carotid artery, fixed in 5% formaldehyde solution, processed routinely for
paraffin embedding and 5-micron thick sections stained with Hematoxylin / Eosin and also with Mason’s
Trichome/ Aniline blue. Adventitial thickness and volumetric densities of collagen were measured using
morphometric techniques. High salt consumption induced statistically significant increase in adventitial
thickness from 297.45μm at week 2 to 659.4μm in week 8. In hibiscus fed rats, this increase
progressively reduced to 482.55μm in week 8. Volumetric density of collagen was 57% in high salt fed
rats but reduced to 45.66% in hibiscus fed rats (p<0.001). The increase in tunica adventitial thickness
and collagen density which is induced by high salt can be mitigated by hibiscus extract. This implies
that hibiscus has potential to restore salt induced vascular injury. Further studies are recommended to
refine the extract.

Habwe J. Hidaya. Moran Publishers; Forthcoming.
MARY MWIANDI. ""Hidden Craws: the History of Kenya African Teachers College, 1938-1952.". In: Paper presented at the African Studies Association, Chicago. University of Nairobi Press, Open and Distance Learning; 1998. Abstract

n/a

Pweke, D. B. Ntwiga, Ogutu C, Kirumbu MK. "A Hidden Markov Model of Risk Classification among the Low Income Earners." Journal of Finance and Economics. 2018;6, (6):242-249 . AbstractWebsite

Low income earners have volatile incomes and most financial providers shun this group of borrowers even though they are motivated in managing the limited resources they have through savings and investments as a means to lower the fluctuations of their income. Peer groupings of the low income earners can assist in pooling the resources they have and improve the group risk mitigation process as group members act like social collateral in credit lending. The study used Kenya Kenya Financial Diaries data of 2013 from 280 households to analyze and understand the credit quality levels and credit scores of peer groups versus individuals among men and women. Hidden Markov model classified the low income earners into credit risk profiles wih a view of understanding the role of groups in low income group lending. Peer groups diversify risk inherent in individual borrowers with women only groups having higher credit quality levels as compared to men only groups. Women and their respective peer groups are more stable with less variability as compared to men. Financial technology providers can incorporate the wide array of soft information to lend to low income earners through mobile based peer groups.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "High affinity mouse-human chimeric Fab against hepatitis B surface antigen. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Dec 28;11(48):7569-78. ;21(9):1439-47.". In: World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Dec 28;11(48):7569-78. ;21(9):1439-47. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2005. Abstract
AIM: Passive immunotherapy using antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been advocated in certain cases of Hepatitis B infection. We had earlier reported on the cloning and expression of a high affinity scFv derived from a mouse monoclonal (5S) against HBsAg. However this mouse antibody cannot be used for therapeutic purposes as it may elicit anti-mouse immune responses. Chimerization by replacing mouse constant domains with human ones can reduce the immunogenicity of this antibody. METHODS: We cloned the V(H) and V(L) genes of this mouse antibody, and fused them with CH1 domain of human IgG1 and C(L) domain of human kappa chain respectively. These chimeric genes were cloned into a phagemid vector. After initial screening using the phage display system, the chimeric Fab was expressed in soluble form in E. coli. RESULTS: The chimeric Fab was purified from the bacterial periplasmic extract. We characterized the chimeric Fab using several in vitro techniques and it was observed that the chimeric molecule retained the high affinity and specificity of the original mouse monoclonal. This chimeric antibody fragment was further expressed in different strains of E. coli to increase the yield. CONCLUSION: We have generated a mouse-human chimeric Fab against HBsAg without any significant loss in binding and epitope specificity. This chimeric Fab fragment can be further modified to generate a full-length chimeric antibody for therapeutic uses.
GATARI MJ, Kinney PL, Yan B, Sclar E,... "High airborne black carbon concentrations measured near roadways in Nairobi, Kenya." … Research Part D …. 2019. AbstractWebsite

Airborne black carbon (BC) particles have serious implications for human health and climate change and thus represent a prime target for mitigation policies. The sources of BC include vehicles burning diesel fuel, which are common in urban areas in low-income countries. The …

Gatari MJ, Kinney PL, Yan B, Sclar E, Volavka-Close N, Ngo N, Gaita SM, Law A, Ndiba PK, Gachanja A, Graeff J, Chillrud SN. "High airborne black carbon concentrations measured near roadways in Nairobi, Kenya. Transportation Research." Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2017;68:99-109.
Patel, NB; Kioy PG; UGFRPF; S;, Kalaria RN;, Kioy PG;, Kariuki M;, Unverzagt F;, Hendrie H;, Gatere S;, Freidland RP. "High APOE e 4 allele frequency in elderly Kikuyus in Kenya.". 2000.
Saidi H, Mutiso B. "High Burden, Morbidity and Cost of Motorcycle Injuries at a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Kenya." European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery. 2013;DOI 10.1007/s00068-013-0280-.
Kagira, J.M., Oluoch, G., Waititu, K.I., Mulei, I., Maingi N, Ngotho M. "High efficacy of combined albendazole and ivermectin treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes in vervet monkeys and baboons." Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science. 2010;37(4):1-7.2010._high_efficaccy_of_combination_anthelmintic_treatment__in_monkeys_and_baboons.pdf
Okaru AO, Abuga KO, Kibwage IO, Lachenmeier DW. "High Ethanol Contents of Spirit Drinks in Kibera Slums, Kenya: Implications for Public Health." Foods. 2017;6:89. Abstract

Cheap licit and artisanal illicit spirit drinks have been associated with numerous outbreaks of alcohol poisoning especially with methanol. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of cheap spirit drinks in Kibera slums in Nairobi County, Kenya. The samples consisted of cheap licit spirits (n = 11) and the artisanal spirit drink, ‘chang’aa’, (n = 28). The parameters of alcoholic strength and volatile composition were used as indicators of quality and were determined using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) respectively. The ranges for alcoholic strength were 42.8–85.8% vol and 28.3–56.7% vol for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively, while the pH ranges were 3.3–4.2 and 4.4–4.8 for chang’aa and licit spirit drinks respectively. The majority of volatiles were found in artisanal spirits and they included higher alcohols, ethyl esters and carbonyl compounds. The alcoholic strength of all the artisanal spirits (100%) and 91% of the licit spirits was above the 40% vol of standard spirits such as vodka. The high ethanol content of the alcohol products was the only element of public health significance in this study.

Nyongesa AW, Patel N, Wango EO, Onyango DW. "High khat dose and long-term exposure impairs spermatogenesis: experimental study using rabbit model." J. Morphol. Sci. 2017;34(3):156-167.morphology_paper.pdf
LN K, van den LW S, E D, NHJ C, MAW M, FF S, van der AJAM V. "High level drug resistance in patients on chronic anti-retroviral treatment presenting with oropharyngeal candidiasis in Kenya." Oral Diseases. 2015.
Mbuthia, GW; Olungah CO;, Ondicho, TG; Nyamogoba HN. "High level of delays in Tuberclosis diagnosis and the associated factors in a pastoralist community in West Pokot County, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2018;95(2):1203-1213.
MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA. "High maternal HIV-1 viral load during pregnancy is associated with reduced placental transfer of Measles IgG antibody. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2005;40:494-497. Farquhar C, Nduati R, Haigwood N, Sutton W, Mbori-Ngacha D.". In: Afr Health Sci. 2006 Mar;6(1):3-13. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
1. Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Background: There are limited reports on HIV-1 RNA load, CD4+ T-lymphocytes and antibody responses in relation to disease progression in HIV-1 infected untreated children in Africa. Methods: To describe the relationships between these parameters, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study involving 51 perinatally HIV-1 infected children aged between 1 and 13 years. HIV status was determined by ELISA and confirmed by western blot and PCR. Antibodies were quantified by limiting dilution ELISA, plasma HIV-1 RNA load by RT-PCR and CD4+ T-lymphocytes by FACSCount. Results: Asymptomatic and symptomatic disease had, respectively, a rise in median HIV-1 RNA load from 1,195 to 132,543 and from 42,962 to 1,109,281 copies/ml in children below 6 years. The increase in viral load was 10-fold higher for asymptomatic compared to other categories and 2-fold faster for children less than 6 years than those above. Similarly, symptomatic children below 6 years had initial median CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of 647 (22%) cells/muL, declining to 378 (20%) while those above 6 years had initial values of below 335 (15%) but which increased to 428 (17%). Median viral load correlated significantly with median CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage in children above 6 years (p=0.026) but not below. Conclusions: Viral load is lower in older than younger children and correlates significantly with percentage CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Survival by HIV-1 infected children requires a competent immune response early in infection to counter the rapidly replicating virus. Interventions aimed at boosting the naive immune system may prolong survival in these children.
OLAKEKAN DRMUSTAPHAAMIDU. "High neutron flux quality for sample irradiation and BNCT conditions.". In: Proceedings of the 4th Yugoslav Nuclear Society Conference (YUNC, 2002) Belgrade, Yugoslavia, Sept.30-Ot.4, 2002. Departmental seminar; 2002. Abstract
The microbiological quality of ground water (boreholes) and domestic tanks in five locations of Kikuyu Division, Kiambu District, was determined. Two boreholes and twelve domestic tanks were sampled from each location. Seven (70%) out of 10 boreholes were contaminated with faecal coliforms. Total bacterial counts ranged from 1 to 6280 per ml of water while the coliform counts ranged from 0 to 161. Out of 70 water samples screened for faecal coliforms, 63 (90%) were positive. Faecal Streptococci were isolated in 71% of the samples.
Lyakurwa W, Owiti E. "High Oil Prices and the African Economy: the Impact of High Oil Prices in SSA.". In: Annual Meetings of the African Development Bank Group at Ouagadougou. Burkina Faso; 2005.
Misiani MK, Loyal PK O’o JASHS. "High origin of the right testicular artery coursing through a hiatus in the inferior vena cava." Anat J Afr. 2014;3 (3):372-375 .
Dziuban EJ, DeVos J, Ngeno B, Ngugi E, Zhang G, Sabatier J, Wagar N, Diallo K, Nganga L, Katana A, Yang C, Rivadeneira ED, Mukui I, Odhiambo F, Redfield R, Raizes E. "High Prevalence of Abacavir-associated L74V/I Mutations in Kenyan Children Failing Antiretroviral Therapy." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2017;36(8):758-760. Abstract

A survey of 461 HIV-infected Kenyan children receiving antiretroviral therapy found 143 (31%) failing virologically. Drug resistance mutations were found in 121; 37 had L74V/I mutations, with 95% receiving abacavir (ABC)-containing regimens. L74V/I was associated with current ABC usage (P = 0.0001). L74V/I may be more prevalent than previously realized in children failing ABC-containing regimens, even when time on treatment has been short. Ongoing rigorous pediatric drug resistance surveillance is needed.

de Sanders, EJ; Thiong'o AN; OHS; MPSVMCRS; GJ; F; J;. "High Prevalence Of Chlamydia Trachomatis And Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections Among Hiv-1 Negative Men Who Have Sex With Men In Coastal Kenya.". 2010. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To assess the burden of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in high-risk HIV-1 negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa. METHODS: Before the start of a pre-exposure prophylaxis trial, HIV-1 negative volunteers were screened for sexually transmitted infection (STI) including CT and NG, using a highly sensitive and specific nucleic acid amplification test. Samples positive for CT by Aptima testing, were evaluated for the presence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) serovars using an in-house PCR assay. All men were asked to submit a urine specimen, and all had a rectal swab collected by a clinician. Men were asked if they had dysuria, urethral or rectal discharge, or rectal pain. RESULTS: 43 HIV-1 negative MSM were screened, of whom 13 reported sex with men only; the majority (27/43) reported sex work. One volunteer had dysuria and another, rectal pain. Eleven MSM (26%, 95% CI 14% to 41%) had infections with either or both pathogens. Homosexual men had a higher prevalence of any infection than bisexual men (46% vs 17%, p=0.04), and all cases of rectal infections, including one with CT, two with NG and two with CT/NG co-infection. All patients with CT were negative for LGV. One patient with a rectal NG infection reported rectal pain. CONCLUSIONS: A remarkably high burden of STI infection was found among HIV-1 negative MSM. Most (12/13) infections, including three of four rectal NG infections, were subclinical. These findings suggest that high-risk MSM will benefit from effective STI screening in Kenya.

Grillenberger, M; Murphy SP; BNO, Neumann CG;, Neumann CG;, Bwibo NO. "High prevalence of inadequate iron intake in rural Kenyan school children.". 2013.
Cranmer LM, Kanyugo M, Jonnalagadda SR, Lohman-Payne B, Sorensen B, Elizabeth Maleche Obimbo, Dalton Wamalwa, John-Stewart GC. "High Prevalence of Tuberculosis Infection in HIV-1 Exposed Kenyan Infants." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2014;33(4):401-6. Abstract

Infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers may have increased risk for tuberculosis (TB), but the prevalence of TB infection in this population is undefined. In contrast to tuberculin skin tests that are confounded by recent bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, TB interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) do not cross-react with BCG and enable detection of TB infection in infancy.

Cranmer LM, Kanyugo M, Jonnalagadda SR, Lohman-Payne B, Sorensen B, Elizabeth Maleche Obimbo, Dalton Wamalwa, John-Stewart GC. "High prevalence of tuberculosis infection in HIV-1 exposed Kenyan infants." Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.. 2014;33(4):401-6. Abstract

Infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers may have increased risk for tuberculosis (TB), but the prevalence of TB infection in this population is undefined. In contrast to tuberculin skin tests that are confounded by recent bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, TB interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) do not cross-react with BCG and enable detection of TB infection in infancy.

Bosire R, Betz B, Aluisio A, Hughes JP, Ruth Nduati, Kiarie J, Chohan BH, Merkel M, Lohman-Payne B, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "High Rates of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Both Arms of a Peer Counseling Study Promoting EBF Among HIV-Infected Kenyan Women." Breastfeed Med. 2016;11:56-63. Abstract

Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is recommended for 6 months after delivery as the optimal infant feeding method and is especially important for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). However, EBF promotion efforts among HIV-infected mothers in sub-Saharan Africa have achieved mixed success and require context-specific interventions.

Mackelprang RD, Bosire R, Guthrie BL, Choi RY, Liu A, Gatuguta A, Rositch AF, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "High rates of relationship dissolution among heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples in Kenya." AIDS Behav. 2014;18(1):189-93. Abstract

HIV-1 serodiscordant couples may experience increased risks of relationship dissolution; however, longitudinal stability of these relationships is poorly understood. We determined rates and correlates of separation among 469 serodiscordant couples in Nairobi and found that 113 (24 %) separated during 2 years of follow-up. Couples with a female HIV-1 infected partner (F+M-) and no income were more likely to separate than M+F- couples without income (HR = 5.0; 95 % CI 1.1-25.0), and F+M- and M+F- couples with income (HR = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.3-4.5 and HR = 2.3; 95 % CI 1.2-4.8, respectively). High separation rates may be important for couple support services and for conducting discordant couple studies.

Kamucha G, Kompa G. "High Resolution Hip-joint Socket Imaging using Pulsed Laser Radar.". In: 30th European Microwave Conference. Paris; 2000.
MBATHI MRMUSYIMIMUTHOKA. "High Resolution, So What? Hargeisa City, Somaliland. August 2004.". In: Unpublished. University of Nairobi.; 2004. Abstract
A retrospective study of the hospital records revealed that 39 cases of mandibular fractures presented at Kisii District Hospital during a two-year period. 27 cases were due to interpersonal violence while road traffic accidents and accidental falls accounted for 9 and 3 of the cases respectively. The male ratio was 2.9:1. Majority (26 cases) of the patients were aged between 20 and 39 years. The commonly involved fracture site was the left body of the mandible accounting for 20 of the fractures.
Mwabu G, Bold T, Kimenyi M, Sandefur J. "The High Return to Private Schooling in a Low Income Country.". In: Center for Global Development, Washington, D.C., Working Paper No. 279.; 2011.
DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "High Sensitivity CRP Type 2 Diabetics at Kenyatta N Hospital.". In: Cardiovascular J of South Africa. 2007;2:123. East African Medical Journal.; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the magnitude of laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS) at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), identify its pattern of presentation, resolution, and determine the biochemical outcome of affected patients. DESIGN: Prospective patient-treatment cohort study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital, between November 2004 and April 2005. SUBJECTS: One hundred and forty two patients receiving first course chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Laboratory defined Tumour Lysis Syndrome (TLS). RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients completed the study protocol. Forty two patients (37.8%) developed TLS. The incidence in haematological malignancies was 75.5% while in non-haematological malignancies was 3.6%. Hyperphosphataemia and hyperkalaemia were the most consistent diagnostic parameters while hyperuricaemia occurred in only one patient. No patient developed hypocalcaemia. Ninety five percent of patients developed TLS within the first three days of receiving chemotherapy while 55% resolved in the first week. Two TLS case mortalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of TLS in this cohort study was 38%, and was highest among haematological malignancies. No cases occurred in breast cancer patients. Majority of the cases were diagnosed on the basis of increase in serum phosphate and potassium; uric acid did not rise predominantly due to prophylactic uricosuric therapy. A majority (95%) developed within three days of commencing chemotherapy.
Ogana W. "High subsonic flow past a steady two-dimensional lifting airfoil, in M. Tanaka, C.A. Brebbia and T. Honma (eds.).". In: Boundary Elements XII - Vol. 2: Applications in Fluid Mechanics and Field Problems( pp. 15 - 23). Berlin: Computational Mechanics Publications and Springer-Verlag, Southampton; 1990.
Zimmermann MB, Ito Y, Hess SY, Fujieda K, Molinari L. "High thyroid volume in children with excess dietary iodine intakes." The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2005;81:840-844. AbstractWebsite
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C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "High uptake of postpartum hormonal contraception among HIV-1-seropositive women in Kenya. Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Balkus J, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Schiff MA, Wamalwa D, G.". In: Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . Wasonga, C, Sheila O. Okoth, Joseph C. Mukuria and Charles C.O.A.; 2007. Abstract
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA. jbalkus@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and not using contraception. CONCLUSIONS: Using existing the healthcare infrastructure, it is possible to achieve high levels of postpartum hormonal contraceptive utilization among HIV-1-seropositive women. PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "High uptake of postpartum hormonal contraception among HIV-1-seropositive women in Kenya. Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Balkus J, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Schiff MA, Wamalwa D, G.". In: Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . Kisipan, M.L.; 2007. Abstracthigh_uptake_of_postpartum_hormonal_contraception.pdf

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA. jbalkus@u.washington.edu
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and not using contraception. CONCLUSIONS: Using existing the healthcare infrastructure, it is possible to achieve high levels of postpartum hormonal contraceptive utilization among HIV-1-seropositive women.
PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

C. DRWAMALWADALTON, MBORI- PROFNGACHADOROTHYA, ELIZABETH DROBIMBO. "High uptake of postpartum hormonal contraception among HIV-1-seropositive women in Kenya. Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Balkus J, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Mbori-Ngacha D, Schiff MA, Wamalwa D, G.". In: Sex Transm Dis . 2007 Jan; 34 ( 1 ): 25-9 . Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2007. Abstract
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA. jbalkus@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and not using contraception. CONCLUSIONS: Using existing the healthcare infrastructure, it is possible to achieve high levels of postpartum hormonal contraceptive utilization among HIV-1-seropositive women. PMID: 16691159 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M. DRGICHUHICHRISTINE. "High uptake of postpartum hormonal contraception among HIV-1-seropositive women in Kenya.Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jan;34(1):25-9.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2007 Jan;34(1):25-9. African Crop Science Society; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine patterns of contraceptive utilization among sexually active HIV-1-seropositive women postpartum and to identify correlates of hormonal contraception uptake. GOAL: The goal of this study was to improve delivery of family planning services to HIV-1-infected women in resource-limited settings. STUDY DESIGN: HIV-1-infected pregnant women were followed prospectively in a perinatal HIV-1 transmission study. Participants were referred to local clinics for contraceptive counseling and management. RESULTS: Among 319 HIV-1-infected women, median time to sexual activity postpartum was 2 months and 231 (72%) women used hormonal contraception for at least 2 months during follow-up, initiating use at approximately 3 months postpartum (range, 1-11 months). Overall, 101 (44%) used DMPA, 71 (31%) oral contraception, and 59 (25%) switched methods during follow-up. Partner notification, infant mortality, and condom use were similar between those using and not using contraception. CONCLUSIONS: Using existing the healthcare infrastructure, it is possible to achieve high levels of postpartum hormonal contraceptive utilization among HIV-1-seropositive women.
Mulanda E. S., Adero M. O., Amugune N. O., Akunda E., J.I. K. "High- frequency regeneration of the drought-tolerant tree Melia volkensii Gurke using low-cost agrochemical Thidiazuron." Biotechnology Research International. 2012; 2012(818472, 5):10.
Njoroge K, Kanampiu NN, Otsyula RM, Muthamia ZK, Gathuri CG, Chivatsi WS. "The High-Altitude maize programme." Review of National Maize Research Programme. KARI/ISNAR. 1992:20-31.
Ondieki DEO. "High-density housing policies and practices in large African Cities:.". In: Annual East Africa Regional Exhibition and Workshop 2016 - University of Nairobi . School of The Built Enviroment - University of Nairobi; 2016.abstract-_ea_workshop_2016.pdfhigh_density_housing_policies_.pdf
Adam, A.M; Rogers HJ, Bradbrook ID;, Rogers HJ. "High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and acetylaminoglutethimide in biological fluids.". 1985. Abstract

A simple rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for simultaneous estimation of aminoglutethimide and its acetylated metabolite acetylamidoglutethimide in plasma, saliva, and urine is described. This assay is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in normal subjects and patients receiving other medication in addition to aminoglutethimide.

Muchohi, SN; Newton CRJC, Ogutu BR;, Newton CRJC;, Kokwaro GO. "High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of diazepam in plasma of children with severe malaria .". 2001.
Czeglédy, J; Rogo KEWO; M; G. "High-risk human papillomavirus types in cytologically normal cervical scrapes from Kenya.". 1992. Abstract

Seventy-seven women with normal cervical cytology on routine visit to a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, were analysed for genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We applied a general primer pair (GP60/GP124) recognising sequences conserved among HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 33. Of the 77 specimens tested 15 (19.5%) proved to be positive for genital HPV. Amplification products were examined for the presence of high-risk HPV types by Slot-blot hybridization. Out of the 15 PCR-positive samples, 4 were positive for HPV 16.3 for HPV 18, while 1 contained both HPV 16 and 33. HPV DNA prevalence in this group of women from a "high-risk" area is similar to that in "low-risk" Swedish women but much lower than in cervical cancer samples from the same region.

DAVID PROFJOSHIMARK. "High-sensitivity C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetic patients with and without the metabolic syndrome.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Apr;85(4):178-186. East African Med J; 2008. Abstract
{ OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients, and relate it to cardiovascular disease risk. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital. SUBJECTS: One hundred and ninety seven type 2 diabetic outpatients and fifty age- and sex-matched non-diabetic hypertensive outpatients. RESULTS: The distribution of hsCRP in the diabetic population was skewed, with a mean of 4.33 mg/L and a median of 2.53 mg/L. The majority (42%) of diabetics had hsCRP levels in the high-risk category (hsCRP > 3 mg/L). The median hsCRP was non-significantly higher in the diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome compared to those without (2.68 vs 2.30 mg/L
Bahemuka MJ. "Higher Education for 21st Century: Challenges Facing African Universities." Kalamazoo College, Michigan; 2005.
Lenga F, J.M.Bahemuka. "Higher Education in Africa and knowledge Economy.". In: Going Global Forum. London; 2012.
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Higher Education in Africa".". In: The second symposium on East Africa in Transition: Images, Identities and Institutions. 2 nd to 4 th July 2001. Nairobi. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract
   
A. PROFKARANIFLORIDA. ""Higher Education in Africa".". In: The second symposium on East Africa in Transition: Images, Identities and Institutions. 2 nd to 4 th July 2001. Nairobi. Kenya. Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2001. Abstract

 

 

Ojango JM;, Panandam JM;, Bhuiyan AKFH;, Khan MS;, Kahi AK;, Imbayarwo-Chikosi VE;, Mwai OA. "Higher education in animal breeding in developing countries–challenges and opportunities."; 2010.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "'Higher levels of Agricultural Production: The Role of Least Developed Farmers', paper presented to a conference on The Role of State in Agricultural Development and Participation of Population, Khartoum, Sudan, December, 1979.". In: The Development of the National Economy Colourprint Ltd. Nairobi, 1993. International Union of Crystallography; 1979. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Rees PH. "Highland malaria.". 1994.
Macharia WM. "Highlight on childhood lymphomas.". 1996.
Chung, Michael H; Kiarie JRBLDOJ; KNF; J-SN; A; A;. "Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) versus Zidovudine/Nevirapine Effects on Early Breast Milk HIV-1 RNA: A Phase II Randomized Clinical Trial.". 2008. Abstract

Background Defining the effect of antiretroviral regimens on breast milk HIV-1 levels is useful to inform the rational design of strategies to decrease perinatal HIV-1 transmission. Methods Pregnant HIV-1 seropositive women (CD4 >250 and <500 cells/mm3) electing to breastfeed in Nairobi, Kenya were randomized to HAART (zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine) during pregnancy and 6 months postpartum or to short-course zidovudine plus single-dose nevirapine (ZDV/NVP). Breast milk samples were collected 2-3 times per week in the first month postpartum. Findings Between November 2003 and April 2006, 444 breast milk samples were collected from 58 randomized women during the first month after delivery. Between 3 and 14 days postpartum, women in the HAART and ZDV/NVP arms had a similar prevalence of undetectable breast milk HIV-1 RNA. From 15 to 28 days postpartum, women in the HAART arm had significantly lower levels of breast milk HIV-1 RNA than women randomized to ZDV/NVP (1.7 log10 copies/ml (limit of detection) vs. > 2.10 log10 copies/ml, P < 0.001). In contrast to breast milk HIV-1 RNA, suppression of plasma HIV-1 RNA during the neonatal period was consistently several log10 greater in the HAART arm compared to the ZDV/NVP arm. Conclusions HAART resulted in lower breast milk HIV-1 RNA than ZDV/NVP, however, ZDV/NVP yielded comparable breast milk HIV-1 RNA levels in the first 2 weeks postpartum. Breast milk HIV-1 RNA remained suppressed in the ZDV/NVP arm despite increased plasma HIV-1 levels, which may reflect local drug-effects or compartmentalization.

Chung MH, Kiarie JN, Richardson BA, Lehman DA, Overbaugh J, John Kinuthia, James N Kiarie, Njiri F, John-Stewart GC. "Highly active antiretroviral therapy versus zidovudine/nevirapine effects on early breast milk HIV type-1 Rna: a phase II randomized clinical trial." Antivir. Ther. (Lond.). 2008;13(6):799-807. Abstract

Defining the effect of antiretroviral regimens on breast milk HIV type-1 (HIV-1) levels is useful to inform the rational design of strategies to decrease perinatal HIV-1 transmission.

JUMA DRMUSEMBIROBINSON. "Highly Structured TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT:PSS for Photovoltaic Application.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 89 (2005) 13 -19.; 2005. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
JUMA DRMUSEMBIROBINSON. "Highly Structured TiO2/In(OH)xSy/PbS/PEDOT:PSS to be used in Photovoltaic.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, September 1986. Comptes Rendus Chimie 9 5-6 (2006) 73-734.; 2006. Abstract
Naisho JN, Ongaya L, Musandu JO. PIP: In highlighting the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) in Kenya, the following topics are discussed: characteristics of TBAs as reported in studies, the training program, program objectives, content, the training process, resources for training, the role of TBAs in PHC, and evaluation. The definition of midwife is given as midwives trained in a community setting to assist in delivery within the confines of accepted cultural beliefs. A study of 28 midwives from different regions in Kenya in 1980 found that most were illiterate women between 24 and 68 years olds received no monetary gain, had a variety of occupational backgrounds, and provided varying amounts of advice but little pre- or postnatal care. Almost all advised mothers to breast feed for at least 2 years. 80% of mother use TBAs for delivery. In order to minimize maternal (5-20/1000 live births on the average) and infant mortality, many countries have or are developing training programs for TBAs. Inadequacies in TBA care may be little prenatal care, too little postnatal care, and deficits in promoting child spacing; other unsafe practices may be improper washing of hands and severing the umbilical cord with unsterile objects. Other advantages of training TBAs involve less cost, less need for transportation, personalized setting in the home, source of health education in the community, and rapport with her clients. The training program goal is to reduce mortality by eliminating bad practices. The objectives are to reduce maternal deaths or illness from hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia; to encourage better nutrition; to reduce perineal or vaginal tears which may lead to longterm disability from urinary or rectal fistula; to reduce the number of pregnancies or exposure to risk; and to reduce neonatal tetanus asphyxia, infection, diarrhea, and malnutrition. Activities entail educating adolescent girls and pregnant women on menstruation and sexuality within cultural norms, prenatal care and delivery and postnatal care, maternal care, and educating mothers about personal hygiene, nutrition, child spacing, and immunization, and acknowledgement of the valuable service TBAs contribute to the community. Programs have operated for 10 years and evaluation is underway. PMID: 2630785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
kinyua OH, Murray E, Greyling C. "hild protection.". In: child protection. South Africa: World Vision International; 2012.cp_1_guiding_principle_reflection_full_set_edit_n_send_2_oct.doc
G PROFGATEIDAVID. "Hillman DA, Roy AD, Gatei DG. A virilizing tumour derived from cells of the foetal cortex in a year-old African child. East Afr Med J. 1972 May;49(5):387-93. ].". In: East Afr Med J. 1972 May;49(5):387-93. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1972. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "HINDIA, M.L., AKAMA, M.K., AWANGE, D.O., GUTHUA, S.W.: Occurrence of Ameloblastic fibroma over a ten-year period. East African Medical Journal, 82 (8) 42-45, 2005.". In: East African Medical Journal, 82 (8) 42-45, 2005. Elsevier; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the range of ablative surgery and rehabilitative procedures performed on maxillofacial structures. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study. SETTING: University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS: Patients operated on at the institutions theatre, and followed up at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital Oral Surgery Outpatient Clinic during the period February 1996, August 1998. RESULTS: Forty four patients underwent ablative surgery during the study period. Complete records were available for 38 patients, 27 females and 11 males aged 10 to 79 years (mean 32.6 years). Surgical procedures performed included: partial mandibulectomy, marginal mandibular resection, subtotal maxillectomy, sequestrectomy and enucleation. Six (15.8%) patients who underwent mandibular resection had rigid bone plating. Five (13.2%) patients who had maxillary involvement were given surgical obturators post-operatively with one receiving a complete denture after full recovery. A total of 22 (57.9%) patients who would have reaped benefits from prostheses therapy received none. Individual patient follow-up periods ranged from seven days for two patients who had cyst enucleation to two years for three cases with ameloblastoma, and two cases with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that prosthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing extensive surgery at the University of Nairobi Dental Teaching Hospital is largely inadequate.
Mutinda KP. "Hindrances of Secondary School Principals to effective Management of public secondary schools; Gatundu North, Kenya." IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN:. 2015;20(9, Ver. III):126-132.
P PROFPOKHARIYALGANESH. "The Hindu view of God, Humanity and Mother Nature.". In: God Conference at Mara (Kenya). Proc. pp. 165-171 (New Era book). Kenya Journal of Sciences(KJS),; Submitted. Abstract
This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.
Nyabuga G. "Hip Hop Music, and its Causation of Moral Panic in Kenya.". In: Popular Cultures in Africa. University of Texas at Austin; 2007.
Kaviti LK. "Hip Hop Music: Artistic Creativity Gone Bad." Academic Journal of Daystar University. 2008;Vol 1(1):96-119.
Okoth S. "Histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from select sites in Brazil and Bolivia." PLOS One. 2017:1-13. Abstractjournal.pone_.0171150.pdfWebsite

More than 80% of available malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent studies have shown the genes that code for this protein and its paralog, histidine-rich protein-3 (PfHRP3), are absent in parasites from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Lack of PfHRP2 protein through deletion of the pfhrp2 gene leads to false-negative RDT results for P. falciparum. We have evaluated the extent of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in a convenience sample of 198 isolates from six sites in three states across the Brazilian Amazon Basin (Acre, Rondonia and Para) and 25 isolates from two sites in Bolivia collected at different times between 2010 and 2012. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene and their flanking genes on chromosomes 7 and 13, respectively, were amplified from 198 blood specimens collected in Brazil. In Brazil, the isolates collected in Acre state, located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, had the highest percentage of deletions for pfhrp2 25 (31.2%) of 79, while among those collected in Rondonia, the prevalence of pfhrp2 gene deletion was only 3.3% (2 out of 60 patients). In isolates from Para state, all parasites were pfhrp2-positive. In contrast, we detected high proportions of isolates from all 3 states that were pfhrp3-negative ranging from 18.3% (11 out of 60 samples) to 50.9% (30 out of 59 samples). In Bolivia, only one of 25 samples (4%) tested had deleted pfhrp2 gene, while 68% (17 out of 25 samples) were pfhrp3-negative. Among the isolates tested, P. falciparum pfhrp2 gene deletions were present mainly in those from Acre State in the Brazilian Amazon. These results indicate it is important to reconsider the use of PfHRP2-based RDTs in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon and to implement appropriate surveillance systems to monitor pfhrp2 gene deletions in this and other parts of the Amazon region.

MULIMBA JAO. A histological microbiological and immunological study of patients undergoing tonsillectomy for recurrent Sore throats at the Kenyatta national hospital..; 1977. Abstract

A histological, microbiological, virological and immunological study of tonsils removed from patients Buffering recurrent attacks of sore throat was done. The study was done on patients seen in Ear., Nose and Throat (E. N. T.) Clinic and wards of Kenyatta National Hospital (K.N.H.) over a period of three months, September to November, 1977. The
patients' ages ranged between 2 years and 38 years. First 29 tonsils were examined histologically, no specific diagnostic features were demonstrable in any. Of 54 throat swabs taken in the clinic only 9 grew pathogens i.e. 6%. Of the 63 tonsils and
63 throat swabs iros same patients examined microbio-logically, 40 tonsils grew pathogens as compared to only 17 throat swabs. No fungi were isolated in any
specimen although they were looked for.67 specimens of tonsillar arid adenoid mater ial were cuItured for viruses, only 9 grew adenoviruses types 1, 2 and 5. 25 tonsillar and adenoid materials were examined immunologically for lymphocyte activity the result
of which was compared w ith lymphocyte activity in the peripheral blood of the same patients. Serum globulin levels were determined in 30 patients. These levels were generally low. The results were analysed, the literature on the various aspects of management of recurrent attacks of sore throat was examined; and this was followed by
discussion. COG81usions wsre drawn based on the above views expresseJ by many authors of articles on this issue

Sammy M;, Awori K;, Odula P;, Munguti J. "Histological Organization of the Portal Vein: a Structural Adaptation.". 2013. Abstract

The extra hepatic portion of the portal vein has been known to physiologically act as a capacitance vessel while its intra hepatic portion behaves as a resistance vessel. However, the histological basis for these observations has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the histological organization of the portal vein in reference to the observed functional differences in its intra- and extra hepatic portions. Sections of the portal vein were harvested from 24 livers during autopsies at the Chiromo funeral parlor, University of Nairobi, Kenya. They were processed for light microscopic histological evaluation. The structure of both portions was then noted and described. The extra hepatic portion had circular, oblique and longitudinal muscle bundles in its tunica intima, media and adventitia respectively. On the other hand, the intra hepatic portion had abundant fibro-elastic fibers with longitudinal smooth muscles scattered in their tunica media and adventitia. From the results of the current study, the functional differences of both the extra-hepatic and intra-hepatic portions of the PV are accounted for by their different histological structures.

Huang, TT; Lewis SR, Amayo E;, Lewis SR. "A histological study of the lower tarsus and the significance in the surgical management of a involutional (senile) entropion.". 1981. Abstract

The dimension of the lower tarsus diminishes with aging. Changes in the number and size of the meibomian glands and in the character of intermingling fibroconnective tissues are thought to be responsible. Furthermore, such alterations of the structural integrity play an important role in the pathogenesis of entropion encountered commonly in the elderly. We have advocated the use of an autogenous cartilage graft harvested from the ear to correct the deformity, especially in instances where the conventional methods of correction have failed.

Saidi H, Gichangi P MAPK. Histology Module I: Basic Histology. Nairobi: Department of Human Anatomy, UON; 2014.
Waweru W. "Histology of endophalmitis.". 2005.
Dr. Wairimu waweru DM. "Histology of endophalmitis.". In: Kenya Association of Clinical Pathologists Workshop . College of Health Scinces, KNH; 2005.
Mbuthia PG;, L.C. B;, G M;, L.W N;, P.N N;, M. M. "Histomoniasis and other conditions in peacocks."; 2008.
Mbuthia PG;, L.C. B;, G M;, L.W N;, P.N N;, M. M. "Histomoniasis and other conditions in peacocks."; 2008.
Bebora L.C, P. M, G. GM, L.W N. "Histomoniasis and traumatic gastritis (hardware disease) in peacocks.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Scientific Conference , . Nairobi; 2008.2008_-_hostomoniasis_and_traumatic_gastritis_in_peacocks.pdf
Mbuthia P G, C BL, G M, Njagi L W. "Histomoniasis and traumatic gastritis (Hardware disease) in peacocks: Case Reports .". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference. College of Agriculture and Vet. Sciences, University of Nairobi; 2008.2008-histomoniasis_and_hardware_disease_in_peacockc.pdf
G GC, C BL. "Histomoniasis in a Peafowl (Pavo Cristatusl." Indian Veterinary Journal. 1992;69:944-945.
Aseta FB, Mwachaka PM, Odula PO, Malek A. "Histomorphological changes in the cornea of the rat following monocular eyelid closure." Anatomy, an international journal of experimental and clinical anatomy . 2016;10(2):87-93.cornea.pdf
Ogeng’o J, Ominde BS, Ongeti KW, Olabu B, Maseghe P, Machira J, Murunga A. "HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN THE LEFT ANTERIOR DESCENDING CORONARY ARTERIES AMONG BLACK KENYANS." Anatomy Journal of Africa . 2017;6(3):1033-1044. Abstracthistomorphological_features_of_atherosclerosis_in.pdf

The pattern of coronary artery atherosclerosis is valuable in informing mitigation strategies for coronary
heart disease. Histomorphological data on this disease among Africans living in Sub Saharan Africa are,
however, scarce. The left anterior descending is one of the most commonly afflicted arteries. This
study, therefore, examined the left anterior descending artery of 213 black Kenyans [Mean age 36.8
years, range 5 – 82 years] who had died of non cardiovascular causes for features of atherosclerosis.
The individuals were divided into male and female, then into 10-yr age groups. Specimens were
obtained from the proximal segment of the artery during autopsy at the Department of Human
Anatomy University of Nairobi, Kenya. They were processed routinely for paraffin embedding and
sectioning. Five micron sections were stained with Haematoxylin/Eosin and Mason’s trichrome and
examined with light microscope. Micrographs of representative features were taken using a high
resolution digital camera. At least one feature of atherosclerosis was present in 54 (25.4%) of the
individuals. The features observed included severe intimal hyperplasia (34; 63%), disintegration of the
internal elastic lamina [30; 55.6%]; atherosclerotic plaque (20; 37%), adventitial thicknening (14;
26%) and mural neovascularization (10; 18.5%). The mean age of those with features of
atherosclerosis was 38.4 years, range 6 – 62 years with 25 (46.3%) being aged 40 years and below. Of
these, the male: female ratio was 1.7:1. In conclusion, features of atherosclerosis are present in over
25% of the population studied. The disease affects young people, including women. Proactive
preventive measures including follow – up should commence early, and involve both men and women

Karau PB, Ogeng’o JA, Hassanali J, Odula PO. "The Histomorphological organization of the hepato caval Interface in the human." J Morpho sci. 2010;27(3 - 4):148-151.
OCHIENG&#39; DRODULAPAUL. "The histomorphological organization of the hepato-caval interface in the human.". In: J. Morphol.Sci, 27(3-4): 148-351. Karau P.B, Ogeng; 2010.
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