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Odundo P ONIand NJ. "he Effects of Massification on Non-Academic Activities: The Case of the University of Nairobi, Kenya." Education Journal. 2015;Vol. 4(No.2 ):51-59.
Samanta P. "he Mining Sector: Its linkages to industrialization in Kenya.". In: Realizing African Development etc. vol.II.; 2007.
"he need for a national cancer policy in Malawi. Mlombe Y, Othieno-Abinya N, Dzamalala C, Chisi J." Malawi Med J. . 2008;20(4):124-7. Abstract

Cancer is causing a lot of suffering and death in Africa but is not considered a
major health problem in Africa. This needs to change. Cancer should be given
equal emphasis to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria. A national cancer
policy is required in Malawi to develop and improve evidence-based cancer
prevention, early diagnosis, curative and palliative therapy. A national cancer
policy is crucial to ensure a priotised, clear, coordinated and sustained fight
against cancer. When no policy exists, events are likely to be random,
stakeholders and practitioners in the fight against cancer may not agree on how
to proceed, may duplicate efforts or may neglect areas that would have greater
nationwide impact resulting in poor quality activities and haphazard development.

Juma RM. "HE WAS NOW TRASH (a poem)." BOUNDLESS VOICES; 2004. Abstract
n/a
Muthomi JW, Riungu GM, Ndungú JK, Narla RD, Gathumbi JK, Wagacha JM. "Head blight of wheat in Kenya and contamination of grain with mycotoxin producing Fusarium species." Journal of Plant Sciences . 2008;3:52-60.Website
and Muthomi, J. W. RN’u NGWGMJK. "Head blight of wheat in Kenya and contamination of grain with mycotoxin producing Fusarium species." Journal of Plant Sciences . 2008;3(1):52-60.
Okoth UA. "Head teacher characteristics that influence curriculum implementation . ." European Scientific Journal (ESJ). . 2018;14(19):75-89.
Kimani G.N., Gachahi M.W, L.W. N, B. N. "Head teachers’ and Teachers Perceptions Towards SMASE Programme and Primary School Pupils’ Mathematics and Science Achievement in Murang’a County, Kenya." International Journal of Education and Research 2. 2014;8(ISSN 2201- 6333 ):209-220.kimani_3.pdf
Mbunde J, Okoth UA, Nyagah G, Obae R. "Head teachers’ gender on facility management in primary schools in Nairobi, Kenya." International Journal of Educational Science and Research (IJESR). 2015.
Gatumu JC. "Head teachers’ tasks in the implementation of preschool curriculum in Kenya public preschools." Ife PsychologIA: An International Journal of Psychology in Africa. 2010;18(1):12-32.
Cheloti SK, Okoth UA, Obae R. "Head teachers’ use of curriculum strategy to curb Drug and Substance Abuse among students in secondary schools, Nairobi County." International Journal of Educational Science and Research (IJESR. 2015:2249-6947.
Kebenei PJ, W.I K, Cherotich MG. "Headteachers’ preparedness for implementation of performance contract in public primary schools in Bomet County, Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge African Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2016;3(1).abstract_9.doc
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. "Health and Education (with Albert Agbonyitor) Basic Needs Workshop Papers.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1978. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Ngare D, Obondo A, Neema S, Oladimeji BY, editor Ndetei, D.M., Chikovore J. "Health and Illness Behaviours."; 2006.
Munavu RM. "Health and Natural Resources: The Extraction of Useful Chemicals from Plants and their Impact on Socio-Economic Development.". 2005. Abstract

Poverty reduction strategies in developing countries are based on the need to develop and
improve the quality of life of people. The successful strategies link wealth creating activities
of adding value to local resources with employment creation. These strategies lead to
increased capacity to produce needed consumer goods such as food, fuel, construction
materials, textiles and pharmaceuticals starting from local resources. Most value-adding
transformations of materials to consumer goods use chemicals conversion processes

Mwabu G, Nganda B, Bahemuka B. Health and Poverty in Kenya.; 1998.
MUSEMBI PROFNGANDABENJAMIN. "Health and Poverty in Kenya, Benjamin Nganda and G. Mwabu, Chapter 3, in J. Bahemuka, B. Nganda and C. Nzioka (ed), Poverty Revisited. February.". In: international Institute for Development Studies. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 1998. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Olfactory acuity differs among animal species depending on age and dependence on smell. However, the attendant functional anatomy has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the functional structure of the olfactory mucosa in suckling and adult dog and sheep. Mucosal samples harvested from ethmoturbinates were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In both species, the olfactory mucosa comprised olfactory, supporting and basal cells, and a lamina propria containing bundles of olfactory cell axons, Bowman’s glands and vascular elements. The olfactory cells terminated apically with an expanded knob, from which cilia projected in a radial fashion from its base and in form of a tuft from its apex in the dog and the sheep respectively. Olfactory cilia per knob weremorenumerous in the dog (19±3) compared to the sheep (7±2) (p < 0.05). In the dog, axonal bundles exhibited one to two centrally located capillaries and the bundles were of greater diameters (73.3±10.3_m) than those of the sheep (50.6±6.8_m), which had no capillaries. From suckling to adulthood in the dog, the packing density of the olfactory and supporting cells increased by 22.5% and 12.6% respectively. Surprisingly in the sheep, the density of the olfactory cells decreased by 26.2% while that of the supportive cells showed no change. Overall epithelial thickness reached 72.5±2.9_m in the dog and 56.8±3.1_m in the sheep. These observations suggest that the mucosa is better structurally refined during maturation in the dog than in the sheep.
Maitai CK. The Health and socioeconomic aspects of khat use. International Council of Alcohol and Addiction; 1988.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. "Health Care Decision.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1982. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Mwabu G. "Health Care Decisions at the Household level: Results of a Rural Health Survey in Kenya." Social Science and Medicine. 1986;22(3): 315-319.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Health Care Decisions at the Household level: Results of a Rural Health Survey in Kenya", Social Science and Medicine, pp. 315-319.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1986. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Health Care Financing in Kenya: Policy Issues and Potential for Social Financing, in Proceedings of The First Social Science and Medicine Africa Network International Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, Aug 1992, SOMA-Net, 1993, pp 209.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1992. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Health Care Reform in Kenya: A Review of the Process," Health Policy, 32 (1995), pp. 245-255.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1995. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Nyamongo IK. "Health Care Switching Behavior of Patients in a Kenyan Rural Community.". In: Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 54(3): 377-386. Wiley Interscience; 2002. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

E.N. PN. "Health care-seeking behavior related to the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya.". 1994. Abstract

Am J Public Health. 1994 Dec;84(12):1947-51.
Health care-seeking behavior related to the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya.
Moses S, Ngugi EN, Bradley JE, Njeru EK, Eldridge G, Muia E, Olenja J, Plummer FA.
Source
Department of Community Health, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Abstract
OBJECTIVES:
The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya.
METHODS:
A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors.
RESULTS:
Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic.
CONCLUSIONS:
Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
Comment in
 The following popper user interface control may not be accessible. Tab to the next button to revert the control to an accessible version.
Destroy user interface controlChallenges to the control of sexually transmitted diseases in Africa. [Am J Public Health. 1994]
PMID:
7998635
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1615368
Free PMC Article

MUHENJE PROFOLENJAJOYCE. "Health care-seeking behavior related to the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. Moses S, Ngugi EN, Bradley JE, Njeru EK, Eldridge G, Muia E, Olenja J, Plummer FA. Am J Public Health. 1994 Dec;84(12):1947-51.". In: Am J Public Health. 1994 Dec;84(12):1947-51. University of Nairobi Press; 1994. Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Health Care: Household Management of Malaria and Visceral Leishmaniasis in Baringo, Kenya. IDS Working Paper No. 498, May,1995.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1995. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
Ngugi M. "Health Communication Models.". In: UNITID Training Workshop. Kisumu; 2013.
Mburu FM. "Health delivery standards: vested interests in health planning.". 1994. Abstract

The thread of this paper is that vested interests prevail consistently in the formulation of health policy and provision of health services. Several African countries illustrate how the health care standard becomes an end in itself, however ineffective it becomes as population and needs change. Policy is not an exclusive prerogative of governments. Industry of all sorts, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and development agencies use policies to determine, guide and shape investments and, in the case of the private sector, prevail favourably in competition. With a few exceptions, planners plan to depict and alter a particular situation, to improve conditions according to a particular mode, ideology or belief. The planner, like the policy maker, assumes that certain changes will occur if certain decisions are made or actions are taken. In reality, however, policy makers and planners are seldom satisfied with the status quo. The policy maker decides on the basis of available information, albeit incomplete or inconclusive, and believes one option is better than another or that it will achieve the desired goal optimally and at least cost. To formulate policy is to choose a course of action and to plan is to pursue a particular interest. However implicitly, vested interests are entrenched in every policy action. There seems to be four main, but related reasons for any specific health policy: availability of adequate health care; equity of access; cost; and effectiveness/relevance of the system under the prevailing technology. While concerns differ, sometimes quite widely, concern for an effective health system is always paramount. Less than two decades ago, African countries had more robust economies than they have today.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Mwabu G, Schultz PT, Strauss J. "Health Economics for Low-income Countries.". In: Handbook of Development Economics. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2008.
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Health Economics: Potential Applications in HIV/AIDS Control in Africa" (with Joses M. Kirigia, Luis G. Sambo, Emilienne Anikpo and Eddie Karisa), African Journal of Health Sciences, 12: 1 (2005), pp. 1-12.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2005. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
Bwibo NO;, Acham JM. "Health education in Kenya- an overview.". 2006.
Kairithia Fredrick, Karanja JG, Eunice Cheserem, Kinuthia John, Dalton W. "Health education on HIV testing, family planning, immunization, breastfeeding, Neonatal Cord Care and danger signs to mothers at the Naivasha District Hospital, Nakuru County." Kenya Global Research Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology . 2015; 3(1)(ISSN-2360-792):: 065-070.
Mwabu G, Ajakaiye O. "Health Effects of Socioeconomic Status: Methods and Findings." African Development Review. 2013;24(4).
Rustagi AS, Gimbel S, Ruth Nduati, de Cuembelo MF, Wasserheit JN, Farquhar C, Gloyd S, Sherr K. "Health facility factors and quality of services to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, and Mozambique." Int J STD AIDS. 2016. Abstract

This study aimed to identify facility-level characteristics associated with prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission service quality. This cross-sectional study sampled 60 health facilities in Mozambique, Côte d'Ivoire, and Kenya (20 per country). Performance score - the proportion of pregnant women tested for HIV in first antenatal care visit, multiplied by the proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women who received appropriate antiretroviral medications - was calculated for each facility using routine data from 2012 to 2013. Facility characteristics were ascertained during on-site visits, including workload. Associations between facility characteristics and performance were quantified using generalized linear models with robust standard errors, adjusting for country. Over six months, facilities saw 38,611 first antenatal care visits in total. On-site CD4 testing, Pima CD4 machine, air conditioning, and low or high (but not mid-level) patient volume were each associated with higher performance scores. Each additional first antenatal care visit per nurse per month was associated with a 4% (95% confidence interval: 1%-6%) decline in the odds that an HIV-positive pregnant woman would receive both HIV testing and antiretroviral medications. Physician workload was only modestly associated with performance. Investments in infrastructure and human resources - particularly nurses - may be critical to improve prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission service delivery and protect infants from HIV.

Mfinanga GS;, Kimaro GD;, Ngadaya E;, Massawe S;, Mtandu R;, Shayo EH;, Kahwa, A;, Achola O;, Mutungi A;, Knight R;, Armbruster D;, Sintasath D;, Kitua A;, Stanton C. "Health facility-based Active Management of the Third Stage of Labor: findings from a national survey in Tanzania.". 2009. Abstract

Hemorrhage is the leading cause of obstetric mortality. Studies show that Active Management of Third Stage of Labor (AMTSL) reduces Post Partum Hemorrhage (PPH). This study describes the practice of AMTSL and barriers to its effective use in Tanzania. A nationally-representative sample of 251 facility-based vaginal deliveries was observed for the AMTSL practice. Standard Treatment Guidelines (STG), the Essential Drug List and medical and midwifery school curricula were reviewed. Drug availability and storage conditions were reviewed at the central pharmaceutical storage site and pharmacies in the selected facilities. Interviews were conducted with hospital directors, pharmacists and 106 health care providers in 29 hospitals visited. Data were collected between November 10 and December 15, 2005. Correct practice of AMTSL according to the ICM/FIGO definition was observed in 7% of 251 deliveries. When the definition of AMTSL was relaxed to allow administration of the uterotonic drug within three minutes of fetus delivery, the proportion of AMTSL use increased to 17%. The most significant factor contributing to the low rate of AMTSL use was provision of the uterotonic drug after delivery of the placenta. The study also observed potentially-harmful practices in approximately 1/3 of deliveries. Only 9% out of 106 health care providers made correct statements regarding the all three components of AMTSL. The national formulary recommends ergometrine (0.5 mg/IM) or oxytocin (5 IU/IM) on delivery of the anterior shoulder or immediately after the baby is delivered. Most of facilities had satisfactory stores of drugs and supplies. Uterotonic drugs were stored at room temperature in 28% of the facilThe knowledge and practice of AMTSL is very low and STGs are not updated on correct AMTSL practice. The drugs for AMTSL are available and stored at the right conditions in nearly all facilities. All providers used ergometrine for AMTSL instead of oxytocin as recommended by ICM/FIGO. The study also observed harmful practices during delivery. These findings indicate that there is a need for updating the STGs, curricula and training of health providers on AMTSL and monitoring its practice.

van den Carrin, G; James ADEHHKKKKC; M; O;. "Health financing reform in Kenya - assessing the social health insurance proposal.". 2007. Abstracthealth_financing_reform_in_kenya_-_assessing_the_social__health_insurance_proposal.pdf

Kenya has had a history of health financing policy changes since its independence in 1963. Recently, significant preparatory work was done on a new Social Health Insurance Law that, if accepted, would lead to universal health coverage in Kenya after a transition period. Questions of economic feasibility and political acceptability continue to be discussed, with stakeholders voicing concerns on design features of the new proposal submitted to the Kenyan parliament in 2004. For economic, social, political and organisational reasons a transition period will be necessary, which is likely to last more than a decade. However, important objectives such as access to health care and avoiding impoverishment due to direct health care payments should be recognised from the start so that steady progress towards effective universal coverage can be planned and achieved.

ALEXANDER PROFMWANTHIMUTUKU. "Health hazards of pesticides. Mwanthi MA, Kimani VN. World Health Forum. 1990;11(4):430.". In: World Health Forum. 1990;11(4):430. Karimurio Jefitha; Rono Hillary; Richard Le Mesurier; Mutuku Mwanthi; Jill Keeffe; 1990. Abstract

Results of four years' studies from a number of hospitals in Kenya have shown that nosocomial infections in burns units are due to Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Through chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA, the stain is highly resistant to sulphonamide ointment and other antibiotics. 90% of patients admitted in burns units get colonized or infected with MRSA. The strain prolongs the duration of patients in hospitals. The burns degenerate to second and third degree burns, thereby necessitating skin grafting. The environment has been found to be contaminated with this strain with some staff members having chronic throat infections. Minocycline was found to be effective in treating the infected staff members. Cleaning this environment with Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (precepts)/Sodium hypochlorite (JIK) reduced drastically the mechanical transmission of bacteria in the units. The duration of stay of the patient was reduced. This shows that MRSA which is spread in government and private hospitals can cheaply be controlled by the proper use of disinfectants, antiseptics, and use of effective antibiotics when necessary.

NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Health hazards of pesticides. Mwanthi MA, Kimani VN. World Health Forum. 1990;11(4):430.". In: World Health Forum. 1990;11(4):430. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1990. Abstract
A study conducted in a rural agricultural community (Githunguri location) in Kenya between 1987 and 1990 investigated the extent of use of agrochemicals, especially pesticides, by the farmers; their level of awareness of the dangers posed by these chemicals and their attitudes towards agricultural chemicals in general. The findings showed that more than 95% of the farmers used pesticides extensively. More women than men were found to be at risk of agrochemicals exposure, while babies and children were at more risk of agrochemicals exposure than the women. In this community, knowledge and awareness regarding safety in handling and storage of agrochemicals was to some extent limited. For instance, many had no knowledge of an antidote in case of accidental poisoning. Additionally, suicidal attempts by ingestion of agrochemicals was prevalent. Improper handling of the agrochemicals by the community members was implicated to have adverse health effects. These health effects were reported in form of complaints. They ranged from acute to chronic conditions. Consequently, an intervention programme was launched with the women as the key players. It is envisaged that community participation in the on going intervention programme is saving babies, children, women and the community at large from agrochemicals hazards.
J. PROFRODRIGUESANTHONY. "Health Informatics: Implications of Evaluation Models for Developing Countries. Importance of Mathematical Modelling of Biological & Biomedical Processes. Eds. Livingston L.S., Mugisha J.Y.T. & Kasozi J.". In: African Society for Biomathematics. Series 1 pp. 79-94. Kampala :Makerere University Press 2004. MA thesis, Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
n/a
Lown B;, Bukachi F;, Xavier R. "Health information in the developing world.". 2001. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical outcome of successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in patients with poor ventricular function. METHODS: Analysis of angiographic, echocardiographic and clinical records of patients with severe LV dysfunction who underwent PTCA from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1997 was undertaken. Forty-one patients aged 63+/-10 years, 36 men, all with significant coronary artery disease and impaired LV function (fractional shortening, FS

K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Health Insurance in Kenya: A case study, by Germano Mwabu, Joseph Wang'ombe, Gerishon Ikiara, Lawrence Muthami, Mutsembi Manundu, Dr. Simon Kiugu, ABT ASS, Washington, Consultancy report, August 1994.". In: AIDS STD Health Promot Exch. 1995;(2):13-5. SITE; 1994. Abstract
PIP: A consulting firm conducted interviews with managers of 16 businesses in 3 Kenyan cities, representatives of 2 trade unions, focus groups with workers at 13 companies, and an analysis of financial/labor data from 4 companies. It then did a needs assessment. The business types were light industry, manufacturing companies, tourism organizations, transport firms, agro-industrial and plantation businesses, and the service industry. Only one company followed all the workplace policy principles recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. Six businesses required all applicants and/or employees to undergo HIV testing. All their managers claimed that they would not discriminate against HIV-infected workers. Many workers thought that they would be fired if they were–or were suspected to be–HIV positive. Lack of a non-discrimination policy brings about worker mistrust of management. 11 companies had some type of HIV/AIDS education program. All the programs generated positive feedback. The main reasons for not providing HIV/AIDS education for the remaining 5 companies were: no employee requests, fears that it would be taboo, and assumptions that workers could receive adequate information elsewhere. More than 90% of all companies distributed condoms. 60% offered sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. About 33% offered counseling. Four companies provided volunteer HIV testing. Almost 50% of companies received financial or other external support for their programs. Most managers thought AIDS to be a problem mainly with manual staff and not with professional staff. Almost all businesses offered some medical benefits. The future impact of HIV/AIDS would be $90/employee/year (by 2005, $260) due to health care costs, absenteeism, retraining, and burial benefits. The annual costs of a comprehensive workplace HIV/AIDS prevention program varied from $18 to $54/worker at one company.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "Health Last: The Paradox of Jua Kali Enterprises in Kenya Journal of Social Sciences, Series C, Vol. 4, No.1, pp. 44-60.". In: Gender Concerns in Sustainable Community Development: A Research Agenda (Paper presented for publication to UNESCO/UNITWIN, University of Nairobi). Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1997. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
Kairu WM, Gatari MM, Mumenya SW, MUIA ML, Rajagopa P. Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound. IIT MADRAS, CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA; 2018.
Kairu WM, Gatari MM, Mumenya SW, MUIA ML, Rajagopa P. Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound. IIT MADRAS, CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA; 2018.
Kairu WM, Gatari MM, MUIA ML, Mumenya SW,... "Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound." pdfs.semanticscholar.org. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Concrete is one of the commonly used materials worldwide in the construction industry due to its durability [1]. Civil infrastructures such as power plants, bridges and large buildings are typically built using concrete. It is typically composed of aggregate, sand, cement, water as …

E.N. PN. "Health outreach and control of HIV infection in Kenya.". 1988. Abstract

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1988;1(6):566-70.
Health outreach and control of HIV infection in Kenya.
Ngugi EN, Plummer FA.
Source
Department of Community Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
Abstract
This paper highlights the role of mobilization of individuals and community groups and health professionals in prevention of HIV transmission. It traces the educational strategy employed to reach the general population and selected groups at risk. In Kenya, the general awareness about AIDS started to grow in late 1985 and increased in 1986-87. This has resulted in reduction of the incidence of some sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The importance of pretesting education material as well as monitoring and evaluation of educational efforts to lay the ground for culturally appropriate and more effective health education messages to combat HIV transmission is presented. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of developing the HIV infection programs with the people and for the people.
PMID:
3225743
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Ngugi EN;, Plummer FA. "Health Outreach and Control of HIV Infection in Kenya.". 1986. Abstract

This paper highlights the role of mobilization of individuals and community groups and health professionals in prevention of HIV transmission. It traces the educational strategy employed to reach the general population and selected groups at risk. In Kenya, the general awareness about AIDS started to grow in late 1985 and increased in 1986--87. This has resulted in reduction ofthe incidence of some sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The importance of pretesting education material as well as monitoring and evaluation of educational efforts to lay the ground for culturally appropriate and more effective health education messages to combat HIV transmission is presented. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of developing the HIV infection programs with the people and for the people. Key Words: Human immunodeficiency rvirus-Prevention-Kenya-Sexually transmitted diseases.

Kibui AW, Kahiga R, Nyaga G, Ngesu L, Mwaniki BK, Mwaniki I. "Health Policies in Kenya and the new Constitution for Vision 2030." International Journal of Educational Science and Research (IJESR). 2015;2(1):127-134.
Kahiga RM, Kibui AW, Nyaga G, Ngesu LM, Mwaniki IN, Mwaniki B. "Health policies in Kenya and the new constitution for vision 2030." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology (IJSRIT). 2015;2(1):127-134.
Kibui AW, Nyaga G, Ngesu L, Mwaniki B, Kahiga R. "Health Policies in Kenya and the New Constitution for Vision 2030. International Journal of Educational Science and Research." International Journal of scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2014;Vol.2 No. 1:127-134 .
Nyagah DG, DAW K, DL N, MB M, DR K. ""Health Policies in Kenya and the New Constitution for Vision 2030. International Journal of Educational Science and Research."." International Journal of scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2014;Vol:2 (No.1):pgs127-134 .
Oketch Oboth JWB. Health Psychology . Nairobi: Centre for Open and Distant Learning, University of Nairobi; 2009.
Oketch-Oboth JB. Health Psychology.; 2009.
Adwok J;, Wolskee P. "Health psychology and health care interventions in sub-Saharan African countries.". 2012. Abstract

This paper examines the specialty of health psychology which is concerned with individual behaviours and lifestyles affecting physical health. The beneficial role of health psychology interventions in ameliorating the impact of emerging health care issues, in particular, the increasing prevalence of 'Western' diseases in Africans, is presented. The effect of behaviour and lifestyle on chronic illnesses such as cancer and hypertension, and the benefits of health psychology interventions on these illnesses, are discussed.

Kamau E, Kayima J, Otieno C, Maritim MC, Wanzala P. "Health related quality of life of patients on maintenance haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Medical Journal. 2012;89(3):39-45. Abstract

Background: Health related quality of life is increasingly being recognized as a primary outcome measure in treatment of end stage renal disease. The health related quality of life of patients on maintenance haemodialysis is reduced. Several interventions directed at modifiable risk factors have been shown to improve quality of life of patients on haemodialysis.
Objective: To assess the health related quality of life of patients on maintanance haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: Cross sectional descriptive study
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Renal Unit.
Subjects: The study was conducted on 96 patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis. Socio-Demographic and clinical factors were recorded for all patients. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-36 questionnaire. Two summary scores and three sub-scale scores were calculated.
Results: The mean physical composite summary and mental composite summary scores were 39.09+/- 9.49 and 41.87+/- 10.56 respectively. The burden of kidney disease sub-scale, symptom and problems sub-scale and effect of kidney disease on daily life sub-scale score were 16.15+/- 21.83, 73.46+/-18.061 and 67.63+/-23.45 respectively.
Conclusion: Health related quality of life of patients on maintenance hemodialysis is reduced. The physical quality of life is more affected than the mental quality of life. The burden of kidney disease sub-scale is the most affected sub-scale score.

Health Research Ethics Training Manual. Springer Publishers; 2019.
MUHENJE PROFOLENJAJOYCE. "Health seeking behaviour in context. Olenja J. East Afr Med J. 2003 Feb;80(2):61-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 2003 Feb;80(2):61-2. University of Nairobi Press; 2003. Abstract
NTRODUCTION: Family Health International developed a simple checklist to help family planning providers apply the new medical eligibility criteria (MEC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) contraceptive method. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five providers in four countries participated in focus groups to field test the checklist. Before participating in a discussion about the checklist, each provider was given a copy of the checklist, its instructions and hypothetical client scenarios. Providers used the checklist to answer questions about the client scenarios in order to determine if they understood the checklist and if they would correctly determine IUD eligibility for women in updated categories of eligibility on the basis of the checklist. RESULTS: Providers found the checklist easy to use and thought that it would enhance identification of eligible IUD users. Nevertheless, many providers relied on prior knowledge of IUD eligibility rather than the checklist recommendations. Providers only correctly determined eligibility for new categories of IUD use 69% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: The IUD checklist is a useful job tool for providers, but training and effective dissemination of the WHO MEC should precede its introduction to ensure that it is correctly used.
Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, MK & Nyamongo IK. "Health seeking behaviour of mothers of under-five-year old children in the slum communities of Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Anthropology and Medicine Vol. 13(1): 25-40. Wiley Interscience; 2006. Abstract

Prompt and appropriate health seeking is critical in the management of childhood illnesses. This paper examines the health seeking behaviour in under-five child morbidity. It explores in detail actions taken by 28 mothers when their children become sick. Sixty-two in-depth interviews with mothers were conducted from four study communities. The mothers were identified from a demographic surveillance system. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The study shows that mothers classify childhood illnesses into four main categories: (1) not serious—coughs, colds, diarrhoea; (2) serious but not life-threatening—malaria; (3) sudden and serious—pneumonia; and (4) chronic and therefore not requiring immediate action—malnutrition, tuberculosis, chronic coughs. This classification is reflected in the actions taken and time it takes to act. Shops are used as the first source of healthcare, and when the care moves out of the home, private health facilities are used more compared to public health facilities, while even fewer mothers consult traditional healers. Consequently we conclude that there is a need to train mothers to recognize potentially life-threatening conditions and to seek appropriate treatment promptly. Drug vendors should be involved in intervention programs because they reach many mothers at the critical time of health seeking.

MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Health Service Pricing Reforms in Kenya," (with Joseph Wang.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 1997. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
K. PROFWANGOMBEJOSEPH. "Health Services Pricing Reforms and Health Care demand in Kenya, June 1989 to March 1991, Paper Presented at the Fourth Annual Meeting of the International Health Policy Program, Nyon, Switzerland, November 1991.". In: Soc Sci Med. 1993 Nov;37(9):1121-30. SITE; 1991. Abstract

This paper studies the problem of malaria control in irrigation and non-irrigation areas in Kenya. Empirical results show that in both areas, households' level of awareness of malaria as a health problem, including its cause, was very high. However, attempts to trace the direct effects of malaria upon income or upon agricultural production were not statistically important. This does not imply that malaria has no consequence on household welfare. It is possible that the model equations were mis-specified–aggregate variables (total family size, total family income) and failure to quantify land in the production relationships may have contributed to these results. In addition, poor separation of malaria as a disease, from malaria as an infection, may have underestimated the effect of the disease on production. Thirdly, labour substitution (hiring or within-family substitution) was not measured in this early study, but was taken into account in subsequent research. Finally, labour requirements in the annual crop production schedules and the co-relation between these labour requirements and the pattern of adult morbidity were not longitudinally monitored. Cross-section data would bias the findings, particularly in those areas where the peak transmission season is short, where the crop grown does not require major labour input during this transmission season, and where acquisition of immunity would reduce the clinical impact of malaria upon adult labour. These vulnerabilities in the specification of the model and the data collected, probably affect the results obtained. Our empirical work raises a number of interesting and important questions which should be taken into account in future research

MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Health Status and Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Long-term Perspective," (with Giovanni A. Cornia), in: Dharam Ghai (ed.), Renewing Social and Economic Progress in Africa, London: Macmillan Press, May 2000.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
MWIGA PROFMWABUGERMANO. ""Health Status in Africa: A Regional Profile", South African Journal of Economics, 69:2 (2001), pp. 319-335, June.". In: Proceedings Sixth College on Thin Film Technology, July 24th . University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract
The role of pastoralist women in conflict resolution and management (study funded by SIDA though IMPACT)
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "The Health Status in Kitui District. In Socio-Cultural Profiles of Districts. Institute of African Studies and Ministry of Planning and National Development.". In: Towards a Sustainable Health status. In Environmental Development in Kenya,Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1985. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
A. DROTIENOALFREDT. "Health Surveys, Population of Association of America Annual Meeting 1-3 May, Boston USA.". In: Publication of Centre For the Study of Adolescence, 2003. E Afr Med J; 2003. Abstract
Demography India 32 (2): 26-32
English M, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wamae A, Were F, Wasunna A, Fegan G, Peshu N. "Health systems research in a low income country - easier said than done.". 2008;93(6):540-544. Abstract

Small hospitals sit at the apex of the pyramid of primary care in many low-income country health systems. If the Millennium Development Goal for child survival is to be achieved hospital care for severely ill, referred children will need to be improved considerably in parallel with primary care in many countries. Yet we know little about how to achieve this. We describe the evolution and final design of an intervention study attempting to improve hospital care for children in Kenyan district hospitals. We believe our experience illustrates many of the difficulties involved in reconciling epidemiological rigour and feasibility in studies at a health system rather than an individual level and the importance of the depth and breadth of analysis when trying to provide a plausible answer to the question - does it work? While there are increasing calls for more health systems research in low-income countries the importance of strong, broadly-based local partnerships and long term commitment even to initiate projects are not always appreciated.

English M, Grace Irimu, R W Nduati, Wamae A, Were F, Wasunna A, Fegan G, Peshu N. "Health systems research in a low-income country: easier said than done." Arch. Dis. Child.. 2008;93(6):540-4. Abstract

Small hospitals sit at the apex of the pyramid of primary care in the health systems of many low-income countries. If the Millennium Development Goal for child survival is to be achieved, hospital care for referred severely ill children will need to be improved considerably in parallel with primary care in many countries. Yet little is known about how to achieve this. This article describes the evolution and final design of an intervention study that is attempting to improve hospital care for children in Kenyan district hospitals. It illustrates many of the difficulties involved in reconciling epidemiological rigour and feasibility in studies at a health system, rather than an individual, level and the importance of the depth and breadth of analysis when trying to provide a plausible answer to the question: does it work? Although there are increasing calls for more health systems research in low-income countries, the importance of strong, broadly based local partnerships and long-term commitment even to initiate projects is not always appreciated.

Ikamari LDE. "Health Systems Research: A Training Manual.". In: A manual developed for African Medical and Research Foundation. Headquarters, Nairobi; 2004.
Mwabu G. "Health Systems Strengthening.". In: African Medical and Research Foundation, Nairobi, January, 2010, Manuscript.; 2010.
Odero TMA. "The Health Workers for Change impact study in Kenya." Health Policy and Planning. 2001;16(1):33-39. Abstract

HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING; 16(Suppl. 1): 33-39 © Oxford University Press 2001
The Health Workers for Change impact study in Kenya
WASHINGTON ONYANGO-OUMA,l FREDERICK W THIONG'O,2 THERESA MA ODERO.1 AND JOHN H OUMA2
'KEDAHR Project, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, Kisumu, 2Divi§ion of Vector Borne
Diseases, Ministry of Health, Nairobi and 3Department of Nursing Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC)
workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations
between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline,
intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were
collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers
and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system
remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially
from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction,
which can lead to better health worker-client relations

ONYANGO-OUMA DRW. "The Health Workers for change impact study in Kenya. Health Policy & Planning 16 (1): 33-39.". In: Nordic Journal of African Studies 15 (3): 393-40. Population Council; 2001. Abstract
The Health Workers for change impact study in Kenya. Health Policy & Planning 16 (1): 33-39.
MARY MRSODEROTHERESA. "The health workers for change impact study in Kenya.Onyango-Ouma W, Thiongo FW, Odero TM, Ouma JH. KEDAHR Project, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Ministry of Health, Kisumu, Kenya.". In: PMID: 11599667 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Prof. James Otieno-Odek; 2001. Abstract

This paper reports the detailed results of a study of the impact of the Health Workers for Change (HWFC) workshop series on clients' perceptions of health services, relationships within the health centre and relations between the health facility and the district health system. The study was carried out in three stages: baseline, intervention and evaluation over a period of 20 months. Data, both qualitative and quantitative, were collected at three levels: client, facility and system. Results indicate that relations between health workers and clients improved a great deal after the intervention while those between the facility and the system remained to a large extent unchanged. The paper concludes that, with external support and help, especially from the health system level, health workers can work towards improving health services and their job satisfaction, which can lead to better health worker-client relations.

Mugo MG. "Health, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Africa." Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania; 2012.
Kahiga RM. "Health, well-being and welfare in childhood in Kenya." Bloomsbury Education and Childhood Studies.. 2018.
Wakasiaka S;, Donna JS;, Hoang TDM;, Jaoko WG;, Anzala O, Priddy FH. "Health-care Providers'perceptions Of Intravaginal Rings For Hiv Prevention In Nairobi, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Background: Health-care providers form the backbone of health information and service delivery in many African communities. This study investigated health-care providers' (HCPs) attitudes towards a novel method of HIV prevention for women-a microbicide-embedded intravaginal ring (IVR). Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted, covering initial attitudes towards IVRs, potential use among female sex workers, herbal practices for sexually transmitted infection (STI) management and the ways in which populations can access the rings should they become available. Twenty HCPs were interviewed in Mukuru and Kibera, which are informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya, with high HIV prevalence, unemployment and commercial sex work. Results: The majority of HCPs had positive attitudes towards IVRs as a method of HIV prevention in this environment. HCPs liked that IVRs are female controlled and can be used covertly. Overall, HCPs reported a willingness to participate in the distribution of IVRs, and favoured distribution through health facilities at no cost. Conclusion: Findings from this study demonstrate that HCPs are willing to serve as the primary source of IVR information in target communities. However, they require adequate knowledge regarding microbicides and IVRs before these products reach the market

Wakasiaka S, Smith DJ HTDMJAPFHWO &. "Health-care providers’ perceptions of intravaginal rings or HIV prevention in Nairobi, Kenya." Women’s Health. 2013;7(3):144-50.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "Health-seeking and sexual behaviors among primary healthcare patients in Nairobi, Kenya. Fonck K, Mwai C, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M. Sex Transm Dis. 2002 Feb;29(2):106-11.". In: Sex Transm Dis. 2002 Feb;29(2):106-11. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2002. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Bukachi SA, Onyango-Ouma W, Siso JM, Nyamongo IK, Mutai JK, Hurtig AK, Olsen OE, Byskov J. "Healthcare priority setting in Kenya: a gap analysis applying the accountability for reasonableness framework." The International Journal of Health Planning and Management. 2013:DOI: 10.1002/hpm.2197.Health Prioritysetting A4R_2013.pdf
Gichuki JW, Opiyo R, Mugyenyi P, Namusisi K. "Healthcare providers’ level of involvement in provision of smoking cessation interventions in public health facilities in Kenya." Journal of Public Health in Africa. 2016.
B O, HO O. "Hearing disorders in HIV positive adult patients not on anti- retroviral drugs at Kenyatta National Hospital. ." East African Medical Journal . 2010;87:570-573. AbstractWebsite

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and type of hearing disorders in HIV positive patients not on anti - retroviral drugs (ARVs) and correlate this with the world health Organization (WHO) stage of HIV disease and CD4 positive cell counts.
Design: Case control study.
Setting: comprehensive care clinic (CCC) and voluntary counseling and testing centre at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Subjects: One hundread and ninety four HIV positive patients attending CCC and 124 HIV negative subjects recruited from voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) centre.
Results: Hearing loss (HL) was present in 33.5% of HIV positive compared to 8.1% in negative subjects. No gender bias in HL Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was the most common and the frequencies most ‘affected were four and eight kHz

Conclusion: Hearing loss is more prevalent in HIV positive individuals not on anti - retroviral drugs than negative normal subjects. Low CD4 cell count and advanced HIV diseases were associated with increased chance of having a hearing loss. Otological care should be part of the comprehensive care of HIV positive patients.

Sequeira RF;, Ojiambo HP. "The heart in pregnancy.". 1969.
Mulwa J, Barongo J, Fairhead D, Mariita N, Patel J. "Heat source in Lake Bogoria basin mapped using integrated geophysical methods." African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST). 2010;11(1):90-98. Abstract

The Lake Bogoria basin, here in referred to as the study area, is located in the greater Baringo-Bogoria basin (BBB), about 100 km to the north of Menengai geothermal prospect on the floor of Kenya Rift Valley (KRV). It is bound by latitudes 0o 00’ and 0o 30’N and longitudes 35o45’E and 36o15’E within the rift graben. The study area is characterised by geothermal surface manifestations which include hot springs, spouting geysers, fumaroles/steam jets and mud pools. The area is overlain by Miocene lavas mainly basalts and phonolites, and Pliocene to recent sediments and pyroclastics such as tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, superficial deposits, volcanic soils, alluvium and lacustrine silts. The terrain is characterized by extensive faulting forming numerous N-S ridges and fault scarps.

Gravity and magnetotelluric (MT) surveys were undertaken in the basin in an attempt to determine the heat source, characterize the geothermal reservoir, and evaluate the geothermal resource potential of the basin.

Gravity survey results indicate Bouguer anomaly having an amplitude of ~40 mGals aligned in a north-South direction and interpreted to be due to a series of dyke injections and hence the heat source in the basin. The interpretation of Bouguer anomaly has been constrained by using previous seismic results. Seismic velocities were converted to densities using the expression derived from Gardner et al. (1974). The MT survey results show that the geothermal prospect in Lake Bogoria basin is overlain by high resistivity (50-1000 -m) thin (100-500 m) layer which forms a cap rock for the geothermal reservoir, which is subsequently underlain by three distinct relatively thick layers within the geothermal prospect. The first of these thick layers is ~3 km thick and has resistivities ranging between 4-30 -m. This layer is interpreted as the geothermal reservoir and the low resistivities are due to circulating hot mineralized geothermal fluids. The underlying layer is ~10 km thick and resistivity values range between 85-2500 -m and is interpreted to be a fractured and hydrothermally altered basement metamorphic rocks. The relatively high degree of fracturing allows deep circulation of water where it gets heated up by the underlying dyke injections, and convective heat transport to the geothermal reservoir. The substratum is characterized by resistivities ranging between 0.5-47 -m and is interpreted as hot dyke injections which are the heat sources for this geothermal prospect.

On the basis of gravity and MT results, the heat source in Lake Bogoria basin is due to cooling dyke injections occurring at depths of ~6 – 12 km in the subsurface. Gravity method however favours depths of ~3 – 6 km for the heat source. The geothermal reservoir is probably two-phase and the temperature ranges between 150-400oC (Karingithi, 2006). Previous microseismic studies by Young et al. (1991), Tongue (1992) and Tongue et al., (1992, 1994) show that Lake Bogoria basin geothermal prospect is characterised by high frequency of low magnitude (< 3) seismic events which are correlated with surface faulting and multiple episodes of dyke injections. The gravity and MT results in this study are therefore fairly consistent with results from previous microseismic studies undertaken in the basin.

Mulwa J, Fairhead D, Barongo J, Mariita N. "Heat source mapping and evaluation of geothermal resource potential in Lake Bogoria basin, Kenya." Society of Exploration Geophysicists. 2009;28:1294-1299. AbstractWebsite

The Lake Bogoria basin, here in referred to as the study area, is located in the greater Baringo-Bogoria basin (BBB), about 250 km to the north of the city of Nairobi and about 100 km to the north of Menengai geothermal prospect on the floor of Kenya Rift Valley (KRV). It is bound by latitudes 0o 00’ and 0o 30’N and longitudes 35o45’E and 36o15’E within the rift graben. The study area is characterised by geothermal surface manifestations which include hot springs, spouting geysers, fumaroles/steam jets and mud pools. The area is overlain by Miocene lavas lavas, mainly basalts and phonolites, and Pliocene to recent sediments and pyroclastics such as tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, superficial deposits, volcanic soils, alluvium and lacustrine silts. The terrain is characterized by extensive faulting forming numerous N-S ridges and fault scarps.

Gravity survey was undertaken in the study area to map the possible heating source and evaluate the geothermal resource potential of the basin. Gravity survey results indicate Bouguer anomaly having an amplitude of ~40 mGals aligned in a north-South direction and interpreted to be due to a series of dyke injections and hence the heat source in the basin. The interpretation of Bouguer anomaly has been constrained by using results from previous seismic surveys undertaken in the Kenya rift valley by Simiyu and Keller (2001), Keller et al., (1994a) and Braile et al., (1994). P-wave velocities have been converted to densities using the equation derived from Gardner et al. (1974).

Microseismic studies in Lake Bogoria basin by Young et al. (1991), Tongue (1992) and Tongue et al., (1992, 1994) show that the basin is characterised by high frequency of low magnitude (< 3) seismic events which are correlated with surface faulting and multiple episodes of dyke injections. The gravity results in this study are therefore fairly consistent with results of previous microseismic studies undertaken in the basin.

On the basis of the gravity results, the heat source in Lake Bogoria basin is due to cooling dyke injections occurring at depths of ~3 – 6 km. Since a heat source, in addition to fluid circulation, is an integral component of a geothermal system, it is evident that a geothermal reservoir exists in Lake Bogoria basin and the fluids can be tapped for generation of geothermal power.

Kibui A, Mugo R, Nyaga G, Ngesu L, N. M, N M. "Heath policies in Kenya and the new constitution for vision 2030." International Journal of Scientific Research, and Innovative Technology, . 2016;2(1):127-134.
Chersich, MF; Luchters SM; MIM; MK'ola TP; N; M. "Heavy episodic drinking among Kenyan female sex workers is associated with unsafe sex, sexual violence and sexually transmitted infections.". 2007. Abstract

This study examined patterns of alcohol use and its association with unsafe sex and related sequelae among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using snowball sampling. Binge drinkers (> or =5 alcoholic drinks on > or =1 occasion in the previous month) were compared with non-binge drinkers. Of 719 participants, 22.4% were lifetime-alcohol abstainers, 44.7% non-binge and 33.0% binge drinkers. Compared with non-binge drinkers, binge drinkers were more likely to report unprotected sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00-2.53; P=0.047) and sexual violence (AOR=1.85, 95% CI=1.27-2.71; P=0.001) and to have either syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis infection (AOR=1.56, 95% CI=1.00-2.41; P=0.048). HIV prevalence was higher among women having ever drunk (39.9%) than lifetime abstainers (23.2%; P<0.001), but was not associated with drinking patterns. Interventions are needed to assist female sex workers adopt safer drinking patterns. Investigation is needed for the effectiveness of such interventions in reducing unprotected sex, sexual violence and sexually transmitted infections.

Kinyua AM, Owera-Atepo JB, Juma FD, MANGALA MJ,... Heavy Metal Analysis of Industrial Effluents in Nairobi City. 41.204.161.209; 1990. AbstractWebsite
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…, Owera-Atepo JB, Ndwaru TW, MANGALA MJ,... Heavy Metal Analysis of Industrial Effluents in Nairobi City.; 1990. Abstract
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Munyua JK, Njagi ENM, Mangara MJ, Kinyua AM. Heavy metal analysis of Local - and Imported Pica Soils.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 1996.
Munyua JK;, Njagi, E.N.M; Kinyua AM, Mangara MJ;, Mangara MJ;. "Heavy metal analysis of Local - and Imported Pica Soils.". 1996.
Kinyua AM, GATEBE CK, MANGALA MJ. Heavy metal analysis of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and other samples from some workplaces in Kenya. inis.iaea.org; 1998. AbstractWebsite

Air pollution studies in Nairobi are indicating a rising trend in the particulate matter loading. The trend is mainly attributed to increased volume of motor vehicles, the physical change of the environment, agricultural and industrial activities. In this study, total suspended …

M. MRMAINADAVID. "Heavy Metal Concentration levels in Lates Niloticus, A Fish Species from Lake Victoria.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Lake Victoria is the main source of fish that is consumed in the major towns in Kenya, including the city of Nairobi. Some of the fish is also exported to Europe. Surveillance and assessment of heavy metals in the fish is important to ensure compliance with stipulated standards for human consumption. Obviously, noncompliance would lead to adverse health effects to the consumers as well as a ban on our fish exports.
M. MRMAINADAVID. "Heavy Metal Content of Leafy Vegetables grown on sludge amended soils.". In: Inaugural National Nutrition Congress . Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2005. Abstract
Food crops are an important source of minerals that are important to the health of human beings. The main source of these minerals is the soils that they are grown in. The quality of these soils is ameliorated using additives such as fertilizers and manure. Sewage sludge contains important nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in enough quantities to warrant it being used as manure. Some scale farmers who are close to major urban centers use it as a form of manure. However, sludge may also contain harmful heavy metals which when assimilated by the plants will enter the food chain.
Kariuki, D.N. KDK. "Heavy metal Determination in Kenya's waters, .". 1999.
PROF. MAVUTI KENNETHM. "Heavy Metal Distribution in Surface Sediments from Mtwapa and Shirazi Creeks, Kenyan Coast.". In: Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 70:1220-1227 (2003). Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
M DRONYARIJOHN. "Heavy metal distribution in surface sediments from Mtwapa and Shirazi Creeks, Kenyan coast, Bulletin Environmental Contamination and Toxicology , 70, 1220-1227.". In: From Sessional Paper No.10 to Structural Adjustment: Towards Indigenising the Policy Debate. The Regal Press Kenya. University of Nairobi Press; 2003. Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from 183 of 300 raw milk samples collected at the Kenya Cooperative Creamery (Dandora). Ninety seven percent of the 183 strains isolated  were assayed for the production of enterotoxin A, B, C and D. Seventy two (74.2 %) of these were found to produce either a single or a combination of enterotoxins. Raw milk is a potential source of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in milk and milk products especially if there is defective pasteurization.
Muohi, W., Onyari, Omondi JG, Mavuti. "Heavy metal distribution in surface sediments from Mtwapa and Shirazi Creeks, Kenyan Coast." Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2003;70(6):1220-1227.
Nguta JM. "Heavy Metal Residues In Camel Milk From Kenya: Health Implications."; 2012. Abstract

Arsenic and Lead are naturally occurring elements whose toxicity in humans has been documented throughout history. These metals are widely present in our environment due to their natural occurrence and human activities that have introduced them into the general environment such as the use of borehole water and leaded gasoline. Because arsenic and lead may be present in environments where food crops are grown and animals used for food are raised, various foods such as milk may contain unavoidable but small amounts of arsenic and lead that do not pose a significant risk to human health. However, in certain circumstances they may contain high levels that may lead to contamination of milk with levels that may pose a risk to human health. Camel milk samples (n=15) were collected from Nanyuki, Kenya for arsenic and lead analysis. The heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry following protein precipitation by use of trichloroacetic acid. All the samples analyzed had arsenic levels that ranged from 0.007 ppm to 0.099 ppm. These levels were found to be lower than the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended maximum level of 0.1 parts per million (0.1 ppm), while 14 out of 15 samples (93%) had lead levels ranging from 0.072 ppm to 0.449 ppm and were observed to be above the codex standard (193- 1995) recommended maximum level of 0.02 ppm. The above results indicate that the sampled camel milk may not be safe for human consumption.

Muohi, W., Onyari, Omondi JG, Mavuti KM. "Heavy metals in sediments from Makupa and Port Reitz Creek Systems: Kenyan Coast." Environment International. 2003;28(7):639-647.
M DRONYARIJOHN. "Heavy Metals in sediments from Makupa and Port-Reitz creek systems: Kenyan Coast ,.". In: Adsorption Science Technology , 21 (3), 269-283. University of Nairobi Press; 2003. Abstract
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DR. JAMES JAMESGORDON. "Heavy Metals in Sediments from Makupa and Port-Reitz Creek Systems: Kenyan Coast. Environment International 28, 639-647.". In: ENRECA Livestock Helminths Research Project in Eastern & Southern Africa, Nairobi - Kenya, 3rd - 5th May, 2001. World Aquaculture Society; 2003.
S. PROFMBINDYOBENJAMIN. "Heda, P.M., Jeshirani, M.K., Mbindyo, B.S.Tension-Band wiring of the olecranon fractures Proc. Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. pp 83-86 vol 5, 1982.". In: Ass. of Surgeons of E.A. pp 83-86 vol 5, 1982. University of Nairobi.; 1982. Abstract
Kenya is a country of marked environmental and ethnic diversity. A study of osteogenic sarcoma occurring in Kenya from 1968 to 1978 revealed 251 cases, representing between 89% and 100% of the predicted number. Variations in age, sex and anatomical location were within classical limits. However, the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma amongst the Central Bantu was significantly higher than predicted (P less than 0.0001), whilst the incidence among the Western Bantu was significantly lower (P less than 0.002), despite their similar ethnic origins. Two geographically dissimilar areas likewise exhibited significant differences in incidence. The Eastern province showed a higher incidence (P less than 0.02), whereas the Nyanza Province (P less than 0.001) and the adjacent Western Province (P less than 0.005) showed a lower than predicted incidence. These observations suggest that in Kenya a geomedical variable affects the incidence of osteogenic sarcoma and that genetic variation has no effect on incidence.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Hedgerows for control of soil erosion in Kabale, southwest Uganda..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Runoff and soil loss was studied on steep terraced slopes containing various combinations of lines of Grevillea robusta, hedgerows of Calliandra calothyrsus and strips of Pennisetum purpureum in Kabale, southwest Uganda. A factorial design, replicated three times, included three levels of intra-row spacing (0, 3 and 5m) of Grevillea spp. and three understorey types (none, Pennisetum and Calliandra spp). The understorey and Grevillea were interplanted along a contour in the middle of the terrace parallel to the two adjacent risers. Results indicate that when contour lines of trees are on fallow ground there is little or possibly a negative effect in controlling soil and water loss. When contour lines are on steep cultivated terraces they have a significant effect in reducing losses. The understoreys appear to filter out much of the sediment from the runoff, holding it in or above the contour line of the vegetation. The potential for using contour lines of Pennisetum and Calliandra for controlling soil and water loss is discussed.

Mungai, DN; Gachene CKK, Gichuki FN;, Gichuki FN;. Hedgerows for control of soil erosion in Kabale, southwest Uganda..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Runoff and soil loss was studied on steep terraced slopes containing various combinations of lines of Grevillea robusta, hedgerows of Calliandra calothyrsus and strips of Pennisetum purpureum in Kabale, southwest Uganda. A factorial design, replicated three times, included three levels of intra-row spacing (0, 3 and 5m) of Grevillea spp. and three understorey types (none, Pennisetum and Calliandra spp). The understorey and Grevillea were interplanted along a contour in the middle of the terrace parallel to the two adjacent risers. Results indicate that when contour lines of trees are on fallow ground there is little or possibly a negative effect in controlling soil and water loss. When contour lines are on steep cultivated terraces they have a significant effect in reducing losses. The understoreys appear to filter out much of the sediment from the runoff, holding it in or above the contour line of the vegetation. The potential for using contour lines of Pennisetum and Calliandra for controlling soil and water loss is discussed.

Raja, R; Adamali GN; J. "Heel pad thickness in Kenyan Africans.". 1980.
Rono K, Ilako D, Kollmann M, Karimurio J. "Height as proxy for weight in mass azithromycin dosing of Kenyan children with active trachoma." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2008;14(1):13-23. Abstract

Objectives: To determine whether height can be used as an alternative to weight in mass treatment of children aged 1-15 years with active trachoma using azithromycin and propose a height-based dose stick for Kenyan children.
Design: community based operational research Subjects: A total of 2,020 children were included: 987(48.9%) male and 1033 (51.1%) female. 369 (18.3%) were from Kajiado, 772 (38.2%) from West Pokot and 879 (43.5%) from Baringo.
Settings: The study was carried out in three trachoma endemic districts: West Pokot, Baringo and Kajiado. A baseline trachoma survey had been conducted in the three districts in preparation for the implementation of SAFE.
Results: Children from West Pokot were heavier and taller than those from Kajiado and Baringo (P < 0.001). The body mass index (BMI) of the children in the three study areas was comparable. There was a close relationship between weight and height and the distribution was near linear. Height explained 92.8% of the variance of weight. A height based dose stick that recommends the use of 40mg/ml suspension and 125mg (half tablet) incremental dosage predicted doses within tolerance limits (15-30mg/kg) to 98.8% of children and 100%
with extended dose range (13 -35 mg/kg). If 40mg/ml suspension and 1 tablet (250mg) incremental dosage were to be used, the height stick would predict doses within tolerance limits to 97.5% of the children and 99.9% with extended dose range (13 -35 mg/kg).
Conclusions: The theoretical model based on the use of 40mg/ml suspension and
125mg (half tablet) incremental offers better dosing ranges to all the children of West Pokot, Baringo and Kajiado districts when the extended dosage range (13-35mgs/kg) is applied.
Recommendations: Similar studies should be conducted in other trachoma endemic communities in Kenya to determine whether a single height-based dose stick can be used in the entire country. The manufacturer should look into the possibility of producing 125mg tablet for mass treatment.

M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Heinemann Muntu, Joe de Graft.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 1981. Abstract

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M DRKEMOLIARTHUR. "Heinemann Things Fall Apart Achinua Achebe (1st edition 1976 and 2 edition.". In: UoN Press. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; Submitted. Abstract

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James S. Clark, Goncalo Ferraz NOHH, DiCostanzo J. "Heirachical Bayes for structured, variable populations: from recapture data to life-history prediction." Ecology 86 (8): 2232-2242; 2005. Abstract
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OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "HEISLER, N., NEUMAN, P. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1983) The mechanism of intracardiac shunting in the lizard (Varanus exanthematicus). Journal of Experimental Biology 105, 15-32.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
OLE PROFMALOIYGEOFFREYM. "HEISLER, N., NEUMAN, P. and MALOIY, G.M.O. (1983) The mechanism of intracardiac shunting in varanid lizards. Proceedings of International Union of Physiological Sciences 15, 254.". In: Proceedings of the 7th Pan-African Ornithological Congress, p. 17. EAMJ; 1983. Abstract
Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.
MATOGO DROMWEGAABIUD. "The helath equity dimensions of urban food systems. A manuscript in preparation for submission to the Journal of Urban Health.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2007. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
Sokwala, A; Shah MV; DYS; G. "Helicobacter pylori eradication: A randomised comparative trial of 7-day versus 14-day triple therapy.". 2012. Abstract

Background. Helicobacter pylori is associated with several upper gastrointestinal conditions including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric malignancy. Proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapies are considered the standard regimens for H. pylori eradication, but the optimal duration of therapy is controversial. To prevent infection and complications, local studies should be undertaken to evaluate H. pylori eradication rates in a country. Objectives. We compared 7-day and 14-day regimens to determine the optimum duration of triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. Methods. We undertook a prospective randomised comparative trial of 7-day and 14-day triple therapy regimen for H. pylori eradication at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi; 120 patients with dyspepsia and H. pylori infection were randomised to receive esomeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin for either 7 days (EAC 7) or 14 days (EAC 14). Compliance and side-effects were assessed 2 weeks after the start of therapy and H. pylori eradication was assessed by stool antigen tests 4 weeks after treatment. Results. Both the intention-to-treat (ITT; N=120) and per protocol (PP; N=97) analyses showed no significant differences between the eradication rates of EAC 7 (ITT 76.7%; PP 92%) and EAC 14 (ITT 73.3%; PP 93.6%) (ITT p=0.67; PP p=0.76). Poor compliance was reported in one patient in the EAC 14 group. The incidence of adverse events was comparable in the two groups. Conclusion. One-week and 2-week triple treatments for H. pylori eradication are similar in terms of efficacy, safety and patient compliance.

Lule. GN. "Helicobacter Pylori.". 1999.
Okech BA, Irungu LW, J.E. C. "Heliminthiasis in Free-Ranging Indigenous Poultry in Kenya. ." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production. 2006;54(2):92-99. AbstractAJOL

In Kenya data on poultry helminthiasis are scarce and its research has received little attention owing to the less visible and chronic symptoms of helminthiasis that are difficult to discern. To bridge this gap, we examined 604 chicken guts from local slaughter houses in Kenya and then visited 22 homesteads in Central Province rearing indigenous free ranging chicken. A questionnaire dealing with clinical signs of helminthiasis and poultry management practices to assess whether the farmers discerned ill health in their flock was administered. Ninety percent of the slaughter house guts were positive for one or more helminth parasites, including Heterakis spp (28%), Strongyloides spp (24%), Ascaridia galli (14%), Acuaria spp (13.6%), Tetrameres spp (2.5%) and Davainea spp (2.1%) among others. Of the 22 homesteads, one or more reported abnormal conditions in their flock. Ninety percent observed depressed egg-laying, 59% saw weakness in legs and slimy/bloody stool, while 46% observed late maturity (>8months). Eighty two percent of the homesteads feedback tallied with the clinical signs associated with the helminth parasites identified from their poultry at coprology

N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. Hellen Kariuki et. al. (editors). National Palliative Care Guidelines. ( Submitted to MoH for launching). MOH; 2011. AbstractWebsite

The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.

N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki and Teresa N. Kinyari (Editors). National Palliative Care Training Manual. (Manual submitted to the MoH for launch).". In: Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. Ministry of Health; 2011. Abstract
The root of Solanum incanum is used by some Kenyan communities as a folklore remedy for fever, wounds, toothache, and stomach ache. However studies have not been done to validate these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate antinociceptive and antipyretic effects of Solanum incanum root extract using animal models. The antinociceptive assays were carried out using tail flick and hot plate tests on CBA mice. The 100 and 200 mg doses of Solanum incanum root extract showed significant antinociceptive activity (p < 0.05) in both hot plate and tail flick tests. In the antipyretic, assay fever was induced in Sprague Dawley rats using lipopolysacharide (LPS). The 50 mg dose of Solanum incanum extract exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 180 minutes while the 100 mg dose of S. incanum exhibited significant antipyretic effect (p < 0.05) at 120 and 180 minutes after the lipopolysaccharide pyrogen injection. The results obtained renders support to folklore use of Solanum incanum root extract for pain and fever. Keywords: Solanum incanum, Antinociceptive, Analgesic, Antipyretic, Fever.
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki, Titus I. Kanui, Paul G. Kioy. Antinociceptive Potentiation of Pethidine (Demerol) by Clomipramine in the Late Phase of Formalin Test in Mice.". In: Pan African Medical Journal 12, 28, 10 June 2012. EFENET; 2012. Abstract
Background: Pethidine, an opioid analgesic is used for pain management. Clomipramine a tricyclic antidepressant primarily used for mood management is also used to treat pain. The objective of this study was to investigate the potentiation of the analgesic effects of sub-threshold dose of pethidine by a tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine. Methods : The antinociceptive activities of clomipramine and pethidine alone and in combination were investigated in Swiss albino mice using the formalin test. Normal saline was employed as the control. Ten animals were used in each experiment. Results: Pethidine 5mg / kg failed to cause any significant effect while the 6.25, 7.5, 8.75 and 10.0mg /kg showed highly significant antinociceptive effect (p< 0.01) compared to the controls in the late phase of formalin test. Clomipramine 0.5 mg / kg did not show any significant effect while 0.75 mg / kg caused a significant effect (p< 0.05) while 1.00 and 1.25mg /kg caused a very highly significant antinociceptive effect (p< 0.001) in the late phase of formalin test compared to the vehicle treated animals. The combination of pethidine 5mg / kg and clomipramine 0.75mg / kg caused a highly significant antinociceptive effect (P<0.01) in the late phase of formalin test.  Conclusion: This study demonstrates a marked reduction in the time spent in pain behaviour produced by the combination of low dose pethidine and clomipramine in the late phase of formalin test. The findings demonstrate the potentiation of a narcotic analgesic by a tricyclic antidepressant.
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki1, Titus I. Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh B. Patel, Paul M. Mbugua. ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITIES OF TODDALIA ASIATICA ROOT EXTRACT USING THE FORMALIN TEST ON MICE.". In: 14th World Congress on Pain -Milan 2012. International Association for the Study of Pain; 2012. Abstract
Aim of Investigation: Approximately 80% of the world population relies on traditional healers who use herbal remedies. Seventy percent of sub Saharan Africa is reported to be using herbal medicine for management of various medical conditions. Based on anecdotal evidence, herbal remedies used in most communities are claimed to be effective and there is need to evaluate their effectiveness for the benefits to the general population. Natural products still hold the promise for the future of drug discovery in the management pain. Analgesic substances have been purified from plants resulting in the identification of novel structures with known mechanism of actions. The roots and bark of Toddalia asiatica have been traditionally used in the treatment of pain. The aim of this study is to investigate the antinociceptive activities of T. asiatica root extract using the formalin test in mice. Methods: Roots of Toddalia asiatica were sourced, air-dried, powdered and extraction done using dichloromethane and methanol in the ratio of 1:1. The extracts were then concentrated and reconstituted in 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 95% normal saline to achieve working concentrations of 50,100 and 200 mg / kg body weight. The experimental and control animals were injected intraperitoneally 1 hour prior to the experiment. 8 mice were used in each group and each animal was used once. Sensorimotor test was performed on each animal prior to the formalin test. Results: None of the animals showed sensorimotor defect. The 50mg /kg dose showed no significant antinociceptive effect in either the early or the late phase of formalin test.The 100mg / kg dose showed highly significant antinociceptive effect (p < 0.001) in the late phase (15-30 mins) of formalin test while the 200mg / kg dose showed a significant antinociceptive effect (p < 0.01) in the early phase (0-5mins) of formalin test compared to the vehicle treated animals. The 200 mg / kg dose showed no significant effect in the late phase of formalin test. Conclusions: These results suggest that the root extract of Toddalia asiatica has significant antinociceptive effects in the formalin test using mice.
N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki1, Titus I. Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh B. Patel, Paul M. Mbugua. Antinocieptive Activities of the Root Extracts of Rhus natalensis Kraus and Senna singueana.". In: Phytopharmacology 2012, 2(2) 1-6. Inforesights Publishing Ltd.; 2012. Abstractantinocieptive_activity_of_the_root_extracts_of_rhus_natalensis_kraus.pdf

Rhus natalensis and Senna singuaenae are traditional African plants commonlyused as medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain. The plants areused for management of rheumatism among others. This study investigated theantinociceptive activities of R. natalensis and S. singuaenae in Swiss albino miceusing the tail-flick and hot plate tests. Extract solvent (vehicle), morphine andaspirin were employed as controls. Root extract of R. natalensis (100 and 200 mg /kg) and 100 mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the hot plate while the 200mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05). In the tail flick tests, root extract of R. natalensis (100 and 200 mg / kg) showed highly significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.01) while 200mg / kg of S. singuaenae showed significant antinociceptive activity (p<0.05) compared to the controls. The 100 mg /kg of S. singuaenae showed no significant antinociceptive activity in the tail flick. This study lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of R. natalensis and S. singuaenae in the management of painful conditions..Keywords: Rhus natalensis; Senna singuaenae; analgesic,;

N. DRKARIUKIHELLEN. "Hellen N. Kariuki1, Titus I. Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh B. Patel, Paul M. Mbugua. Antinocieptive activity of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. in models of central and peripheral pain.". In: Phytopharmacology 2012, 3(1) 122-129. Inforesights publishing; 2012. Abstractkariuki_et_al_2012.pdf

Toddalia asiatica within the context of traditional African medicine is a commonly used medicinal plant in East Africa for the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. It is used by the Masai in both Kenya and Tanzania for management of rheumatism among others. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive activities of T. asiatica in Swiss albino mice in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail-flick and hot plate pain tests. The extract solvent (vehicle), morphine and aspirin were employed as negative and positive controls respectively. The acetic acid -induced writhing test was used as the screening test and as the root bark extract was found to be more potent than the leaf extract, the former was investigated using the hot plate and the tail flick tests. The root bark extract (200 mg / kg) showed highly significant (p < 0.001) antinociceptive activity in the hot plate and the tail flick tests. The 100mg/kg dose showed significant (p < 0.05) activity in the tail flick test but not significant in the hot plate test. The present study, therefore lends support to the anecdotal evidence for use of T. asiatica in the management of painful condition.

Munene E, Otsyula M, Mbaabu DAN, Mutahi WT, Muriuki SMK, Muchemi GM. "Helminth and protozoan gastrointestinal tract parasites in captive and wild-trapped African non-human primates." veterinary Parasitology. 1998;78:195-201.
MWANGI DRMUCHEMIG. "Helminth and protozoan gastrointestinal tract parasites in captive and wild-trapped African non-human primates, Veterinary Parasitology, 78:195-201.". In: East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. EAMJ; 1998. Abstract
Virology Research Division, Institute of Primate Research, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya. ipr@elci.sasa.unep.no The objective of this study was to investigate the gastro-intestinal (GIT) parasites commonly occurring in captive and wild-trapped (WT) non-human primates (baboons, vervets and Sykes) in Kenya and compare their prevalence. Three hundred and fifteen faecal samples were subjected to a battery of diagnostic tests, namely, direct smear, modified formal ether sedimentation, Kato thick smear, Harada-Mori techniques for parasite detection and culture to facilitate nematode larvae identification. Of these, 203 (64.4%) harboured helminths and 54 (17.1%) had protozoa. The helminth parasites comprised Strongyloides fulleborni 141 (44.8%), Trichuris trichuira 200 (63.5,%), Oesophagostomum sp. 48 (15.2%), Trichostrongylus sp. 73 (23.2%), Enterobius vermicularis 44 (14.0%), Schistosoma mansoni 4/92 (4.3%) and Streptopharagus sp. 68 (21.6%). Protozoan parasites consisted of Entamoeba coli 204 (64.8%), Balantidium coli 127 (40.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica 78 (24.8%). Both WT and colony-borne (CB) primates had similar species of parasites, but higher prevalences of protozoan infection were observed in CB baboons while helminth infections were relatively more common in WT primates. Some of the parasites observed in this study are reported to be zoonotic in various parasitological literatures. Chemoprophylaxis and other managerial practices were believed to be responsible for the lower worm prevalence in CB primates. Similar intervention against protozoa and other agents will not only improve primate health, but also increase safety to animal handlers and colony workers. PMID: 9760061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Githigia S, Munyua WK, Willingham AL. "Helminth infections in goats on mixed farms in Central Kenya.". 1997;(16):32-33. Abstract

A survey was undertaken to study the epidemiology and intensity of nematode infection among goats on eight randomly selected mixed farms in a coffee marginal area of Central Kenya.

Various age groups of goats were ear tagged and faecal sampled at the beginning of the study. They were treated with albendazole 10% at manufacturers recommended dose. These goats were faecal sampled fortnightly. Weights and blood for PCV and serum albumin were taken monthly.

The intensity of infection varied with age groups of the goats and the individual farms.

Fourteen days after treatment, the faecal egg counts were reduced to zero except one farm. Coprocultures revealed that Haemonchus contortus was the main nematode species infecting these goats. Cooperia curticei occurred in low numbers in a few farms.

Waruiru RM, Mbuthia PG, Karanja DN, Ngotho JW, Weda EH. "Helminth parasite infections of sheep in Kangundo Division of machakos District, Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1997;45:115-119.
LW I, RN K, SM K. "Helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of indigenous poultry in parts of Kenya." Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 2004;75(1):58-59. AbstractPubMed link

A study was carried out on 456 indigenous poultry intestinal specimens from various towns in Kenya to determine the occurrence and distribution of helminth parasites in the intestinal tract of the birds. Of the specimens examined, 414 had parasites whereas the remaining 42 had none, which is an infection rate of 90.78%. The main species of helminths found in the intestines were Raillietina sp. (47.53%), Heterakis gallinarum (21.33%), Ascaridia galli (10.03%), Strongyloides avium (9.96%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.61%), Cotugnia digonopora (3.6%), Capillaria sp. (1.5%), Trichostrongylus tenius (1.04%) and Syngamus trachea (0.40%). Most helminths were present in both the mid- and hindguts. Syngamus trachea and C. digonopora were only found in the foregut and midgut, respectively. Although chickens from which the specimens were collected appeard healthy, the high prevalence of helminthiasis observed shows the poor level of helminth infection control practiced by the indigenous poultry keepers in the country, which might affect the health status of the birds and their growth rates. Poultry keepers should be encouraged to prevent, control and treat such cases.

Juma FO, Massawe E, Wasonga VO. Helping Pastoralists to Help Themselves. University of Nairobi; 2011. Abstract
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Bebora LC, Gathumbi PK, Muchemi GM, Gakuya FM, Manyibe TN, Kariuki EK, Ngatia TA, Maina EW. "Hematologic Values of Healthy and Sick Free-ranging Lesser Flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) in Kenya." Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2019;55(1):123-128.abstract.pdf
Gitari A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mwangi W, Konde A, Rashid F. "Hematological and Biochemical Changes in Horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2016;5(4):250-255.
Gitari A, Nguhiu J, Varma V, Mwangi W, Konde A, Rashid F. "Hematological and Biochemical Changes in Horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2016;5:250-255. Abstract
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Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM N-MMCMJ. "The hematological and cardiopulmonary effects of epidural xylazine, lidocaine and their combination in acepromazine sedated dogs." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;3(2):46-51.
Mwangi WE, Mogoa EM N-MMCMJ. "The hematological and cardiopulmonary effects of epidural xylazine, lidocaine and their combination in acepromazine sedated dogs." International Journal of Veterinary Science. 2014;3:46-51. Abstract
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Maina SM, Gitao CG, Gathumbi PK. "Hematological, Serological and Virological Findings in Sheep and Goats Experimentally infected with Lineage III Peste Des petits Ruminants Virus isolates in Kenya." Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Science. 2015;3(1):81-88.
O PROFBWIBONIMROD. "Hematopathological observations in Kenyan children with sickle cell anemia in the first decade of life. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol . 1982 Summer; 4 ( 2 ): 182-6 . PMID: 6180653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Kasili EG, Bwibo NO.". In: Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol . 1982 Summer; 4 ( 2 ): 182-6 . Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 2008; 1982. Abstract

This paper reviews clinicopathological and hematological manifestations of sickle cell anemia as seen in Kenyan children in the first decade of life. The information is based on a study of 447 patients. The findings are similar to those that are well documented from America, West Africa, and other parts of Africa. However, local variations and complications such as malnutrition and topical infections that may affect prognosis are high-lighted.

Chrysant, SG; Gollub DMI; BIS; DKJRS; R;. "Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of enalapril in patients with heart failure.". 1985. Abstract

Placebo and enalapril were added on a double-blind basis to conventional treatment in 14 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), New York Heart Association class II-III. The patients were followed for 14 weeks and their performance was evaluated by a treadmill test, ejection fraction by nuclear scan, cardiothoracic ratio, and Yale Scale score. Metabolic studies were done to test any adverse effects of the drugs. Enalapril decreased arterial pressure and cardiothoracic ratio, and increased ejection fraction. Placebo exerted no significant effects. However, both drugs improved treadmill time and Yale Scale score. No adverse metabolic or clinical effects were observed with either drug. Based on these limited observations we conclude that: Enalapril is a useful ancillary agent to conventional treatment of CHF; it exerts its effects through afterload and preload reduction; and it is safe and well tolerated and has a prolonged duration of action.

Buchanan JR, Kleinstreuer C, Hyun S, Truskey GA. "Hemodynamics simulation and identification of susceptible sites of atherosclerotic lesion formation in a model abdominal aorta." Journal of Biomechanics. 2003;36:1185-1196. Abstract

Employing the rabbit's abdominal aorta as a suitable atherosclerotic model, transient three-dimensional blood flow simulations and monocyte deposition patterns were used to evaluate the following hypotheses: (i) simulation of monocyte transport through a model of the rabbit abdominal aorta yields cell deposition patterns similar to those seen in vivo, and (ii) those deposition patterns are correlated with hemodynamic wall parameters related to atherosclerosis. The deposition pattern traces a helical shape down the aorta with local elevation in monocyte adhesion around vessel branches. The cell deposition pattern was altered by an exercise waveform with fewer cells attaching in the upper abdominal aorta but more attaching around the renal orifices. Monocyte deposition was correlated with the wall shear stress gradient and the wall shear stress angle gradient. The wall stress gradient, the wall shear stress angle gradient and the normalized monocyte deposition fraction were correlated with the distribution of monocytes along the abdominal aorta and monocyte deposition is correlated with the measured distribution of monocytes around the major abdominal branches in the cholesterol-fed rabbit. These results suggest that the transport and deposition pattern of monocytes to arterial endothelium plays a significant role in the localization of lesions.

Johnston MG, Elias R, Wandolo G, Eisenhoffer J. "HEMOGLOBIN AS A MODULATOR OF LYMPHATIC PUMPING FOLLOWING TISSUE INJURY AND SHOCK." Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery . 1991;31(7):10-47.
Storz JF. "Hemoglobin function and physiological adaptation to hypoxia in high-altitude mammals." Journal of Mammalogy. 2007;88:24-31. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Understanding the biochemical mechanisms that enable high-altitude animals to survive and function under conditions of hypoxic stress can provide important insights into the nature of physiological adaptation. Evidence from a number of high-altitude vertebrates indicates that modifications of hemoglobin function typically play a key role in mediating an adaptive response to chronic hypoxia. Because much is known about structure–function relationships of mammalian hemoglobins and their physiological role in oxygen transport, the study of hemoglobin variation in high-altitude mammals holds much promise for understanding the nature of adaptation to hypoxia from the level of blood biochemistry to the level of whole-organism physiology. In this review I 1st discuss basic biochemical principles of hemoglobin function and the nature of physiological adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia in mammals. I then discuss a case study involving a complex hemoglobin polymorphism in North American deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) that illustrates how integrative studies of protein function and fitness-related physiological performance can be used to obtain evolutionary insights into genetic mechanisms of adaptation.

P PROFONIANG&#39;OCLEMENTM. "Henry Odera Oruka Punishment and Terrorism in Africa. The E.A Literature Bureau, Nairobi, 1976, pp 102.". In: The Journal of Philosophical Association of Kenya. Vol. III No. 2 (pp 123-140).; 1976. Abstract
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W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro (with F. Masao). "East Africa and the Comoro Islands." UNESCO General History of Africa. Vol. 3, 1988, pp. 285-296.". In: UNESCO General History of Africa. Vol. 3, 1988, pp. 285-296. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro (with G. Abungu). "Coast/Interior Relations." Archaeology of Africa: Food Metals and Towns 1993; pp 694-704.". In: Archaeology of Africa: Food Metals and Towns 1993; pp 694-704. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro (with K.A. Nyamong). "Culture and Environment: An Overview." Environment 2000, organized by KENGO & NES, Nairobi,1990.". In: Environment 2000, organized by KENGO & NES, Nairobi,1990. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro (with L. Ngari, H. Kiriama and W. Ndiri)Research findings on iron using communities of the Upper Tana and their environment. Ca. 1000 .". In: International Journal of arts and social Sciences, Vol.I 1999 P.P. 48-55. Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
This paper reports on work which was done on the upper Tana in Eastern Kenya. The work revealed a number of iron-using sites which included smelting areas, so-called Gumba earth works and lot of pottery, belonging to triangular incised (TIW) and Kwale Ware. It is concluded that TIW post date Kwale Ware and it is likely the TIW makers/users were responsible for the iron working in the Area.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro (with Namachanja C.FK.). "Transition to Multi-Party Democracy: A Case Study of Kimilili Constituency in Bungoma District,1993." Transition to Multi-Party Democracy Seminar, Nairobi, 1993.". In: Transition to Multi-Party Democracy Seminar, Nairobi, 1993. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry w. Mutoro, Ludeki: Chweya and Wanjala Nasongo: Political Leadership and the crisis of development in Africa: Lessons from Kenya .In good Governance issues and sustaintable development: the Indian Ocean region by Robin Ghash,Kony Gabbay and Abu Siddi.". In: the Indian Ocean region by Robin Ghash,Kony Gabbay and Abu Siddique(eds.) 1999, New Delhi: altlantic Publishers. Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
There is a causal relationship between political leadership and economic development. There is evidence that the deterioration of economic conditions in African since independence is owed to poor management of public economic affairs by the incumbent state leadership. This argument implies that whereas the continent may not be very well endowed with natural resources, this may not be held solely responsible for the existing economic woes. Whatever resources exist are capable of generating economic development, indeed economic breakthrough, if they are harnessed and utilized effectively. Conversely, a country may be endowed with enormous natural and human resources, but may remain characterized by poverty and economic backwardness if it is not endowed with visionary, dedicated and rational political leadership capable of appropriating such resources for the purpose of national development and for the prosperity of the citizens.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. .". In: My emphasis was in archaeology and environment in the region, 1994. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
A sacred site is a place which is considered holy, and is partially or wholly reserved for magico-religious or ceremonial functions. Because of this it is venerated and revered and is kept free from contamination by sin and evil. Sacred sites vary in size from very small places covering a few square metres to large areas covering several hectares of land. They are usually characterized by the presence of artefacts, ecofacts and features that are unique to them; they may be in the open air, or in rockshelters, caves and forests. In many cases, sacred sites have frightening tales told about them, in order to scare off those who would want to destroy or defile them. In the archaeological record, sacred sites may initially be identifiable as burial sites, ceremonial sites or butchery sites. It is on the basis of such clues that other attributes that are typical of sacred sites can be identified, isolated and studied. It is against this background that this chapter discusses the Mijikenda kaya (pi. makaya) as a sacred site.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "A Nearest Neighbour Analysis of the Mijikenda Kaya Settlements on the Hinterland Kenya Coast",Kenya Journal of Sciences,Series C., Social Sciences, of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences Vol.1 (2): 1988, pp. 5-17.". In: Kenya Journal of Sciences,Series C., Social Sciences, of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences Vol.1 (2): 1988, pp. 5-17. Elsevier; 1988. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "African Presences in Pre-Columbian America: Myth or Reality?" American Studies in East Africa, 1993; pp. 3-5.". In: American Studies in East Africa, 1993; pp. 3-5. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "An Archaeological Reconnaissance of Embu." Embu District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1989; pp. 1-6.". In: Embu District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1989; pp. 1-6. Elsevier; 1989. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Bungoma District: Family Life." Bungoma District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1999; pp. 51-60.". In: Bungoma District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1999; pp. 51-60. Elsevier; 1999. Abstract
This paper reports on work which was done on the upper Tana in Eastern Kenya. The work revealed a number of iron-using sites which included smelting areas, so-called Gumba earth works and lot of pottery, belonging to triangular incised (TIW) and Kwale Ware. It is concluded that TIW post date Kwale Ware and it is likely the TIW makers/users were responsible for the iron working in the Area.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Culture and Anthropology of Bungoma District." BPG Workshop '93: Theme: Bungoma, Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow: Bungoma Development in the 21st century, Nairobi.". In: BPG Workshop '93: Theme: Bungoma, Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow: Bungoma Development in the 21st century, Nairobi. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Global Education and Promotion of Peace Between Cultures." Second Soka University Pacific Basin Symposium, Los Angeles 1990; pp. 232-238.". In: Second Soka University Pacific Basin Symposium, Los Angeles 1990; pp. 232-238. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Global Education and Promotion of Peace Between Cultures: The Third World Experiences." The Second Soka University Pacific Basin Symposium, Los Angeles, 1990.". In: The Second Soka University Pacific Basin Symposium, Los Angeles, 1990. Elsevier; 1990. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "History and Archaeology." Kwale District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1987; pp. 8-16.". In: Kwale District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1987; pp. 8-16. Elsevier; 1987. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "History and Culture of Bungoma District." Bungoma Development in the 21st Century 1994; pp.71-74.". In: Bungoma Development in the 21st Century 1994; pp.71-74. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
A sacred site is a place which is considered holy, and is partially or wholly reserved for magico-religious or ceremonial functions. Because of this it is venerated and revered and is kept free from contamination by sin and evil. Sacred sites vary in size from very small places covering a few square metres to large areas covering several hectares of land. They are usually characterized by the presence of artefacts, ecofacts and features that are unique to them; they may be in the open air, or in rockshelters, caves and forests. In many cases, sacred sites have frightening tales told about them, in order to scare off those who would want to destroy or defile them. In the archaeological record, sacred sites may initially be identifiable as burial sites, ceremonial sites or butchery sites. It is on the basis of such clues that other attributes that are typical of sacred sites can be identified, isolated and studied. It is against this background that this chapter discusses the Mijikenda kaya (pi. makaya) as a sacred site.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Human Responses to Environmental Change in the Upper Tana During the Holocene." Work-in-Progress Seminar,Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University, Canberra,1995.". In: Work-in-Progress Seminar,Humanities Research Centre, Australian National University, Canberra,1995. Elsevier; 1995. Abstract
The precolonial trading systems of the East African interior have a great antiquity ml can best be understood by employing a multidisciplinary approach including archaeology, oral traditions, linguistic evidence and documentary sources. Two types oj trade, namely subsistence-oriented and nonsubsistence-oriented or long-distance frai, can be identified. In general, the nonsubsistence-oriented trade was a response demands for unevenly distributed resources at both local and international levels, This is demonstrated by some of the coastal and hinterland settlements for which there is evidence for periods of prosperity. Archaeological evidence from the pre-tenth-century AD settlements on the coast, and documentary evidence of the same period, show how this prosperity emanated from trade transactions between the coast and the interior in response to industrial and labor-force demands in the lands beyond the Indian Ocean, particularly the Orient and Mediterranean Europe. The steadily expanding market for commodities from the interior, particularly ivory and slaves, provided by the international maritime trade especially after the fifteenth century, brought new opportunities for the expansion of long-distance trade. These created and strengthened contacts between the East African interior and the coast, in order to satisfy the needs of the expanding markets in Europe and the Orient, for instance, the Akamba, the Nyamwezi, and the Yao caravans, to name just a few, collaborated with the Mijikenda, the Swahili, and Arab caravan traders to deplete tht interior of its resources for the markets overseas. Trade with the interior not only increased in volume but also witnessed the supplementing of traditional commodities with new ones. From the coast, for example, interior communities got luxury items such as cloth, beads, porcelain, glass, and later guns, which had not been seen in the interior before. In addition to these were cowrie shells, now as a form of currency, certain foodstuffs, and salt. These were exchanged for interior products of the hunt and jar slaves. It seems that interior communities never took the first initiative in tk international trade that characterized this region in the period under review. Ik initiative was always taken by coastal communities in response to industrial growth and labor-force demands overseas. Analyzing the balance sheet of this trade, it my k concluded that precolonial African societies in the interior were not what we would now call astute business people with long-term investment programs. There is little evidence to show that they benefited very much from these transactions, in spite of the active role that they played.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Inter-Kaya Relationships: The Case of Kenya Coastal Hinterland Site." World Archaeological Congress, Intercongress,Mombasa, 1993.". In: World Archaeological Congress, Intercongress,Mombasa, 1993. Elsevier; 1993. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Introduction and Geographical Background." Kwale District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1987; pp. 1-7.". In: Kwale District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1987; pp. 1-7. Elsevier; 1987. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Kenya: Helig boplats Innanfor Muren," Popular Arkeologi, Arg. 9NR 4, 1991, p.26.". In: Popular Arkeologi, Arg. 9NR 4, 1991, p.26. Elsevier; 1991. Abstract

Settlement pattern studies are concerned with relics of human occupation in the past. In an archaeological record, these relics either appear in clusters or individually in the form of pestholes, house floors, house foundations or as middens. On aerial photographs and topographic maps relics of past human occupation can be identified by the presence of circular or rectangular depressional features and stunted vegetation cover in the midst of a flourishing vegetation community. Past human settlements can also be identified in actual field observation as ruins: building structures, walled fortresses, moats, monuments and mounds.

Irrespective of their nature and conditions of preservation, past settlements are a reflection of human behaviour through time and space. The archaeological evidence that is found preserved in them can shed much light on our knowledge of past culture. The essential archaeological problem in the analysis and interpretation of settlement, however, is that architectural remains and other settlement data cannot be understood simply by their description, distribution, cultural attribution and chronology - as they have been from the early anthropological work of Morgan (1881) and Mindeleff (1890) through the first large-scale regional archaeological syntheses, such as Childe's (e.g. 1934) in Europe and Willey (1953) in South America up to the common archaeological survey work of today.

With the influence of modern cultural ecology, geography and sociobiology, settle­ment analysis has been transformed into a concern with environmental and ecological processes. Settlements are part of a complex integration of culture and ecology within a regional environment. As a result, settlement analysis in archaeology must attend not only to the physical layout of the environment, but also to the social and historical aspects of environmental interaction.

W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Land Tenure." Kwale District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1987; pp. 1-7.". In: Kwale District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1987; pp. 1-7. Elsevier; 1987. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Locally made ceramics from the Coastal Site of Takwa", MILA, A Journal of Cultural Research Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi, Vol.7 Nos. 1 and 2; 1978; pp. 44-61.". In: MILA, A Journal of Cultural Research Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi, Vol.7 Nos. 1 and 2; 1978; pp. 44-61. Elsevier; 1978. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "New Light on East African Coastal Archaeology",Kenya Historical Review, Journal of the Historical Association of Kenya, Vol.2 No. 21981, pp. 1-9.". In: Kenya Historical Review, Journal of the Historical Association of Kenya, Vol.2 No. 21981, pp. 1-9. Elsevier; 1981. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "New Light on East African Coastal Archaeology",Kenya Historical Review, Journal of the Historical Association of Kenya, Vol.2 No. 21981, pp. 1-9.". In: Kenya Historical Review, Journal of the Historical Association of Kenya, Vol.2 No. 21981, pp. 1-9. Elsevier; 1981. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Precolonial Trading Systems of the East African Interior In Conah, G. (ed.). Transformations in Africa", Essays on Africa's later past. Leicester University Press, 1988 pp. 186 .". In: Essays on Africa's later past. Leicester University Press, 1988 pp. 186 . Elsevier; 1998. Abstract
The precolonial trading systems of the East African interior have a great antiquity ml can best be understood by employing a multidisciplinary approach including archaeology, oral traditions, linguistic evidence and documentary sources. Two types oj trade, namely subsistence-oriented and nonsubsistence-oriented or long-distance frai, can be identified. In general, the nonsubsistence-oriented trade was a response demands for unevenly distributed resources at both local and international levels, This is demonstrated by some of the coastal and hinterland settlements for which there is evidence for periods of prosperity. Archaeological evidence from the pre-tenth-century AD settlements on the coast, and documentary evidence of the same period, show how this prosperity emanated from trade transactions between the coast and the interior in response to industrial and labor-force demands in the lands beyond the Indian Ocean, particularly the Orient and Mediterranean Europe. The steadily expanding market for commodities from the interior, particularly ivory and slaves, provided by the international maritime trade especially after the fifteenth century, brought new opportunities for the expansion of long-distance trade. These created and strengthened contacts between the East African interior and the coast, in order to satisfy the needs of the expanding markets in Europe and the Orient, for instance, the Akamba, the Nyamwezi, and the Yao caravans, to name just a few, collaborated with the Mijikenda, the Swahili, and Arab caravan traders to deplete tht interior of its resources for the markets overseas. Trade with the interior not only increased in volume but also witnessed the supplementing of traditional commodities with new ones. From the coast, for example, interior communities got luxury items such as cloth, beads, porcelain, glass, and later guns, which had not been seen in the interior before. In addition to these were cowrie shells, now as a form of currency, certain foodstuffs, and salt. These were exchanged for interior products of the hunt and jar slaves. It seems that interior communities never took the first initiative in tk international trade that characterized this region in the period under review. Ik initiative was always taken by coastal communities in response to industrial growth and labor-force demands overseas. Analyzing the balance sheet of this trade, it my k concluded that precolonial African societies in the interior were not what we would now call astute business people with long-term investment programs. There is little evidence to show that they benefited very much from these transactions, in spite of the active role that they played.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Production Systems and Labour." Kwale District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1987; pp. 25-32:25-32.". In: Kwale District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1987; pp. 25-32:25-32. Elsevier; 1987. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Property Ownership and Inheritance." Kwale District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1987; pp. 39-44.". In: Kwale District Socio-Cultural Profile Project 1987; pp. 39-44. Elsevier; 1987. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Settlement Origins and Development on the Kenya Coastal Hinterland." Urban Origins in East Africa 1988; pp. 73-75.". In: Urban Origins in East Africa 1988; pp. 73-75. Elsevier; 1998. Abstract
There is a causal relationship between political leadership and economic development. There is evidence that the deterioration of economic conditions in African since independence is owed to poor management of public economic affairs by the incumbent state leadership. This argument implies that whereas the continent may not be very well endowed with natural resources, this may not be held solely responsible for the existing economic woes. Whatever resources exist are capable of generating economic development, indeed economic breakthrough, if they are harnessed and utilized effectively. Conversely, a country may be endowed with enormous natural and human resources, but may remain characterized by poverty and economic backwardness if it is not endowed with visionary, dedicated and rational political leadership capable of appropriating such resources for the purpose of national development and for the prosperity of the citizens.
W PROFMUTOROHENRY. "Henry W. Mutoro. "Settlement Origins and Development on the Kenya Coastal Hinterland." Urban Origins in East Africa 1988; pp. 73-75.". In: Urban Origins in East Africa 1988; pp. 73-75. Elsevier; 1987. Abstract
This chapter attempts to re-evaluate the history of the East African coast and the Comores between the seventh and eleventh centuries. This is being done with a view to correcting the false picture painted by historians and/or archaeologists of the colonial school of thought, who presented rather a history of foreign traders and colonizers credited with the civilization of the coast. The role of outsiders in the early history of the East African coast cannot be denied, but it is one thing to be part of a process of change and completely another to claim responsibility for the process. Recent research, however, is slowly but surely making it very clear that the history of the East African coast is the history of indigenous African populations and their interaction with the environment

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