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Amolo M. D ivination among the Luo community . Nairobi: University of Nairobi.; 1997.
O. MRKOTENGDAVID. "D O Koteng.". In: Third Sub-Regional Workshop on Natural Disaster Prevention. 19-23 June 1995, United Nations Conference Center, Nairobi, Kenya. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1995. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
O. MRKOTENGDAVID. "D O Koteng.". In: 22-24 April 1987, Kenyatta International Conference Center, Nairobi, Kenya. Pp 81-83. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1987. Abstract
Open wound healing following dehorning using a wire saw was observed in 25 cattle aged between 1 and 5 years. Initially, there was a marked thickening of the scab over the wound as a ridge near the skin margin. A pale yellow to pink membrane then developed from the sides of the frontal sinus opening. Granulation tissue formed to fill the frontal sinus opening before healing by epithelization, followed by wound contraction. In some animals a bony horn stump projecting about 2-3 mm above the wound surface appeared which underwent osteosis; the dead bone gradually loosened and fell off during the healing process; histological sections revealed the presence of numerous osteoclasts lining the bone spicules. The presence of the frontal sinus and the stump of the horn processes left after dehorning are factors that make the healing of an open dehorning wound unique compared with other wounds
Rading GO. "D O Mbuge, L Gumbe and G O Rading: Analysis of the Weld Strength of High Density Polyethylene Dam Liner." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2010;11(2):12-23.
Rading GO. D O Mbuge, L Gumbe and G O Rading: Service Life of HDPE Plastic Dam Lining. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2012.
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "D'Costa LJ, Ndinya-Achola Haase D, Fransen L, Nsanze H. Treatment of PPNG with Regimens involving Augmentin with or without Probenecid, and Penicillin + Probenecid with or without a small dose of Augmentin. Afr. J. Sex. Trans. Dis. Vol. 2: No. 1, 1986.". In: Afr. J. Sex. Trans. Dis. Vol. 2: No. 1, 1986. IBIMA Publishing; 1986. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D. Ilako, F. D. Ngounou, K. H. M. Kollmann, R. Waigwa, Ndinya-Achola Magnitude and character of aqueous humour and vitreous body contamination of patients with perforating eye injuries East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2002).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2002). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D. Ilako, F. D. Ngounou, K. H. M. Kollmann, R. Waigwa, Ndinya-Achola Magnitude and character of aqueous humour and vitreous body contamination of patients with perforating eye injuries East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2002).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2002). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D. Ilako, F. D. Ngounou, K. H. M. Kollmann, R. Waigwa, Ndinya-Achola Magnitude and character of aqueous humour and vitreous body contamination of patients with perforating eye injuries East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2002).". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1, (2002). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.

MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "D. K. Kariuki, J.O. Miaron, A.K. Kuria, J. Mugweru and A. Mwaura (2003). Synergistic Effects of �� -Cypermethrin and Dimethoate against Insect Pests. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6, 64-68.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. EAMJ; 2003. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "D. M. Nyariki, A. W. Mwang.". In: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 4(7), pp. 430-436. J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2009. Abstract
Land degradation is a major problem in the semi-arid environments of Sub-Saharan Africa. Fighting land degradation is essential to ensure the sustainable and long-term productivity of the habited semiarid lands. In Kenya, grass reseeding technology has been used to combat land degradation. However, despite the use of locally adapted perennial grass species namely Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye) failure still abound. Therefore, more land is still being degraded. The aim of this study was to determine the main factors which contribute to failures in rehabilitating denuded patches in semi-arid lands of Kenya. A questionnaire was administered to capture farmer perceptions on failures on rangeland rehabilitation using grass reseeding technology. Rainfall data was collected during the study period. Moreover, rehabilitation trials using the three grasses were done under natural rainfall. Results from this study show that climatic factors mainly low amounts of rainfall to be the main contributor to rehabilitation failures. 92% of the respondents asserted that reseeding fails because of low rainfall amounts received in the area. The study area received a total of 324 mm of rainfall which was low compared to the average annual mean of 600mm. Reseeded trial plots also failed to establish due to the low amounts of rainfall received. This showed how low rainfall is unreliable for reseeding. Other factors namely destruction by the grazing animals, pests and rodents, flush floods, poor sowing time, poor seed quality, lack of enough seed and weeds also contribute to rehabilitation failures in semi-arid lands of Kenya.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "D. M. Nyariki,a,1, A. W.Mwang.". In: Kamla-Raj 2009 J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2009. Abstract
Participatory rural appraisal techniques and a survey of 100 households were used to evaluate livestock production, and pastoral development of the Maasai in Mara. It was observed that patterns of land-use have principally changed from nomadic pastoralism to sedentary pastoralism, agropastoralism, and, in some cases, pure cultivation. These trends have adversely affected livestock production and the productive capacity of the Mara ecosystem. Diminishing grazing area occasioned by expanding cropping patterns has negatively impacted on vegetation resources and the biodiversity of the ecosystem. It has also increased the intensity of conflict over diminishing land resources. Because the production system is largely subsistence with a strong livestock base, it is further undermined by, among other factors, animal diseases, water scarcity, land individualisation, poor marketing infrastructure, and livestock/wildlife conflicts. Based on the findings of the present study, development approaches need to emphasize integrated livestock and wildlife utilization, land tenure reforms that embody livestock mobility as a key strategy of optimising the use of transient forage resources, disease control, and development of livestock marketing.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D. O. Kihurani, V. M. Nantulya, S. M. Mbiuki, E. Mogoa, J. Nguhiu-Mwangi and P. M. F. Mbithi. Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya.". In: Tropical Animal Health and Production Volume 26, Number 2 / June, 1994, 95-101. AWC and FES; 1993. Abstract

Equines are particularly susceptible to infection withTrypanosoma evansi andT. brucei, but rarely is naturalT. congolense andT. vivax infection seen in horses. An outbreak of trypanosomosis occurred in a herd of horses used for patrolling the pineapple fields on the Del Monte Farm, Thika, Kenya initially involving 6 horses. On subsequent screening of the entire group,T. brucei,T. congolense andT. vivax infections were detected in 16 of the 35 horses. The tests used for diagnosis included microscopic examination of stained blood smears, buffy coat technique, mouse inoculation and antigen detection enzyme immunoassay (antigen ELISA).

E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "D.E Kapule and J.G. Wandera, 1986. Crop Production in Samburu District. Republic of Kenya. Samburu District Socio-Cultural profiles.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "D.E. Kapule 1986 Physico-geographical characteristics of Samburu District Republic of Kenya. Samburu District of Kenya. Samburu District Socio-cultural Profiles.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "D.E. Kapule and J.G. Wandera, 1986, Livestock Production in Samburu District. Republic of Kenya. Samburu District Socio-Cultural Profiles.". In: Nairobi University Press. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1986. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
E. DRKAPULEDANIEL. "D.E. Kapule, 1976 Ph.D Thesis on characteristics of relief of Kilifi Area Kenya in relation to the study of Endogenetic Ore deposits.". In: John Wiley & Sons. Publishers Chichester. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1976. Abstract
PMID: 614126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "D.E. Zavala, S. Bokongo, A.J Ime, I.M Senoga, R.E Mtonga, A.Z Mohammed, W.A. Odhiambo and P. Olupot Olupot; A Multinational Injury Surveillance System Pilot Project in Africa; 2007, 28: 4.431.". In: JPHP. Journal of Public Health Policy; 2007. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.
A DRODHIAMBOWALTER. "D.E. Zavala, S. Bokongo, A.J Ime, I.M Senoga, R.E Mtonga, A.Z Mohammed, W.A. Odhiambo and P. Olupot Olupot; A Multinational Injury Surveillance System Pilot Project in Africa; 2007, 28: 4.431.". In: JPHP. Journal of Public Health Policy; 2007. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pattern and characteristics of patients admitted with firearm injuries (FAIs) and establish the morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), January 2004 to December 2005. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with physically evident firearm injury. RESULTS: There were a total of 717 patients recorded with FAIs constituting 0.6% of the total number of patients seen in the casualty. Of these, 421 (58.7%) were admitted and treated as in- patients. A firearm was used in 6.7% of the 6300 assault cases recorded in 2004 and in 9.7% of the 3079 cases recorded in 2005. The increase from 6.7% in 2004 to 9.7% in 2005 was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There were 370 (87.9%) males and 49 (11.6%) females giving a male to female ratio of 7.5:1. The mean age was 29.7 +/- 10.9 years with a range of 3 to 66 years. At least 262 (62.2%) of the 421 admitted FAI casualties were treated under general anaesthesia (GA). The average duration of operation per patient was 2 +/- 1.5 hours. CONCLUSION: FAIs are on the increase and affect all age groups but is largely a disease of a young male adult in the 3rd and 4th decade of life. Mortality is higher with increasing age while female victims are fewer but on average six years younger than males. The lower extremities are the commonest target among the survivors. However, abdominal wounds tend to be the most lethal, accounting for greater mortality.

N.K. PROFNJOROGEBERNARD. "D.M.Migwi, B.N.K.Njoroge and D.M.Wanjau .". In: University of Nairobi. Boniface Kavoi, Andrew Makanya, Jameela Hassanali, Hans-Erik Carlsson, Stephen Kiama; 2001. Abstract
Performance and effectiveness of anaerobic process with biomass recycle, analogous to activated sludge process, in the treatment of high-strength brewery wastewater was investigated. This was achieved by using laboratory bench scale anaerobic digester, at organic loading rate in the range of 0.29 to 10kg Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) m-3d-1 which was much higher than the theoretical values in the conventional anaerobic process (continuous stirred tank reactor), that ranges between 0.25 to 3.00 kg COD m-3d-1. The study was undertaken using brewery wastewater collected from Thika Brewery Limited in Kenya. The experimental results showered that the recycled process achieved a percentage COD removal of between 86% and 95% while the conventional anaerobic process achieved between 66% and 84% for the same range of volumetric loading rate at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days. The recycled process had a shorter start-up time and responded much better to changes in both hydraulic and organic loading rates. Gas production was higher in the recycled process than in the conventional process. The methane yield at standard temperature (20 C) ranged between 0.25 and 0.32 m3/kg COD removed foe the recycled process while it was between 0.19 and 0.30m-3kg COD for conventional process. The experimental result showed that most of the COD removed was converted to methane as opposed to biomass synthesis. This has an added advantage in that there is less sludge production for the recycled process. The results of the study show that anaerobic process with biomass recycle holds potential for treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater, like brewery effluent. Such a process could result in savings, in reduced sludge to be disposed and better effluent than is possible with the conventional anaerobic digestion process.
PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.O. Kihurani, V.M. Nantulya, S.M. Mbiuki, E. Mogoa, J. Nguhiu-Mwangi and P.M.F. Mbithi (1994). Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolese and T. vivax infections in horses on a farm in Kenya. Trop. Anim. Hlth., Prod. 26 95-101.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1994. Abstract

The ease of cast breakage, the extent of cast wearing at the foot, the ability to bear weight on the cast limb, athe severity of lameness and cast related complications were compared clinically in three groups of six calves each, cast with three different plaster of Paris bandages namely Plasrun-gyps, Veronese and Salvagyps, and oberstaions made over the next 21 days. The casts were applied following aseptic joint surgery for immobilization. Cast breakage was seen in only one case in which Plasrun-gyps was used but observed most of the cases cast with Salvagyps and Veronese. Cast breakage was most often seen at the foot, in all plaster casts. All casts enables weight bearing in all calves and when lameness was seen to be severe this was due to broken casts whose edges impinged on soft tissue causing pain. On the basis of its having minimal breakages on clinical application, Plasrun-gyps was the most suitable for use on the limbs of calves.

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "D.O.Ochiel, EOWango, C Sekadde-Kigondu et al. Effect of Menstrual cycle on local mucosal imuunity to SHIV within the reproductive tract of Baboons (Papio anubis): preliminary findings. Journal of Medical Primatology 32, 161 2003.". In: Journal of Medical Primatology 32, 161 2003. uon press; 2003. Abstract
The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D.R. Ilako, M. Bhaiji, M.S. Masinde Immunoglobulin Levels in Tears M.Med Thesis 1991.". In: M.Med Thesis 1991. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D.R. Ilako, M. Bhaiji, M.S. Masinde Immunoglobulin Levels in Tears M.Med Thesis 1991.". In: M.Med Thesis 1991.; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL, R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D.R. Ilako, M. Bhaiji, M.S. Masinde Immunoglobulin Levels in Tears M.Med Thesis 1991.". In: M.Med Thesis 1991. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1991. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.

R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D.R. Ilako, W. Mathenge, P.V. Choksey Ocular Manifestation of Rheumatoid Arthritis, E.A.J.O. Volume 9. 1999.". In: E.A.J.O. Volume 9. 1999. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
R. DRILAKODUNERA. "D.R. Ilako, W. Mathenge, P.V. Choksey Ocular Manifestation of Rheumatoid Arthritis, E.A.J.O. Volume 9. 1999.". In: E.A.J.O. Volume 9. 1999. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.R. Ndeereh, P.M.F. Mbithi and D.O. Kihurani (2000). Evaluation of 4-aminopyridine for the reversal of xylazine sedation in goats. Israel J. Vet. Med. 35 (1) pp. 23-26.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2000. Abstract

An assessment of the effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on xylazine-induced sedation in goats was done. Twelve small clinically healthy East African goats were used. The goats were randomly divided into two groups of six animals. Xylazine was administered intramuscularly (IM) at 0.44mg/kg. Group 1 goats were given 1ml water for injection intravenously (IV) and served as the controls. Group 2 goats were given 0.15 percent 40AP at 0.4 mg/kg IV and served as the test group. The heart rates, respiratory rates, rates of ruminal movements, the standing times, total recovery times, pain sensation, pedal as well as the palpebral reflexes and the recovery phenomena were assessed. There was a faster return to near normal values of heart rates, respiratory rates, rates of ruminal movements, sensation to pain and re-appearance of reflexes in the 4-AP treated goats compared with the controls. The mean standing times (MST) and mean total recovery times (MTRT) were significantly reduced (P<0.05). However, 4-AP produced rough recovery phenomena that were undesirable. The results indicated that 4-AP is a potent reversal agent for sedation caused by xylazine in goats.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.R. Ndeereh, P.M.F. Mbithi and D.O. Kihurani (2001). The reversal of xylazine hydrochloride by yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine in goats. Tydskr.S.Afr.vet.Ver. (2001) 72(2): 64-67.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2001. Abstract

Yohimbine, 4-aminopyridine, and a combination of the 2 drugs were studied to assess their potential as antagonists to xylazine in goats. Twenty-four small East African goats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 6 goats each in a placebo-controlled study. They were all treated with intramuscular xylazine at 0.44 mg/kg. At the time of maximum sedation, sterile water was administered intravenously to the control group, 0.15% 4-aminopyridine at 0.4mg/kg to Group 2, 0.1% yohimbine at 0.25 mg/kg to Group 3, and the combination of the 2 drugs at the same dose rates to Group 4. The yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination was also used to antagonise xylazine at 0.88mg/kg in 6 goats. The heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, the pedal and palpebral reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimuli, the standing time and the total recovery time were established and evaluated to assess the effects of the treatments. The drugs reversed the xylazine-induced decrease in the heart rate, respiratory rate and rate of ruminal movements, and also rapidly restored the reflexes as well as the reaction to noxious stimulation. In addition, they significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the mean standing time. The mean total recovery time was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by 4-aminopyridine and the yohimbine/4-aminopyridine combination, but non-significantly (P > 0.05) by yohimbine. No relapse in sedation occurred. Overall, the combination of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine produced better responses than the individual drugs, and may therefore be used for rapid reversal of xylazine-induced sedation in goats. Yohimbine or 4-aminopyridine may also be useful for this purpose but recovery may be prolonged.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.R. Ndeereh, P.M.F. Mbithi and D.O. Kihurani. (2000). Clinical and experimental evaluation of yohimbine for the reversal of xylazine anaesthesia in goats. Kenya Vet. Journal 24 pp. 69-72.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2000. Abstract

Three preliminary experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of three medicinal plants used as anthelmintics in humans and livestock in Kibwezi and Tunyo divisions of Makueni and Marakwet District respectively. At double the dosage used traditionally, powdered Albizia anthelmintica, fresh Maerua ssubcordata, powdered M. Edulis, fresh M. edulis and fresh albizia anthelmintica had a percentage faecal egg count reduction of 55.4, 51.4, 49.4, 16.2 and 13.5 percent respectively.

"D.S.B. Ongarora, G.N. Thoithi, F. N. Kamau, K.O. Abuga, J.W. Mwangi and I.O. Kibwage (2009). Triterpenoids from the Stem Bark if Blighia unijugata Bak (Sapindaceae)."; 2009. Abstract

Two pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated, for the first time, from the stem bark of Bligtiia unijugat
The structures of the two compounds were elucidated 011 the basis of their spectral data as friedel

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.W Gakuya, P.M.F. Mbithi, T.E Maitho and N.K.R. Musimba (2004). Potential use of plant antihelmintics for the control of livestock helminthoses in Kenya. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 26 pp. 14-26.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2004. Abstract

Anthelmintic activity of the water extracts of Albizia anthemintica bark and Maerua_edulis root was evaluated in mice that had been experimentally infected with the instestinal nematode heligmosmoides polygyrus. The mice were randomly allocated into six treatment grops and once control group. Groups 1,2 and 3 were given and one dose of water extratss of a. anthelmintica at 5gm/kg, 10gm/kg and 20 gm/kg bodyweight respectively in a divided dose on day 17 post-infection. Groups 4, 5 and 6 were given water extracts of M. edulis at a dosage of 5 gm/kg, 10gm aand 20 gm bodyweight respectively in a divided dose. Group 7 was the control and was concurrently gien a double oral dose of 0.2ml pf physiological saline each. Mortality of some mice was observed in four groups after treatment. Five days after treatment, faecal worm egg count reduction was determined. The results showed a percentage faecal H. polygyrus egg count reduction of 72%, 69%, 50%, 42% in groups 2,6,3 and I respectively. Seven days after treatment there was a reduction I worm counts at postmortem of 68%, 36%, 20%, 19%, 16% and 14% in groups 1,5,2,3, 6 and 4 respectively compared to untreated controls. These results indicate that the plant extracts had anthelmintic activity and support the use f these plants as anthelmintics.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "D.W. Gakuya, P.M.F. Mbithi and N.K.R. Musimba (2000). Preliminary study of three medicinal plants used as antihelmintics for livestock in Kibwezi and Tunyo divisions of Makueni and Marakwet districts, Kenya. Kenya Vet. Journal 24 pp. 81-93.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 2000. Abstract

Three preliminary experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of three medicinal plants used as anthelmintics in humans and livestock in Kibwezi and Tunyo divisions of Makueni and Marakwet District respectively. At double the dosage used traditionally, powdered Albizia anthelmintica, fresh Maerua ssubcordata, powdered M. Edulis, fresh M. edulis and fresh albizia anthelmintica had a percentage faecal egg count reduction of 55.4, 51.4, 49.4, 16.2 and 13.5 percent respectively.

W. MK. "Dahl." Hekima: Journal of Humanities and social Sciences, Vol. 2 No.1; 2003. Abstract
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Lingappa JR, Baeten JM, Wald A, Hughes JP, Thomas KK, Mujugira A, Mugo N, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Kidoguchi L, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L, Celum C. "Daily acyclovir for HIV-1 disease progression in people dually infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. 2010;375(9717):824-33. Abstract

Most people infected with HIV-1 are dually infected with herpes simplex virus type 2. Daily suppression of this herpes virus reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations, but whether it delays HIV-1 disease progression is unknown. We investigated the effect of acyclovir on HIV-1 progression.

Berkley JA, Ngar M, JT, Mutai B, KA. "Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to prevent mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial ." Lancet Glob Health . 2016;4:464-73. Abstractdaily_cotrimoxazole_prophylaxis_to_prevent__mortality.pdf

Children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a greatly increased risk of mortality
from infections while in hospital and after discharge. In HIV-infected children, mortality and admission to hospital
are prevented by daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, despite locally reported bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole. We aimed to assess the efficacy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on survival in children without HIV being treated for complicated SAM

H DRONYANGOWALTER. "Daily guide - illustration and cover design.". In: Scripture Union Publication. IPPNW; 1994. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
Badamana MS. "Dairy cattle industry in Kenya.".; 1991.
Mbogoh SG. Dairy development and dairy marketing in sub-Saharan Africa Some preliminary indicators of policy impacts.; 1984. Abstract

OVER THE PAST TWO DECADES, sub-Saharan Africa experienced relatively low growth rates in the production of dairy products compared with the average for all developing countries. Total consumption of dairy products grew relatively much faster during the same period. However, available data suggest that the consumption of goat and sheep milk declined in East Africa between 1963 and 1980 and that of camel's milk stagnated. Only the consumption of cow's milk increased fairly rapidly in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. During the 1970s the population of sub-Saharan Africa grew at a rate of 2.9% per annum. Over the same period dairy production grew at a rate of about 1.9% per annum, while the consumption of dairy products increased at a rate of 2.1 % per annum. The trade deficit in dairy products in sub-Saharan Africa increased alarmingly over the last two decades: while in 1963 the dairy trade deficit for the region was about US$ 39 million, the figure had risen to about US$ 81 million by 1970 and to US$ 575 million by 1980. The major components of the imports were milk and butter and to a lesser extent cheese. The systems of dairy development and dairy marketing in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa have one common feature: the dairy economy is dominated by a relatively underdeveloped dairy marketing subsystem in the traditional livestock subsector. Most countries in the region have both a formal dairy marketing subsystem, which caters primarily for urban milk supplies, and an informal marketing subsystem, which operates especially in the rural areas. There is some evidence that the informal marketing subsystems tend to be low-cost operations and that they are in a position to pay higher prices to producers. With milk production in sub-Saharan Africa being well below the effective demand for milk and milk products, the region will continue to depend on dairy imports to close the dairy deficit in the foreseeable future. Measures to improve the marketing infrastructure in order to facilitate the distribution of recombined fluid milk derived mainly from imported milk powder and butter oil, will also be needed. The need to link rural and urban areas in a more efficient milk distribution network must therefore receive top priority. Most food policies in developing countries, and especially those in sub-Saharan Africa, appear to be aimed at providing cheap food to urban populations. A strategy of dairy development through the creation of producer incentives, with producer prices and price controls as the main policy instruments, is limited chiefly by the need to strike a balance between the producer price and the retail price. The pricing problem appears to be at the core of programmes for improving dairy development and dairy marketing. Governments are often sensitive to the level of food prices, particularly for the urban poor. Variations in the quality of the products offered for sale, whereby consumer prices are differentiated, could help achieve certain nutritional objectives. For instance, the introduction of 'toned' (more expensive) and 'double-toned' (less expensive) liquid milk in India has made it possible to sell pasteurized milk to both higher-income and lower-income groups in the metropolitan areas. Generally, sub-Saharan Africa could learn from the experience of dairy development in India, where petty milk traders have been integrated into the overall milk collection and distribution system, thus creating a complementary rather than a competitive relationship in the operations of the country's dairy industry.

Gitao CG, Mbindyo C, Bebora L. Dairy Goat Milk Hygiene: Analyses in Mt Kenya Region. OmniScriptum Marketing DEU GmbH Heinrich-Böcking-Straße 6-8 D - 66121 Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2014.978-3-659-61078-3_coverpreview2.pdf
Gitao CG, Mbindyo C, Bebora L. "Dairy Goat Milk Hygiene: Analyses in Mt Kenya Region.". 2014. Abstract
n/a
HENRY PROFINDANGASI. "Daisaku Ikeda and Africa: Reflections by Kenyan Writers. Co-edited with Masumi Odari. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2001. Abstract

This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.

"Daisaku Ikeda and Voices for Peace in Africa (Ed. Henry Indangasi and Masumi Odari).". In: Shaaban Robert as a Champion of Peace. Writers Association of Kenya; 2008.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "DAMAZO, R., MACIGO, F.G., GUTHUA, S.W.: Where there are no Dentists: 4.1.". In: Proceedings, 8th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, Durban, South Africa, March/April 2006. Elsevier; 2006.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Damiano, A.W., Kagiko, M.M., Kayihura, M. and Senerwa, D. (1989). Isolation of Toxigenic Aerommonas Species from Fish from Kenyan Waters. African Conference on Diarrhoeal Diseases, 3rd Proceedings, Nairobi, Kenya (10th-13th April 1989).". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
Mwaguni S, Ayiemba E, Onyari J. "DANCING TO THE TUNE OF OPPORTUNITIES –HUMAN SETTLEMENTS ALIGNED TO SHARE THE JACKPOT OF KENYA’S COASTAL TOURISM BENEFITS SPOIL THE BROTH.". 2017. AbstractFull text link

This paper highlights how human settlements aligned themselves to share the benefits to arise from coastal tourism development in
the Kenya coast, but have come to bedevil the industry through poor management of domestic waste. The study area comprised of
Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu and Diani-Chale, which are two important tourist destinations in the country. It attempted to establish
population numbers in these habitations, the waste loads generated, and how it was managed. The study was accomplished through
field visits, library research and application of the World Health Organization (WHO 1989) rapid assessment methods for land, air
and water pollution. The relevant data for assessment was obtained from records of population census, bed nights, occupancy, and the
waste disposal methods in use. The study revealed that human settlements aligned themselves in clusters inland, reflecting the clusters
of the beach hotels dotting the shore line of the Indian Ocean. Large volumes of domestic waste were being generated in both the
human settlements and in the hotels. Management of the waste in the settlements was largely on-site and mixed, through the use of
both pit latrines and septic-tank/soakage pit systems in the human settlements, and only through septic-tank/soakage pits in the hotel
establishments. None of the settlements had wastewater treatment facilities. Only 5 beach hotels had wastewater treatment plants.
While the settlements positioned themselves to benefit from the tourism industry, tapping in business and employment opportunities,
the arrangement has seemed to spoil the broth as the settlements came to be the main source domestic waste affecting environmental
quality and undermining tourism growth and sustainability. Also, through the large number of visitors, during the peak tourist periods,
the beach hotels themselves have come contribute to large waste generation. On-site sanitation, it is concluded, is not appropriate for
managing domestic waste in coastal areas dependent on good quality environmental to flourish the tourism economic sector. Tourism
thrives in areas where the environment is aesthetically appealing; domestic waste undermine. Consequently, it is recommended that
innovative approaches are pursued for domestic waste management in order to flourish and sustain the industry.

Gitonga D, Omulo EOT, William Okelo-Odongo. "Dangerous wireless local area network (wlan) risks students and university employees need to know about.". In: IBM/Unesco-Hp Workshop on Trends in Distributed Computing Applications. Nairobi; 2013.
O DROPEREALFRED. "Daniel Olago, Michael Marshall, Shem O. Wandiga*, Maggie Opondo, Pius Z. Yanda, Richard Kangalawe, Andrew Githeko, Tim Downs, Alfred Opere, Robert Kabumbuli, Edward Kirumira, Laban Ogallo, Paul Mugambi, Eugene Apindi, Faith Githui,James Kathuri, Lydia Ola.". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2007. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
(CHAIRMAN) PROFMULEICHARLESMATIKU. "Daniel, R.C.W., Kerr, D.R. and Mulei, C.M. (1990). Occurrence and effects of subclinical hypocalcaemia in dairy cows.". In: Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production. 50: 261-263.; 1990.
Boon TRE;, Lund DH;, Nathan I. Danish national park process: chapter 3.3.; 2013. Abstract

document's citation: Boon, T. R. E., Lund, D. H., & Nathan, I. (2008). Danish national park process: chapter 3.3. Vienna: University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Vienna.

K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Dannecker, R., Baldin, G.O., and Imungi, J.K. 1987. Evaluation of Department of Food Technology and Nutrition: Suitability of the Food Technology graduate to the needs of the Kenyan Food Industry. Report prepared for Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC), B.". In: Report prepared for Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC), Bern, Switzerland. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1987. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
Otakwa RVM, Simiyu J, Waita SM, Mwabora JM. "Dark Current Voltage (I-V) Characteristics of a Commercialized Dye-Sensitized Solar Module Ideal for use in the Tropics." International Journal of Professional Practice. 2012;3(1&2):165-168.
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Dark J-V Characterization of a Dye-Sensitized Module." International Journal of Professional Practice (IJPP),. 2012;3(1&2):165-168. AbstractWebsite

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Otakwa, R.V.M, Simiyu, J., Waita, S.M., Mwabora JM. "Dark J-V Characterization of a Dye-Sensitized Module." International Journal of Professional Practice (IJPP), . 2012;3(1&2):165-168.
Hamu PJH, Nyonje J. Darubini ya Isimujamii Kwa Shule na Vyuo . Nairobi: Phoenix Publishers; 2010.
Hamu PJH, Matei A. Darubini ya Kiswahili. Phoenix Publishers; 2006.
Hamu PJH, Nyonje J. Darubini ya Utunzi. Phoenix Publishers; 2008.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dasarathy S, Acharya SK.Nitric oxide: significance for the gastroenterologists.Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Apr-Jun;14(2):41-3.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Apr-Jun;14(2):41-3. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract
The efficacy of the interferon stimulator named Stronger Neo Minophagen-C (SNMC) derived form the plant G. glabra was studied at a dose of 40 or 100 ml daily for 30 days followed by thrice weekly intravenously for 8 wk in 18 patients of subacute hepatic failure due to viral hepatitis. The survival rate amongst these patients was 72.2 per cent, as compared to the earlier reported rate of 31.1 per cent in 98 patients who received supportive therapy (P < 0.01). Death in four of the five patients was due to associated infections leading to hepatorenal failure and terminal coma. Further studies are necessary to standardize the dose and duration of therapy with SNMC in subacute hepatic failure.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dasarathy S, Acharya SK.Training in gastroenterology.Trop Gastroenterol. 1992 Apr-Jun;13(2):45.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1992 Apr-Jun;13(2):45. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
We studied the risk of post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH) in recipients of blood collected from voluntary donors screened for HBsAg. Two hundred and fifty patients without any previous history of liver disease or transfusion were followed up for 12 months subsequent to cardiac surgery. Thirty-five of them had closed-heart surgery without receiving transfusion and served as controls. The remaining 215 patients received single-point transfusions (mean 4 +/- 2.4 units). None of the controls and 15 (6.9%) blood recipients developed PTH. Three (20%) patients had hepatitis-B-virus-induced hepatitis while the remainder (80%) had non A, non B (NANB) hepatitis. The number of units of blood transfused and surrogate markers for development of PTH (donor alanine aminotransferase, anti-HBc and anti-HBs antibody) were not associated with the occurrence of PTH (p greater than 0.05). Nine (60%) of the 15 patients developing PTH were asymptomatic. All the patients recovered from the PTH, except one who died of fulminant hepatitis. At the end of 1 year of follow-up, none of the patients had evidence of chronic hepatitis. Only three (25%) of the patients with NANB-PTH developed anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody during the follow-up. We conclude that the incidence of PTH in India is similar to other parts of the world and NANB virus was the major cause of the PTH. The absence of chronicity and lack of seroconversion to anti-HCV antibody in the majority of the patients after 1 year of follow-up may suggest the possibility of a NANB virus other than HCV as the major cause of PTH in India.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dasarathy S, Acharya SK.Ursodeoxycholic acid–new drug for liver diseases.Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Jan-Mar;14(1):1-2.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Jan-Mar;14(1):1-2. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract

Pancreatic abscess is a serious complication of acute pancreatitis and non-operative management has been reported to carry a mortality of nearly 100%. We present five patients with pancreatic abscess, who were successfully treated with antibiotics alone. All 5 patients had acute pancreatitis followed by prolonged fever and development of an abdominal mass. The diagnosis was confirmed in each of them by a contrast enhanced CT scan and an ultrasound guided aspiration of pus from the pancreatic mass. The choice of antibiotics was decided by the culture reports in two cases and by Gram's staining in the remaining three patients. We attribute the success of antibiotic therapy in our patients to early diagnosis by CT scan and guided aspiration as well as the absence of any unfavourable risk factors. This study suggests that a select group of patients with pancreatic abscess may be managed conservatively with antibiotics.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dasarathy S, Buch P, Saraya A, Acharya SK, Tandon RK. Pancreatic abscess: is there a role for conservative therapy?Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Jan-Mar;14(1):28-32.". In: Trop Gastroenterol. 1993 Jan-Mar;14(1):28-32. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1993. Abstract

Pancreatic abscess is a serious complication of acute pancreatitis and non-operative management has been reported to carry a mortality of nearly 100%. We present five patients with pancreatic abscess, who were successfully treated with antibiotics alone. All 5 patients had acute pancreatitis followed by prolonged fever and development of an abdominal mass. The diagnosis was confirmed in each of them by a contrast enhanced CT scan and an ultrasound guided aspiration of pus from the pancreatic mass. The choice of antibiotics was decided by the culture reports in two cases and by Gram's staining in the remaining three patients. We attribute the success of antibiotic therapy in our patients to early diagnosis by CT scan and guided aspiration as well as the absence of any unfavourable risk factors. This study suggests that a select group of patients with pancreatic abscess may be managed conservatively with antibiotics.

KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dasarathy S, Misra SC, Acharya SK, Irshad M, Joshi YK, Venugopal P, Tandon BN.Prospective controlled study of post-transfusion hepatitis after cardiac surgery in a large referral hospital in India.Liver. 1992 Jun;12(3):116-20.". In: Liver. 1992 Jun;12(3):116-20. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1992. Abstract
We studied the risk of post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH) in recipients of blood collected from voluntary donors screened for HBsAg. Two hundred and fifty patients without any previous history of liver disease or transfusion were followed up for 12 months subsequent to cardiac surgery. Thirty-five of them had closed-heart surgery without receiving transfusion and served as controls. The remaining 215 patients received single-point transfusions (mean 4 +/- 2.4 units). None of the controls and 15 (6.9%) blood recipients developed PTH. Three (20%) patients had hepatitis-B-virus-induced hepatitis while the remainder (80%) had non A, non B (NANB) hepatitis. The number of units of blood transfused and surrogate markers for development of PTH (donor alanine aminotransferase, anti-HBc and anti-HBs antibody) were not associated with the occurrence of PTH (p greater than 0.05). Nine (60%) of the 15 patients developing PTH were asymptomatic. All the patients recovered from the PTH, except one who died of fulminant hepatitis. At the end of 1 year of follow-up, none of the patients had evidence of chronic hepatitis. Only three (25%) of the patients with NANB-PTH developed anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody during the follow-up. We conclude that the incidence of PTH in India is similar to other parts of the world and NANB virus was the major cause of the PTH. The absence of chronicity and lack of seroconversion to anti-HCV antibody in the majority of the patients after 1 year of follow-up may suggest the possibility of a NANB virus other than HCV as the major cause of PTH in India.
Ombongi K. "Dashed Hopes And Missed Opportunities: Malaria Control Policies In Kenya (1896-2009).". In: Markets of well-being:Navigating Health and Healing in Africa. Leiden and Boiston: Brill; 2010.
STUART DRGONTIERCHRISTOPHER. "Dastot H, Schmid M, Gontier C, Amiot M, Mathieu-Mahul D, Bensussan A, Boumsell L. Correlation between T cell receptor gamma delta isotypic forms and cytotoxic activity: analysis with human T cell clones and lines.Cell Immunol. 1990 Feb;125(2):315-25.". In: Cell Immunol. 1990 Feb;125(2):315-25. uon press; 1990. Abstract
INSERM U 93, Institut de Recherche sur les maladies du sang, Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris, France. Three biochemically distinct isotypic forms of the human T cell receptor (TcR) gamma delta structure can be expressed at the cell membrane. This unique variation in structure of TcR, which is due to C gamma gene segments utilization, prompted us to look for isotype-association functional differences. In this regard, we have developed human T cell clones or lines from normal thymus or peripheral blood from several patients. In the present report, we have selected by phenotypic, biochemical, and TcR gene rearrangement analysis representative pairs of IL2-dependent clones or lines for each TcR gamma delta isotypic form. The results showed a lack of correlation between the TcR isotypes and the ability of the cells to proliferate in response to TcR stimulation mediated through the CD3 molecular complexes. By contrast, despite the fact that all of these representative cells exhibit an NK-like activity, as measured by their ability to kill K562, the strongest lytic activity was observed with the cells having the disulfide-bonded form of the receptor. Moreover only those latter cells were able to efficiently kill the LAK-sensitive Daudi cell line.
Ogana W, Wainaina G. Data analysis of the mineral status of Lake Nakuru National Park and implications for the health of the waterbuck (Kobus ellypsiprymnus defassa). Nairobi: Report of a project carried out on behalf of Multiscope Consultants Limited, for Dr. R. Kock of the Kenya Wildlife Service; 1996.
Kiplagat D. DATA CAPTURE MODEL FOR UTILITY PROVIDERS USING HAND HELD DEVICES VIA MOBILE NETWORK: CASE FOR NAIROBI WATER COMPANY. Orwa DD, ed. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2008. Abstract

Utility providers faces a major task of collecting data from their remote installations. In order to be more efficient there is a growing need to reengineer there operations to make them more efficient, effective and customer focused while reducing the cost of operation both in terms of personnel involved, time and the actual operational costs. With the current emergence of 3G networks in wireless network there is need for this companies to look closely at mobile computing as the most cost effective solution to fixing there problems.

This research project mainly targeted the utility providers and the focus was to come up with a cost effective, secure, usable, adaptable, portable and above all extensible mobile data collection model that can be combined with other e-enabling technologies to create a holistic system for utility providers to reengineer their current business processes to make them more efficient and effective thereby improving on customer perception.

Using the WAP model has the preferred technology, this research as added to the voices of WAP proponents who have been suppressed by the opponents by proposing a solution to solve the current major problem of WAP, lack of end to end security which its opponents have used has a weapon to discredit the WAP technology. This has been done by using the kannel Gateway which can be configured within the web server of the organization hence no need of an external provider.

This research as shown that there is actually no need to acquire other devices to enhance meter reading. The mobile phones can be used to achieve a lot. If the recommended further work can be pursuit it can be seen that the capabilities of mobile phones are enormous and can actually transform the way companies conduct their business.

Mutekhele, B; Rambo ONCM; O;. "Data Dissemination and Use and Performance of Educational Building Infrastructural Projects: A Case of Bungoma County, Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) . 2018;7(10).
Oluoch JO, Rambo CM, Pokhariyal GP. "Data Dissemination and Use and Provision of Curative and Preventive Tuberculosis Health Care Services in Public Health Institutions in Kisumu County, Kenya ." European Journal of Business and Management Research. 2020;5((1)). Abstractview

The study sought to determine how data dissemination and use influence provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare in institutions of public health in Kisumu County, Kenya. The study focused on public health institutions that practices M&E system on provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare services. The study employed the use of pragmatism paradigm and a descriptive research design to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. A correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. A sample of 221 respondents was selected from a population of 517 using stratified random sampling. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire with both open and close ended with Likert type on 1-5 five point scale and interview schedule. Correlational design was used to test the hypothesis. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and data presented in frequency tables using means and standard deviations while qualitative data was presented in in narrative statements. Hypothesis was tested using linear regression at 0.05 level of significance to determine the degree and direction of relationships among the thematic area of the study. The reliability of the instruments was obtained using Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.735 for all items meaning that the instruments were reliable. The results showed that data dissemination and use and provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis health care services in public health institutions had [r2=0.186, p<0.05]. The results for quantitative data based on composite mean score of 3.91 and 0.466 standard deviation for this variable respectively. Therefore, data dissemination and use influence provision of curative and preventive tuberculosis healthcare services in public health institutions.

KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Data Flow and Buffer Management in a Multi-Channel Data Link Controller, S. Varada, V. Oduol, A. Shelat, Conference on Local Computer Networks, 1999. LCN '99,.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1999. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
Awange JL, Kyalo Kiema JB. "Data Models and Structure.". 2013. AbstractWebsite

By convention, data in the real world is deemed to exist in a continuous or analogue form usually in three dimensional space as discussed in Sect. 2.1. Such data needs to be digitized or made discrete before it can be input and processed by a digital computer. A GIS database can be viewed as an abstraction of reality. To convert object features observed or measured in the real world into the digital realm in a GIS database it is necessary to structure the data appropriately. Four (4) different generic types of primitive object features can be distinguished, namely: point features (0-D), line features (1-D), area features/polygons (2-D), and surface features (3-D). Incidentally, when surface features are captured in a discrete or non-continuous manner, this is then referred to as 2.5D. In general, an object feature is defined by three (3) properties in GIS, namely: position, attributes and relationship with other features referred to as topology.

MEROKA PROFMBECHEISAAC, Ngau P. "Data preparation: Coding, Editing and Inputting.". In: Data Collection and Analysis. IBIMA Publishing; 2004. Abstract

This paper examines the role of institutions in the development process of African countries. It has been show that, whereas institutions have played a greater role in the economic development of several East Asian countries, in Africa they are weaker and ineffective because of poor enforcement of the rule of law, corruption, mismanagement, absence of strong civil society and political interference. It is argued that well-functioning institutions can promote growth and reduce poverty in Africa by providing a conducive environment for implementation and sustainable development programmes Therefore, African countries should Endeavour to establish effective, responsive and democratic institutions that will promote accountable and transparent governance and sustainable socioeconomic development.

LITONDO KO. ""Data Processing and Computers - Introduction to Business: A Kenyan Perspective" edited by Prof. F.N. Kibera.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau,. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1996. Abstract

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

Lelei JK, LITONDO KO. "Data Processing and Computers: in F.N. Kibera (Ed) Introduction to Business: A Kenyan Perspective.". In: Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi. Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1996. Abstract

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Lelei JK. "Data processing and computers: In F.N. Kibera (Ed). Introductiont to Business: A Kenyan perspective, Kenya Literature Bureau.". In: Management.Vol. 13 No.2,. Nairobi: Third World Planning Review Vol. 22. No.4; 1996. Abstract

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Kimani M, E A, P W, R P, M N, H K. The Data Services Layer: A Data analytics approach to evidence-based decision making for healthcare in Kenya. Nairobi: The Pan African Health Informatics Association; 2018.
LITONDO KO. "Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence.". In: ORSEA conference, 2008. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 2008. Abstract

Computers were first developed to process business transactions; the trend has been to have computers also support management in decision making. This led to the evolution of Management Information Systems (MIS). The concept of MIS can be traced from four major areas, namely, managerial accounting, management science or operations research, management theory and computer science. MIS is supported by a comprehensive set of data for business operations referred to as a database. There are several databases in any given organization. Organizations have realized that valuable information is hidden in separate databases which might sometimes contain overlapping and contradictory information, and are coming up with data warehouses. A data warehouse provides a platform for advanced, complex and efficient data analysis using On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) for data mining or Knowledge Data Discovery (KDD) to extract previously unknown strategic business information or business intelligence (BI). There are a lot of similarities between data warehousing and operations research (OR), they both require analytical processing to support executive decision making, yet OR, MIS and IT exist as separate communities, right from the education level to the organizations. There are many challenges facing data warehousing, with organizations viewing it as a purely IT project. The objective of the paper was to establish how some of the challenges of data warehousing could be addressed so as to reduce the failure rate of BI projects. It was concluded that data warehousing would be more successful if its development was a joint effort of both the OR & MIS community and the IT community. It is recommended that OR and MIS be taught as one discipline whose graduates will work very closely with IT specialists.

Pauw GD, de Schryver G-M, Waiganjo Wagacha P. "Data-Driven Part-of-Speech Tagging of Kiswahili." In: P. Sojka, c}ek I K{\v, K. Pala, eds. Proceedings of Text, Speech and Dialogue, Ninth International Conference. Vol. 4188/2006. Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag; 2006:. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4188/2006. Abstract
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Hudson LN, Newbold T, Contu S, Hill SLL, Lysenko I, De Palma A, Phillips HRP, Alhusseini TI, Bedford FE, Bennett DJ, others. "The database of the Predicts (Projecting responses of ecological diversity in changing terrestrial systems) project." Ecology and Evolution. 2017;7:145-188. Abstract
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Ambrose SH, Kyule MD, Muia M, Deino A, Williams MAJ. "Dating the MSA/ LSA transition in Southwest Kenya." Society for American Anthropology. 2000:33.
and S. H. Ambrose, M. D. Kyule MDWMAMA. "Dating the MSA/ LSA transition in Southwest Kenya.". In: 65th Annual meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Philadelphia, USA; 2000.
NATHANIEL MULU, Ambrose KDWSHMD. "Dating the MSA/LSA Transition in Southwest Kenya.". Society for American Archaeology, 65th Annual Meeting, Philadelphia; 2005. Abstract
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O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Datta P, Embree J, Kreiss JK, Ndinya-Achola Braddick M, Temmerman M, Nagelkerke NJD, Maitha G, Holmes KK, Piot P, Pamba HO, Plummer FA. Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus 1: Report from the Nairobi study. J. Infect. Dis. 170:1134.". In: J. Infect. Dis. 170:1134 -40, 1994. IBIMA Publishing; 1994. Abstract

{ Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are highly prevalent in pregnant women in many developing countries and have been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Case detection and treatment of STDs in women is problematic and expensive, underscoring the need for other strategies. To explore the potential benefits of routine antimicrobial therapy on pregnancy outcome, we carried out a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial in one of the antenatal clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Four hundred pregnant women between 28 and 32 weeks' gestation were given a single dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone intramuscularly or a placebo. There was a significant difference between ceftriaxone and placebo-treated women in infant birth weight (3,209 versus 3,056 g

O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Datta P, Laga M, Plummer FA, Ndinya-Achola JO, Piot P, Maitha G, Ronald AR, Brunham RC.Infection and disease after perinatal exposure to Chlamydia trachomatis in Nairobi, Kenya. J. Infect. Dis 158(3) 524 - 528, 1988.". In: J. Infect. Dis 158(3) 524 - 528, 1988. IBIMA Publishing; 1988. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
OUMA PROFPAMBAHANNINGTON. "Datta P., Embree J.E., Kreiss J.K., Ndinya-Achola J.O., Braddick M., Temmerman M., Nagelkerke N.J.D., Maitha G., Holmes K.K., Piot P., Pamba H.O. and Plummer F.A.: Mother-to-child Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: Report from the Nairob.". In: J. Inf. Diseas. 170 (5): 1134, 1994. Opuscula Mathematica,; 1994. Abstractmother_to_child_transmission_of_human_immunodefficiency_virus_type1.pdf

This paper investigates the possibilities of applying emerging management theories and techniques to constitutionally created offices in Kenya and East African region. The benefits from application of these theories, particularly in the judicial services are highlighted.

S PROFMASINDEMICHAEL. "Datta, P., Frost E., Peeling, R., Masinde, M. S., Deslandes, S., Echelu, C., Wamola, I., Brunham, R.C. Ophthalmia neonatorum in a trachoma Endemic area. Sex Transm Dis. 21 (1): 1 .". In: Sex Transm Dis. 21 (1): 1 .; 1994. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Xerophthalmia among Kenyan children aged four to seven years in high risk using Conjuctival Impression Cytology and transfer. DESIGN: A cross sectional community based study. SETTING: Mathare slum in Nairobi and Tiva/Ithiani area of Kitui. SUBJECTS: Children aged four to seven years residing in the above areas were assessed for both clinical and cytological features of vitamin A deficiency. RESULTS: Of the 342 children included in this study, 316 (92.0%) were normal, five (1.5%) had XN, 19 (5.9% had XIA and two (0.6%) had XIB. No signs of corneal Xerophthalmia were seen in this study. Conjuctival impression cytology and transfer (CICT) was used to asses for squamous metaplastic changes associated with Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Seventy five (23.1%) of the children were normal by CICT while 249 (76.9%) were abnormal. In comparing the two areas of study, only 13.2% of the children in Mathare had normal CICT compared to 50% in Kitui. For each of the age groups studied there was significant difference between the two areas with children from Mathare being more deficient than those from Kitui. CONCLUSION: VAD is a significant health problem in the high risk areas assessed by CICT in this study.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Daudi K Langat , Pedro J Morales , Charles O Omwandho , Asgerally T Fazleabas and Joan S Hunt, Polymorphisms in Paan-AG promoter influences NF-kB binding and transcription activity in HEK293 cells.". In: The Journal of Immunology 2007, 178: 42.12.; 2007. Abstract

HLA-G is a protein highly expressed at the human maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy. It is thought to be critical for the survival of the semi-allogenic fetus. The baboon (Papio anubis) expresses an HLA-G-like protein termed Paan-AG in the placenta, and may serve as a model for HLA-G studies. Paan-AG shares many characteristics with HLA-G, including alternative splicing of the mRNA and restricted tissue expression of the protein. Our hypothesis is that the two genes share similar regulatory mechanisms. The objective of the current study was to assess binding of the transcription factor NF- B to Paan-AG B elements and determine the effects of binding on Paan-AG promoter activity. We assessed two Paan-AG alleles each containing two B elements, B1 and B2. NF- B bound both B1 and B2 elements in the AG1 allele. In contrast, only B1 of the AG-2 allele bound to NF- B; B2 did not bind. Mutagenesis studies showed that the difference in binding was due to two nucleotide differences in the 3' end of B1. The functional activity of the two alleles also differed; AG2 consistently showed higher luciferase activity compared to AG1. Mutating the last two nucleotides in the 3' end of B1 resulted in an increase of luciferase activity to levels comparable to that of AG2. Overall, these results suggest that variations in the proximal promoter may influence transcription rates of Paan-AG as reported recently for HLA-G, and provide further evidence of the potential usefulness of the baboon as a model for in vivo HLA-G studies.

A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Daudi K. Langat(1), Pedro J. Morales(1), Charles O. Omwandho(2), Asgerally T. Fazleabas(3), Joan S. Hunt(1). Polymorphisms in Paan-AG promoter influences NF-kB binding and transcription activity in HEK293 cells. In Proceedings of the 39th Meeting of the S.". In: Biology of Reproduction. Special Issue, July 2006, pp 73, Abstract No. 13.; 2006. Abstract

1. University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas, KS 2. University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya 3. University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL The human leukocyte antigen-G(HLA-G), a protein highly expressed at the human maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy, is thought to be critical for the survival of the semi-allogenic fetus. Current evidence suggests that HLA-G programs immune cells at the maternal-fetal interface into immunosuppressive phenotypes, but definitive proof remains elusive since the vivo experiments in humans are not possible due to ethical concerns. In the search for an appropriate animal model, we have identified the olive baboon (Papio anubis) as a potential candidate. The primate expresses an HLA-G-like protein termed Paan-AG n the placenta. Preliminary data shows that Paan-AG gene shares many characteristics with HLA-G, including limited polymorphism, alternative splicing of the mRNA, and restricted tissue expression of the protein. Restricted tissue expression suggested that the two genes might share tissue-specific regulatory elements. We previously identified a number of two Paan-AG alleles, 5'UTAG-1(AG1) and 5'UTAG-2(AG2). The objective of the current study was to assess binding of the transcription factor NF-kB to Paan-AG promoter activity. Both alleles contained two kB elements, kB1 and kB2. Binding was assessed using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and functional activity using luciferase reporter assays. NF-kB bound both kB1 and kB2 elements in the AG1 allele. In contrast, only kB1 of the AG-2 allele bound to NF-kB; kB2 did not bind. The AG2 kB1. Mutagenesis studies showed that the difference in binding was due to two alleles also differed; AG2 consistently showed higher luciferase activity compared to AG1. Mutating the last two nucleotides in the 3' end of kB1 resulted in an increase of luciferase activity to levels comparable to that of AG2. Overall, these results suggests that variations in the proximal promoter may influence transcription rates of Paan-AG as reported recently for HLA-G, and provide further evidence of the potential usefulness of the baboon as a model for in vivo HLA-G studies. Supported by NIH grant HD39878 (JSH)

JALEHA MRSJEFWAJUDITHJAI. "Daudi Mlemavu EAEP Childrens Short Stories in Kiswahili.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 2000. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
OGEDA MRODUMBEJACKONIAH. "Daudi Nturibi: ed. Facilitating Adult Learning: A guide for Part Time Adult Educators. Institute of Adult Studies, University of Nairobi 1982. (Co-author).". In: Institute of Adult Studies, University of Nairobi 1982. (Co-author). Thought and Practice; 1982. Abstract
Introduction The Centre for Open and Distance Learning has been established to facilitate the Internal Faculties in launching and managing their programmes using distance mode with a view to increasing access to university education and provide equity in higher education to the learners all over the country. Operational Strategies The operational strategies that have been set up involve collaborative arrangements between the CODL and the Internal Faculties in the development of Study Materials and Learner support Services for off-campus students. The professional in open and distance learning are availed by the Centre to serve the Faculties as trainers while the Faculties provide academic expertise who are facilitated through participatory methods involving application of knowledge, skills and strategies to develop study materials in their respective subjects. Focus The Centre is currently working with Faculties of Science, Commerce and Arts. The Material development process involves training, writing, reviewing and editing followed by conversion to e-content and audio modes. Conclusion These collaborative arrangements will increase access to higher education make significant contribution in the realization of educational Millennium Goals in Kenya where only 20% of all those who qualify obtain admission in the public universities.
KANYIRI PROFMUCHUNGAELISHA. "David F. Sly, Lenoir Becky, Florida University. Elisha K. Muchunga & Zibeon Muganzi, University of Nairobi.Stability and change in Family size Preference among Rural Youth in Kenya Journal of Modern African Studies Vol. 18,3, 1980.". In: Journal of Modern African Studies Vol. 18,3, 1980. African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 1980. Abstract

{ OBJECTIVES To compare sociodemographic profiles, child care, child feeding practices and growth indices of children born to HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative mothers. METHODS: A cohort study of 234 children (seropositive and seronegative) born to HIV-1 seropositive mothers and 139 children born to seronegative mothers in Pumwani Maternity Hospital which serves a low-income population in Nairobi, Kenya from December 1991 and January 1994. RESULTS: With few exceptions, at the time of their birth children in all three cohorts had parents with similar characteristics, lived in similar housing in similar geographical areas, had their mothers as their primary care givers, had similar feeding practices and similar growth status and patterns. However, the HIV-1 seropositive mothers were slightly younger (23.8 years vs. 25.0 years, P < 0.01), if married they were less likely to be their husband's first wife (79% vs. 91%

HENRY PROFINDANGASI. ""David G. Maillu." In DBL 157: Twentieth Century Caribbean and Black African Writers. Vol. 3. Eds. Bernth Lindfors and Reinhard Sander. Columbia: Bruccoli Clark Layman, Inc.". In: (Published in Japanese). GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1995. Abstract
This integrative review on the teaching of reading in Kenyan primary schools provides a foundation for the growing movement there to improve reading education. In gathering sources for this review, we took an inclusive historical stance. Thus, we did not dismiss research reports that lacked traditional indicators of quality such as being published in peer-reviewed journals. We used multiple methods to find relevant research and associated documents, including two trips to Kenya. The review is organized by six topics: (a) language of instruction, (b) reading instruction, (c) reading materials, (d) reading culture, (e) assessment, and (f) teacher development. The review concludes with six proposals for policymakers, educational researchers, and teacher educators for the development of reading instruction based on what we learned in reviewing the literature. The first proposals are intended specifically to address the teaching of reading in Kenya, but they may be relevant to other sub-Saharan nations. The final proposal encourages others to conduct similar reviews to make possible a handbook of reading in Africa.
Ikobwa JM. "David Hohl als Zeuge des Genozids in Ruanda in Lukas Bärfuss’ „Hundert Tage“." Jahrbuch für Internationale Germanistik. 2012;108(Reihe A: Kongressberichte):107-117.
Walker BR, Colledge NR, Ralston SH, Penman I. Davidson's principles and practice of medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013. Abstract
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KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Davies MH, Ngong JM, Yucesoy M, Acharya SK, Mills CO, Weaver JB, Waring RH, Elias E.The adverse influence of pregnancy upon sulphation: a clue to the pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy?J Hepatol. 1994 Dec;21(6):1127-34.". In: J Hepatol. 1994 Dec;21(6):1127-34. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1994. Abstract
Sulphation of oestrogens and monohydroxy bile acids is important in attenuating their cholestatic potential. Thus, impairment of sulphation could lead to retention of cholestatic compounds and precipitate intrahepatic cholestasis in susceptible individuals. We tested the hypothesis that such a mechanism may be involved in the pathogenesis of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. In vivo and in vitro assessment of sulphation capacity was performed in patients with cholestasis of pregnancy, compared with control females on and off the oestrogen-containing oral contraceptive pill and control individuals during normal pregnancy and post partum, to assess the influence of high oestrogen states upon this metabolic pathway. During in vivo studies utilising paracetamol as a metabolic probe, the proportion of paracetamol sulphate and sulphate: glucuronide ratio were decreased in those with elevated oestrogens, whether the rise in oestrogens was endogenous, in pregnancy (paracetamol sulphate p < 0.05; paracetamol sulphate:glucuronide ratio p < 0.01), or exogenous, with the contraceptive pill (paracetamol sulphate p = 0.2; paracetamol sulphate:glucuronide ratio p < 0.001). In vitro, platelet sulphotransferase activity was measured, utilising phenol as substrate. Sulphotransferase activity decreased during pregnancy compared with repeat measurements post partum (p < 0.005) and compared with non-pregnant individuals (p < 0.05). In conclusion, we have shown that elevated oestrogens are associated with significant impairment in sulphation capacity. An imbalance of sulphation with glucuronidation provoked by high circulating oestrogen levels may be contributory in the pathogenesis of cholestasis of pregnancy.
MUNGAI DRMBUGUAPAUL. "Davilla J Mbugua P M and Acosta D (1987): Cytotoxic actions of Dendroaspis venoms in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Tissue Culture Ass. Manual 38 : 74.". In: Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Society (FACSS) XV, Boston, November 1988. AWC and FES; 1987. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas, Austin 78712. The cardiotoxic actions of Kenyan green mamba (Dendroaspis angusticeps) venom have been investigated using primary myocardial cell cultures isolated from neonatal rat hearts. The cardiotoxic actions of the whole venom and its fractionated components were evaluated on the basis of leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), changes in morphology, cell membrane lysis, decreases in viability and inhibition of spontaneous beating activity. The whole venom caused time- and concentration-dependent arrest of myocardial contraction, leakage of LDH, extensive disruption of cell monolayer, and decreases in viability. The venom was separated into 6 (DaI to DaVI) fractions by gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Spontaneous beating activity was abolished by DaI to DaVI at high concentrations, while at lower doses they induced progressive depression of beating frequency after a 3-h treatment period. DaI to DaIV caused significant leakage of LDH, morphological damage, and decreases in viability after a 6-h incubation period. The most cardiotoxic fraction (DaIV), which also contains about 54% of the total protein of the whole venom, was fractionated into 18 polypeptides (Da1 to Da18) by ion exchange chromatography on Bio-Rex 70. On the basis of their ability to abolish myocardial contractility, release LDH, alter cellular structure, lyse cell membranes and reduce viability, the 18 fractions have been divided into 4 arbitrary subgroups of cytotoxins: cardiotoxins, Da1 to Da3; cardiotoxin-like polypeptides, Da4 to Da12, Da14; less active membrane lytic polypeptides, Da13, Da15 to Da17; and membrane lytic polypeptide, Da18. Marked synergistic cell membrane lysis occurred in myocardial cell cultures treated simultaneously with 2 cardiotoxin-like polypeptides, Da7 and Da11. It is suggested that the additive and synergistic cardiotoxic effects of high molecular weight cytotoxic proteins (DaI to DaIII), very low molecular weight cholinomimetic substances (DaV to DaVI) and the 4 subgroups of cardiotoxins may directly contribute to the pronounced cardiovascular problems observed in victims of green mamba bites. PMID: 3188032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Birech Z, Schwoerer H. "Davydov splitting in triplet excitons of tetracene single crystals.". In: Frontiers in Optics. Tucson, Arizona United States; 2014.fio-2014-ftu1g.8_davydov_splitting.pdf
Birech Z, Schwoerer M, Pflaum J, Schwoerer H. "Davydov splitting in triplet excitons of tetracene single crystals.". In: Frontiers in Optics. Optical Society of America; 2014:. Abstract
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Parkar RB, Wanyoike GJ, Otieno D, J O. "Day Care Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy outcomes at a dedicated unit in Nairobi, Kenya: Is it time to change?" East African Medical Journal . 2017;94:6-12.
Chepken K c, Blake E, Marsden G. Day Labour Mobile Electronic Data Capture and Browsing System. Cape Town South Africa: ACM; 2011.
KIRTDA DRACHARYAS. "Dayal S, Patti HP, Acharya SK.Polycythemia vera: overt to latent form in a patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome.J Clin Gastroenterol. 1996 Jan;22(1):76-7.". In: J Clin Gastroenterol. 1996 Jan;22(1):76-7. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 1996. Abstract

The average estimated carrier rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in India is 4%, with a total pool of approximately 36 million carriers. Wide variations in social, economic, and health factors in different regions may explain variations in carrier rates from one part of the country to another. Professional blood donors constitute the major high risk group for HBV infection in India, with a hepatitis B surface antigen positivity rate of 14%. Blood transfusions represent the most important route of HBV transmission among adults. However, most of India's carrier pool is established in early childhood, predominantly by horizontal spread due to crowded living conditions and poor hygiene. Acute and subacute liver failure are common complications of viral hepatitis in India and HBV is reckoned to be the aetiological agent in 42% and 45% of adult cases, respectively. HBV is reported to be responsible for 70% of cases of chronic hepatitis and 80% of cases of cirrhosis of the liver. About 60% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma are HBV marker positive. Small numbers of patients have been reported to be infected with the pre-core mutant virus but none with the S mutant. Coinfection with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis delta virus is comparatively uncommon. In conclusion, hepatitis B is a major public health problem in India and will continue to be until appropriate nationwide vaccination programmes and other control measures are established.

Ogana W. Days of Glamour (2nd edition, Collection of short stories). Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau; 1984.
Kanyinga K. "Days when education was a status symbol long gone." Daily Nation, September 27, 2015.
O. DROYATSIDONALDP, O. DROYATSIDONALDP. "Daytime encopresis associated with gland mal epileptic seizures: case report.East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):439-40. PMID: 16261923 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Oyatsi DP.". In: East Afr Med J. 2005 Aug;82(8):439-40. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 2005. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. Sphincteric incontinence of stool and urine are not unusual features of generalised epileptic seizures. Isolated secondary encopresis as a manifestation of an epileptic seizure is unusual. This report is of, a four year old boy, with daytime secondary non-retentive encopresis. The onset of encopresis was preceded by several episodes of nocturnal generalised tonic clonic epileptic seizures. An electroencephalogram showed features consistent with complex partial seizures. He was commenced on anti-epileptic treatment with phenytoin sodium, and by the third day of treatment, the patient had achieved stool control.
Waita SM, Aduda BO, Mwabora, J.M; Niklasson GA, Lindquist SE, Granqvist CG. DC sputter deposited TiO2 photoelectrodes: Effect of deposition angle on the efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell..; 2008.
Waita SM, Aduda BO, Mwabora JM, Niklasson GA, Lindquist SE, Granqvist CG. DC sputter deposited TiO2 photoelectrodes: Effect of deposition angle on the efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell..; 2008.
Ssebugere P, Kiremire BT, Kishimba M, Wandiga SO, Nyanzi SA, Wasswa J. "DDT and metabolites in fish from Lake Edward, Uganda.". 2009.Website
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "DDT Persistence in a Tropical Climate.". In: Kenya Journal of Science and Technology. Series (A), (1984) 5, 31-44. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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G PROFGATEIDAVID. "De Cock KM, Gatei DG, Shah MV. Aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of liver cancer. East Afr Med J. 1981 Sep;58(9):636-40. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1981 Sep;58(9):636-40. No abstract available. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1981. Abstract
Small-intestinal function was studied in 10 patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Vitamin-A absorption was impaired in 7 and d-xylose in 1. In 5 of the 10 patients Leishmania were demonstrated in biopsy specimens of intestinal mucosa. Parasitised macrophages were present in villous tips and less commonly in the lamina propria and submucosa; a moderate inflammatory infiltrate was composed of lymphocytes and plasma cells. 2 patients had partial villous atrophy. There was no correlation between intensity of parasitisation and severity of malabsorption. After treatment with sodium stibogluconate there was a significant improvement in absorption of vitamin A and d-xylose, and biopsy specimens became normal. In 1 patient visceral leishmaniasis was thought to be the cause of chronic diarrhoea.
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "De Cock, K., Bhatt, K. M., Bhatt, S. M., Rees, P. H.: Management of Liver abscess Lancet 1982; vol. 2: 747.". In: Management of Liver abscess Lancet 1982; vol. 2: 747. Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1982. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "De Cock, K., Bhatt, K. M., Bhatt, S. M., Rees, P. H.: Management of Liver abscess Lancet 1982; vol. 2: 747.". In: Management of Liver abscess Lancet 1982; vol. 2: 747. Taylor & Francis; 1982. Abstract
A prospective randomized trial of three dosage regimens of sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam; Wellcome Foundation, London) to treat visceral leishmaniasis was conducted. Previously untreated patients were randomized to receive 31 doses of sodium stibogluconate (10 mg Sb/kg of body weight per dose) administered once daily for 31 days (group A), every 12 hr for 15 days (group B), or every 8 hr for 10 days (group C). Of the 29 patients who completed treatment, seven of 10 in group B and all of the patients in groups A and C responded to treatment and remained well for one year. One patient in group B failed to respond to treatment, and two others in group B initially responded to treatment but relapsed six weeks after discharge. None of the treatment regimens was toxic. Parasites disappeared from splenic aspirates most quickly and hemoglobin levels rose most rapidly in patients receiving sodium stibogluconate every 8 hr. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya with sodium stibogluconate at a dose of 10 mg Sb/kg every 8 hr for 10 days appears to be a safe alternative to conventional treatment. Its efficacy should be confirmed in a larger number of patients.
Odhiambo T. "De Korte Street.". In: At Risk: Writing On and Over the Edge of South Africa . Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball Publishers; 2007.
B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "De Vuyst H, Gichangi P, Estambale B, Njuguna E, Franceschi S, Temmerman M.Human papillomavirus types in women with invasive cervical carcinoma by HIV status in Kenya. Int J Cancer. 2008 Jan 1;122(1):244-6.". In: Int J Cancer. 2008 Jan 1;122(1):244-6. Taylor & Francis; 2008. Abstract
To evaluate the fraction of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) that could be prevented in HIV-infected women by vaccines currently available against human papillomavirus (HPV)16 and 18, we conducted a cross-sectional study in women with ICC in Nairobi, Kenya. Fifty-one HIV-positive women were frequency-matched by age to 153 HIV-negative women. Cervical cells were tested for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction-based assays (SPF10-INNO-LiPA). Comparisons were adjusted for multiplicity of HPV types. As expected, multiple-type infections were much more frequent in HIV-positive (37.2%) than in HIV-negative (13.7%) women, but the distribution of HPV types was similar. HPV16 was detected in 41.2% versus 43.8% and HPV16 and/or 18 in 64.7% versus 60.1% of HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women, respectively. The only differences of borderline statistical significance were an excess of HPV52 (19.6% versus 5.2%) and a lack of HPV45 (7.8% versus 17.0%) in HIV-positive women compared to HIV-negative women, respectively. We have been able to assess an unprecedented number of ICCs in HIV-positive women, but as we did not know the age of HIV acquisition, we cannot exclude that it had occurred too late in life to affect the type of HPV involved in cervical carcinogenesis. However, if our findings were confirmed, they would suggest that the efficacy of current vaccines against HPV16 and 18 to prevent ICC is similar in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, provided vaccination is administered before sexual debut, as recommended. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
STEVE DRNANGENDO. "The dead people of Njoro.". In: Reappraisal of Hromniks's Articles. IBIMA Publishing; 1977. Abstract
While the role of logistics and supply chain management in developing competitive business capabilities is beginning to be recognized by many global organizations, there is critical need to ensure that training institutions do their part in imparting market-driven skills to prospective and existing practitioners. The role and importance of supply chain management has largely been attributed to the effects of globalization, intensifying competition and an increasing emphasis on customer orientation (Gunasekaran et al., 2004; Webster, 2002). Against this backdrop, effective supply chain management is considered key to building a sustainable competitive edge through improved inter and intra-firm relationships (Ellinger, 2000).
KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "The Dead,Joe (April).". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1974. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

K O. "Deadbeat 'justice' exposes flaws in judicial systems." The Standard, September 18, 2020.
"DEALING EFFECTIVELY WITH MICRO-INEQUITIES IN THE PROFESSIONAL SETTING.". In: University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.; 1987.
Dealing with Change REDSO/USAID. Nairobi, Kenya; 2006.
Muigua K. "Dealing with Conflicts in Project Management." Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (Kenya), Alternative Dispute Resolution.. 2018;6(2):1-36.dealing_with_conflicts_in_project_management.pdf
Onyancha CK, Eliud M. Mathu, Mwea SK, Ngecu WM. "DEALING WITH SENSITIVE AND VARIABLE SOILS IN NAIROBI CITY." International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences. 2011;Vol. 9(No. 2):pp 282-291.dealing_with_sensitive_and_variable_soils_in_nairobi_city.pdf
Onyancha CK, Mathu EM, Mwea SK, Ngecu WM. "DEALING WITH SENSITIVE AND VARIABLE SOILS IN NAIROBI CITY.". 2011.Website
Nyangoma JFA. Death and the Law.; 1998.
Nyangoma JFA. Death and the Law.; 1998.
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Death Row and Human Righst: Enlarging the Scope of Section 74 of the Kenyan Constitution (LL.B Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Death Row and Human Righst: Enlarging the Scope of Section 74 of the Kenyan Constitution (LL.B Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
WANZA MSKIOKOMAGDALENE. "Death Row and Human Righst: Enlarging the Scope of Section 74 of the Kenyan Constitution (LL.B Dissertation).". In: American Journal of Obstetric and Gynaecology Vol 101 . Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1999. Abstract
Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Box 356460, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. crcohen@u.washington.edu OBJECTIVE: To understand immunogenetic mechanisms of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal scarring. METHODS: We measured and compared previously significant human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DQ alleles, their linked DRB genes, and polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor alpha-308 promoter; transforming growth factor beta1-10 and -25 codons; interleukin 10-1082, -819, and -592 promoters; interleukin 6-174 promoter; and interferon gamma+874 codon 1) among Kenyan women with confirmed tubal infertility with and without C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence antibody. RESULTS: Two class II alleles, HLA-DR1*1503 and DRB5*0101, were detected less commonly in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seropositive women than in C trachomatis microimmunofluorescence seronegative women with infertility (0% versus 20%; odds ratio [OR] 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0, 0.7, and 6% versus 26%; OR 0.2; 95% CI 0.02, 1.0, respectively). These alleles are commonly linked as a haplotype at the DRB locus. This finding could not be explained through linkage disequilibrium with the other studied HLA or cytokine genes. CONCLUSION: These alleles may lead to an immunologically mediated mechanism of protection against C trachomatis infection and associated tubal damage, or alternatively increase risk for tubal scarring due to another cause. PMID: 12636945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Kanyinga K. "Debate revealed that Kenya will not change at all." Sunday Nation, February 16, 2013.
Guthua SW, MW KAMAU. "Debilitating Lymphangiomatous Macroglossia –a case report:." Journal of the Kenya Dental Association. 2016;7 (3):425-429.
K. DRKANYINGAHENRY. "Debt and Development in Africa: Alternative Approaches to Adjustment and Debt relief ( A paper presented in a workshop on Churches and NGOs forum on Structural Adjustment Program and Debt in Kenya organized by the National Council of Churches of Kenya).". In: Citizenship and Rights: The Failures of Post-colonial State,Globalisation and Citizenship, Special issue of Africa Development Vol.(XXVIII) No. 1&2. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1991.
Mwega F. "The Debt Experiences of Uganda, Kenya and Bolivia.". In: Compendium on Debt Sustainability and Development.; 2009.
L. PROFWANJALACHRISTOPHER. "The Debtors, Edited, Nairobi , East African Literature Bureau.". In: In Criticism and Ideology, edited by Kirsten Petersen [Uppsala: The Institute of African Studies, 1988] 67-80; also in Journal of Eastern African Research and Development (1981), 2.; 1977. Abstract

A random sample survey using personal interviews was conducted in Machakos and Makueni Districts of Kenya in 1992 to estimate the level of rabies vaccination of the dog population. To substantiate the results of the interviews, a sample of the surveyed dogs 3 months old and above were bled for serum rabies antibody determination using an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (INH EIA). Of the 266 surveyed 3 months old and above, only 29% (77/266) were reportedly vaccinated against rabies. Out of the 197 dog sera titrated for rabies antibody, only 29% (57/197) had detectable antibodies and only 16% (32/197) had antibody tires equal to or greater than the threshold considered protective of 0.5 I.U/ml. There was a strong positive association between a history of previous vaccination and the detection of rabies antibodies. Of 133 dogs with no history of previous vaccination, 20% (26/133) had detectable antibodies. With the rabies incidence in Machakos and Makueni Districts still unacceptably high, the level of vaccination estimated in this survey is clearly inadequate for rabies control and measures designed to increase it are discussed.

Loiselle S, zar A´s C´, Adgo E, Ballatore T, Chavula G, Descy JP, Harper DM, Kansiime F, Kimirei I, Langenberg V, Ma R, Sarmento12 H, Odada E. "Decadal Trends and Common Dynamics of the Bio- Optical and Thermal Characteristics of the African Great Lakes." PLOS ONE. 2014;9(4):1-6. Abstract

The Great Lakes of East Africa are among the world’s most important freshwater ecosystems. Despite their importance in providing vital resources and ecosystem services, the impact of regional and global environmental drivers on this lacustrine system remains only partially understood. We make a systematic comparison of the dynamics of the bio-optical and thermal properties of thirteen of the largest African lakes between 2002 and 2011. Lake surface temperatures had a positive trend in all Great Lakes outside the latitude of 0u to 8u south, while the dynamics of those lakes within this latitude range were highly sensitive to global inter-annual climate drivers (i.e. El Nin˜o Southern Oscillation). Lake surface temperature dynamics in nearly all lakes were found to be sensitive to the latitudinal position of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. Phytoplankton dynamics varied considerably between lakes, with increasing and decreasing trends. Intra-lake differences in both surface temperature and phytoplankton dynamics occurred for many of the larger lakes. This inter-comparison of bio-optical and thermal dynamics provides new insights into the response of these ecosystems to global and regional drivers.

KD O, H S, A S. "A decade of surgical volunteerism in Kenya: Impact and possibilities." Annals of African Surgery. 2013;10(1):55-60.
Kwadha CA, Janet Irungu, George Ongamo, Paul Ndegwa, Suresh Raina AFT. "Decanal as a major component of larval aggregation pheromone of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2019;143(4):417-429.
Kwadha CA, Mutunga JM, Irungu J, Ongamo G, Ndegwa P, Raina S, Fombong AT. "Decanal as a major component of larval aggregation pheromone of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella." Journal of Applied Entomology. 2019;143(4):417-429.
Pankau MD, Dalton Wamalwa, Benki-Nugent S, Tapia K, Ngugi E, Langat A, Otieno V, Moraa H, Maleche-Obimbo E, Overbaugh J, John-Stewart GC, Lehman DA. "Decay of HIV DNA in the Reservoir and the Impact of Short Treatment Interruption in Kenyan Infants." Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018;5(1):ofx268. Abstract

We compared change in HIV reservoir DNA following continued antiretroviral therapy (ART) vs short treatment interruption (TI) in early ART-treated Kenyan infants. While HIV DNA in the reservoir decayed with continued ART, HIV DNA levels were similar to pre-TI HIV DNA reservoir levels in most children after short TI.

O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Decentralisation for Good Governance and Development in Africa: A Conceptual Overview," in Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 21, No. 1. Spring 2000, pp. 3-22.". In: Walter B. Stohr, J.S. Edralin and Medyani Mani, (eds.), Decentralisation, Governance, and New Planning for Local Level Development (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group). IPPNW; 2000. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Decentralisation for Good Governance and Development: The Unending Debate," in Regional Development Dialogue, (UNCRD, Nagoya) Vol. 21, No. 1. Spring 2000, pp. iii-xix.". In: Walter B. Stohr, J.S. Edralin and Medyani Mani, (eds.), Decentralisation, Governance, and New Planning for Local Level Development (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group). IPPNW; 2000. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Decentralisation for Local Development in Africa," in Ayele Tirfie et al., (eds.), Regional Development Policy in Africa: Problems and Prospects (Nairobi: United Nations Centre for Regional Development, UNCRD Proceedings Series No. 29, 1998), pp. 77-94.". In: Walter B. Stohr, J.S. Edralin and Medyani Mani, (eds.), Decentralisation, Governance, and New Planning for Local Level Development (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group). IPPNW; 1998. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Decentralisation in Africa: Trends and Prospects for the 21st Century,".". In: Walter B. Stohr, J.S. Edralin and Medyani Mani, (eds.), Decentralisation, Governance, and New Planning for Local Level Development (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group). IPPNW; 2001. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Decentralisation in Uganda."; Forthcoming. Abstract
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ODUNDO DRAMOLLOHPAUL. "Decentralisation of Human Resource Management in Tanzania: Lessons for Kenya. A Project supported by DfiD/MOH (with John Wachira) 2003.". In: A Project supported by DfiD/MOH (with John Wachira) 2003. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2003.
NYAMBURA PROFKIMANIVIOLET. "Decentralisation of tuberculosis treatment from the main hospitals to the peripheral health units and in the community within Machakos district, Kenya. Kangangi JK, Kibuga D, Muli J, Maher D, Billo N, N'gang'a L, Ngugi E, Kimani V. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. .". In: Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2003 Sep;7(9 Suppl 1):S5-13. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2003. Abstract
SETTING: A rural district, Machakos, in Kenya, facing decreasing national resources for health and an increasing tuberculosis (TB) caseload fuelled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact on district TB programme performance of decentralising TB treatment by providing ambulatory care in the hospital and peripheral health units and in the community. METHODS: A comparative study of district TB programme performance before and after the decentralisation of TB services at the end of 1997. To facilitate ambulatory care, ethambutol replaced streptomycin in the new treatment regimen. FINDINGS: The number of patients registered in the control period (1996) was 1141, of whom almost 100% were admitted during the intensive phase of TB treatment, and in the intervention period (1998 and 1999), it was 3244, of whom only 153 (4.7%) required admission in the intensive phase. Of 3244 TB patients (all forms) registered in the intervention period, the number (%) choosing the different options for directly observed treatment (DOT) supervision were: hospital clinic 1618 (49.9%), peripheral health unit 904 (27.9%), community volunteer 569 (17.5%) and hospitalisation 153 (4.7%). The options were found to be acceptable to patients, their families and health staff. The treatment outcomes among new sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients were similar in the intervention and control cohorts, with treatment success rates of 88% vs. 85% and death rates of 4% vs. 6%, respectively. Treatment completion was significantly higher among new sputum smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB patients in the intervention than in the control cohort (79% vs. 48%, respectively). CONCLUSION: The decentralisation of the intensive phase of TB treatment resulted in maintenance of good TB programme performance, while Machakos hospital closed its TB wards. A separate paper describes the cost-effectiveness of this approach. The National Tuberculosis Control Programme plans to adopt this approach as national policy.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Decentralisation without Democratisation in Kenya."; Forthcoming. Abstract
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O PROFOYUGIWALTER. ""Decentralised Development Planning and Management in Kenya: An Assessment," in Ladipo Adamolekun et al., (eds.), Decentralisation Policies and Socio-Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa (Washington, DC: Economic Development Institute of the World B.". In: Walter O. Oyugi, (ed.), Politics and Administration in East Africa (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers). IPPNW; 1992. Abstract
Although military conflicts are common on the African continent, there is a paucity of data regarding bomb-blast injuries in this region and in Kenya in particular. This paper describes the pattern of maxillofacial injuries sustained after the August 1998 bomb blast that occurred in Nairobi, Kenya. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out using hospital-based records of 290 bomb-blast survivors admitted at the Kenyatta National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Nairobi. Using a self-designed form to record information about variables such as the sex and age of the survivors and type of location of soft- and hard-tissue injuries, it was found that of the 290 bomb-blast survivors, 78% had sustained one or more maxillofacial injuries. Soft-tissue injuries (cuts, lacerations or bruises) were the most common, constituting 61.3% of all injuries in the maxillofacial region; 27.6% had severe eye injuries, while 1.4% had fractures in the cranio-facial region. This paper concludes that the effective management of bomb-blast injuries as well as those caused by other types of disaster requires a multidisciplinary approach. The high percentage of maxillofacial injuries confirm that maxillofacial surgeons should form an integral part of this multidisciplinary team.
AUGUSTINE PROFCHITEREPRESTON. "Decentralization for rural development. In: African Administrative Studies, No.32 (Chitere, P.O. and Monya, J.).". In: Proceedings of the Kenya National Academy of Sciences. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1989.
AKATCH PROFSAMUELO. "Decentralization of Development Planning in Kenya, published PhD thesis University of Dortmund, Germany (1992).". In: Federation Proceedings, 31 1470. Journal of Natural Products; 1992.
A. PROFESHIWANIARTHUR. "The Decentralization Process in Kenya: The Place of Local Authorities - The African Centre for Technology Studies, (ACTOS), Nairobi, Research Memorandum Series.". In: Journal of African Meteorological Society, vol.15, 2001. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 1994. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Decentralized and participatory breeding strategies for bean in Africa: Evolution and potential. In: Sperling, L, J. Lancon and M. Loosevelt (Eds). Participatory Plant Breeding and participatory Plant Genetic Resource Enhancement. An Africa-wide Exchange .". In: Participatory breeding workshop, 17-25 May 2004, Kakamega, Kenya. Pan African Bean Research Alliance, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M PROFKIMANIPAUL. "Decentralized and participatory breeding strategy for beans in Africa:its role and potential for institutionalization. In: Sperling, L, J. Lancon and M. Loosevelt (Eds). Participatory Plant Breeding and participatory Plant Genetic Resource Enhancement. An.". In: Participatory breeding workshop, 17-25 May 2004, Kakamega, Kenya. Pan African Bean Research Alliance, Kampala, Uganda. EAMJ; 2004. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
Obosi OJ. "Decentralized Governance in the Management of Urban Health Care Systems in Developing Countries." Open Journal Of Political Science. 2019;9(1):189-202.
Jeremy G, R.M. O. "Decentralized Management of Wastewater as a Renewable Resource: A Multi - Disciplinary Approach to Sanitation T echnology Development.". In: the Safe Global Water & Sanitation Summit. Mt. Meru Hotel, Arusha. ; 2013.
Asfaw A;, Dauro D;, Kimani PM. "Decentralized participatory bean breeding in southern Ethiopia."; 2006. Abstract

In order to utilize farmers' knowledge on the crop and the environment, and to fit the crop to the specific needs and uses of farmers' communities, a four cycle decentralized participatory bean breeding was conducted in two locations in Sidama zone of the southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region. Forty four farmers selectors representing the community evaluated and then selected bean lines on-stations, the initial diverse germplasm pool of 147 lines at first selection cycle. In the following three cropping seasons, the farmers evaluated their selected lines on their farms and retained promising lines at the end of each selection cycle according to their own selection criteria. Their selections were evaluated by neighboring non-selector farmers (farmer-evaluators) using selection criteria set by farmer selectors. Group selection by selector farmers was attempted at cycle-4 on all individually selected lines grown on communal plots. The farmers effectively evaluated and selected bean lines that gave increased yield on their farm and met their specific preferences among large number of advanced lines. The farmers retained more large seeded beans as compared to small and medium seeded beans indicating that there is a shift in preference to large seeded beans in the region from their previously well-acquainted small red seed type. Bean lines selected by farmer following decentralized individual selection were farmer-specific except certain lines selected in common by some farmers. This lack of common selection to all farmers implies farmers' diverse preference for bean germplasm. In the selection process the farmers used growth habit, plant height, pod load, pod length, pod clearance from the base, early maturity, seed color, seed size and seed yield as selection criteria to retain or reject the bean lines. Seed color and seed yield were their decision making criteria whereas the rest were descriptor criteria to select good cultivars. The selection process indicated that farmers were capable of making significant contribution in identification of cultivars acceptable to them within a relatively short period. Moreover, the result suggests that conducting decentralized participatory individual selection and then participatory group selection with all farmer-selectors on all individually selection lines grown on communal plot and evaluating the final selection with evaluator farmers (non-selectors) against their communal plot and evaluating the final selection with evaluator farmers (non-selectors) against their selection criteria can improve variety development and increase the chance of adoption of new varieties by other farmers in a community.

IKIARA MRGERRISHONK. "Decentralized Planning System in Kenya.". In: A Project paper writTen for ILO. Asian Economic and Social Society; 1981. Abstract
JASPA Working Paper, ILO, Addis Ababa
Mwiti BK. Deception in advertising: a case study of fruit juices in the local Kenyan market .; 2012. Abstract

Deception in advertising is an ongoing moral, and in some cases, controversial issue. What may appear to be a harmless advertisement to one person or group may be very misleading to another. With the increase in technology and the ever-increasing use of the Internet, consumers remain prime targets for advertising and marketing practices that are deceptive. The research thesis first gives background information on deception in advertising and describes different types of deception. It then examines what makes an advertisement deceptive, or what kind of advertisement would be defined 'as containing information that is deceptive and what role the designer plays in the advertising process/chain. It also gives information about juices and studies done on the production of juices, being that the case study revolves around fruit juices and the deception that occurs in their marketing. A field research was conducted to establish just how much deception there is in advertising, using fruit juices sold in the local Kenyan market as a case study. From the findings I was able to determine the level of deception the consumer is exposed to and the likely effects. Within the research were sought views of designers on why, if at all, they use deception in the adverts they produce. Discussions with designers, marketers and advertisers were heldto understand the point at which deceptive information was incorporated as part of the advertising process. Consumers were also interviewed to get an in-depth into what influences their purchasing powers. Retailers came n handy when informing me as to whether advertising was crucial in purchases made in their shopping outlets. The results from the field research proved that deception does exist and led me to conclude that advertising ought to be a moral concern & thus the need to inform consumers of this so that they can make more informed decisions about their purchases; and the need for designers to be held responsible for advertisements they create to market products and services.

M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Dech H, Ndetei DM,Richter P, Kathuku DM,Sandermann S, Othieno C, Mundt Ch (1996): Symptomatology of Depression - Results from a Kenyan Population. 10th. World Congress of Psychiatry, S. 172, Madrid (A).". In: Paper presented at the XI World Congress of Psychiatry, August 6-11, 1999, Hanburg, Germany. Equinet; 1996. Abstract

Sixty-four patients atteending the Kenyatta National Hospital psychiatric clinic with minor p.yychiatric disorders were assessed using the Enugu Somatization Scale with a view of eliciting the nature and types of somatic complaints they had. A control group of 66, 5th year medical student, was used. The average scores for the head and body symptoms were 10.9 and 22.1 for the neurotics and 0.9 and 1.5 for the controls respectively. Overall the commonest complaints among the patients were vague, the highest positive scores in order a/frequency being. 'What worries me is not steady." . 3.7%), "parts of my body are out of order" (87.3%), "my whole body is not all right" (87.3%), ':feeling various parts of the body shiver" (85. 7%) and ':feeling dizzy" (84. 1 %). The complaints were not related to age, sex, education, occupation or p,\ychiatric diagno,yis. The average scores for the Kenyan neurotic, were higher than that obtained from the Nigerian (head: 8.14; body: 15.2) and Indian neurotics (head: 8.75: body: 11.78) in previous .ytudies. On the other hand the Kenyan controls had lower scores compared to the other 2 groups. The implication of these findings is discussed.

JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Dech H, Richter P, Sanderman S, Othieno C J, Kathuku D M, Ndetei D M & Mundt C (1995). Trans-cultural research on depression .". In: European Psychiatric Journal. European Psychiatric Journal; 1995. Abstract
Transcultural psychiatry, whose scientific founder Emil Kraepelin is considered as, in its 100 years of tradition has not only developed a varied range of methods but has also brought about a change in the respective scientific questions as well as in related research and clinical applications. Whereas transcultural research on the psychopathology of depression contributed to the further development of psychiatric nosology, transcultural psychiatry has recently been increasingly faced with issues concerning phenomena of social change and globalization. One region, where such conditions can be observed in particular is Africa, where the dissolving of traditional standards and support systems and growing economic insecurity causes a considerable burden especially on women. As an example, results from a cross-sectional study on East African women using a two step design as well as qualitative and quantitative, standardized psychiatric methods are discussed concerning the association of social change, psycho-social risk factors and the development of depressive disorders. Efficient clinical methods towards diagnosis and treatment of new risk groups will have to be developed, of which an important aspect will be crisis intervention.
M PROFNDETEIDAVID, M. DRKATHUKUDAMMAS, JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Dech H., Richter P., Sanderman S., Othieno C. J. Kathuku D. M., Detei D. M. and Mundt C (1995). Transcultural research on depression 0- study concept and preliminary results vortrag. World psychiatric Association .". In: World psychiatric Association . Curare; 1995. Abstract
Transcultural psychiatry, whose scientific founder Emil Kraepelin is considered as, in its 100 years of tradition has not only developed a varied range of methods but has also brought about a change in the respective scientific questions as well as in related research and clinical applications. Whereas transcultural research on the psychopathology of depression contributed to the further development of psychiatric nosology, transcultural psychiatry has recently been increasingly faced with issues concerning phenomena of social change and globalization. One region, where such conditions can be observed in particular is Africa, where the dissolving of traditional standards and support systems and growing economic insecurity causes a considerable burden especially on women. As an example, results from a cross-sectional study on East African women using a two step design as well as qualitative and quantitative, standardized psychiatric methods are discussed concerning the association of social change, psycho-social risk factors and the development of depressive disorders. Efficient clinical methods towards diagnosis and treatment of new risk groups will have to be developed, of which an important aspect will be crisis intervention.

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