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Samanta P. "C ommodity prices and I nstitutional changes in Africa." Universidad de Costa Rica; 2012.
Yenesew A. "C-Methylated and C-prenylated isoflavonoids from root extracts of Desmodium uncinatum." Phytochemistry 68, 646-651.. 2007;68(5):646-651. Abstractpaper_44_guchu_et_al_phyto_2007_68_646.pdf

A pterocarpan, 1,9-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-2-methylpterocarpan (named uncinacarpan) and two isoflavanones, 5,7-dihydroxy-2',3',4'-trimethoxy-6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)isoflavanone (named uncinanone D) and ,4'-dihydroxy-7,2'-dimethoxy-6-methylisoflavanone (named uncinanone E), were isolated from the CH(2)Cl(2) root extract of Desmodium uncinatum (Jacq.) DC and characterised by spectroscopic methods. In addition, a rare pterocarpan edudiol and two known abietane diterpenes, 7-oxo-15-hydroxydehydroabietic acid and 7-hydroxycallitrisic acid were identified. The fraction of the root extract that was analysed induced germination of Striga hermonthica seeds, but none of the isolated compounds showed this activity.

Wasunna A, Whitelaw A, Gallimore R, Hawkins PN, Pepys MB. "C-reactive protein and bacterial infection in preterm infants." Eur. J. Pediatr.. 1990;149(6):424-7. Abstract

Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was measured by a new solid phase ligand-binding radiometric monoclonal antibody immunoassay in a prospective study of 193 consecutively born preterm infants. In 104 with no clinical or laboratory evidence of infection the median CRP in cord serum was 0.125 mg/l (range 0.011-6.0 mg/l), at 24 h it was 1 mg/l (0.016-7.0) and at 48 h 2 mg/l (0.400-8.0). The present highly sensitive assay has enabled these normal ranges to be defined for the first time, at levels below the threshold of non-labelled immunoassays and of all commercially available CRP assays. The values in cord serum were significantly lower than in normal healthy adults (median 0.8 mg/l, range 0.07-29 mg/l, n = 468). Arterial catheterisation and endotracheal intubation, in the absence of infection, did not appear to elevate CRP, nor did cerebral germinal layer or intraventricular haemorrhage. Among nine infants with confirmed septicaemia eight had a serum CRP level raised at least once during the first 48 h and serum CRP in the other one increased 250-fold in 24 h before treatment was started. Using this assay, serum CRP is a useful and rapidly available adjunct to clinical assessment in diagnosis and exclusion of bacterial infection in the early neonatal period, has encouraged us to withhold or discontinue antibiotics and also has a role in monitoring response to treatment.

R. DRILAKODUNERA, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "C. Cofie, D. Ilako, K. H. M. Kollmann Ocular effects of methanol poisoning as seen in patients involved in the .". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2002). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
R. DRILAKODUNERA, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "C. Cofie, D. Ilako, K. H. M. Kollmann Ocular effects of methanol poisoning as seen in patients involved in the .". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2002). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2002. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
R. DRILAKODUNERA, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "C. Cofie, D. Ilako, K. H. M. Kollmann Ocular effects of methanol poisoning as seen in patients involved in the .". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2002). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 2002. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.

K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "C. De Greef, E. Chimfwembe, J.K. Wabacha, E.B. Songa, and R. Hamers (1992). Only the serum -resistant bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense express the serum resistance associated (SRA) protein. Ann. Soc. Beig. Med. Trop.72(1): 13-21.". In: Kenya Veterinary Assciation Annual Scientific Conference, 22nd - 24th April, 1998), Embu, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 1992. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER. "C. Iwabuchi, K. Iwabuchi, S. Kobayashi, K. Ogasawara, I. Negishi, B. Wang, P.P. Wambua, H.Arase, N. Fukushi, Y. Itoh, T. Gotohda, R. A. Good and K. Onoe. Deficiency in early development of the Thymus-Depended cells in irradiation Chimeras attributable to .". In: J Immunol. 1991 Jan 1;146(1):26-34. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1991. Abstract
Allogeneic bone marrow chimeras were prepared using reciprocal combinations of AKR and C3H mice. When C3H mice were recipients, the number of thymocytes recoverable from such chimeras (C3H recipient chimeras) was small as compared with that from chimeras for which AKR mice were used as recipients (AKR recipient chimeras) regardless of donor strain. The thymocytes from C3H recipient chimeras showed a profound deficiency in generating proliferative responses to stimulation by anti-CD3 mAb (2C11) or anti-TCR (alpha, beta) mAb (H57-597), even though the expression of CD3 and TCR molecules fell within the same range as that in AKR recipient chimeras. Furthermore, after stimulation with immobilized 2C11, the proportion of IL-2R+ cells in the thymocytes from C3H recipient chimeras was much less than that in AKR recipient chimeras. However, no significant difference in proliferative responses to 2C11 plus PMA, in influx of Ca2+ after stimulation with 2C11 or IL-2 production in response to 2C11 plus PMA or PMA plus A23187 was demonstrated between C3H and AKR recipient chimeras. These findings suggest that the thymocytes from C3H recipient chimeras have a deficiency in the signal transduction system as compared with chimeras for which AKR mice are the recipients. The thymic stromal component involved in this difference in the C3H recipient chimeras is discussed.
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "C. J. NGANGA, P. W. N. KANYARI, W. K. MUNYUA (1994). " Isolation of Besnoitia wallacei in Kenya". Veterinary Parasitology, 52: 203- 206.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "C. J. NGANGA, W. K. MUNYUA and P. W. N. KANYARI (1994). "Recovery and identification of Besnoitia and other coccidia from cat feaces around Kabete in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 42:187 - 191.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "C. J. NGANGA, W. K. MUNYUA and P. W. N. KANYARI (1994). "Recovery and identification of Besnoitia and other coccidia from cat feaces around Kabete in Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 42:187 - 191.". In: 6th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA Funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. 27th -31st January. ILRI, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were used separately to infect one month-old goat kids which were then killed 34 days post-infection. Their small intestines contained small nodular lesions made of several endogenous stages mainly macrogametocytes and macrogametes. Electron microscope studies of macrogametocytes revealed a prominent central nucleus and nucleolus. Other cellular components were mitochondria, wall forming bodies(WFB) type 1( homogenous) and type 2(reticular). Polysaccharide granules of E.christenseni had a chain like arrangement in the young cells, and increased dramatically with maturation of the macrogemetes to become the main cytoplasmic component along with the WFB. Type 1 WFB were peripheral while type 2 were more central but in E.christeseni macrogametes, some type 2 WFB appeared to give rise to membranous vesicles at the areas of wall formation.. The macrogamete nucleus was small and usually indented with polysaccharide granules and reticular bodies, named nuclear derived bodies(NBD), arising from the perinuclear regions. Within the periparasitic areas of both species, membranous/dark bodies were seen. E. arloingi had a large and well defined parasitophorous vacuole(PV), within which an inner lighter, and outer layer with dark granules were found. Both species had some poorly developed intravacuolar tubes(IVT), which occurred at certain points in the case of E.arloingi, while in E.christenseni, they had a diffuse distribution
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "C. O. Omondi, P.O. Ayiecho, A. W. Mwang.". In: in . J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2001. Abstract
Genetic diversity of 50 Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates collected from different agro ecological zones in Kenya were studied using group specific primers and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Group-specific primers differentiated the isolates into Andean and Mesoamerican groups, corresponding to the two common-bean gene pools. Significant polymorphisms were observed with all the AFLP primer combinations used, reflecting a wide genetic diversity in the P. griseola population. A total of 207 finger prints was generated, of which 178 were polymorphic. Cluster analysis of the polymorphic bands also separated the isolates into the two groups defined by group specific primers. All the isolates examined were grouped into three virulence populations; Andean, Afro-Andean and Mesoamerican, and their genetic diversity measured. On average, greater diversity (91%) was detected within populations than between populations (9%). The genetic distance between Andean and Mesoamerican populations was higher (D = 0.0269) than between Andean and Afro-Andean (D = 0.0095). The wide genetic diversity reported here has significant implications in breeding for resistance -to angular leaf spot and should be taken into consideration when screening and deploying resistant bean genotypes.
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "C. O. Omondi, P.O. Ayiecho, A. W. Mwang.". In: African Crop Science Conference Proceedings vol. 5: 123-128, 2001 (ISSN 1023-070X). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2000. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "C. W. Wachenje, A. W. Mwang.". In: African Crop Science Conference Proceedings vol. 5: 123-128, 2001 (ISSN 1023-070X). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 2000. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
YUKO- DRJOWICHRISTINEA, E DRSIMIYUMAJORD. "C. Yuko-Jowi, DE Simiyu, RN Musoke : Ectopia cordis : a report of two cases East Afr Med J 81:486-498; 2004.". In: a report of two cases East Afr Med J 81:486-498; 2004. uon press; 2004. Abstract
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202 Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To describe the echocardiographic features of children with rheumatic heart disease seen at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital Heart Unit. SUBJECTS: Patients aged 20 years and less with echocardiographic diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty four echocardiograms were analysed. Seventy six point four of cases were aged between 5 and 15 years, while on 3% were less than five years. The combinations mitral and aortic regurgitation was the most common lesion followed by isolated mitral regurgitation. Isolated aortic regurgitation was as rare as isolated mitral stenosis in the paediatric age group 1.8% and 2.7% respectively. When seen in the younger age group, the leaflet morphology in mitral regurgitation was predominantly thickening and clubbing of the leaflets while in the older children the pathology was of marked fibrosis of the sub-valvular apparatus. Leaflet prolapse and commissural fusion was the major pathology in aortic regurgitation. Pulmonary hypertension was the most common complication commonly seen in mitral valve disease. Calcification was a rare encounter in this age bracket. CONCLUSIONS: Rheumatic heart disease in the paediatric age commonly presents as isolated mitral regurgitation or in combinations of mitral and aortic regurgitation. The complications of pulmonary hypertension was predominant in mitral valve disease. Valvular calcification is rare in juvenile rheumatic heart disease. PMID: 16450679 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Christiana Z. Peppard, Andrea Vicini SJ. "C.A. Mumma-Martinon.". In: Just Sustainability. New york: Orbis books , Maryknoll; 2015.1._towards_environmental_sustainability_-_ctewc.pdf
MARTINON MUMMA-CA. "C.A. Mumma-Martinon.". In: SPE African Health, Safety, Security, and Environment and Social Responsibility Conference and Exhibition. Maputo, Mozambique; 2014.
Opondo OE, D.Kaulemu. "C.A. Mumma-Martinon.". In: Catholic Church Leadership in Peace Building in Africa. Paulines Publications Africa; 2014.
C.A. Mumma-Martinon. NAIROBI: Total Exploration production Kenya; 2013.
OPIYO PROFAKECHNOBERT. "C.A. Hauzenberger, G. Hoinkes, A.H. Bauernhofer, E. Wallbrecher, H. Fritz, J. Loizenbauer, M. Th.". In: PTt-evolution of Pan- African Granulites in SE-Kenya. EUG 2001. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2001. Abstract
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N PROFNYAGAP. "C.G. Gitao and P.N. Nyaga (1996): A comparison of field outbreaks of camelpox and Camel contagious ecthyma in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. and Prod. Afric. 44: 73-78.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1996. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "C.G. Gitao, P.N. Nyaga and J. O. Evans (1996): Pathogenicity of Sheep Skin- cell-propagated camel-pox virus in camels (Camelus dromedarius): Indian Journ. of Animal Sciences 66(6): 535-538.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1996. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "C.G. Ndiritu, P.N. Nyaga and G.N. Mugera. Evaluation of Ancylostoma caninum antigens using the isoelectro-focusing techniques (1985). Kenya Vet.(9) :8-10.". In: Proceedings: 10th Convention, Indian Society for Veterinary Surgery, Nov. 1986. au-ibar; 1985. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

N PROFNYAGAP. "C.G.Gitao and P.N. Nyaga (1997): Pathogenicity of Camelpox virus adapted to sheep skin and sheep kidney derived cell cultures in camels. Indian Vet. J. 74: 872-874.". In: Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. vol.58. no.1. au-ibar; 1997. Abstract

According to the statements made by a number of scholars, in the 80's East African Anglophone novel, which once received a nickname of "social documentary", began to lose gradually its social commitment. Many of the writers known previously as the most active supporters of the social trend, moved their attempts to other literan areas - criminal novel ("Weapon of hunger" by Meja Mцangi, 1989), love story (Yussuf Dawood's "Off my chest", 1988), even children's literature (books for children in Gikuyu, written by Ngugi wa Thiong'o). However, in the late 80's and early 90's East African Anglophone novel stepped onto a new level of social trend, moving from "social documentary" to "social epic". The authors now are trying to sum up the historical experience of East African countries over a large time span, and to that effect appeal mostly to elaborate and spacious literary forms, such as epic novel. These authors, although chosen one and the same literary form, are showing clearly their inclinations towards different styles of writing. For example, Tanzanian author Moyez Vassanji in his novel "The gunny sack" (1989) makes a rather convincing attempt to replant on East African soil the method of "mythological writing", previously used by such author as Gabriel Garcia Marquez. The novel definitely appeals not only to local reader, but to a wider international audience; on its pages the author manages to restore not only the fate of several generations of Indian family, but even the slightest details of their mentality, using myth as one of the basic means for changing the dimensions of time and space, according to the logic of the narration. The development of Kenyan novel in the early 90's confirms also one of the main tendencies in modem literature - bridging between "elite" and popular fiction. The first attempt of an epic novel in Kenyan Anglophone literature was, oddly enough, made by the veteran of Kenyan popular fiction David Maillu in his "Broken drum" H991). The novel hardly aims the widest reading public - nevertheless, stylistically it bears distinct features of popular fiction, such as crime story, romance, etc. Popular novel in East Africa also shows certain inclination towards urgent social themes, but the authors inevitably uses the artistic means they feel most happy with - that is, the style of popular fiction. For example, the "clash of cultures" - the experience of young Africans studying abroad - is presented in the form of a picaresque ("Times beyond" by Omondi Makoloo, 1992) or love story ("The girl from Uganda" by Tengio Urrio, 1993); feministic problems are spiced with sentimentalism ("Judy the nun" by P .Waweru, 1990); the thoughts on the hardships of younger generation are guised in Bildungs roman ("The plight of succession" by a Tanzanian Prosper Rwegoshora, 1990). At the same time, some authors, who have been ploughing successfully the field of pop fiction for a few decades, show their interest in more elaborate literary forms ("Dedan Kimathi: the real story" by Samuel Kaluga, 1990). All the mentioned facts do not allow us to state that the division into popular and elite novel will disappear within the foreseeable future. However, the most interesting developments seem to take place precisely in the field of bridging between these two branches of East African fiction.

K. MRNJERUERASTUS. "C.K Sigei and E.K. Njeru.Surveillance and Research in STI, In: A.P. Mwangi and J. Ndinya-Achola (ed), STI Control and Prevention. Ministry of Health and Belgian Development Cooperation, Nairobi, 1999.". In: A.P. Mwangi and J. Ndinya-Achola (ed), STI Control and Prevention. Ministry of Health and Belgian Development Cooperation, Nairobi, 1999. Kisipan, M.L.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of cigarette filters and the effect of smoking Kiraiku (home processed, hand rolled tobacco) on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia among cigarette smokers. DESIGN: Case control using population-based study groups in a Kenyan rural community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 85 cases and 141 controls identified in a cross-section house-to-house screening of subjects aged 15 years and over and matched for sex, age (+/- 3 years) and cluster origin were compared for their use of filter and non-filter cigarettes as well as their history of smoking Kiraiku. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia was 9.1 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 4.1-20.2) in smokers of filter cigarettes and 9.8 (95% CI = 2.3-47.0) in smokers of non-filter cigarettes. The RR in the latter compared to the former was 1.1 and was not statistically significant. Regarding the influence of smoking Kiraiku, the RR of this lesion was 29.3 in smokers of both Kiraiku and filter cigarettes and 17.3 in smokers of both Kiraiku and non-filter cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant difference between the influence of filter and non-filter cigarettes on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. The effect of Kiraiku on the risk of this lesion was stronger in filter than in non-filter cigarettes. However, the confounding effect of tobacco dose response parameters could not be ruled out.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "C.K. Maitai, A.N. Guantai and J.W. Mwangi (1981). Self-medication in management of minor health problem in Kenya. E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600.". In: E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600. A.N. GUANTAI and C.K. MAITA; 1981. Abstract
he distribution of cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine in Catha edit/is plants from 2 different geographical localities has been investigated. There was no difference in the chemical constituents of Catha material from 2 locali-ties. D-norpseudoephedrine was present in all parts of the plant examined except the root but cathinone was only detected in the young shoots and bran-chlets. It is concluded that the psychostinaulant effect following chewing of young Catha shoots is due to both cathinone and d-norpseudoephedrine with the cathinone being more important since it is 7-10 times more potent than d-norpseudoephedrine.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS, N PROFGUANTAIA. "C.K. Maitai, A.N. Guantai and J.W. Mwangi (1981). Self-medication in management of minor health problem in Kenya. E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600.". In: E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600. The Kenya Medical Association; 1981. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
Maitai CK, Kibwage IO, Guantai AN, Ombega JN, Ndemo FA. "C.K. Maitai, I.O. Kibwage, A. N. Guantai, J. N. Ombega and F.A. Ndemo (1998). A retrospective study of childhood poisoning in Kenya in 1991- 93." East Cent Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 1998;1(1):7-10. AbstractWebsite

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

"C.K. Maitai, I.O. Kibwage, A. N. Guantai, J. N. Ombega and F.A. Ndemo (1998). A retrospective study of childhood poisoning in Kenya in 1991- 93.: East Cent. Afr.J.Pharm.Sci. 1(1):7-10." East Cent. Afr. J Pharm.Sci 2(3): 63-71; 1998. Abstract

Field trips to herbalists' practices in an area about 200 miles around Nairobi (Kenya) enabled us to make a list of medicinal plant species preferentially used to treat malaria. Ajuga remota and Caesalpinia volkensii were further investigated as being the most frequently used species. Aqueous decoctions, ethanol macerates, and petroleum ether, methanol and water Soxhlet extracts of these plants were further tested for their in vitro antimalarial properties in a chloroquine sensitive (FCA/20GHA) and resistant (W2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The activity was assessed by the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay method. There was a concentration-dependent inhibition by the vegetal extracts of both plants. The IC(50) of the most active A. remota extract (ethanol macerate) was 55 and 57 microg/ml against FCA/20GHA and W2, respectively. For C. volkensii, it was the Soxhlet-water extract which was most active against FCA/20GHA with an IC(50) of 404 microg/ml while the petroleum ether extract exhibited the most activity against W2 with an IC(50) of 250 microg/ml. Further phytochemical work is being done in order to identify the active principles.

M DRNJOROGEERNEST. "C.K. Mbae, S.M. Githigia, E.M. Njoroge, J.K. Magambo & R..Otieno (2004). The prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants in Semi-Arid Turkana District of Kenya.". In: Bulletin of Animal Health and Production for Africa, 52: 85 . African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2004. Abstract
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of 95% ethyl alcohol in PAIR technique. Animals naturally infected with Echinococcus were randomly divided into two groups. In the test group, cysts (n=7) were punctured, drained and injected with 95% ethyl alcohol, while in the control group, cysts (n=9) were only punctured and drained. The procedure was done under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound showed collapsed endocysts after cyst puncture in both groups. One month later, there was decrease in cyst size, increased echogenicity and complete or partial detachment of the endocyst. Postmortem examination of the cysts in test group showed gross degeneration with marked fibrosis of the surrounding liver tissue. Incision of the cysts revealed turbid yellow cystic contents and degenerated endocysts. Microscopically, only debris and dead protoscoleces with detached hooks were seen. In the control group, the cysts appeared grossly intact but flaccid. Incision of the cysts showed clear fluid with intact endocysts. However, microscopic examination of the cyst fluid showed that the protoscoleces were dead with detached hooks. In the test group, histopathology showed host cell reaction consist of infiltrated, adventitial layer with neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma cells. In addition, the liver tissue was destroyed and replaced with young fibroblasts and mesenchymal cells. In the control group, histopathology showed detachment of the laminate layer of the cyst from the adventitia, and inflammatory cells in both the adventitia and the liver tissues. However, the degree of inflammation was markedly less in the control than in the test group. The findings suggest that puncture alone may be sufficient to kill the protoscoleces, possibly due to the detachment of the endocyst from the host wall.
DR. AKUNDA ELIJAHM. "C.L. Coulson, C. J Stigter, E. M. W. Akunda and E. Floor .". In: Trop. Agri.Vol. 65 No. 4. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
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KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "C.M. Mulei and G.K. Gitau. Antibiotic sensitivity of aerobic bacterial organisms isolated from cows with postpartum vaginal discharges and their implications in therapy of uterine infections in Kenya. Indian Veterinary Journal. (1993) 70: 999-1002.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Indian Veterinary Journal; 1993. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. "C.M. Mulei and Mbithi, P.M.F. (1998). A comparison of the clinical hematological values of healthy adult beef and dairy cattle at Kabete. The Kenya Veterinarian, Vol. 13 pp. 33-34.". In: 4th TICH Annual Scientific Conference Kisumu, Kenya. AWC and FES; 1998. Abstract

Clinical hematological values have been established for healthy cattle of several breeds in various parts of the world. However, values of some blood components differ between laboratories (Schalm 1980) creating a problem when interpreting blood profiles for any particular area if the normal blood component values for the area are not known.

PROF. MBITHI PMF. C.M. Mulei and P.M.F. Mbithi (2003). Metabolic and Nutritional Diseases of Food Animals. Published by, University of Nairobi Press.. AWC and FES; 2003. AbstractWebsite

Pain is a perception, an unpleasant experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It is usually caused by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimulation of specialised paid receptors (nociceptors) in tissues. In routine veterinary practice, such acute insulsts causing intense stimulation encountered include tissue trauma including surgery, burns and fractures. As veterinary practitioners, we are ethically obliged to prevent paid and suffering where possible and alleviate it, should it occur, as it contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. In order to do this, we needed to be able to assess pain in animals and manage it appropriately. Paid assessment can be made based on anthropomorphism behavioural responses of the patient and clinical signs. The behavioural and physiological responses that accompany paid such as vocalisation, withdrawal reflex guarding of the affected area and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system are measurable. Pain control in animals can be achieved through limitation of neciceptor stimulation, interruption of peripheral transmission, inhibition of noceceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, modulation of brain pathways by systemic administration of analgesics or, though balanced or multimode analgesia by simultaneous use of a number of the above strategies. Although the selection and techniques of administration of individual analgesic drugs vary, local and opioid analgesics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tranquillisers and other combination therapies when used appropriately can control paid and alleviate suffering in animals experiencing pain. This paper looks at paid and its management in animals.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "C.M. Mulei, E.R. Mutiga and G.K. Gitau. Retained fetal membranes in cattle: Relationship between bacterial isolates, blood picture and systemic involvement. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. (1993) 63 (3): 235-238.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 1993. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

KARUOYA PROFGITAUGEORGE. "C.M. Mulei, G.K. Gitau and P.G. Mbuthia. Causes of calf mortality in Kabete area Kenya. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. (1995) 62 (3): 181-185.". In: Trop Anim Health Prod (2010) 42:1643-1647. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research; 1995. Abstract

Abstract The study reported data from 507 post-mortem records in the Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The records were from carcasses obtained from the peri-urban area of airobi during a 20-year period between 1990 and 2009. Approximately 80% (393/507) of the calf carcasses had their diagnosis made through post-mortem examination, while the rest (114/507) were incon-clusive. Just less than half (48.3%) of the calf carcasses presented had their age specified by the owners compared to 51.7% whose age was not specified. For calf carcasses whose age was specified by the owners, those indicated as more than 3 months were one-and-a-half times as many as those below 3 months old. The proportion of female carcasses (53.8%, 273/507) presented for post-mortem were slightly higher than the male carcasses (46.2%, 234/507). Diseases or conditions of the respiratory system were the most common 17.7% (97/507) while gastrointes- tinal tract (GIT) was second and affected 16.1 % (88/507) of the cases. Another small number, 3.3% (18/507), died from bloat giving the total cases associated with GIT as 19.4% (106/507). Severe calf malnutrition and septicaemia were the third most reported causes of calf mortality in similar proportions at 14.3% (78/507) and 14.4% (79/507), respectively. Other minor causes of calf mortality were tick-borne diseases 8.6% (47/507), helminthiasis and poisoning, 2.9% (16/507) and 1.8% (10/507), respectively.

K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "C.M. Mulei, J.K. Wabacha and P.M.F Mbithi. Short-term Economic impact of Foot and Mouth disease outbreak in a large dairy herd in Kenya. Kenya Veterinary Association Annual.". In: Scientific Conference, 26th - 28th April, 2000), Mombasa, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "C.M. Mulei, J.K. Wabacha and P.M.F. Mbithi (2001). Short-term Economic impact of Foot and Mouth disease outbreak in a large dairy Farm in Kiambu District, Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 22: 76-78.". In: Biennial scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 7th-9th August 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2001. Abstract
The short-term farm level economic impact of Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak in a large-scale dairy scale dairy farm was assessed during the quarantine period (35 days) and 60 days after lifting of the quarantine. Direct and indirect areas that contributed to the financial losses were identified for the period of observation (85 days). The greatest direct financial impact was due to milk losses (42.0%) followed by purchase pf additional feeds (13.65) and culling of milking cows that developed chronic mastitis (12.5%). The other direct costs were; extra labout inputs (8.9%), veterinary fees (3.350, transport (3.05), death (3.0%), drugs (2.9%), abortions (1.4%) and chemicals (0.5%). The indirect costs (9.4%) were associated with the effects of the quarantine period on other farm enterprises. During the quarantine period there were no sales of pigs and hay, and the retained additional feeds. The overall short-term farm level direct and indirect costs associated to US$16,026 (1US$=75ksh). This colossal economic loss within such a short period of time indicates that the control of FMD is of paramount economic importance in the diary farming sector in Kenya. The factors that would determine the magnitude of the financial losses due to an outbreak of FMD are discussed
KARURI PROFGATHUMBIPETER. "C.M. Mulei, P.K.Gathumbi and P.G.Mbuthia (2000). Suspected sheep associated malignant catarrhal fever in a zero.". In: Proceedings of the first national workshop on medicinal, aromatic and other underutilized plant species in Kenya. Naivasha, Kenya, 29 Oct. to 3rd Nov. 2001. Bull. Anim Hlth. Prod. Afr. 54: 100-109; 2000. Abstract
Aim of the study: This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of Malaria as well as the existing knowledge,attitudes and practices related to malaria recognition, control and treatment in South Coast, Kenya. Methods: Data was collected using semistructured questionnaires and interviews. A focused group discussion held with the community members, one in each of the study villages supplemented the interview and questionnaire survey. Results: The respondents were found to have a good understanding of malaria and could distinguish it from other fever types. They were also aware that malaria was spread by mosquitoes. Malaria prevalence was high, and affected individuals an average of four times a year. Community members avoided. Mosquito bites by using mosquitonets, clearing bushes around their homesteads and burning plant parts. To generate smoke. They prevented and treated malaria by taking decoctions or concoctions of traditional herbal remedies. Forty plant species in thirty-five genera distributed in twenty-four families were used as antimalarials in the study area. Five plant species, namely; Heeria insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae), Rottboelia exaltata L.F (Gramineae), Pentanisia ouranogyne S. Moore (Rubiaceae), Agathisanthenum globosum (A. Rich) Hiern (Rubiaceae), and Grewia trichocarpa Hochst ex A. Rich (Tiliaceae) are documented for the first time in South Coast, Kenya, for the treatment of malaria. Conclusions: The plants documented in the current study are a potential source for new bioactive compounds of therapeutic value in malaria treatment. The results provide data for further pharmacological and toxicological studies and development of commercial antimalarial phytotherapy products.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "C.M. Mulei, T.A. Ngatia and J.K. Wabacha (2001). Epidemiological, Clinical and Pathological findings of Oedema disease of Swine in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian 22: 79-81.". In: Biennial scientific Conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, 7th-9th August 2002, Nairobi, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2001. Abstract
A study was conducted in fourty randomly selected herds in a peri-urban area in the Central Kenyan highlands to obtain prevalence estimates of sarcoptic mange in pigs kept by smallholder farmers. A total of 476 pigs of various age-group categories were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was based on physical examination for clinical signs indicative of mange infestation and on direct detection of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. Ninety per cent of the herds had clinical signs suggestive of sarcoptic mange and in 70% of the herds Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was positively identified. The results also indicated that 273 (57.3%) of the 476 pigs had clinical signs indicative of sarcoptic mange and 90 (18.9%) of the 476 pigs were positive for Sarcoptes scabiei var suis. The hypersensitive form of mange was more common than the chronic form. The direct examination technique to detect Sarcoptes scabiei var suis was more effective in weaners than in the other age categories of pigs. The results indicate that sarcoptic mange is a common problem in smallholder pig herds in Kikuyu Division of Kiambu District, Kenya.
K PROFWABACHAJAMES. "C.M. Mulei, T.A. Ngatia and J.K. Wabacha. Epidemiological, Clinical and Pathological findings of Oedema disease of Swine in Kenya.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association Annual Scientific Conference, 26th - 28th April, 2000), Mombasa, Kenya. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol; 2000. Abstract
Forty-two pigs in a herd of 117 displayed various clinical signs of progressive atrophic rhinitis. The main signs included sneezing, coughing, lachrymation, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge, and nasal bleeding in 1 pig. Three pigs had lateral deviation of the snout, while 4 had brachygnathia superior with obvious deformation of the face. Four acutely affected weaner pigs appeared weak, while the 7 chronically-affected pigs appeared smaller than their apparently unaffected penmates of the same age. Treatment of the acutely affected pigs with long-acting oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly, repeated once after 7 days, reduced the severity but did not clear the sneezing from all the pigs. Fifteen pigs were slaughtered 2 months after the clinical diagnosis was made. The carcasses of the chronically affected pigs were about 15% lighter than those of the apparently normal pigs of the same age and from the same pen, which translated to a loss of 921.00 Kenya shillings per pig (US$13.7). Diagnosis of progressive atrophic rhinitis was confirmed by sectioning the snouts of randomly selected slaughtered pigs with obvious deformation of the snout. Sections were made at the level of the 1st/2nd upper premolar tooth. Varying degrees of turbinate atrophy, from mild to complete, were noted. Histopathology of the turbinates revealed metaplasia of nasal epithelium and fibrosis in the lamina propria.
"C.O. Ondari, I.O. Kibwage, F.A. Ndemo and S.O. Mcligeyo (1989). Comparative bioavailability of two brands of Chlorpropamide tablets on the Kenyan market. .". In: E. Afr. Med. J. 66(10): 368-663. Pharmacother. Bull. 1(1): 6 - 7.; 1989. Abstract

The relative bioavailability of two brands of chlorpropamide, Dibonis, and Diabinese has been evaluated in four healthy male volunteers in a randomized, balanced, cross-over study. No statistically significant differences were observed in the absorption rate constant, ka, time to reach peak serum concentration, tp, maximum serum concentration, Cmax, the overall elimination rate constant, kel, and the area under the curve, AUC, at 95% confidence level.

"C.O. Ondari, L. Gathu, F.A. Ndemo and I.O. Kibwage (1996). Microbial contamination of oral dosage forms. NAJM, 1(2): 5-8.". East Cent. Afr. J Pharm.Sci 2(3): 63-71; 1996. Abstract

Plastic surgical gloves reprocessed at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) were tested for microbiological and physical quality, using standard, disposable, factory sterilised surgical gloves as reference. The microbiological tests were carried out using slightly modified British Pharmacopoeia method. The tests to check on the physical integrity of the gloves were designed in our laboratories. A total of 48 pairs of each group were tested. 41.67% of the reprocessed gloves and 12.5% of the reference glove failed sterility test, whereas 47.9% of the former and 0% of the latter had physical defects. These results show significant difference in the microbiological and physical quality of the reprocessed and reference gloves. The reprocessing of plastic surgical gloves is therefore, potentially dangerous and it is strongly recommended that it is discontinued at all levels of health-care institutions.

S PROFKIGONDUCHRISTINE. "C.O.Onuango, FW Maina C Sekadde-Kigondu and JKG Mati Effect of DMPA on Lipid and Lipoprotein Changes in the First three months and long term use. J.Obstet Gynaecol E.C. Afr. 16(10 54, 2003.". In: J.Obstet Gynaecol E.C. Afr. 16(10 54, 2003. uon press; 2003. Abstract
The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in genital secretions is regarded as a risk factor for sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. A better understanding of correlates of genital shedding of HIV is crucial to the development of effective strategies against transmission of this virus. Events during menstrual cycle are likely to influence local immune responses and viral load in genital secretions, and hence determine susceptibility to HIV or efficiency of virus transmission. We report, in this study, preliminary findings on the relationship of menstrual cycle to genital mucosal and systemic immunity in female olive baboons (Papio anubis) experimentally inoculated with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P.
Choi RY, Fowke KR, Juno J, Lohman-Payne B, Oyugi JO, Brown ER, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C. "C868T single nucleotide polymorphism and HIV type 1 disease progression among postpartum women in Kenya." AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 2012;28(6):566-70. Abstract

The C868T single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD4 receptor encodes an amino acid substitution of tryptophan for arginine in the third domain. Previous studies suggest that C868T increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition; however, the influence of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on disease progression has not been established. The presence of the C868T polymorphism was not statistically significantly associated with HIV-1 disease progression outcomes in a cohort of postpartum Kenyan women.

Choi RY, Fowke KR JL-POJOBERBJ-SFJBR. "C868T Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and HIV Type 1. Disease Progression among Postpartum Women in Kenya." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011.
1. Choi RY, Fowke KR JL-POJOBERBJ-SFJBR. "C868T Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and HIV Type 1. Disease Progression Among Postpartum Women in Kenya. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011 Sep 27." AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011. Abstractsingle_nucleotide_polymorphism_and_hiv_type_1._disease_progression_among_postpartum_women_in_kenya.pdf

The C868T single nucleotide polymorphism in the CD4 receptor encodes an amino acid substitution of tryptophan for arginine in the third domain. Previous studies suggest that C868T increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition; however, the influence of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on disease progression has not been established. The presence of the C868T polymorphism was not statistically significantly associated with HIV-1 disease progression outcomes in a cohort of postpartum Kenyan women.

Kyule MD. CAC 202 Archaeology Field Methods. Nairobi: lecture module for the Center for Open and Distance Learning (CODL), University of Nairobi.; 2008.
Kyule MD. CAC 405 Tourism in the Internet Age. Nairobi; 2011.
Setty SNRS, Katikireddi RS. "Cadaveric study of arterial pattern of caecum and vermiform appendix - research article." International Journal of Current Research and Review. 2013;5:73-75. AbstractWebsite
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Onyatta JO, Huang PM. Cadmium status in selected Kenyan soils. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: The American Society of Agronomy, the Crop Science Society and the Soil Scince Society of America; 1995.
Mande J;, Mbithi PMF;, Mbiuki SM. "Caestrum poisoning in a colt.".; 1990.
Mande J;, Mbithi PMF;, Mbiuki SM. "Caestrum poisoning in a colt.".; 1990.
Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Nyagah PN;, Maitho TE;, Mbugua PN. "Caged-layer waste as a nitrogen source in crop-residue utilization."; 1992. Abstract

Examine the effect of processing methods on the composition and degradability of caged-layer waste (CLW). Investigate the effect of ensiling CLW (as a nitrogen source) with crop residues on the chemical composition and degradability of the silage. The proximate composition of unprocessed, sun-dried, ensiled, deep-stacked and fumigated CLW are shown in Table 1. Assesses the effect of sun-drying, ensiling, deep-stacking and fumigating with formaldehyde gas on the nutritional value of caged-layer waste (CLW). Deep-stacking resulted in a higher (P0.01) ash content and undesirable odour, but also in a higher (P0.01) dry-matter degradability (DMD) than the other treatment methods. Duration of sun-drying or deep-stacking or the number of times the CLW was fumigated did not affect (P0.05) DMD in the rumen. However, ensiling CLW for 42 days resulted in a higher (P0.01) DMD than ensiling for 21 days and also reduced odour. Ensiling fibrous crop residues with caged-layer waste could provide a means of more efficiently utilising caged-layer wastes and crop residues as livestock feed.

Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Nyagah PN;, Maitho TE;, Mbugua PN. "Caged-layer waste as a nitrogen source in crop-residue utilization."; 1992. Abstract

Examine the effect of processing methods on the composition and degradability of caged-layer waste (CLW). Investigate the effect of ensiling CLW (as a nitrogen source) with crop residues on the chemical composition and degradability of the silage. The proximate composition of unprocessed, sun-dried, ensiled, deep-stacked and fumigated CLW are shown in Table 1. Assesses the effect of sun-drying, ensiling, deep-stacking and fumigating with formaldehyde gas on the nutritional value of caged-layer waste (CLW). Deep-stacking resulted in a higher (P0.01) ash content and undesirable odour, but also in a higher (P0.01) dry-matter degradability (DMD) than the other treatment methods. Duration of sun-drying or deep-stacking or the number of times the CLW was fumigated did not affect (P0.05) DMD in the rumen. However, ensiling CLW for 42 days resulted in a higher (P0.01) DMD than ensiling for 21 days and also reduced odour. Ensiling fibrous crop residues with caged-layer waste could provide a means of more efficiently utilising caged-layer wastes and crop residues as livestock feed.

Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Nyagah PN;, Maitho TE;, Mbugua PN. "Caged-layer waste as a nitrogen source in crop-residue utilization."; 1992. Abstract

Examine the effect of processing methods on the composition and degradability of caged-layer waste (CLW). Investigate the effect of ensiling CLW (as a nitrogen source) with crop residues on the chemical composition and degradability of the silage. The proximate composition of unprocessed, sun-dried, ensiled, deep-stacked and fumigated CLW are shown in Table 1. Assesses the effect of sun-drying, ensiling, deep-stacking and fumigating with formaldehyde gas on the nutritional value of caged-layer waste (CLW). Deep-stacking resulted in a higher (P0.01) ash content and undesirable odour, but also in a higher (P0.01) dry-matter degradability (DMD) than the other treatment methods. Duration of sun-drying or deep-stacking or the number of times the CLW was fumigated did not affect (P0.05) DMD in the rumen. However, ensiling CLW for 42 days resulted in a higher (P0.01) DMD than ensiling for 21 days and also reduced odour. Ensiling fibrous crop residues with caged-layer waste could provide a means of more efficiently utilising caged-layer wastes and crop residues as livestock feed.

Kayongo SB;, Wanyoike MM;, Nyagah PN;, Maitho TE;, Mbugua PN. "Caged-layer waste as a nitrogen source in crop-residue utilization."; 1992. Abstract

Examine the effect of processing methods on the composition and degradability of caged-layer waste (CLW). Investigate the effect of ensiling CLW (as a nitrogen source) with crop residues on the chemical composition and degradability of the silage. The proximate composition of unprocessed, sun-dried, ensiled, deep-stacked and fumigated CLW are shown in Table 1. Assesses the effect of sun-drying, ensiling, deep-stacking and fumigating with formaldehyde gas on the nutritional value of caged-layer waste (CLW). Deep-stacking resulted in a higher (P0.01) ash content and undesirable odour, but also in a higher (P0.01) dry-matter degradability (DMD) than the other treatment methods. Duration of sun-drying or deep-stacking or the number of times the CLW was fumigated did not affect (P0.05) DMD in the rumen. However, ensiling CLW for 42 days resulted in a higher (P0.01) DMD than ensiling for 21 days and also reduced odour. Ensiling fibrous crop residues with caged-layer waste could provide a means of more efficiently utilising caged-layer wastes and crop residues as livestock feed.

F PROFOJANYFRANCIS. "Cairo, Egypt 21-26 June 1975. (I was invited by the Deputy Secretary, General of the U.N as one the UN EXPERTS TO ADVISE THE Governmental delegates in preparation of the Vancouver Congress.". In: The Kenyan Geographer, Vol.5(Special Issue) pp.1-6). UN-HABITAT; 1975. Abstract
A simple gas chromatographic assay utilising alkali flame ionisation detection is described for the estimation of cyclophosphamide as its trifluoroacetate derivative from plasma. Examination of five patients following intravenous cyclophosphamide gave values of 8.9 h (SD 2.7) for the half-life and 0.061 liters/h/kg (SD 0.011) for whole-body clearance of the drug.
Waga DD, Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Maslun NV. "Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Paleocene sedimentsof the Odessa Gas Field (NW Black Sea)." Geobios. 2010;1(43):33-43.
Andreeva-Grigorovich AS, Waga DDO. "Calcareous nannofossils from the Paleogene deposits of the Northern Forecaucasus (Russia) and South-Eastern Part of Great Donbas (Ukraine)." International Journal of Algae. 2012;14(1. 80):93-106.
DANIEL DRNJAI, SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Calciferol induced hypercalcemia in renal osteodystrophy. East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):712-5. Meme JS, Njai DN, Otieno LS, Kalya R.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):712-5. RIVERBRROKS COMMUNICATIONS; 1980. Abstract
No abstract available
DANIEL DRNJAI, SAMSON PROFMEMEJULIUS. "Calciferol induced hypercalcemia in renal osteodystrophy. East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):712-5. Meme JS, Njai DN, Otieno LS, Kalya R.". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Oct;57(10):712-5. au-ibar; 1980. Abstract
No abstract available
Shah K, Butt FMA DIEA. "Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic tumour: Pindborg Tumour." Anat Journal of Africa. 2013;2:135-136.pindborg_2013.pdf
Mugendi GA, Strippoli GFM, Mutua F, Esterhuizen TM. "Calcium channel blockers for people with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis." Cochrane Database of Sytematic Reviews. 2014;(4).
Yoshimura F, Suzuki T. "Calcium-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase in the microsomal fraction of tooth germ from porcine fetus." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1975;410(1):167-77. Abstract

The characterization and localization of a Ca(2+)-ATPase (ATP phosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.3) in the tooth germ of the porcine fetus are reported. This enzyme, a microsome fraction, is preferentially activated by Ca(2+). In the presence of 0.5 mM ATP, maximal enzyme activity is obtained at 0.5--1.0 mM CaCl2. The maximal rate of ATP hydrolysis is approx. 20 mumol per h per mg of protein as the enzyme preparation is used here. At optimal Ca(2+) concentration, the Mg(2+) has an inhibitory effect. The enzyme does not require Na+ or/and K+ for activation by Ca(2+). Other nucleotide triphosphates may serve as the substrate, but V for ATP is the highest. The Km for ATP is 8.85 - 10(-5) M. The optimal pH for Ca(2+) activation of the enzyme lies around 9.2. Well known inhibitors of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase, mitochondria ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the erthrocyte do not inhibit the enzyme. In the subcellular order the enzyme may be assumed to be localized in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum fraction containing cell and Golgi body membrane fragments and in the tissue order in the enamel organ containing an ameloblast layer, stratum intermedium and stellate reticulum.

Ogana W. Calculation of flows past lifting airfoils. Trieste.: ICTP Internal Report; 1983.
Kaduki KA, Batty W. Calculations of in-plane subband dispersion for non-square quantum wells. Warwick, U.K.: Institute of Physics; 1994.
E.O PROFWASUNNAAMBROSE. "Calder JF, Wasunna AE. Diverticular disease of the colon in Kenyan Africans. East Afr Med J. 1978 Dec;55(12):579-81. No abstract available.". In: East Afr Med J. 1978 Dec;55(12):579-81.; 1978. Abstract
There is a marked shortage of surgical manpower all over Africa. General surgeons undertake a very wide range of surgical work because of the lack of specialists. Orthopaedic and general surgeons both care for accident injuries. Current training and recruitment programs are inadequate in correcting existing gross manpower deficiencies. The situation is further aggravated by a gross maldistribution of available manpower in favor of large urban centers. In many parts of rural Africa, minor surgical procedures are carried out by suitably trained, non-physician health workers, but facilities and resources for surgery outside urban centers are generally inadequate. The World Health Organization program on essential surgical and anesthetic procedures, which is currently under way in collaboration with the International Federation of Surgical Colleges, the World Federation of Societies of Anesthesiologists, and other professional bodies, should have a significant impact on these urgent needs for basic surgery in rural district hospitals.
"Calibrating Regulatory Disclosure in Kenya’s Securities Markets: Challenges and Opportunities for Investors." International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences . 2013. Abstractgakeri.docxgakeri.pdf

Investor protection is incontrovertibly one of the hallmarks of deep and vibrant securities markets. Effective investor protection mechanisms play an indispensable role in bolstering investor confidence and retention. This paper argues that although the disclosure philosophy is the most ubiquitous investor protection mechanism in many jurisdictions and boasts of innumerable advantages including simplicity, its effectiveness in developing securities markets is severely circumscribed by prevailing market realities. With exceedingly low levels of financial literacy and a multiplicity of other challenges, most retail investors are incapable of accessing the potential benefits of this internationally acclaimed investor protection device. Belatedly, the language and methodology of disclosure is predominantly non local and exceptionally sophisticated. The need to review and domesticate the various precepts of disclosure cannot be gainsaid.

Masinde, Muthoni; Bagula A. "A Calibration Report for Wireless Sensor-Based Weatherboards." Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks. 2015. AbstractFull text link

Sub-Saharan Africa contains the highest number of people affected by droughts. Although this can easily be mitigated through the provision of timely, reliable and relevant weather forecasts, the sparse network of weather stations in most of these countries makes this difficult. Rapid development in wireless sensor networks has resulted in weatherboards capable of capturing weather parameters at the micro-level. Although these weatherboards offer a viable solution to Africa’s drought, the acceptability of such data by meteorologists is only possible if these sensors are calibrated and their field readiness scientifically evaluated. This is the contribution of this paper; we present results of a calibration exercise that was carried out to: (1) measure and correct lag, random and systematic errors; (2) determine if Perspex was an ideal material for building sensor boards’ enclosures; and (3) identify sensor boards’ battery charging and depletion rates. The result is a calibration report detailing actual error and uncertainty values for atmospheric pressure, humidity and temperature sensors, as well as the recharge and discharge curves of the batteries. The results further ruled out the use of Perspex for enclosing the sensor boards. These experiments pave the way for the design and implementation of a sensor-based weather monitoring system (SenseWeather) that was piloted in two regions in Kenya.

Mandela P. calling sin, SIN.; Submitted.
.O PROFGUMBELAWRENCE. "Calorific Content of Water Hyacinth. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Kenya Society of Agricultural Engineers. 7-8 October, Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1999. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Camara, S., Abdelnour-Nocera J., Luckin, R., Waema, T. (2008), Bridging the global digital divide with participatory customisation.". In: Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication (CATAC), 28 June-1 July 2008, Nimes, France. Pambazuka Press; 2008. Abstract
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M. PROFWAEMATIMOTHY. "Camara, S.B., Dunckley, L.,Abdelnour-Nocera, J. and Waema, T.M. (2008) Cross-Cultural Participatory Design in the Developing World.". In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, Florence, IT, 5-10 Apr 2008. Pambazuka Press; 2008. Abstract
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Jesse N.K. Mugambi CE, Daniel M. Patte GE. Cambridge Dictionary of Christianity. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2010.
Gitao, C.G., Bebora, L.C., Wanjohi. G. Camel Mik Hygiene: Analysis of Camel Milk contamination in Garissa and Wajir Counties in Kenya. OmniScriptum Marketing DEU GmbH Heinrich-Böcking-Straße 6-8 D - 66121 Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2014.978-3-659-58174-8_coverpreview2.pdf
Gitao CG. Camel milk value chain in Kenya. University of Kassel in Witzenhausen 2 - 10. Feb 2015; BIOFACH 2015" in Nürnberg 11-13, feb 2015: DAAD ALUMNI; 2015.safari.pdf
O. PROFNDINYA-ACHOLAJ. "Cameron DW, Simonsen JN, D'Costa LJ, Ronald AR, Maitha GM, Gakinya MB, Cheang M, Ndinya-Achola JO, Piot P, Brunham RC, Plummer FA.Female to male transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Risk factors for seroconversion in men. Lancet ii 403 - 7.". In: Lancet ii 403 - 7, 1989. IBIMA Publishing; 1989. Abstract
OBJECTIVE–To determine the efficacy of the nonoxynol 9 contraceptive sponge in preventing sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN–Prospective, randomized placebo-controlled trial. SETTING–Research clinic for prostitutes in Nairobi, Kenya. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS–One hundred thirty-eight HIV-seronegative women were enrolled, of whom 74 were assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use and 64 to placebo use. These two groups did not significantly differ with respect to demographic characteristics, sexual practices, or prevalence of genital infections at enrollment, except for a lower number of sex partners per week and a higher initial prevalence of genital ulcers among women assigned to nonoxynol 9 sponge use. Among the 116 women who returned for follow-up, the mean durations of follow-up were 14 and 17 months for the two groups, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE–HIV seroconversion. RESULTS–Nonoxynol 9 sponge use was associated with an increased frequency of genital ulcers (relative risk [RR], 3.3; P less than .0001) and vulvitis (RR, 3.3; P less than .0001) and a reduced risk of gonococcal cervicitis (RR, 0.4; P less than .0001). Twenty-seven (45%) of 60 women in the nonoxynol 9 sponge group and 20 (36%) of 56 women in the placebo group developed HIV antibodies. The hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and HIV seroconversion was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 3.0). Using multivariate analysis to control for the presence of genital ulcers at enrollment, the adjusted hazard ratio for the association between nonoxynol 9 sponge use and seroconversion was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.8). CONCLUSIONS–Genital ulcers and vulvitis occurred with increased frequency in nonoxynol 9 sponge users. We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women.
A. PROFWAMOLAISAAC. "Cameron W, Clementson D, D.". In: J. Inf. Diseases. 1991. IBIMA Publishing; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To measure the proportion of nosocomial diarrhea cases associated with Salmonella and Shigella species. DESIGN: Prospective 6-month survey. SETTING: Tertiary care center in a developing country. PATIENTS: Pediatric and adult patients admitted with the previous 24 hours and all consenting adult or pediatric medical patients with nosocomial diarrhea. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella species isolated from rectal swabs at admission and among subjects with nosocomial diarrhea. RESULTS: Salmonella species and Shigella species were isolated from 3.0% and 2.5%, respectively, of 667 patients screened on admission. All admission Salmonella isolates were identified in children under 13 years of age; Shigella prevalence was similar for children and adults. Children with Salmonella at admission were significantly older and more likely to have diarrhea, fever, and some indicators of malnutrition than those from whom Salmonella was not isolated. Salmonella and Shigella were isolated from rectal cultures in 36 (10%) and 9 (2.5%) of 360 nosocomial gastroenteritis cases, respectively. Nosocomial cases occurred equally in adults and children. In adults, nosocomial Salmonella acquisition was associated with sharing a room with a diarrhea patient and previous institutionalization. In children, it was associated with recent antimicrobial therapy, crowding at home, and age between 6 months and 6 years. Nine (41%) of 22 nosocomial Salmonella cases in adults occurred in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, while none of 79 HIV-1-positive patients had Salmonella isolated at admission. CONCLUSIONS: Salmonella is a frequent cause of nosocomial gastroenteritis in this tertiary care institution in a developing country. Risk factors appear to differ for children and adults, and HIV-1-infected subjects may be at increased risk of acquisition. Control measures feasible for the limited resources available to such institutions require evaluation. PIP: Researchers analyzed data on 667 patients admitted between March 9 and September 14, 1988 to the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya to verify the contribution of Salmonella and Shigella species to hospital acquired infections and to identify factors associated with admission and nosocomial infection. Laboratory personnel isolated Salmonella and Shigella in 12.5% (10% and 2.5% respectively) of the 360 patients with nosocomial diarrhea. Their overall prevalence was 3% and 2.5% respectively. These 2 bacteria were isolated from rectal swabs from 19 of the 27 hospital units. Most of the isolates were restricted to 5 units. All of the Salmonella isolates at admission were children under 13 years old (3.6% of 556 children). Shigella prevalence at admission was 2.5% for children and 3.6% for adults. The risk of nosocomial diarrhea caused by these 2 bacteria was much greater in children older than 6 months and younger than 6 years than in children of other ages (odds ratio [OR]=21.7; p=.006). The most significant variables which independently affected nosocomial diarrhea caused by these bacteria in children were recent antimicrobial therapy (OR=26.4; p=.001) and living in crowded homes (OR=1.2; p=.02). Another determinant was poor hair color indicating malnutrition (p=.03). Even though there were no significant differences between adults with nosocomial diarrhea caused by these bacteria and those with no nosocomial diarrhea, sharing a room with people with diarrhea, being in the hospital within the last 30 days, and being HIV-1 positive were factors that almost reached significance. In fact, 9 of their 22 (41%) adults with positive cultures of Salmonella were HIV=1 positive yet Salmonella was not isolated from any of the 70 HIV-1 positive patients at admission. Salmonella contributed greatly to nosocomial diarrhea at this hospital. The hospital should evaluate and redesign its control measures within available limited resources.
MWAGIRU PROFMAKUMI. "Campaing Planning for National Security Strategy: A Pre-Theoretical Framework for Analysis'.". In: Journal of the National Defence College, Vol 6. University of Nairobi; 2006. Abstract
This paper lays out the elements of a framework for analysing campaign planning. It is illustrates that campaign planning is not peculiar to the military, and that it exists in civil institutions also. The paper argues that campaign planning should address crisis, that it addresses developments that threaten national security strategy (grand strategy), and that it should be limited in terms of its time-frame.
Ogana W. Campus Days (Novel). Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation; 2007.
Wamola IA, Mirza NB, Ngugi JM, Bwibo NO. "Campylobacter gastroenteritis in Nairobi.". 1983.Website
Dorothy McCormick. "Can Africa Industrialise Through Enterprise Clusters?". In: Eastern Africa Productive Capacity Initiative. Vienna: UNIDO. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2003. Abstract

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Ibrahim E;A. "Can Africa's saving collapse be reversed? .". 2000. AbstractWebsite

Private saving in Sub-Saharan Africa declined from more than 11 percent of disposable income in the 1970s to less than 8 percent in the 1980s and only partially recovered (to less than 9 percent) in the 1990s. This article analyzes the determinants of private saving in Sub-Saharan Africa, seeking to explain the region's dismal performance and identify policies that could help to reverse the region's decline in saving. The analysis shows that in Sub-Saharan Africa causality runs from growth to investment (and perhaps to private saving), whereas a rise in the saving rate Granger-causes an increase in investment. Foreign aid Granger-causes a reduction in both saving and investment, and investment also Granger-causes an increase in foreign aid. The empirical analysis of private saving in Sub-Saharan Africa and other regions over 1970–95 suggests that private saving in Africa can be explained by standard behavioral models. According to these models private saving in Africa lags behind that in other regions (most notably, the high performing Asian economies) because of the region's lower per capita income, high young-age dependency ratio, and high dependence on aid. The combined effects of these factors substantially outweigh Africa's advantage from its lower public saving and higher government consumption. Finally, analysis of the experiences of Kenya, Zimbabwe, and Botswana provides further insight into the saving process in Sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright The Author 2000. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / the world bank

Calatayud P-A, Njuguna E, Mwalusepo S, Gathara M, Okuku G, Kibe A, B M, Williamson D, Ong’amo G, Juma G, Johansson T, Subramanian S, Gatebe E, BP LR. "Can climate-driven change influence silicon assimilation by cereals and hence the distribution of lepidopteran stem borers in East Africa? ." AGRICULTURE, ECOSYSTEMS AND ENVIRONMENT. 2016;224:95-103.
Mwabu G, Bold T, Kimenyi M, Sandefur J. "Can Free Provision Reduce Demand for Public Services?". In: World Bank Economic Review, doi:10.1093/wber/lht038.; 2014.
ODHIAMBO MRLUTHEROTIENO. "Can Historical cost accounting be improved or must it be replaced - Kenya.". In: Accountant. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1987.
KURIA KAMAU, Carr MMW(E). "Can It Be Mended? Kenya and the MFA Phase Out." ISBN 0-978-0-85092-873-0; 2010. Abstract
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Dorothy McCormick. "Can Micro-Enterprises Export?". In: Institutions in Industry and Agriculture. Mombasa, Kenya: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.; 2002. Abstract

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Oiye SO;, Imungi JK;, Mwangi AM. "Can Rosemary Spice (ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS) Stabilize‚-a- Carotene in a Protene -a- Carotene -Rich Soybean-Based Product?".; 2005. Abstract

Background: Addition of ‚-a-carotene-rich foods can be a feasible way to augment vitamin A content in products deficient in vitamin A. However, -a-carotene is highly prone to oxidation and sterioiseomerization that leads to loses. Rosemary spice is locally available and can be used as an antioxidant in organoleptically acceptable levels. Objective: The effects of rosemary spice on the stability of -‚acarotene in a flour formulation with dried carrots as a source was investigated. Methodology: A flour-based product containing 64% full-fat soya flour, 7% meat powder and 29% carrot flour were treated with dried and milled rosemary spice at rates of 0%, 0.1% 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4% on the basis of weight of the flour. They were then stored for a period of 7 week at 35oC and analyzed for ‚-a-carotene initially and there after at an interval of 2 weeks. Results: At the end of 7 weeks, the sample with no rosemary spice recorded the lowest ‚-a-carotene content (7.22mg/100 g ± 0.10). This was significantly different from samples having rosemary spice (p<0.05). In increasing order in ‚-carotene content sample with 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.2% and 0.4% had 10.64 mg ± 0.07, 10.74 mg ± 0.07, 10.87 mg ± 0.00 and 11.05 mg ± 0.10 per 100 grams of the flour respectively after 7 weeks of storage. Conclusion: It is possible, within a storage period of 7 weeks at 35o, to spare significant amount of ‚-a-carotene in a protein- ‚- carotene-rich soya-based flour using rosemary spice.

Nathan, Iben; Thomsen K, Thomsen K. "Can smallholders be supplied with quality tree seed through commercial distribution of tree seed in small bags."; 2010. Abstract

This paper discusses the possibility for retail sale of small quantities of tree seed to smallholders through private enterprises already dealing with horticultural and agricultural seed. It is suggested that the private enterprises purchase tree seed at national tree seed programmes, pack the seed in small bags and distribute and sell the bags through their networks of local seed dealers. A picture of the tree will be printed on the front of the bag, and guidelines for using the seed will be printed on the back. The aim is to increase smallholders' access to high quality tree seed. The discussion will focus on seed-physiological, genetic and financial aspects.

Ondieki-Mwaura FN;, Njoroge LM;, Okello JJ;, Bahemuka JM. "Can Smallholders Continue To Effectively Participate In Global Commodity Chains? The Case Of French Bean Production In Kirinyaga Region Of Kenya."; 2010. Abstract

The participation of smallholders in global commodity chains such as export horticulture has often been characterised as problematic given the high transaction costs that these farmers face. The involvement of small holders in Kenya’s export sector has therefore been hailed as an exception rather than the rule success story especially given the fact that it has developed largely under the private sector. However, changes in certain standards in export markets such food safety standards have posed a threat to these farmers’ participation. For example, there is increasing evidence that exporters of fresh produce prefer to work with larger farmers or even engage in production rather than work with small farmers. If smallholders are going to continue participating in export horticulture value chains, they will have to among other things develop and participate in institutional arrangements that reduce the increasing transaction costs brought about by international food safety standards. This study aims to describe the various institutional arrangements that small farmers use to participate in export horticulture and the challenges and constraints they face within these arrangements. In addition, it will determine factors that affect farmers’ choice of alternative institutional arrangements that exist. A survey of 240 farmers was carried out in Kirinyaga to obtain household data and 4 focus group discussions were held in each of the four districts in Kirinyaga. The case study methodology was used to gather in-depth information on the key institutional arrangements used by farmers. The study found that the most dominant institutional arrangements were selling individually to brokers, followed by selling as part of a group to an exporter. Some farmers were involved in more than one arrangement perhaps as a strategy to overcome the inherent disadvantages found in some arrangements.

Furukawa T, Fujiwara K, Kiboi S, Mutiso P. "Can stumps tell what people want: Pattern and preference of informal wood extraction in an urban forest of Nairobi, Kenya." Biological Conservation. 2011;144:3047-3054.
Elbadawi I, Mwega F. "Can the Collapse of Saving Rates in Africa be Reverted?’." The World Bank Economic Review,. 2000;14(1).
Samanta P. "Can the developing world be truly industrialized?". In: Lecture organized by IIDS & Presidency College, Calcutta.; 2000.
Muia E, Ndavi PM OJ. "Can the Service Environment Influence the Use of Services for Antenatal care and Delivery?:." J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. . 2004;17(1):44-46.
OdongoMahacla, JDBrooker. "Can waste paper be used as feed supplement for ruminant livestock?" The Kenya Veterinarian. 2004;27:36-44.
Iraki XN. "Can we sell sunshine before oil." The Standard, April 21, 2015.
NJUGUNA PROFNGETHE. "Canadian International Development Agency's Assistance in Kenya", February 1974.". In: In Search of NGOS In Eastern and Southern Africa. IDS Occasional Paper No. 58:.; 1974. Abstract
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KIIRU PROFMUCHUGUDH. "Canadian Literature, Nairobi: Nairobi UP.". In: Wajibu 14.1. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1992. Abstract

Literary scholars in Kenya have recognised that oral literature is a cultural heritage worth preserving and accessing. To this end, they have used traditional information to good effect. In today

De Vuyst H, Parisi MR, Karani A, Mandaliya K, Muchiri L, Vaccarella S, Temmerman M, Franceschi S, Lillo F. "Cancer Causes & Control > Vol. 21, No. 12, December 2010.". 2010.Website
Magoha GAO. "Cancer of the male genital tract." East African Medical Journal. 1995;72:545-546. Abstract

Partial penectomy is effective in the treatment of T1 and T2 penile carcinoma with 80% five-year survival rates in the absence of inguinal metastases, and the residual stump is serviceable for upright micturition and sexual function. The use of micrographic surgery first introduced by Mohs in 1941 for small distally located lesions of upto one centimetre diametre achieves results comparable to partial penectomy. Carbon dioxide and Neodymium-Yag lasers have also been used in the treatment of T1 and T2 tumours with 89% five year survival rates. Radiotherapy is also ideal for the treatment of T1 and T2 primary penile carcinoma because failure is corrected with salvage partial penectomy. In T3 disease with extensive local growth total penectomy and removal of scrotal contents followed by perineal reconstruction with scrotal flap is associated with 90% five year survival rates. In advanced T4 tumours with fixed inguinal nodes (N3), hemipelvectomy or hemicorporectomy with combination cytotoxic chemotherapy is considered in selected cases. Various cytotoxic agents like bleomycin, vincristine and methotrexate have been used in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy with mixed results. Pre operative radiotherapy is useful in the treatment of patients with metastatic groin lymph nodes of greater than or equal to 4 cm in size. Radiotherapy also provides effective palliation in patients with advanced regional and/or distant metastases. Groin block dissection is commonly performed to treat groin node metastasis and to stage nodal disease in patients with clinically negative groins. The procedure is however associated with significant morbidity resulting in complications such as wound infection and skin necrosis leading to wound breakdown and lymphoedema.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

O. PROFMAGOHAGEORGEA. "Cancer of the male genital tract. East African Medical Journal,72: 545-546, 1995.". In: East African Medical Journal,72: 545-546, 1995. EAMJ; 1995. Abstract

Partial penectomy is effective in the treatment of T1 and T2 penile carcinoma with 80% five-year survival rates in the absence of inguinal metastases, and the residual stump is serviceable for upright micturition and sexual function. The use of micrographic surgery first introduced by Mohs in 1941 for small distally located lesions of upto one centimetre diametre achieves results comparable to partial penectomy. Carbon dioxide and Neodymium-Yag lasers have also been used in the treatment of T1 and T2 tumours with 89% five year survival rates. Radiotherapy is also ideal for the treatment of T1 and T2 primary penile carcinoma because failure is corrected with salvage partial penectomy. In T3 disease with extensive local growth total penectomy and removal of scrotal contents followed by perineal reconstruction with scrotal flap is associated with 90% five year survival rates. In advanced T4 tumours with fixed inguinal nodes (N3), hemipelvectomy or hemicorporectomy with combination cytotoxic chemotherapy is considered in selected cases. Various cytotoxic agents like bleomycin, vincristine and methotrexate have been used in adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy with mixed results. Pre operative radiotherapy is useful in the treatment of patients with metastatic groin lymph nodes of greater than or equal to 4 cm in size. Radiotherapy also provides effective palliation in patients with advanced regional and/or distant metastases. Groin block dissection is commonly performed to treat groin node metastasis and to stage nodal disease in patients with clinically negative groins. The procedure is however associated with significant morbidity resulting in complications such as wound infection and skin necrosis leading to wound breakdown and lymphoedema.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Chindia ML, James RM. "Cancer of the mouth and jaws : Prevailing challenges in its management.". 1998. AbstractWebsite

Throughout the economically developing nations, the morbidity and mortality arising from cancer of the mouth and jaws has remained high despite the current advances in surgical and medical practice. Late presentation worsens the survival rates and makes complete rehabilitation of the sufferers difficult. Factors that lead to the late presentation, delayed diagnosis and often inadequate management are diverse. In addition to highlighting the incidences of oral cancer worldwide, this article presents an overview of the current developments in the identification and management of this dreadful disease. Most importantly, it is intended to sensitise clinicians, health planners and managers to evolve viable strategies that may alleviate the grave suffering endured by those afflicted in our populations.

Magoha GA, Ngumi ZW. "Cancer of the penis at Kenyatta National Hospital.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

OBJECTIVES:
To determine how common cancer of penis is in this locality compared to all other malignant tumours and urological malignancies, and to determine and comment on the various methods of treatment available at KNH.
DESIGN:
A retrospective case study.
SETTING:
Kenyatta National Referral Hospital, Nairobi.
SUBJECTS:
All patients with histologically confirmed cancer of penis at the Kenyatta National hospital between January 1970 and December 1999.
RESULTS:
There were 55 patients with penile cancer representing 0.1% of all malignancies during the study period. The mean age was 47.9 years with a peak incidence between 40-61 year age groups. Penile cancer was the most rare urological tumour representing 5.1%. The most common was prostate cancer (56.0%), followed by bladder cancer (25.0%), kidney cancer (7.9%), and testicular cancer (6.1%). Thirty eight patients (69.1%) presented with advanced disease, Jacksons stages III and IV. The majority (96.4%) of the patients had glandular and preputial involvement. Histologically, 56.4% had well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, (23.6%) had moderately differentiated and (20.0%) had undifferentiated carcinoma. Forty patients (72.7%) were circumcised, nine patients (16.4%) were circumcised as adolescents and three patients (5.5%) circumcised as adults. Twenty five patients had partial penectomy with radiotherapy and or chemotherapy. Eight patients had total penectomy and radiotherapy while four patients had local excision and radiotherapy. Eleven other patients had radiotherapy either alone or combined with chemotherapy. Two patients had circumcision only and inguinal lymphadenectomy was effected on five patients after penectomy and radiotherapy.
CONCLUSION:
Penile cancer is rare and the least common urological malignancy in this locality. It occurs in younger men with a mean age of 47.9 years, and presents as advanced Jackson's stages III and IV disease. The majority of patients had penectomy and local excision followed by radiotherapy.

Magoha GAO, Z.W.Ngumi. "Cancer of the penis at Kenyatta National Hospital. ." East Afr Med J.. 2000;77(10):526-30. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine how common cancer of penis is in this locality compared to all other malignant tumours and urological malignancies, and to determine and comment on the various methods of treatment available at KNH.
DESIGN: A retrospective case study.
SETTING: Kenyatta National Referral Hospital, Nairobi.
SUBJECTS: All patients with histologically confirmed cancer of penis at the Kenyatta National hospital between January 1970 and December 1999.
RESULTS: There were 55 patients with penile cancer representing 0.1% of all malignancies during the study period. The mean age was 47.9 years with a peak incidence between 40-61 year age groups. Penile cancer was the most rare urological tumour representing 5.1%. The most common was prostate cancer (56.0%), followed by bladder cancer (25.0%), kidney cancer (7.9%), and testicular cancer (6.1%). Thirty eight patients (69.1%) presented with advanced disease, Jacksons stages III and IV. The majority (96.4%) of the patients had glandular and preputial involvement. Histologically, 56.4% had well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, (23.6%) had moderately differentiated and (20.0%) had undifferentiated carcinoma. Forty patients (72.7%) were circumcised, nine patients (16.4%) were circumcised as adolescents and three patients (5.5%) circumcised as adults. Twenty five patients had partial penectomy with radiotherapy and or chemotherapy. Eight patients had total penectomy and radiotherapy while four patients had local excision and radiotherapy. Eleven other patients had radiotherapy either alone or combined with chemotherapy. Two patients had circumcision only and inguinal lymphadenectomy was effected on five patients after penectomy and radiotherapy.
CONCLUSION: Penile cancer is rare and the least common urological malignancy in this locality. It occurs in younger men with a mean age of 47.9 years, and presents as advanced Jackson's stages III and IV disease. The majority of patients had penectomy and local excision followed by radiotherapy.

Kiptoon DK, Ngugi PM, Rana FS. "Cancer of the penis: case report.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

Two patients with penile carcinoma are presented after management at a district hospital in Kenya. Both had undergone ritual circumcision as teenagers and presented late. HR was a 73 year old who presented with a fungating penile mass for which a partial penectomy was performed after wedge biopsy confirmed malignancy. He thereafter declined to have the surgical specimen sent for histology and took the amputated stump for burial in his compound to avoid bad omen. GK was 25 years old and presented with a fungating mass and underwent partial penectomy after a histological diagnosis was made. He absconded from follow-up after being informed of the need for further surgery due to tumour infiltration of the surgical margins. The history and clinical images are presented and we discuss the difficulties of cancer management at a rural district hospital

Kiptoon DK, Ngugi PM, Rana FS. "Cancer of the penis: case report." East Afr Med J. 2009;86(4):196-200. Abstract

Two patients with penile carcinoma are presented after management at a district hospital in Kenya. Both had undergone ritual circumcision as teenagers and presented late. HR was a 73 year old who presented with a fungating penile mass for which a partial penectomy was performed after wedge biopsy confirmed malignancy. He thereafter declined to have the surgical specimen sent for histology and took the amputated stump for burial in his compound to avoid bad omen. GK was 25 years old and presented with a fungating mass and underwent partial penectomy after a histological diagnosis was made. He absconded from follow-up after being informed of the need for further surgery due to tumour infiltration of the surgical margins. The history and clinical images are presented and we discuss the difficulties of cancer management at a rural district hospital.

Ogutu M. "Candidates.". In: Journal of Vocational Behaviour. Rao, W. O., Ogonji, J. A.. and Aywa, S.; 1982. Abstract

Summing multipliers is an important class of operators in the geometric theory of general Banach spaces. They are particularly useful in the study of the structure of the classical spaces. The work done by Grothendieck and Pietsch provides a good basis for the study of this class of operators. The topic of this study is Aspects on (p,q)-summing multipliers. (p,q)-summing multipliers are sequences of bounded linear operators mapping weakly p-summable sequences into strongly q-summable sequences. This study is concerned with using the concepts of absolute and p-summing multipliers to characterize the space of all (p,q)-summing multipliers. In particular we show that the space of all (p, q)-summing multipliers is complete. This is accomplished through a detailed study of the concepts of the summing operators and absolute and p-summing multipliers

Ogutu, M; Rao OAWO; JA;. "Candidates .". 1982.Website
Zhang X, Wallace OL, Domi A, Wright KJ, Driscoll J, Anzala O, Sanders EJ, Kamali A, Karita E, Allen S, Fast P, Gilmour J, Price MA, Parks CL. "Canine distemper virus neutralization activity is low in human serum and it is sensitive to an amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin protein." Virology. 2015;482:218-24. Abstract

Serum was analyzed from 146 healthy adult volunteers in eastern Africa to evaluate measles virus (MV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibody (nAb) prevalence and potency. MV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) results indicated that all sera were positive for MV nAbs. Furthermore, the 50% neutralizing dose (ND50) for the majority of sera corresponded to antibody titers induced by MV vaccination. CDV nAbs titers were low and generally were detected in sera with high MV nAb titers. A mutant CDV was generated that was less sensitive to neutralization by human serum. The mutant virus genome had 10 nucleotide substitutions, which coded for single amino acid substitutions in the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins and two substitutions in the large polymerase (L) protein. The H substitution occurred in a conserved region involved in receptor interactions among morbilliviruses, implying that this region is a target for cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies.

OKOTH PROFOKOMBODUNCAN. "The Cannibals (a Novel). Nairobi Basic Books.". In: In Southern African Review of Education, Vol.4, pp 5-10. CIGR Electocic Journal; 1995. Abstract
isolated from preterm neonates during the outbreak of gastroenteritis in hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, were resistance to trimethoprin-sulfathoxaxole, Chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline and ampicilin, but only a few strains were resistant to cefazolin, cefamandole, cefataximine, amikacin and nalidixic acid. Fourteen different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed in the 229 strains of E.coli analyzed. Eighty-two percent of the EPEC strains belonged to two resistance patterns. There was no consistent relationship between palsmid profile group and antimicrobial resistance pattern, although one resistance pattern was more frequently observed in EAF-positive strins belonging to the dominant plasmid profile group. Nine percent of the EPEC strins were resistant to gentamicin compared to 37% in the non-EPEC group. No correlation was observed between administration of gentamicin and percentage of resistant strains isolated. None of the nine neonates receiving gentamicin died during the outbreak. Gentamicin resistance was observed in E.coli strains from six out of these nine neonates. Five out of fourteen neonates who received other antimicrobials, or no antibiotic at all, died. Key words: Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli; antimicrobial resistance;
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Ruhiu S. "Capability Approach Based ICT-for-Poverty Reduction Framework.". In: IFIP 9.4 12 th International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries. Ocho Rios, Jamaica; 2013. Abstract

In the last number of years, many have looked to ICTs to enable the reduction of poverty. A lot of resources have been expended by international organizations, donors and governments in ICT4D and ICT-for-poverty reduction initiatives. The results have been mixed with many of the initiatives having negligible or negative.
Many explanations for this have been given but some have suggested that the way that the projects are carried out is problematic. One of the approaches that have had great promise for development and poverty reduction is Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach (CA). This paper uses the approach to define poverty, poverty reduction and specify a framework for conceptualizing, designing, developing and evaluating poverty reduction initiatives. CA is deliberately incomplete and requires a lot of information to make it operational. Alkire’s has specified a framework for operationalizing CA for poverty reduction. This paper uses that framework to specify a framework for poverty reduction using ICTs. In acknowledgement of the importance of agency in CA, the proposed framework the central role played by the poor community in the conception and design of the project. It lays out the process of the design and implementation of the project and the role the poor community plays, while specifying the roles of the different players in the project.

Karani PF. "Capacity Building and Women Empowerment, Towards realization of Kenya Vision 2030.". In: sensitisation of the public on the modernization of the public service Towards Realization of Kenya Vision 2030.; 2009.
A PKARANIFLORIDA. "Capacity Building and Women Empowerment, Towards realization of Kenya Vision 2030”: .". In: the Kenya Public Service Week . Kenyatta International Conference Center (KICC) ; 2009.
W DRWAGACHAPETER. "Capacity building for information and communication technology higher education programmes in Africa: the case of the School of Computing and Informatics, University of Nairobi. Katherine Getao, Peter W. Wagacha, Bernard Manderick.". In: ICT and Education conference, Santa Clara, Cuba February 2006. Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2006. Abstract
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Mwai AO;, Malmfors B;, Andersson-Eklund L;, Philipsson J;, Rege JEO;, Hanotte O;, Fulss R. Capacity building for sustainable use of animal genetic resources in developing countries. ILRI-SLU Project progress report for the period 1999-2003.; 2005. Abstract

To promote a sustainable and improved use of animal genetic resources in developing countries, ILRI in collaboration with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), and supported by Sida (Sweden), launched a project training the trainers, for national agricultural research systems (NABS) scientists (national university teachers and researchers) in developing countries. The main objectives of the project were to strengthen subject knowledge and skills, and teaching and communication skills of scientists teaching and supervising students in animal breeding and genetics at least up to MSc level. Other objectives were to catalyse curriculum development, stimulate contacts and networking, and to develop computer-based training resources relevant for use by NARS scientists in teaching and research. This capacity building project was an integrated component of the ILRI research agenda on Animal Genetic Resources. It was also an endeavour by ILRI to collaborate with and strengthen NARS institutions and scientists. The project was initially planned to include regions in sub-Saharan Africa, SouthEast Asia and South Asia, resources allowing, Latin America. The activities in each region or sub-region included: planning activities (questionnaire, country visits, planning workshop), training course for university teachers and researchers (three weeks, combining training in animal genetics/breeding and teaching methodologies), development of an Animal Genetics Training Resource' (on CD-ROM, and later also on the Web), follow-up activities, including impact assessment (questionnaires and follow-up workshops). During the period 1999 to 2003 a full round of activities was completed for sub Saharan Africa. The training course was conducted for Eastern/Southern Africa (20 scientists from 10 countries) and for Western/Central Africa (18 scientists from 10 countries). The planning and follow-up workshops were performed jointly for the region. In addition, the planning activities and training course (18 scientists from 9 countries) were completed for South-East Asia. Version 1 of the computer-based training resource (CD) was released in late 2003. The resource contains modules, i.e. core texts on issues related with farm animal genetic resources, quantitative methods and teaching methods, and Resources containing case studies, breed information, maps, examples, exercises, video clips, a glossary and a virtual library. It also contains references to web links, books and other CDs. The participants found the training courses very useful; average score for Overall Impression was 8.2 (scale 1-9). They also indicated that the computer-based training resource would be a valuable tool both in teaching and in research, but had not yet had a chance to explore and use it fully. Impact assessments for Africa (questionnaire and follow-up workshop) showed that the training course has already had a substantial impact in many of the participants. Impact assessments for Africa (questionnaire and follow-up workshop) showed that the training course has already had a substantial impact in many of the participants' home institutions, both on teaching methods and on course content. Students have shown more interest and understanding of animal breeding and genetics. The impact on participants' research has been just as large; more focus on research involving indigenous animal genetic resources, improved research proposal writing, research methodologies and science communication skills, and also more efficient supervision of students' research. Many of the participants have actively disseminated materials and experiences from the course to colleagues in their home institutions. Other important outcomes have been increased contacts and an open e-mail network `Afrib' formed by the African course participants. The project also strengthened Swedish knowledge and expanded PhD activities on animal genetic resources in developing countries; these were valuable `spin-off effects' of the project. The 'training the trainers' approach adopted in the ILRI-SLU project seems to be a good model for effective capacity building to promote a sustainable use of animal genetic resources in developing countries. The approach was innovative and has functioned well; the model could be extended to other disciplines. Furthermore, linking universities from the North to those of the South, with a CGIAR institute playing both a facilitating and catalytic role was beneficial. The project will now proceed to South Asia and version 2 of the computer-based training resource will be developed. More impact analyses will also be performed.

IRAKI WN, KIRUTHI ZN. "Capacity Building In The Kenya Dairy Industry.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference. World Conference of Phylosophy Proceedings; 2008.
N. DRIRAKIW, NJOKI MRSKIRUTHIZIPPORAH. "Capacity Building In The Kenya Dairy Industry.". In: Paper presented at the 4TH International Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA) Conference, 2008 on . WN Iraki; 2008.
PROF. NTIBA MICHENIJ. "Capacity building in the lake Victoria ecosystem. In the proceedings of the International Conference on Managing Shared Waters.". In: In the proceedings of the International Conference on Managing Shared Waters United Nations University Press. ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 2005. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Capacity Building Programme for transforming the Public Service. Utalii College Kenya: University of Nairobi, Kenya; 2007.
KYALO DN, Nyonje R. Capacity Development for Secondary School Principals in Kenya.. Germany: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller Aktierge Sellschaft & CO.KG, ISBN:978-3-639-349368; 2011.
Muasya MK, et al. "Capacity of Kenyan Health Facilities for Decentralized Dental Training. .". In: 101st FDI Scientific conference. Turkey; 2013.
Wang'ombe JK. Capacity of Non.; 1998. Abstract

The author illustrates how qualitative data from open-ended interviews, pile sorts, and triad sorts can be used to test quantitatively for intracultural variation in norms. Specifically, the author tests whether Gusii men and women in the Suneka Division of Kisii District in southwest Kenya have developed a common set of standards in response to symptoms of malaria. In this small sample, the focus is on internal, rather than external, validity. While the findings about Gusii responses to malaria are not generalizable beyond the village where the data were collected, the method described may be used to study cultural similarities across socioeconomic, gender, and other groups.

Wangombe JK, Mwanili D, Mitula P, Mugo M, Nzoya D, Muasya I, Muchunga E. "Capacity of Non-Governmental (NGoK) Providers in Delivery of Health Care in Kenya." Informing and reforming. 1998;7:2-6. Abstract
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MK Muasya, TM Dienya EGWNJNKR. "Capacity of non-tertiary Kenyan health facilities selected for decentralised dental training." East African Medical Journal. 2016;98(2):55-59.
Muasya MK, Dienya TM, Wagaiyu EG, Nduati R, Kiarie JN. "Capacity of non-tertiary Kenyan health facilities selected for decentralised dental training." East African Medical Journal. 2016;93(2). Abstract

Objective: To determine the capacity of six non-tertiary Kenyan hospitals enrolled as sites for decentralised dental education.

Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

Setting: The Dental departments of six non-tertiary Kenyan health facilities.

Main outcome measures: Capacity of the hospitals to be used as sites for decentralised dental education.

Results: Five out of the six facilities had capacity for final year undergraduate students to gain learning experiences in more than 60% of the clinical disciplines studied. All the selected facilities had challenges of lack of specialists, broken down dental equipment and inadequate materials.

Conclusion: Although the six hospitals faced various challenges in maintenance of equipment, availability of dental materials and specialist staff, five out of the six facilities had the capacity for dental student learning in more than 60% of the clinical disciplines studied.

IRAKI WN. "Capacity utilization: The Forgotten Secret in Trading Out Poverty.". In: Makerere Business School. Conference at Makerere University Busiiness School; 2009.
Sanchez JL, Johns MC, Burke RL, Vest KG, Fukuda MM, Yoon IK, Lon C, Quintana M, Schnabel DC, Pimentel G, Mansour M, Tobias S, Montgomery JM, Gray GC, Saylors K, Ndip LM, Lewis S, Blair PJ, Sjoberg PA, Kuschner RA, Russell KL, Blazes DL, Witt CJ, Money NN, Gaydos JC, Pavlin JA, Gibbons RV, Jarman RG, Stoner M, Shrestha SK, Owens AB, Iioshi N, Osuna MA, Martin SK, Gordon SW, Bulimo WD, Waitumbi DJ, Assefa B, Tjaden JA, Earhart KC, Kasper MR, Brice GT, Rogers WO, Kochel T, Laguna-Torres VA, Garcia J, Baker W, Wolfe N, Tamoufe U, Djoko CF, Fair JN, Akoachere JF, Feighner B, Hawksworth A, Myers CA, Courtney WG, Macintosh VA, Gibbons T, Macias EA, Grogl M, O'Neil MT, Lyons AG, Houng HS, Rueda L, Mattero A, Sekonde E, Sang R, Sang W, Palys TJ, Jerke KH, Millard M, Erima B, Mimbe D, Byarugaba D, Wabwire-Mangen F, Shiau D, Wells N, Bacon D, Misinzo G, Kulanga C, Haverkamp G, Kohi YM, Brown ML, Klein TA, Meyers M, Schoepp RJ, Norwood DA, Cooper MJ, Maza JP, Reeves WE, Guan J. "Capacity-building efforts by the AFHSC-GEIS program." BMC Public Health. 2011;11 Suppl 2:S4. AbstractWebsite

Capacity-building initiatives related to public health are defined as developing laboratory infrastructure, strengthening host-country disease surveillance initiatives, transferring technical expertise and training personnel. These initiatives represented a major piece of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) contributions to worldwide emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance and response. Capacity-building initiatives were undertaken with over 80 local and regional Ministries of Health, Agriculture and Defense, as well as other government entities and institutions worldwide. The efforts supported at least 52 national influenza centers and other country-specific influenza, regional and U.S.-based EID reference laboratories (44 civilian, eight military) in 46 countries worldwide. Equally important, reference testing, laboratory infrastructure and equipment support was provided to over 500 field sites in 74 countries worldwide from October 2008 to September 2009. These activities allowed countries to better meet the milestones of implementation of the 2005 International Health Regulations and complemented many initiatives undertaken by other U.S. government agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of State.

Otieno AC, Mwongela SM. "Capillary Electrophoresis Based Methods for the Determination of Lipids A Review." Analytica Chimica Acta . 2008;624:163-174.
Samanta P, Chakravorty D. "Capital Accounts Liberalization in India’.". In: Management Institute, Calcutta.; 1997.
M MRSKITHINJIANGELA. "The Capital Asset Pricing Model,.". In: The Professional Journal of KASNEB, Issue No.2,. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences; 2001. Abstract
Fourteen patients received oral premedication of temazepam in soft gelatin capsules before minor surgery. The plasma concentrations of temazepam and its sedative, anxiolytic and amnesic effects were measured for 24 hours. Absorption was rapid and peak concentrations occurred 49 minutes after administration. Clinical effects were evident at 30 minutes and persisted for about 4 hours. The decline in plasma concentration was biexponential with a distribution half-life of 1.24 hours. The end of the distribution phase coincided approximately with the termination of its clinical effects. A relationship between plasma concentration and effect was observed; concentrations above 300 ng/ml produced measurable changes in tests of mental function. Patients had recovered fully from the effects of temazepam after 24 hours. This dose of temazepam is reliable and effective as premedication before surgery
Ngugi RW, Maana I, Amanja D, Adam CS, Collier P, Ndung’u N. "Capital market and economic growth in Kenya.". In: Kenya Policies for Prosperity. Oxford University Press; 2010.

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