Bio

DR. JOSHUA ORUNGO

Dr. Onono is a Lecturer in the Department of Public Health, Pharmacology and Toxicology. His is a specialist in Livestock Economics and Infectious Disease Epidemiology.

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Publications


Submitted

2015

  2015.  Constraints and efficiency of cattle marketing in semiarid pastoral system in Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 47:691–697.

2013

  2013.  Constraints to cattle production in a semiarid pastoral system in Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and production. 45(3)

2012

Onono, JO, Wieland B, Rushton J.  2012.  Productivity in different cattle production systems in Kenya. Abstract

Cattle are kept as an important source of livelihood in many Kenyan farming households whilst also having cultural and social value. A review was undertaken to estimate productivity in the three main Kenyan cattle production systems: small-scale dairy and meat; small-scale dairy; and large-scale dairy and meat. Data on production parameters were collected through a systematic literature search of electronic databases for peer reviewed and grey literature. The parameters included were reproductive rates, mortality rates and yields. Prices for livestock and livestock products were estimated from markets. The data were used to estimate net output from cattle using the Livestock Productivity Efficiency Calculator (LPEC), a deterministic steady state model which measures productivity as net output per megajoule (MJ) of metabolisable energy (ME). The estimated net outputs per livestock unit year−1 were USD 146.6,USD215.1andUSD84.8inthelarge-scaledairyand meat, small-scale dairy and meat and small-scale dairy systems,respectively.Milkproductioncontributedsignificantly tonetoutputinallsystemsandwas91.8%oftotaloutputin small-scaledairy.Cattlesaleshadthehighestcontributionto net output in large-scale dairy and meat system (45.1 %). Sensitivity analysis indicated that output was most affected by milk yield, age and weight at maturity and parturition rate. The productivity differences between the production systems call for more detailed research on the constraints to the production systems such as diseases, and to describe the benefits that farmers and society would obtain from disease control and improved management.

2010

ORUNGO, DRONONOJOSHUA.  2010.  Challenges of camel production in Samburu district, Kenya. journal of camelid science. : isocad Abstract
The objective of the study was to identify the challenges to camel production in The major causes of camel loss in the district were identified as predation (50.9%), drought (28.7%) and camel diseases (20.4%). Severe drought was reported to have occurred in the years; 1984 (12.4%), 1995 (9%), 2005 (42.1%), and 2006 (37.6%), and the livestock species most affected by the drought were cattle (98.1%), sheep (63.9%), donkeys (57.5%), goats (50.8%) and camels (31.2%). Water was reported to be inadequate in the district by 54.6% and 62.1% of the respondents respectively for livestock and human use. Herdsmen reported watering their camels from; rivers (24.6%), dry river beds (40%) and spring (7.7%). The livestock grazing area was reported to be getting smaller (45.7%), overgrazed (21.7%), and destroyed (13%), while only 13% believed that the grazing area had increased. Amongst the pastoralist who responded to the question on their source of income, 78.8% had no alternative source of income apart from livestock keeping. Conclusion; More resources should be allocated by the governments for improvement of camel production and the carrying capacity in pastoral production systems needs to be re-evaluated to ensure  optimal productivity.   Keywords; Camel, predation, drought, diseases, production
ORUNGO, DRONONOJOSHUA.  2010.  Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feaces and milk samples. African Journal of Microbiology Research. : Academic Journals

2009

ORUNGO, DRONONOJOSHUA.  2009.  Review of Antibiotic Residues and Pesticide Residues: Research and Investigative work done in Kenya. Conference. : KVA-VSF Belgium Abstract
The objective of the study was to identify the challenges to camel production in The major causes of camel loss in the district were identified as predation (50.9%), drought (28.7%) and camel diseases (20.4%). Severe drought was reported to have occurred in the years; 1984 (12.4%), 1995 (9%), 2005 (42.1%), and 2006 (37.6%), and the livestock species most affected by the drought were cattle (98.1%), sheep (63.9%), donkeys (57.5%), goats (50.8%) and camels (31.2%). Water was reported to be inadequate in the district by 54.6% and 62.1% of the respondents respectively for livestock and human use. Herdsmen reported watering their camels from; rivers (24.6%), dry river beds (40%) and spring (7.7%). The livestock grazing area was reported to be getting smaller (45.7%), overgrazed (21.7%), and destroyed (13%), while only 13% believed that the grazing area had increased. Amongst the pastoralist who responded to the question on their source of income, 78.8% had no alternative source of income apart from livestock keeping. Conclusion; More resources should be allocated by the governments for improvement of camel production and the carrying capacity in pastoral production systems needs to be re-evaluated to ensure  optimal productivity.   Keywords; Camel, predation, drought, diseases, production
ORUNGO, DRONONOJOSHUA.  2009.  Regional Workshop on Sustainable Capacity Building in Veterinary Public Health & Advanced Reproductive Technology - ILRI Addis Campus - July 3 & 4 ,2009. ILRI Addis Campus - July 3 & 4 ,2009. : Ohio state univer. and ilri Abstract
The objective of the study was to identify the challenges to camel production in The major causes of camel loss in the district were identified as predation (50.9%), drought (28.7%) and camel diseases (20.4%). Severe drought was reported to have occurred in the years; 1984 (12.4%), 1995 (9%), 2005 (42.1%), and 2006 (37.6%), and the livestock species most affected by the drought were cattle (98.1%), sheep (63.9%), donkeys (57.5%), goats (50.8%) and camels (31.2%). Water was reported to be inadequate in the district by 54.6% and 62.1% of the respondents respectively for livestock and human use. Herdsmen reported watering their camels from; rivers (24.6%), dry river beds (40%) and spring (7.7%). The livestock grazing area was reported to be getting smaller (45.7%), overgrazed (21.7%), and destroyed (13%), while only 13% believed that the grazing area had increased. Amongst the pastoralist who responded to the question on their source of income, 78.8% had no alternative source of income apart from livestock keeping. Conclusion; More resources should be allocated by the governments for improvement of camel production and the carrying capacity in pastoral production systems needs to be re-evaluated to ensure  optimal productivity.   Keywords; Camel, predation, drought, diseases, production

2007

ORUNGO, DRONONOJOSHUA.  2007.  Isolation of E.coli O157:H7 from milk and cattle feaces from urban dairy farming and non dairy farming neighbour households in Dagoretti division, Nairobi, Kenya: prevalence and risk factors. East African Medical Journal. : The Kenya Medical Association Abstract
East African Medical Journal Vol. 84 No. 11 (supplement) November 2007 Authors: E.K. Kangethe, J.O. Onono, B. McDermott and M. Arimi   Objective: To estimate the prevalence of E.coli O157:H7 in milk and cattle feacal samples from dairy ad non dairy neighbouring households and to relate this prevalence to risk to human health. Design: Cross sectional study design Setting: Urban and peri urban households of Dagoretti division, Subjects: Dairy farming households and non dairy farming neighbouring households. Results: E.coli O157:H7 was isolated from milk samples at three of 136 non dairy neighbour households (2.2% C.I 0.5%, 6.3%) but was not found in any of the milk samples from the 260 milk samples from dairy households (0%, C.I 0.0%, 1.4%). E.coli O157:H7 was also found in fifteen of 285 pooled household cattle feacal samples (5.2%, C.I 3.1%, 8.7%). One of the feacal isolates was found to have the marker for the production of VT1. Discussion with focus groups revealed that the participants had limited knowledge about E.coli O157:H7.Focus group discussions and household questionnaire revealed practices increasing risk of E.coli infections to humans associated with milking hygiene, drinking water sources and treatment, and manure handling. Conclusions: E.coli O157:H7 exist in urban setting and continuous surveillance is needed in case conditions and practices change favouring an increase in its prevalence and transmission to people.

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