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Nguta, J. M., J. M. Mbaria, D. W. Gakuya, P. K. Gathumbi, J. D. Kabasa, and SG Kiama. "Ethnodiagnostic skills of the Digo community for malaria: A lead to traditional bioprospecting." Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2.30 (2011).
NGUTA, DR. JOSEPH MWANZIA. "Ethnodiagnostic Skill of the Digo Community for Malaria: A lead to traditional bioprospecting. J.M.Nguta*, J.M.Mbaria; D.W.Gakuya;P.K.Gathumbi; J.D.Kabasa; S.G.Kiama." Frontiers in Pharmacology. Frontiers, 2011, 2011. Abstract

Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques.

Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting

Nguta, J. M., Appiah-Opong, A. K. Nyarko, D. Yeboah-Manu, and G. A. Addo. "Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana." International Journal of Mycobacteriology. 4 (2015): 116-123.
Nguta, J.M., 2019. "Nitrate Poisoning due to Ingestion of Cabbages (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata L.) (Brassicaceae) in Kitui County, Kenya." The Scientific World Journal. 2019 (2019): pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8716518.
Nguta, J. M., J. M. Mbaria, D. W. Gakuya, P. K. Gathumbi, and SG Kiama. "Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies used by the South Coast community, Kenya." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 131 (2010): 256-267.
Nguta, Joseph Mwanzia. "Heavy Metal Residues In Camel Milk From Kenya: Health Implications." 2012. Abstract

Arsenic and Lead are naturally occurring elements whose toxicity in humans has been documented throughout history. These metals are widely present in our environment due to their natural occurrence and human activities that have introduced them into the general environment such as the use of borehole water and leaded gasoline. Because arsenic and lead may be present in environments where food crops are grown and animals used for food are raised, various foods such as milk may contain unavoidable but small amounts of arsenic and lead that do not pose a significant risk to human health. However, in certain circumstances they may contain high levels that may lead to contamination of milk with levels that may pose a risk to human health. Camel milk samples (n=15) were collected from Nanyuki, Kenya for arsenic and lead analysis. The heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry following protein precipitation by use of trichloroacetic acid. All the samples analyzed had arsenic levels that ranged from 0.007 ppm to 0.099 ppm. These levels were found to be lower than the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended maximum level of 0.1 parts per million (0.1 ppm), while 14 out of 15 samples (93%) had lead levels ranging from 0.072 ppm to 0.449 ppm and were observed to be above the codex standard (193- 1995) recommended maximum level of 0.02 ppm. The above results indicate that the sampled camel milk may not be safe for human consumption.

Nguta, J. M., J. M. Mbaria, D. W. Gakuya, P. K. Gathumbi, J. D. Kabasa, and SG Kiama. "Cytotoxicity of antimalarial plant extracts from Kenyan biodiversity to the brine shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae). ." Drugs and Therapy Studies. 2 (2012): e12.
Nguta, J. M., R. Appiah-Opong, A. K. Nyarko, D. Yeboah-Manu, Addo, G.A., I. D. Otchere, and Kissi-Twum, A. "In vitro antimycobacterial and cytotoxic data on medicinal plants used to treat tuberculosis." Data in Brief. 7 (2016) .7 (2016) (2016): 1124-1130.
Nguta, J. M., J. M. Mbaria, D. W. Gakuya, P. K. Gathumbi, J. D. Kabasa, and SG Kiama. ". Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of Crude Plant Extracts from Kenyan Biodiversity using Brine Shrimp, Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae)." The Open Conference Proceedings Journal. 3 (2012): 30-34.
NGUTA, DR. JOSEPH MWANZIA. "Antimalarial herbal remedies of Msambweni, Kenya J.M. Nguta, J.M. Mbaria, D.W. Gakuya, P.K. Gathumbi, S.G. Kiama." Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128 (2010) 424. 128 (2010): 424-432.Website
Nguta, J. M., Appiah-Opong, A. K. Nyarko, Yeboah-Manu, D., and G. A. Addo. "Current perspectives in drug discovery against tuberculosis from natural products." International Journal of Mycobacteriology. 4 (2015): 165-183.
NGUTA, DR. JOSEPH MWANZIA. "Bioavailability of cobalt, Zinc and Selenium and Anthelmintic effects of fortified and non fortified Albendazole in Sheep. J.M.Nguta; J.M.Mbaria." The Kenya Veterinarian, Volume 35, Issue 1, 2011. The Kenya Veterinary Association, 2011. Abstract

Abstract: The present study was carried out to compare the use of liver and plasma analysis as methods of assessing the status of cobalt, zinc and selenium in sheep, and also to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of fortified and non-fortified albendazole preparations. plasma and liver samples were collected in duplicate from fourteen sheep aged nine to twelve months. Plasma samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and liver samples  on days 0, 14 and 28 post treatment, upon sacrifice of the study animals. Various trace elements were isolated from the organic matrix by wet oxidation for mineral analysis using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. data was statistically analysed using repeated measurement test. Significance was noted at p < 0.05. Both the fortified albendazole and non fortified albendazole cleared all the worms in the treated sheep by day 14 post treatment. All the trace elements were shown to be more bioavailable in the liver and plasma of fortified albendazole (Group B) treated sheep compared to the non-fortified albendazole (Group A) treated sheep. The current study has shown that the liver is a better indicator of cobalt, zinc and selenium status in sheep compared to plasma.
Key words: Plasma; Liver; Cobalt; Zinc and Selenium

Nguta, J. M., R. Appiah-Opong, A. K. Nyarko, Yeboah-Manu, D., G. A. Addo, Otchere, I., and A. Kissi-Twum. "Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts." Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 182, (2016): 10-15.
Njenga, D., B. Irungu, J. Mbaria, Mutai C, and J. Nguta. "Antiplasmodial activity, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity of Zanthoxylum Chalybeum Engl. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences,." World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences,. 5(11), (2016): 208-217.
Njenga, D., B. Irungu, J. Mbaria, C. Mutai, and J. M. Nguta. "Antiplasmodial, Cytotoxic and Acute Toxicity Activities of Vernonia lasiopus O. Hoffman." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 4.1 (2015): 16-20.

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