Bio

Dr.Jonathan Nzuma

Dr. Nzuma holds a PhD in Agricultural Economics and Business from the University of Guelph Canada. He also holds a Msc in Agricultural Economics and a Bsc Agriculture both from the University of Nairobi, Kenya. He is a Lecturer at the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nairobi, where he specializes in Agricultural Policy, International Trade, Microeconomics, Production Economics, Development Economics, Feasibility Assessments and Research Methods among other research themes.

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Publications


2013

Nzuma, JM.  2013.  The Political Economy Of Food Price Policy: The Case Of Kenya. Abstract

This paper evaluates Kenyas food price crisis over 2002.11 using a political economy approach. Kenya.s food prices have been high and volatile relative to world food prices. Moreover, domestic food markets are highly integrated while about 30 per cent of...........

Mwangi, SC, Mbatia OLE, Nzuma JM.  2013.  Effects of Market Reforms on Irish Potato Price Volatility in Nyandarua District, Kenya. Abstract

This paper evaluates the effects of market reform policies on the volatility of Irish potato prices in Kenya through an analysis of a 20 year monthly time series data set from Nyandarua district using an autoregressive econometric approach. The empirical results show that there has been a rise in Irish potato prices and lowering of price volatility after the implementation of market reform policies. The real prices exhibit seasonal variations around an upward trend with the prices being depressed during the harvesting period. The price risk premia is found to be negative revealing that the cost of carrying out Irish potato business declined, and farmers were better off with the implementation of the reforms. The collection and distribution of price information, storage of Irish potatoes during periods of glut, improvement in productivity and use of commodity exchange markets can help to reduce price volatility.

2012

Karugia, J;, Wanjiku J;, Nzuma J;, Gbegbelegbe S;, Macharia E;, Massawe S;, Freeman A;, Waithaka M;, Kaitibie S.  2012.  The Impact Of Non - Tariff Barriers On Maize And Beef Trade In East Africa.
Mogaka, VM;, Mbatia OLE;, Nzuma J.  2012.   → College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences (CAVS) → View Item Feasibility of Biofuel Production in Kenya: The Case of Jatropha. Abstract

This paper evaluates the potential of Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (Jatropha) as an alternative source of energy for rural households. The plant is said to have potential to diversify rural incomes, reclaim unproductive lands, reduce importation of fossil fuels, and consequently accumulation of green house gases in the atmosphere. A cost benefit analysis was employed to evaluate the feasibility of producing Jatropha as a biodiesel feedstock in relation to other crops in Kwale district. An IRR of 11 percent, BCR of 0.62 and a NPV of (28267.56) showed that production of Jatropha is not feasible at the moment. However we conclude that the plant has a potential to achieve its intended purpose if there is coordination in research and development along the Jatropha value chain and if technical and financial support is accorded to actors at the production level of the chain.

2011

Nzuma, JM.  2011.  Producer funding of agricultural research the case of Kenya’s tea industry. Abstract

This study provides an assessment of the performance of producer financing in Kenya’s tea industry. It is based on a comprehensive literature review, in combination with analysis of data derived from the Tea Board of Kenya (TBK) and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya (TRFK). The secondary data analysis is complemented by expert opinions from representative of the Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA), the Kenya Tea Growers Association (KTGA), TBK, TRFK, and the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), particularly the State Corporations Department. Currently, the tea industry operates under the Tea Act (CAP 343) and Agricultural Act (CAP 318) of the laws of Kenya. While the Tea Act is vested with regulatory services, the Agricultural Act focuses on oversight of the whole production process, as a technical arm. In addition, the Tea Act mandates that TBK undertake tea research through its technical arm, TRFK, per the State Corporations Act (CAP 446), which is also incorporated as a company limited by guarantee under the Companies Act (CAP 486) of the laws of Kenya. TBK is both a producer body that promotes and represents the tea industry, and a parastatal body appointed by government to regulate the industry. TBK is charged with facilitating research into all aspects of tea growing, manufacturing, and pest and disease control. To finance its (regulatory, promotional, and research), activities and programs the Board levies a manufacturing cess based on processed tea deliveries by all registered tea factories. The cess is statutory, and is currently the main source of revenue for the Board. The Tea Act provides a review by the Minister for Agriculture after consultation with the Board. Currently, the rate of the cess is at KSh. 46 cents per kg of processed tea. Today, the manufactured tea cess revenue collected is shared between TBK and TRFK on a 50/50 basis and used to finance both institutions. In addition, TBK is mandated to collect an Agricultural Produce Cess on green leaf production for the local authorities where tea is produced, disbursing it to the District Tea Road Committees for road infrastructure maintenance. The major challenges facing TRFK are increasing the adoption of improved technologies to close the gap between research and actual farm yields. The Foundation’s efforts to enhance branding, product diversification and value addition are limited by the following challenges: lack of an adaptive tea research factory and other relevant equipment; qualified and experienced personnel in the fields of food science, biochemistry and process engineering; and inadequate exchange of market information. Inadequate processing capacities in Kenyan factories and lack of operational policies and guidelines for intellectual property rights are still a challenge.

2010

Mogaka, VM;, Iiyama M;, Mbatia OLE;, Jonathan N.  2010.  Reality or romantism? Potential of Jatropha to solve energy crisis and improve livelihoods Abstract

This paper evaluates the potential of Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (Jatropha) as an alternative source of energy for rural households. The plant is said to have potential to diversify rural incomes, reclaim unproductive lands, reduce importation of fossil fuels, and consequently accumulation of green house gases in the atmosphere. A cost benefit analysis was employed to evaluate the feasibility of producing Jatropha as a biodiesel feedstock in relation to other crops in Kwale district. An IRR of 11 percent, BCR of 0.62 and a NPV of (28267.56) showed that production of Jatropha is not feasible at the moment. However we conclude that the plant has a potential to achieve its intended purpose if there is coordination in research and development along the Jatropha value chain and if technical and financial support is accorded to actors at the production level of the chain.

Nzuma, Jonathan M; Sarker, R.  2010.  Who Are The Real Gainers Of Trade Liberalization In Kenya’s Maize Sector? Abstract

In Kenya, trade policy reforms in the cereals sector were initiated as a key component of the economy-wide structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) during the mid 1980s. The SAPs were later strengthened and made irreversible by Kenya’s commitments at the multilateral trade negotiations. However, the welfare effects of these trade policy reforms remain controversial. This paper to quantifies the market and welfare impacts of trade liberalization in Kenya’s maize sector using a partial equilibrium model with market interrelationships at the farm, wholesale and retail levels. The model is calibrated to simulate a 24 percent reduction in maize import tariffs and a complete abolition of tariffs. The simulations results suggest that tariff reductions yield price decreases across the three market levels. The declining prices increase maize consumption but reduce domestic production. Consequently, consumer surplus increases while producer surplus decreases. However, the gain in consumer surplus is not sufficient to compensate the loss in producer surplus. Thus, the implementation of the multilateral agricultural trade agreement is likely to leave Kenya’s maize sector worse off and cannot be considered as a viable policy based on the compensation principle.

2006

MAKAU, DRNZUMAJONATHAN.  2006.  Nzuma. M.J (2006). Testing for Oligopoly Power in the Kenyan Seed Maize Processing Industry.. Contributed paper prepared for presentation at the International Association of Agricultural Economists Conference, Gold Coast, Australia, August 12-18, 2006.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from 183 of 300 raw milk samples collected at the Kenya Cooperative Creamery (Dandora). Ninety seven percent of the 183 strains isolated  were assayed for the production of enterotoxin A, B, C and D. Seventy two (74.2 %) of these were found to produce either a single or a combination of enterotoxins. Raw milk is a potential source of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in milk and milk products especially if there is defective pasteurization.

2005

Deng, H;, Nzuma J.  2005.  Assessing the Effects of NAFTA ON Canada/US Agricultural Trade. Abstract

While there seems to be an agreement that Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUSTA)/North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have benefited member countries, some analysts have argued that the agreements had little effect on the bilateral Canada/US agricultural trade as many other factors have contributed to the increased trade flows. Results from this study reveal that the aggregate bilateral agricultural trade flows have generally experienced a steady growth since the implementation of NAFTA with trade flows seemingly favoring Canada more than the US since 1992. At the industry level, the impacts of NAFTA on Canada/US agricultural trade were varied with the sub-sectors analyzed responding differently to the bilateral trade liberalization

MAKAU, DRNZUMAJONATHAN.  2005.  Deng. H., and Nzuma. M.J., (2005). Assessing the Effects of NAFTA on Canada/US Agricultural Trade.. Paper is presented at the 2005 CAES-WEAI-WAEA Annual Meeting at San Francisco, CA July 6-8, 2005.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from 183 of 300 raw milk samples collected at the Kenya Cooperative Creamery (Dandora). Ninety seven percent of the 183 strains isolated  were assayed for the production of enterotoxin A, B, C and D. Seventy two (74.2 %) of these were found to produce either a single or a combination of enterotoxins. Raw milk is a potential source of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in milk and milk products especially if there is defective pasteurization.

2004

Odhiambo, Walter; Nyangito, HNJO;.  2004.  Sources and Determinants of Agricultural Growth and Productivity in Kenya. Abstract

Agriculture is the most important sector in the Kenyan economy given its contribution to employment, foreign exchange, food, and its linkages with other sectors of the economy. Indeed, the sector’s performance directly mirrors that of the overall economy. However, in last ten years or so, the performance of the sector has been steadily declining, culminating in a negative growth rate in 2000. With over 80 per cent of the Kenyan population (the majority of whom are poor) living in the rural areas, the poor performance of the sector has had serious implications on poverty and living standards of the people. Declining agricultural growth has been identified as a major determinant of poverty in the country. Reversing this trend is no doubt an immediate development challenge for Kenya. Addressing this challenge requires knowledge of what drives agricultural growth and productivity. This study explores the sources and determinants of agricultural growth and productivity in Kenya for the period 1965-2001. The ‘growth accounting’ approach is used to identify the sources of growth, while econometric techniques are used to assess the determinants. The study utilized secondary information from the World Bank Africa Database and the KIPPRA Agricultural Data Compendium. The study establishes that most of the agricultural growth in Kenya is attributable to factor inputs – labor, land and capital. Growth in output not attributed to factor inputs or total factor productivity has in the entire period accounted for only 10 per cent of growth. Labor has been the most important source of growth and accounted for about 48 per cent of the total growth. Land is also a very important determinant of agricultural growth and productivity. The study has also established that the Kenya’s trade policy, climate, and government expenditure on agriculture are important determinants of agricultural total factor productivity growth.

Nyangito, HO;, Nzuma J;, Ommeh H;, Mbithi M.  2004.  Impact of Agricultural Trade and Related Policy Reforms on Food Security in Kenya. Abstract

Kenya’s agricultural sector has undergone various changes emanating from policy reforms over the years. These reforms, which occurred from the late 1980s to the early 1990s, were aimed at reducing government involvement in economic activity and allowing the economy to move towards a free market. Policy reforms covered monetary, fiscal and trade aspects and liberalization of the agricultural sector. This study analyses the impact of specific reforms on agricultural production, performance and trade, and therefore food security. The study uses secondary data from the Central Bureau of Statistics and the Ministry of Agriculture. Welfare Monitoring Surveys of 1982, 1992 and 1997 were used as sources of regional cross-sectional household data. Trends in production and trade are analysed, the impact of policy instruments such as prices and market access explained, household incomes and expenditures estimated, and food security trends are analysed using various indicators for both the pre- and post-reforms periods. The analysis indicates that agricultural prices and production have generally declined. The performance of the agricultural sector in the 1990s was dismal, with annual growth in agricultural GDP averaging 2% compared with 4% in the 1980s. Agricultural export growth after the reforms has shown mixed trends due to market access limitations for Kenyan exports. Market access for imports into the Kenyan market has improved since the reforms, occasioning tremendous import growth. However, the capacity to import food has declined, making the country more food insecure. The balance of trade between Kenya and the rest of the world has worsened against Kenya. After the reforms the country moved from broad self-sufficiency in production of most food staples to a net importer. The sources of food security for rural people are subsistence food production and purchases using farm or off-farm income, with a third of households receiving remittances. The linkage between the performance of the agricultural sector and household incomes indicates that when the performance of the sector is poor, household incomes are low. In the light of these challenges, the country needs to reconsider increasing the use of domestic support measures allowed within the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement on agriculture to allow adequate development of the sector. However, implementation of liberalized policies should be harmonized and coordinated to avoid adverse effects on the sector.

2003

MAKAU, DRNZUMAJONATHAN.  2003.  Nyangito. H.o and Nzuma M.J (2003) Kenyan Agriculture. Paper presented at the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) Workshop, Kampala, Uganda July16 - 22.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from 183 of 300 raw milk samples collected at the Kenya Cooperative Creamery (Dandora). Ninety seven percent of the 183 strains isolated  were assayed for the production of enterotoxin A, B, C and D. Seventy two (74.2 %) of these were found to produce either a single or a combination of enterotoxins. Raw milk is a potential source of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in milk and milk products especially if there is defective pasteurization.
MAKAU, DRNZUMAJONATHAN.  2003.  Nzuma M.J, Oluoch-Kosura and Kimenye L.N (2003) Characterizing the Adoption of Improved Maize Seeds in Semi-arid South Eastern Kenya (2002).. Poster Paper Submitted accepted and presentation at the 25 IAAE conference, 16 . : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from 183 of 300 raw milk samples collected at the Kenya Cooperative Creamery (Dandora). Ninety seven percent of the 183 strains isolated  were assayed for the production of enterotoxin A, B, C and D. Seventy two (74.2 %) of these were found to produce either a single or a combination of enterotoxins. Raw milk is a potential source of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in milk and milk products especially if there is defective pasteurization.
MAKAU, DRNZUMAJONATHAN.  2003.  Nyangito. H.o and Nzuma M.J (2003) Impact of Agricultural Trade and Related Reforms on Food Security in Kenya. Kenya Institute of Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA), Nairobi.. Discussion Paper No. 39.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from 183 of 300 raw milk samples collected at the Kenya Cooperative Creamery (Dandora). Ninety seven percent of the 183 strains isolated  were assayed for the production of enterotoxin A, B, C and D. Seventy two (74.2 %) of these were found to produce either a single or a combination of enterotoxins. Raw milk is a potential source of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in milk and milk products especially if there is defective pasteurization.

2001

MAKAU, DRNZUMAJONATHAN.  2001.  Nzuma M.J, Oluoch-Kosura W and Kimenye. L.N (2001), "Adoption of Improved Maize Production Technologies among Smallholder Farmers in the Semi-arid Zones of Kenya. Proceedings of the fifth African Crop Science society Conference held in Lagos, Nigeria October. 21 . : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from 183 of 300 raw milk samples collected at the Kenya Cooperative Creamery (Dandora). Ninety seven percent of the 183 strains isolated  were assayed for the production of enterotoxin A, B, C and D. Seventy two (74.2 %) of these were found to produce either a single or a combination of enterotoxins. Raw milk is a potential source of enterotoxigenic S. aureus in milk and milk products especially if there is defective pasteurization.
MAKAU, DRNZUMAJONATHAN.  2001.  (2001), "Adoption of Improved Maize Production Technologies among Smallholder Farmers in the Semi-arid Zones of Kenya; The Case of Improved Seeds and Inorganic Fertilizers in Machakos District". M.SC Thesis, University of Nairobi.. Paper presented at the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) Workshop, Kampala, Uganda July16 - 22.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstractabstract2.pdf

In most smallholder cropping systems in Africa, crop improvement and resource management are essential for increasing crop productivity. These issues are more acute in the semi-arid areas where farmers practice subsistence farming with little use of improved technologies that translate to sub-optimal yields and hence food insecurity. Consequently, factors determining technology utilization in these areas should be identified to guide policy interventions. This study analyzed the factors influencing the intensity of adoption of improved maize seeds and inorganic fertilizers in the dry mid altitude zones of Kenya. Multi-stage sampling was used to select 121 farmers from Machakos district who were interviewed using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were analysed and a Simultaneous Equation Tobit Model estimated. McFadden's R-Squares for the models were 0.075 and 0.133 for seed and fertilizer adoption, respectively. These levels of explanatory power and study findings were consistent with other cross-section studies using censored data to explain technology adoption. The rates of adoption of improved maize seeds and inorganic fertilizers were 65 and 36 percent respectively. Men outnumbered women and were better adopters of improved technologies. Major adoption limitations included recycling of seeds and high input costs. Tobit regression results indicated that age, formal education, fertilizer amounts, off-farm income and early maturity perceptions significantly influenced the intensity of adoption of improved maize seeds. Formal education, experience, hired labour, fertilized area, farm size and attendance to field days significantly influenced the intensity of adoption of inorganic fertilizers. A major conclusion drawn from the study was that the use of improved maize seeds and inorganic fertilizers was low and declining as indicated by the level of use of these inputs. The recommended seed rate for this area was 25 kg of seed per hectare while recommended fertilizer rates were 50 kgN/ha. However, farmers on average applied 8.6 kgl-l/ha.while adopting a seed rate of 10 kg of seed per hectare. Adopters of both technologies achieved 34 percent while nonadopters achieved only 15 percen.t of the returns possible from the maize enterprise in this area (as a ratio of farmers returns to optimal research returns). These low and declining levels of use and unpredictable weather conditions have translated to sub-optimal yields, persistent food insecurity and rising poverty levels. Appropriate policy interventions that can increase the use of these inputs can greatly improve the food security situation in the area. The study underscored the importance of extension, credit and distance to the market in influencing adoption. The results confirm the importance of producer education and arguably, educating farmers is likely to increase the use of these technologies. Therefore, there is need for the government and other development agencies to invest more in village schools and other educational efforts such as adult education. The government should ensure that all individuals acquire some basic level of education by making primary level of education compulsory.

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