Publications


2012

Ngure, K, Mugo N, Celum C, Baeten JM, Morris M, Olungah O, Olenja J, Tamooh H, Shell-Duncan B.  2012.  A qualitative study of barriers to consistent condom use among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Kenya. Abstract

This study explored barriers to consistent condom use among heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples who were aware of the HIV-1 serodiscordant status and had been informed about condom use as a risk reduction strategy. We conducted 28 in-depth interviews and 9 focus group discussions among purposively selected heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples from Thika and Nairobi districts in Kenya. We analyzed the transcribed data with a grounded theory approach. The most common barriers to consistent condom use included male partners' reluctance to use condoms regardless of HIV-1 status coupled with female partners' inability to negotiate condom use, misconceptions about HIV-1 serodiscordance, and desire for children. Specific areas of focus should include development of skills for women to effectively negotiate condom use, ongoing information on HIV-1 serodiscordance and education on safer conception practices that minimize risk of HIV-1 transmission.

2011

Olenja, JM, Nyabola LO, Laving AMR, Opwora AS.  2011.  Who is to blame? Abstract

Kenya, like many developing nations, continues to experience high childhood mortality in spite of the many efforts put in place by governments and international bodies to curb it. This study sought to investigate the barriers to accessing healthcare services for children aged less than five years in Butere District, a rural district experiencing high rates of mortality and morbidity despite having relatively better conditions for child survival. Methods: Exit interviews were conducted among caregivers seeking healthcare for their children in mid 2007 in all the 6 public health facilities. Additionally, views from caregivers in the community, health workers and district health managers were sought through focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIs). Results: Three hundred and ninety-seven respondents were surveyed in exit interviews while 45 respondents participated in FGDs and KIs. Some practices by caregivers including early onset of child bearing, early supplementation, and utilization of traditional healers were thought to increase the risk of mortality and morbidity, although reported rates of mosquito net utilization and immunization coverage were high. The healthcare system posed barriers to access of healthcare for the under fives, through long waiting time, lack of drugs and poor services, incompetence and perceived poor attitudes of the health workers. FGDs also revealed wide-spread concerns and misconceptions about health care among the caregivers. Conclusion: Caregivers’ actions were thought to influence children’s progression to illness or health while the healthcare delivery system posed recurrent barriers to the accessing of healthcare for the under-fives. Actions on both fronts are necessary to reduce childhood mortality

2006

MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  2006.  Provider views on the acceptability of an IUD checklist screening tool. Wesson J, Gmach R, Gazi R, Ashraf A, M. Contraception. 2006 Nov;74(5):382-8. Epub 2006 Jul 17. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
NTRODUCTION: Family Health International developed a simple checklist to help family planning providers apply the new medical eligibility criteria (MEC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) contraceptive method. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five providers in four countries participated in focus groups to field test the checklist. Before participating in a discussion about the checklist, each provider was given a copy of the checklist, its instructions and hypothetical client scenarios. Providers used the checklist to answer questions about the client scenarios in order to determine if they understood the checklist and if they would correctly determine IUD eligibility for women in updated categories of eligibility on the basis of the checklist. RESULTS: Providers found the checklist easy to use and thought that it would enhance identification of eligible IUD users. Nevertheless, many providers relied on prior knowledge of IUD eligibility rather than the checklist recommendations. Providers only correctly determined eligibility for new categories of IUD use 69% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: The IUD checklist is a useful job tool for providers, but training and effective dissemination of the WHO MEC should precede its introduction to ensure that it is correctly used.

2004

MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  2004.  Perception of infertility in two communities in Kenya. Sekadde-Kigondu C, Kimani VN, Kirumbi LW, Ruminjo JK, Olenja J. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2004;57(1):58-9.. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2004;57(1):58-9. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
NTRODUCTION: Family Health International developed a simple checklist to help family planning providers apply the new medical eligibility criteria (MEC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) contraceptive method. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five providers in four countries participated in focus groups to field test the checklist. Before participating in a discussion about the checklist, each provider was given a copy of the checklist, its instructions and hypothetical client scenarios. Providers used the checklist to answer questions about the client scenarios in order to determine if they understood the checklist and if they would correctly determine IUD eligibility for women in updated categories of eligibility on the basis of the checklist. RESULTS: Providers found the checklist easy to use and thought that it would enhance identification of eligible IUD users. Nevertheless, many providers relied on prior knowledge of IUD eligibility rather than the checklist recommendations. Providers only correctly determined eligibility for new categories of IUD use 69% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: The IUD checklist is a useful job tool for providers, but training and effective dissemination of the WHO MEC should precede its introduction to ensure that it is correctly used.

2003

MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  2003.  Health seeking behaviour in context. Olenja J. East Afr Med J. 2003 Feb;80(2):61-2.. East Afr Med J. 2003 Feb;80(2):61-2.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
NTRODUCTION: Family Health International developed a simple checklist to help family planning providers apply the new medical eligibility criteria (MEC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) contraceptive method. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five providers in four countries participated in focus groups to field test the checklist. Before participating in a discussion about the checklist, each provider was given a copy of the checklist, its instructions and hypothetical client scenarios. Providers used the checklist to answer questions about the client scenarios in order to determine if they understood the checklist and if they would correctly determine IUD eligibility for women in updated categories of eligibility on the basis of the checklist. RESULTS: Providers found the checklist easy to use and thought that it would enhance identification of eligible IUD users. Nevertheless, many providers relied on prior knowledge of IUD eligibility rather than the checklist recommendations. Providers only correctly determined eligibility for new categories of IUD use 69% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: The IUD checklist is a useful job tool for providers, but training and effective dissemination of the WHO MEC should precede its introduction to ensure that it is correctly used.
MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  2003.  Muia, E.; Ndavi P.; Olenja, J. M.; Curtis S; Kizito, P.; Hyslop, A; Ng. Factors That Contribute To The Utilization Of Quality Reproductive Health Care. Chapter 3 pp 9-20. 2003. Measure Evaluation.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
NTRODUCTION: Family Health International developed a simple checklist to help family planning providers apply the new medical eligibility criteria (MEC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) contraceptive method. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five providers in four countries participated in focus groups to field test the checklist. Before participating in a discussion about the checklist, each provider was given a copy of the checklist, its instructions and hypothetical client scenarios. Providers used the checklist to answer questions about the client scenarios in order to determine if they understood the checklist and if they would correctly determine IUD eligibility for women in updated categories of eligibility on the basis of the checklist. RESULTS: Providers found the checklist easy to use and thought that it would enhance identification of eligible IUD users. Nevertheless, many providers relied on prior knowledge of IUD eligibility rather than the checklist recommendations. Providers only correctly determined eligibility for new categories of IUD use 69% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: The IUD checklist is a useful job tool for providers, but training and effective dissemination of the WHO MEC should precede its introduction to ensure that it is correctly used.
MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  2003.  Ndavi P.; Muia, E.; Olenja, J.M.; Curtis S; Kizito, P.; Hyslop, A; Ng. In Factors That Contribute To The Utilization Of Quality Reproductive Health Care. Chapter 4 pages 23-35. 2003. Measure Evaluation. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
NTRODUCTION: Family Health International developed a simple checklist to help family planning providers apply the new medical eligibility criteria (MEC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) contraceptive method. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five providers in four countries participated in focus groups to field test the checklist. Before participating in a discussion about the checklist, each provider was given a copy of the checklist, its instructions and hypothetical client scenarios. Providers used the checklist to answer questions about the client scenarios in order to determine if they understood the checklist and if they would correctly determine IUD eligibility for women in updated categories of eligibility on the basis of the checklist. RESULTS: Providers found the checklist easy to use and thought that it would enhance identification of eligible IUD users. Nevertheless, many providers relied on prior knowledge of IUD eligibility rather than the checklist recommendations. Providers only correctly determined eligibility for new categories of IUD use 69% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: The IUD checklist is a useful job tool for providers, but training and effective dissemination of the WHO MEC should precede its introduction to ensure that it is correctly used.
MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  2003.  Olenja, J. M. Health Seeking Behaviour in context. East African Medical Journal. (EAMJ). 2003. East African Medical Journal. (EAMJ). 2003. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
NTRODUCTION: Family Health International developed a simple checklist to help family planning providers apply the new medical eligibility criteria (MEC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) contraceptive method. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five providers in four countries participated in focus groups to field test the checklist. Before participating in a discussion about the checklist, each provider was given a copy of the checklist, its instructions and hypothetical client scenarios. Providers used the checklist to answer questions about the client scenarios in order to determine if they understood the checklist and if they would correctly determine IUD eligibility for women in updated categories of eligibility on the basis of the checklist. RESULTS: Providers found the checklist easy to use and thought that it would enhance identification of eligible IUD users. Nevertheless, many providers relied on prior knowledge of IUD eligibility rather than the checklist recommendations. Providers only correctly determined eligibility for new categories of IUD use 69% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: The IUD checklist is a useful job tool for providers, but training and effective dissemination of the WHO MEC should precede its introduction to ensure that it is correctly used.

2002

MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  2002.  Evaluation of an emergency contraception introduction project in Kenya. Muia E, Blanchard K, Lukhando M, Olenja J, Liambila W. Contraception. 2002 Oct;66(4):255-60.. Contraception. 2002 Oct;66(4):255-60. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract

The Consortium for Emergency Contraception introduced Postinor-2, a progestin-only EC product, into Kenya as part of its work to expand access to EC in developing countries. Introduction activities included registering Postinor-2, training providers, and developing provider and client materials. We surveyed family planning clients and providers to assess the impact of these activities. Knowledge of EC among clients and providers improved between the baseline and evaluation surveys. More women and providers had heard of EC and more providers were distributing it. Support for access to EC in Kenya also improved. The results indicate, though, that further information is needed. Only one-fifth of women at the evaluation had heard of EC and almost half of the women expressed concerns about EC at baseline and evaluation. More research and experience using novel ways of informing women about EC in Africa is needed, and information needs to address women's concerns.

NYAMBURA, PROFKIMANIVIOLET, MUHENJE PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  2002.  ELIZABETH NGUGI, VIOLET KIMANI, MUTUKU MWANTHI & JOYCE OLENJA 2002: Community-Based Care in Resource Limited Settings: A Framework for Action WHO, Geneva, Book Publications.. Community-Based Care in Resource Limited Settings: A Framework for Action WHO, Geneva, Book Publications.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
NTRODUCTION: Family Health International developed a simple checklist to help family planning providers apply the new medical eligibility criteria (MEC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) contraceptive method. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five providers in four countries participated in focus groups to field test the checklist. Before participating in a discussion about the checklist, each provider was given a copy of the checklist, its instructions and hypothetical client scenarios. Providers used the checklist to answer questions about the client scenarios in order to determine if they understood the checklist and if they would correctly determine IUD eligibility for women in updated categories of eligibility on the basis of the checklist. RESULTS: Providers found the checklist easy to use and thought that it would enhance identification of eligible IUD users. Nevertheless, many providers relied on prior knowledge of IUD eligibility rather than the checklist recommendations. Providers only correctly determined eligibility for new categories of IUD use 69% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: The IUD checklist is a useful job tool for providers, but training and effective dissemination of the WHO MEC should precede its introduction to ensure that it is correctly used.
NYAMBURA, PROFKIMANIVIOLET, MUHENJE PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  2002.  OLENJA J.M & KIMANI V.N 2002: Poverty, Street Life and Prostitution: The Dynamics of child prostitution in Kisumu, Kenya. Chapter... in the book titled: Poverty, AIDS and Street Children in East Africa. (Studies in Africa Health and Medicine) Edited by Lu. Chapter... in the book titled: Poverty, AIDS and Street Children in East Africa. (Studies in Africa Health and Medicine.Edited by Lugalla, J and Kibassa, G. Edwin Mellen Press Publishers; pp 47-68, 2002. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
NTRODUCTION: Family Health International developed a simple checklist to help family planning providers apply the new medical eligibility criteria (MEC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) for the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) contraceptive method. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five providers in four countries participated in focus groups to field test the checklist. Before participating in a discussion about the checklist, each provider was given a copy of the checklist, its instructions and hypothetical client scenarios. Providers used the checklist to answer questions about the client scenarios in order to determine if they understood the checklist and if they would correctly determine IUD eligibility for women in updated categories of eligibility on the basis of the checklist. RESULTS: Providers found the checklist easy to use and thought that it would enhance identification of eligible IUD users. Nevertheless, many providers relied on prior knowledge of IUD eligibility rather than the checklist recommendations. Providers only correctly determined eligibility for new categories of IUD use 69% of the time. CONCLUSIONS: The IUD checklist is a useful job tool for providers, but training and effective dissemination of the WHO MEC should precede its introduction to ensure that it is correctly used.

2001

NYAMBURA, PROFKIMANIVIOLET, MUHENJE PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  2001.  KIMANI V.N, OLENJA J.M 2001: Infertility: Socio-cultural dimensions and the impact on women in selected communities in Kenya. Journal of African Anthropologist: 8; (2); pp. 200-214, 2001.. Journal of African Anthropologist: 8; (2); pp. 200-214, 2001.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract

The Consortium for Emergency Contraception introduced Postinor-2, a progestin-only EC product, into Kenya as part of its work to expand access to EC in developing countries. Introduction activities included registering Postinor-2, training providers, and developing provider and client materials. We surveyed family planning clients and providers to assess the impact of these activities. Knowledge of EC among clients and providers improved between the baseline and evaluation surveys. More women and providers had heard of EC and more providers were distributing it. Support for access to EC in Kenya also improved. The results indicate, though, that further information is needed. Only one-fifth of women at the evaluation had heard of EC and almost half of the women expressed concerns about EC at baseline and evaluation. More research and experience using novel ways of informing women about EC in Africa is needed, and information needs to address women's concerns.

2000

MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  2000.  What do family planning clients and university students in Nairobi, Kenya, know and think about emergency contraception? Muia E, Ellertson C, Clark S, Lukhando M, Elul B, Olenja J, Westley E. Afr J Reprod Health. 2000 Apr;4(1):77-87. Afr J Reprod Health. 2000 Apr;4(1):77-87. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
nto the possible roles for the method in Kenya, we assessed the knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraception in two groups of potential users, and we focus on these data specifically in this paper. We interviewed clustered samples of clients at ten family planning clinics in Nairobi (n = 282) and conducted four focus group discussions with students at two universities in Kenya (n = 42). Results show that despite relatively low levels of awareness and widespread misinformation, when the method was explained, both clients and students expressed considerable interest, but also expressed some health and other concerns.

1999

MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  1999.  Emergency contraception in Nairobi, Kenya: knowledge, attitudes and practices among policymakers, family planning providers and clients, and university students. Muia E, Ellertson C, Lukhando M, Flul B, Clark S, Olenja J. Contraception. 1999 Oct;60(4):223. Contraception. 1999 Oct;60(4):223-32.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
To gauge knowledge, attitudes, and practices about emergency contraception in Nairobi, Kenya, we conducted a five-part study. We searched government and professional association policy documents, and clinic guidelines and service records for references to emergency contraception. We conducted in-depth interviews with five key policymakers, and with 93 family planning providers randomly selected to represent both the public and private sectors. We also surveyed 282 family planning clients attending 10 clinics, again representing both sectors. Finally, we conducted four focus groups with university students. Although one specially packaged emergency contraceptive (Postinor levonorgestrel tablets) is registered in Kenya, the method is scarcely known or used. No extant policy or service guidelines address the method specifically, although revisions to several documents were planned. Yet policymakers felt that expanding access to emergency contraception would require few overt policy changes, as much of the guidance for oral contraception is already broad enough to cover this alternative use of those same commodities. Participants in all parts of the study generally supported expanded access to emergency contraception in Kenya. They did, however, want additional, detailed information, particularly about health effects. They also differed over exactly who should have access to emergency contraception and how it should be provided. PIP: A five-part study was conducted to gauge knowledge, attitudes, and practices about emergency contraception (EC) among policymakers, family planning providers and clients, and university students in Nairobi, Kenya. Government and professional association policy documents, and clinic guidelines and service records were searched for references to EC. In-depth interviews were conducted with 5 key policymakers, and with 93 family planning providers randomly selected to represent both the public and private sectors. Furthermore, 282 family planning clients attending 10 clinics were also surveyed and four focus groups were conducted with university students. Although one specially packaged EC was registered in Kenya, the method was scarcely known or used. No extant policy or service guidelines address the method specifically, although revisions to several documents were planned. Yet policymakers felt that expanding access to EC would require few overt policy changes, as much of the guidance for oral contraception was already broad enough to cover this alternative use of those same commodities. Participants in all parts of the study generally supported expanded access to EC in Kenya. They did, however, want additional detailed information, particularly on the health effects of EC. They also differed on who should have access to EC and how it should be provided.
MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  1999.  Assessing community attitude towards home-based care for people with AIDS (PWAs) in Kenya. Olenja JM. J Community Health. 1999 Jun;24(3):187-99.. J Community Health. 1999 Jun;24(3):187-99. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
This paper presents data on an assessment of community attitudes toward HIV/AIDS and home based care. The findings indicate that due to inadequate information about the disease and care expectations, people were ambivalent toward the sick and in some instances out-right rejection prevailed. This formed the basis for their preference for institutional based care as opposed to home based care. This was further compounded by the economic status of the household/family. Sheer poverty militates against providing adequate home care in as much as families may be willing to do so. It also confirms that one may perhaps be too taken in by the romanticized idea of unswerving community support. This may further relegate the burden to the primary unit, the family and especially the women who ultimately carry the load with limited resources. This emphasizes the need to initially share the issue with the community in order to work out the mechanisms that will lessen the burden of, and facilitate home care. Training in the care of AIDS patients is crucial yet lacking at the family and community level. Whereas care, counseling and social support are particularly important prerequisites for home-based care, these were conspicuously lacking. Very few caregivers had appropriate training and were worried about their lack of knowledge and yet they had to care for patients. It was evident that they lacked a framework that would provide the capacity to facilitate home care. Such a framework would bridge the gap between the noble concept of home-based care and the realities of home based care.

1994

MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  1994.  Health care-seeking behavior related to the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. Moses S, Ngugi EN, Bradley JE, Njeru EK, Eldridge G, Muia E, Olenja J, Plummer FA. Am J Public Health. 1994 Dec;84(12):1947-51. Am J Public Health. 1994 Dec;84(12):1947-51. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  1994.  Sexual behaviour in Kenya: implications for sexually transmitted disease transmission and control. Moses S, Muia E, Bradley JE, Nagelkerke NJ, Ngugi EN, Njeru EK, Eldridge G, Olenja J, Wotton K, Plummer FA, et al.Soc Sci Med. 1994 Dec;39(12):1649-56. Soc Sci Med. 1994 Dec;39(12):1649-56. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Sexual behaviour in Kenya in relation to STD transmission was investigated with a view to forming a basis for the more rational design of STD/HIV control interventions. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 762 men and women attending eight health facilities in two urban centres. Equal numbers of STD patients (cases) and non-STD related clinic attenders (clinic controls) were selected, matched by gender and clinic. Another sample of 427 men and women was obtained from a random sampling of households in a slum area in Nairobi (community controls). Male STD patients who were unmarried, or married but living apart from their wives, reported a higher mean number of sex partners in the previous three months than did male clinic or community controls. Unmarried female STD patients reported a higher mean number of sex partners in the previous three months than did unmarried female clinic or community controls. Both male and female STD patients were more likely to report having been involved in commercial sex transactions in the previous three months than clinic or community controls. Considerable heterogeneity in sexual behaviour was apparent. In multivariate analysis, the most important predictor of STD acquisition for both men and women was the number of reported sex partners in the previous three months. In addition, for men only, marital status (unmarried, or married but living apart from their wives) and purchasing sex were significant predictors of being an STD patient. These data confirm the importance of commercial sex in STD transmission, and suggest that men play a bridging role between female sex workers and the general population of women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

1993

MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  1993.  Mcpake, B. Ajuo, F. Forsburg B, Liambila, W. Olenja, JM. "The Kenyan Model of the Bamako Initiative: Potential and Limitations. International Journal of Health Planning and Management 8, 123-128 1993. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.

1991

MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  1991.  Factors which influence child health with specific reference to nutrition in Siaya district western Kenya. Olenja J. J Trop Pediatr. 1991 Jun;37(3):136-9.. J Trop Pediatr. 1991 Jun;37(3):136-9.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.

1990

MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  1990.  Olenja JM.Remuneration of traditional birth attendants.World Health Forum. 1990;11(4):427-8.. World Health Forum. 1990;11(4):427-8.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.
MUHENJE, PROFOLENJAJOYCE.  1990.  Family planning in Siaya district, western Kenya: an analysis of factors influencing fertility levels. Olenja JM. Camb Anthropol. 1990;14(3):54-67. Camb Anthropol. 1990;14(3):54-67. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify health-care seeking and related behaviors relevant to controlling sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya. METHODS. A total of 380 patients with sexually transmitted diseases (n = 189 men and 191 women) at eight public clinics were questioned about their health-care seeking and sexual behaviors. RESULTS. Women waited longer than men to attend study clinics and were more likely to continue to have sex while symptomatic. A large proportion of patients had sought treatment previously in both the public and private sectors without relief of symptoms, resulting in delays in presenting to study clinics. For women, being married and giving a recent history of selling sex were both independently associated with continuing to have sex while symptomatic. CONCLUSIONS. Reducing the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya will require improved access, particularly for women, to effective health services, preferably at the point of first contact with the health system. It is also critical to encourage people to reduce sexual activity while symptomatic, seek treatment promptly, and increase condom use.

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