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1997

DR. OGETO, JOHNOBIERO.  1997.  Ogeto J. O. A Chemical and Pharmacological investigation of Strychnos henningsii. Thesis submitted to the University of Nairobi for the Degree of Master of Science of on Pharmacy 1997.. UNESCO /ICOGRAD A, Conference Proceedings Nairobi Kenya. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.
DR. OGETO, JOHNOBIERO.  1997.  Ogeto J. O., Kato A., Moriyasu M., Ichimaru M., Nishiyama Y., Juma F. D., Ng. UNESCO /ICOGRAD A, Conference Proceedings Nairobi Kenya. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.

1995

DR. OGETO, JOHNOBIERO.  1995.  Ogeto J. O., Kato A., Moriyasu M., Ichimaru M., Nishiyama Y., Juma F. D., Ng. UNESCO /ICOGRAD A, Conference Proceedings Nairobi Kenya. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
There are four hypotheses which have been advanced to explain the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria. However, none of them adequately explains all the features of cerebral malaria in man. One such hypotheses is Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC). To determine whether this condition occurs in patients with uncomplicated malaria, the authors conducted a study on fibrinogen and its degradation products, euglobulin lysis time and parasite counts in 30 cases of uncomplicated malaria. By spectrophotometric method, plasma fibrinogen in patients with uncomplicated malaria was found to be normal as compared to normal healthy adults. There were no fibrinogen degradation production (FDP) detected in either patients or healthy controls, using latex agglutination tests at a dilution of 1:5. This method for FDP estimation is significant in that a serum agglutination with 1:5 dilution indicates a concentration of FDP in the original serum in excess of 10g/ml, designated as positive results of experiment. High values of euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were noted in patients with low parasitaemia. Analysis of these results showed that disseminated intravascular coagulation did not occur in uncomplicated cases of malaria. In this study on cases of uncomplicated malaria and low parasitaemia the biochemical parameters relating to to DIC have been essentially normal, although DIC is thought to be a primary stage in the development of cerebral malaria. According to Reid, DIC is an important intermediate mechanism in the pathophysiology of severe and complicated malaria such as cerebral malaria.

1993

DR. OGETO, JOHNOBIERO.  1993.  Ogeto J. O., Okello G. B., Hagos B., Ng. East Afr Med J. 1993 Oct;70(10):643-5. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of albendazole were investigated in five children who were hospitalized at the Kenyatta National Hospital for the treatment of hydatid disease. Unchanged albendazole was below detectable level in plasma. The major metabolite present was albendazole sulphoxide. In one of the patients, the concentration of albendazole sulphone in plasma was significantly high, whereas in the other four children, only trace amounts were detected. Maximum concentrations of albendazole sulphoxide in these five children were variable and generally higher than those reported in adults by other workers. Other pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable to those found in other studies.
DR. OGETO, JOHNOBIERO.  1993.  Ogeto J. O., Tachibana Y., Kato A., Kawanishi K., Toba H., Nishiyama Y., Juma F. D., Mathenge. Planta Med. 1993 Aug;59(4):354-8.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Mitogenic activities in African traditional herbal medicines were examined using protein fractions obtained from their extracts by precipitation with ammonium sulfate. Potent mitogenic activities for human and mouse lymphocytes were found in the three plants: Croton macrostachyus, Croton megalocarpus (Euphorbiaceae), and Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae). All the gel chromatographic patterns of these protein fractions progressed toward the smaller molecule site with pronase treatment, while their mitogenic activities decreased significantly. Protein fractions from these three plants induced mitogenesis both in human and mouse isolated T cells, but not in lymphocytes from athymic nude mice. By testing further fractionated protein fractions with gel filtration chromatography, it was found that all three plants contained several mitogens having different molecule sizes.

1992

DR. OGETO, JOHNOBIERO.  1992.  Ogeto J. O., Kibwage I. O., Maitai C.K., Rutere G., Thuranira J. and Ochieng A.: - Drug Quality Control in DARU Observations during 1983 . East Afr Med J. 1993 Oct;70(10):643-5. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of albendazole were investigated in five children who were hospitalized at the Kenyatta National Hospital for the treatment of hydatid disease. Unchanged albendazole was below detectable level in plasma. The major metabolite present was albendazole sulphoxide. In one of the patients, the concentration of albendazole sulphone in plasma was significantly high, whereas in the other four children, only trace amounts were detected. Maximum concentrations of albendazole sulphoxide in these five children were variable and generally higher than those reported in adults by other workers. Other pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable to those found in other studies.

1989

Kato, A, Ichimaru M, Matsukawa M, Matsukawa M, Fukuoka N, Kishida K, Ogeto JO, Juma FD.  1989.  Studies on unused medicinal resources in africa, occurrence of sulfur compounds in cassipourea genus in kenya. Abstract

In the current re earch, the inland genus Ca sipourea of Rhizophoraceae in Kenya was pinpointed as a target for developing new medicinal resources. The field work on four species of Cassipourea, i.e. Cassipourea malosana, C. gummiflua, C. euryoides, and C. celastroides was carried out during three months in 1987, which all are grown in different habitats each other. It was proved with detective indicator (PdcI) at field work that the barks of these trees contain some sulfur compounds as we had expected. The plant materials transfered from field to laboratory provided some sulfur compounds as result of chemical studies such as isolation of compounds and determination of their structures. These compounds were such various alkaloid a pyrrolidine and pyrrolizidine posessing 1,2-dithiolane ring and bisdi¬sulphide bridge systern respectively. Among the alkaloid two new pyrrolidine alkaloids named guinesine-D and euryoidine have been isolated from Cassipourea euryoides.Guinesine¬D has als0 been found in C. celastroides. Another new pyrrolizidine alkaloid named is ocassi¬pourine have been isolated from C. malosana and C. gummiflua, For these three compounds, structure 1. 8 and were Proposed respectively on toe basis of spectro copic evidence

DR. OGETO, JOHNOBIERO.  1989.  Ogeto J. O., Juma F. D. . Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO, JOHNOBIERO.  1989.  Ogeto J. O., Kato A., Moriyasu M.M., Inchimaru M., Matsukawa M., Fakuoka N., Kishida K. and Juma F. D. . East Afr Med J. 1993 Oct;70(10):643-5. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of albendazole were investigated in five children who were hospitalized at the Kenyatta National Hospital for the treatment of hydatid disease. Unchanged albendazole was below detectable level in plasma. The major metabolite present was albendazole sulphoxide. In one of the patients, the concentration of albendazole sulphone in plasma was significantly high, whereas in the other four children, only trace amounts were detected. Maximum concentrations of albendazole sulphoxide in these five children were variable and generally higher than those reported in adults by other workers. Other pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable to those found in other studies.

1984

Ogeto, JO, Juma FD, Muriuki G.  1984.  Practical therapeutics:. Abstract

The effect of alkaloids extracted from strychnos henningsii plant were studied on the normal mice following the intraperitoneal administration on the isolated innerverted skeletal muscles of the rat diaphragm as well as on local anatomic sites of the guinea pig skin.The alkaloids induced convulsions and paralysis characteristic of strychnine poisoning.The convulsions were reversible on the administration of pentobarbitone strychnos henningsii bases produced progressive blockade of the neuromuscular junction without initial stimulation.The blockade was not antagonised by physostigmine.Results of this work indicated strychnos henningsii alkanoids effects are similar to those of strychnine and not curare.we conclude that the commonly used appetiser strychnos henningsii decoction may be dangerous in overdose and suggest that incase of poisoning barbiturates could be used as antidote

DR. OGETO, JOHNOBIERO.  1984.  Ogeto J. O., Watkins W. M., Spencer H. C., Kariuki D. M., Sixsmith D. G., Boriga D. A., Kipingor R., Koech D. K. . Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO, JOHNOBIERO.  1984.  Ogeto J. O., Muriuki G., Juma F. D., - Some toxic effects of the alkaloids extracted from Strychnos henningsii Plant . Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).

1983

Ogeto, J, Maitai CK, Wangia C, Mkoji ML, Wakori E, Rutere GK, Mithamo RW, Ochieng' A, Githiga IM.  1983.  Practical therapeutical drug quality control in kenya - further observations. Abstract

Over a period of 18 months starting from 20th July 1981, 191 requests for drug analysis were received and processed In the Drug Analysis and Research nil (DARU) at the department of pharmacy in the University of Nairobi. Of these requests, about 65% came from the government central medical stores, 13% from government hospitals, 11.3% from the Ministry of Health headquaters (Director of Medical Services and Chief Pharmacist), 5% from private local pharmaceutical firms, 4.8% from the Tuberculosis Investigation Centre and the rest from miscelaneous sources. About 65% of the samples received were manufactured locally and 35% imported. In general complaints received from medical practitioners were found 10 be justified. Results of analysis together with some relevant observations are presented.

Ogeto, JO, Maitai CK.  1983.  The scientific basis for the use of strychnos henningsii(gilg) Plant material to stimulate appetite. Abstract

The mediciinal value of Strychnos henningsii plant. Particularly as an appetite stimulant has long been recognised by the indigenous people of Kenya even before this is properly documented in scientific literature The present work involves isolation and purification of the bitter alkaloidal principles present in powdered plant material. Quantitative estimation of the alkaloidal content, in each morphological part of the plant was done and the result compared with that of closely related species. Strychnos nux vomica, an officiall drug in several pharmacopoeia. Examination of the isolated alkaloidal was done using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas, liquid chromatography (GLC) to deter¬mine the number of alkaloids present in the plant. The median lethal du-e (I.D) in rats and the bitterness threshold in humans for the isolated alkaloidal rnixture were determined and compared with those reported for S, nux vomica. Result-, of this work indicate that S. henningsii can be substitute for S. nux vomica as an apettite stimulant

DR. OGETO, JOHNOBIERO.  1983.  Ogeto J. O., Kato A., Moriyasu M. M., Inchimaru M., Matsukawa M., Fakuoka N., Kishida K. and Juma F. D. . Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO, JOHNOBIERO.  1983.  Ogeto J. O., Maitai C. K., Munenge R. W., Ochieng S., Juma F. D., - . Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO, JOHNOBIERO.  1983.  Ogeto J. O., Kato A., Moriyasu M., Ichimaru M., Nishiyama Y., Juma F.D., Ng. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO, JOHNOBIERO.  1983.  Ogeto J. O., Maitai C. K. . Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).
DR. OGETO, JOHNOBIERO.  1983.  Ogeto J. O., Maitai C. K., Mkoji M. L., Wakori E. A., Rutere G. K., Mithamo R. W., Ochieng A., Githiga I. M. . Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1989 Jan-Mar;14(1):15-7.. : University of Nairobi Press Abstract
Mefloquine pharmacokinetics were studied in Kenyan African normal volunteers and in patients with severe acute attack of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Peak concentrations were achieved in both groups at 20-24 hours. The mean half-life of elimination was 385 +/- 150 hours (mean +/- SD) in normal subjects while in severe malaria it was 493 +/- 215 hours which was significantly longer (P less than or equal to 0.001). The volume of distribution was significantly smaller in severe malaria where it was 30.76 +/- 10.50 l/kg (mean +/- SD) while in the normal subjects it was 40.90 +/- 20.70 l/kg (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001). The total body clearance in severe malaria was 3.75 +/- 1.51 l/h (mean +/- SD). This was significantly lower than in the normal subjects where it was 5.15 +/- 1.50 l/h (mean +/- SD) (P less than or equal to 0.001).

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