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Book
Iraki XN. The Orphans of the Happy Valley. Nairobi, Kenya: TBA; Forthcoming.
Bulinda DM. organizational behaviour in Educational management. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
M IJ. OCEANOGRAPHY. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2013. AbstractUniversity of Nairobi

Welcome to Oceanography (SMR 411). This course is offered to both Meteorology students and atmospheric students. While this course does not require pre-requisites, a basic knowledge on climate and atmospheric circulation will enable the leaner to comprehend the concepts presented in the course.

Oceanography is the study of the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the world ocean. All the global oceans together with the seas cover nearly three-quarters of the surface of the earth. The major goals of oceanography are to understand the geologic and geochemical processes involved in the evolution and alteration of the ocean and its basin, to evaluate the interaction of the ocean and the atmosphere so that greater knowledge of climatic variations can be attained, and to describe how the biological productivity in the sea is controlled.

Oceans play an important role on weather and climate. Have you ever heard of El Niño, tropical cyclones, the Atlantic hurricane season and storm surges? How does the oceans contribute to these phenomena? These and many other interesting features will be learnt in this course.

Kameri-Mbote P, Odote C, Musembi C, Murigi K. Ours By Right: Law, Politics and Realities of Community Property in Kenya. Nairobi: Srathmore University Press; 2013.
Kameri-Mbote P, Odote C, Musembi CN, Kamande W. Ours by Right: Law, Politics and Realities of Community Property in Kenya. Nairobi: Strathmore University Press; 2013.
Mukhwana A, IRIBEMWANGI PI. Othello. Nairobi: Oxford University Press (OUP); 2012. AbstractOthello_Cover.pdf

Iago ameapa kulipiza kisasi dhidi ya Othello kwa kuivuruga ndoa ya Othello na Desdemona. Njia pekee ya kufanikisha azma yake ni kumghilibu Othello kwa kumdanganya kuwa mkewe ni mwasherati. Je, Iago atafaulu katika azimio hili? Je, Othello atazikubali hila za Iago? Endapo atashawishika, atamchukulia hatua gani Desdemona? Haya ni kati ya maswali anayoyajibu William Shakespeare katika tamthilia hii ya tanzia, ingawa inaburudisha, inafunza na ambayo imekaidi mpito wa wakati. Tafsiri hii imefanywa kwa ufundi mkubwa hivi kwamba ule mvuto na mnato wa kazi asilia umedumishwa.

WAMBUGU LYDIAH. Overcoming Exclusion through Inclusive Education. Germany: VDM Verlag; 2011.
Langdon J, Patel M, Brennan P. Operative {Oral} and {Maxillofacial} {Surgery} {Second} edition. 2nd ed. CRC Press; 2010. Abstract

Operative Maxillofacial Surgery was first published in 1998, and within a very short period it became the standard text for trainees in oral and maxillofacial surgery preparing for their exit examinations.For this second edition, the contents have been extensively revised not only to include all aspects of oral surgery but also to reflect the changes in maxillofacial practice that have occurred since 1998. In particular, the role of osseointegrated implants, the management of craniofacial trauma and facial aesthetic surgery including 'cosmetic' surgery and bone distraction have all moved on since the first edition was written. The editors have made a careful selection of contributors representing current practice from throughout the world including continental Europe, the United States, Asia and Australia. Operative Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery represents international best practice in the specialty. Each chapter has been written by an internationally recognised expert and represents a 'how I do it' master class. It is illustrated with clear line diagrams supplemented where appropriate with clinical photographs showing the essential steps in all the surgical procedures in current clinical practice. Authors have kept to a standard template, ensuring a minimum of discussion and an emphasis on surgical technique.The definitive surgical manual in the field, Operative Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery will appeal to trainees, young specialists and established experts not only in oral and maxillofacial surgery but also the related specialties of otorhinolaryngology and plastic surgery.

Manyora H. Optimal English . Hillman Publishers; 2009.
Khamis SA, Bertoncini E, Gromov M, Wamitila KW. Outline of Swahili Literature: Prose Fiction and Drama. 2nd Edition. Extensively Revised and Enlarged. Leiden: E.J. Brill; 2009.
Kremmer E, Krämer PM, Weber CM, Räuber C, Martens D, Forster S, Stanker LH, Rauch P, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. Optical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples.; 2007. AbstractOptical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples

An optical immunosensor (AQUA-OPTOSENSOR) and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the analysis of pyrethroids and DDT in river water and/or sediment, are described. The optical immunosensor consists of a bench-top optical read-out-device and disposable single-use sensor chips. ELISA was carried out in the coating antigen format. As examples, phenothrin (pyrethroid) and p,p'-DDT were chosen. Herein we describe the overall strategy, the set-up and principle of the immunosensor platform, and show representative results for immunosensor and ELISA analysis. The immunosensor employs fluorophore (Oyster®-645)-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mouse mAb Py-1 and rat mAb DDT 7C12), and makes use of the evanescent field, thus operating without washing steps. ELISA in the coating antigen format uses a second antibody labeled with peroxidase. Both, phenothrin and p,p'-DDT can be analyzed with these immunochemical techniques in the low ppb levels. Advantages and drawbacks of both immunochemical platforms are discussed.

Krämer PM, Weber CM, Kremmer E, Räuber C, Martens D, Forster S, Stanker LH, Rauch P, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. Optical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples.; 2007. AbstractOptical Immunosensor and ELISA for the Analysis of Pyrethroids and DDT in Environmental Samples

An optical immunosensor (AQUA-OPTOSENSOR) and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the analysis of pyrethroids and DDT in river water and/or sediment, are described. The optical immunosensor consists of a bench-top optical read-out-device and disposable single-use sensor chips. ELISA was carried out in the coating antigen format. As examples, phenothrin (pyrethroid) and p,p'-DDT were chosen. Herein we describe the overall strategy, the set-up and principle of the immunosensor platform, and show representative results for immunosensor and ELISA analysis. The immunosensor employs fluorophore (Oyster®-645)-labeled monoclonal antibodies (mouse mAb Py-1 and rat mAb DDT 7C12), and makes use of the evanescent field, thus operating without washing steps. ELISA in the coating antigen format uses a second antibody labeled with peroxidase. Both, phenothrin and p,p'-DDT can be analyzed with these immunochemical techniques in the low ppb levels. Advantages and drawbacks of both immunochemical platforms are discussed.

Oral Cancer In Kenya. In Solid Tissue Tumours Handbook.. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2006.
Wasamba P, Indangasi H. Our Narratives our Landscapes: Relationship between Creativity and Environmental Conservation. Nairobi: Kenya Oral Literature Association; 2006.
Machera M, ed) SA(. Opening a Can of Worms: A Debate on Female Sexuality in the Lecture Theatre. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute; 2004.
Yusuf A. Organic Chemistry 2 (SCH 202). Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press; 2004.scan0023.pdf
Kabira WM. The oral artist.; 1997.Website
Oluoch Kosura, W; Michieka RW;, Muchiri G;, Dibbits HJ. Ox-drawn equipment development in Kenya..; 1996. AbstractWebsite

Recent efforts to develop ox-drawn equipment in Kenya arise out of the dilemma caused by unsuccessful efforts to promote tractors. The country has a number of about 10 000 tractors cultivating about 600 000 ha in the large-farm sector and 42 000 ha in the small-farm sector. The tractor market has slowed down to less than 1000 a year. The failure of tractor mechanization in small-scale farming coupled with the lack of ox-drawn equipment means that about 84% of smallholdings is using hand tools. In 1975, a workshop concluded that expanded ox-cultivation has a major part to play in increased agricultural production. After 4 years, the first 3 stages of development of ox-drawn equipment were accomplished. Aspects of local manufacture, training, extension and marketing are discussed.

Muchiri, G; W; Michieka RW;, Dibbits HJ, Dibbits HJ, Oluoch Kosura. Ox-drawn equipment development in Kenya..; 1996. AbstractWebsite

Recent efforts to develop ox-drawn equipment in Kenya arise out of the dilemma caused by unsuccessful efforts to promote tractors. The country has a number of about 10 000 tractors cultivating about 600 000 ha in the large-farm sector and 42 000 ha in the small-farm sector. The tractor market has slowed down to less than 1000 a year. The failure of tractor mechanization in small-scale farming coupled with the lack of ox-drawn equipment means that about 84% of smallholdings is using hand tools. In 1975, a workshop concluded that expanded ox-cultivation has a major part to play in increased agricultural production. After 4 years, the first 3 stages of development of ox-drawn equipment were accomplished. Aspects of local manufacture, training, extension and marketing are discussed.

Wamitila KW, Khamisi S. orodha ya waandishi.; 1991.Website
NZUVE SNM. Organizational Behaviour with a 60 minutes cassette. Nairobi: University of Nairobi press; 1990.
Book Chapter
Gichuyia LN, Madette E. "OCHA: THE EAST AFRICAN COUNTRYSIDE FORMS.". In: OCHA: THE EAST AFRICAN COUNTRYSIDE FORMS. Rotterdam, Netherlands: OMA/AMO Press; 2019.
Dominic O'iO, Jemimah OA. "Overview of governmental support across Africa towards the development and growth of herbal medicine .". In: Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa: Therapeutic Potential against Metabolic, Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases. London: Elsevier; 2017.
Githinj TW, Nyamai CM, Kutukhulu AW. "Overview of mineral processing and beneficiation in Kenya.". In: Mineral processing and beneficiation. New Delhi (India): NAM S $ T; 2015.
T.W: G. "Overview of Mineral Processing and Beneficiation in Kenya.". In: Mineral Processing and Beneficiation. Daya publishers; 2015.
Muriuki W. ""Ordinary" Spirituality : One Japanese Approach to Imperfection.". In: Sobering Wisdom: Philosophical Explorations of Twelve-Step Spirituality. University of Virginia Press; 2014.
Njeri KM, Khayes M. "Opportuities in the Matatu Services.". In: Rembering Kenya Vol. 2. Nairobi: Twaweza Limited; 2013.
Ngugi M. "Orality, Social Media, and Youth: An Integrative Model for Education and Training.". In: Incorporating Oral Culture in Education for Development. Nairobi: The Goethe Institut; 2013.
Owour PROFROBERTOBUDHO;ASO. "One Hundred Years of the City of Nairobi, Kenya: Towards An Urban Regional Planning Strategy." Nairobi: Centre for Urban Research ; 2012.
Gontier DC. "Oreintation Package on Guidelines for Anti-Retroviral Testing in Kenya. Participants’ workbook.". In: Orientation Package on Guidelines for Anti-Retroviral Testing in Kenya. Ministry of Medical Services; 2012.
Ngugi M. "On Freedom, Development and the Place of Theology in Africa.". In: Theology of Development. Nairobi: Nairobi Academic Press; 2011.
Chandi JR, Atisa E. "Organisational Behaviour Model."; 2010.
Ogonda GO. "Overview of learning disabilities." Nairobi: KISE; 2007.3.docx
and Mwangi KEMEU. "Overview of Principles and Application of Environmental Risk Assessment.". In: Environment and Sustainable Development: A Guide for Higher Education in Kenya Volume 2. Kenyatta University; 2007.
Onen T, Obondo A, editor Ndetei, D.M., Karani AK, Wagoro M. "Occupational Therapy, Rehabilitation, Community Psychiatry and Social Support Networks."; 2006.
Uwakwe R, Dhadphale M, editor Ndetei, D.M., Nakasujja N, Maru HM, Musisi S. "Old Age and Mental Health."; 2006.
editor Ndetei, D.M., Othieno C, Owiti F, Sebit MB, Kilonzo G. "Organic Psychiatry."; 2006.
Museve GK. "Orthopaedics.". In: Beyond the scars.A Medical History of the 1998 Nairobi Bombing of the American Embassy. Nairobi: African Medical and Research Foundation(AMREF); 2006.
C N. "Obstacles to Managing the Dual risks of Unwanted Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections among Young Males in Kenya.". In: The Health and Development of African Male Adolescents and Young Men. Geneva: WHO/UNAIDS; 2001.
Karanja F, et al. "Once Burned, Twice Shy.". In: Once Burned, Twice Shy. United Nations University; 2001.
N MJ. "An Overview of Theological Education by Extension Resources.". In: A Manual for Writers and Designers of Theological Education and Extension (TEE) Study Materials, The Writers Walking Stick,. Harare: Conference of African Theological Institutions; 1997.
P KWKM&. "An Overview of the Women’s Movement in Kenya.". In: The Women’s Movement in Kenya. Nairobi: AAWORD; 1993.
Conference Paper
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. & J. Onjala (Forthcoming) Kenya\.". In: Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (Forthcoming) Incorporation into the Market Economy and Food Security among the Gusii: Paradise Lost or Paradise Gained. African Journal of Sociology. Volume VI, No. 1.". In: GovernLeadership and the Politics of Nation State: Searching for a Vision, Balancing Interests ance and Transition Politics in Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
MARY DROMOSA. "Omosa, M. (Forthcoming) The Smallholder Tea Industry in Kenya: Networks, Markets and Livelihoods. In: D. McCormick, P. Alila & M. Omosa [Eds] African Business Systems in Kenya: Institutions and Interactions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi Press.". In: The Smallholder Tea Industry in Kenya: Networks, Markets and Livelihoods. Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences(PMMS); Forthcoming. Abstract
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Nairobi, Kenya. The relative bioavailabilities of three carbamazepine tablet formulations available in the Kenyan market (Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln) compared with the innovator formulation (Tegretol(R)) were evaluated in seven healthy African volunteers (5 males, two females; aged 22-36 years), according to a randomised fourway crossover study design, following oral administration of single 200 mg doses with a three week washout period. In vitro dissolution profiles of the tablets were also evaluated. Relative bioavailabilities ((F)rel) of Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Linocoln were 101.2%, 82.2% and 71.6% respectively, compared with Tegretol(R). Percent drug content dissolved in vitro after I hour were 91.3%, 75.9% and 39.3% for Temporal(R), Taver(R) and Carbamazepine Lincoln, respectively. It was concluded that Temporal(R) was bioequivalent to Tegretol(R) while Taver(R) and Carbamazepin Lincoln were bioinequivalent to Tegretol(R). Administration of Taver(R) or Carbamazepine Lincoln might lead to poor control of epileptic seizures.
O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Ochanda, J. O., Oduori, E. A. C., Galun, R., Imbuga, O. M. and Mumcuoglu, K. Y. Partial purification of the aminopeptidase from the midgut of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus. Physiol. Entomol.". In: Appl Environ Microbiol. 1984 Jun;47(6):1319-22. East African Medical Journal; Submitted. Abstract
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 reacted with anti-C-ST heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain in immunodiffusion tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas D-CB16 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-D-1873 light chain. However, C-6813 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain but not with anti-C-ST heavy chain or anti-D-1873 light chain immunoglobulin G. These results indicate common antigens in the heavy chains of C-6813 and D-1873 toxins and in the light chains of C-6813 and C-ST toxins. Further, they provide evidence for heterogeneity within type C1 toxin subunits.
O. PROFADUOLFRANCISW. "On outlier identification in geodetic networks using principal component analysis. International Conference on Influential Data Analysis,.". In: University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; Submitted. Abstract
A model for the establishment of an integrated geodetic datum covering a region is treated. The integrated geodetic datum is understood here to comprise the geoid, the reference ellipsoid, and the positional coordinates. A comprehensive unified solution model including the three parameters comprising the datum is considered. The estimation model adopted rigorously incorporates determined prior information in the estimation of the datum parameters. Mathematical models together with the pertinent observation equations are presented, followed by a description of the procedure for the aetual setting up of the datum. The observational scheme is based on a system of modular traverses anchored on a trilateration of GPS baselines.
OTIENO PROFMALOJ. "On the Effect of an External Magnetic Field on Dynamical Properties of the OCP.". In: In Three Dimension, Phys. Rev. University of Nairobi Press; Submitted. Abstract
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O. PROFOCHANDAJAMES. "Osano A.A., Siboe, G.M., Ochanda, J.O. and Kokwaro, J.O., Biodegradation of DDT(1,1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis)(4-Chlorophenyl) ethene by the white not fungus James Opiyo Ochanda, PhD 16 Pleurotus Luteoalbus .". In: First, Pan-African Conference on Bichemistry and Molecular Biology, September, 2-6, Nairobi, Kenya. Book of Abstract P. (181). East African Medical Journal; Submitted. Abstract
C1 neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum strains C-Stockholm (C-ST), C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 and type D toxin of strains D-1873 and D-CB16 were purified by gel filtration, ion exchange, and affinity chromatographies. The purified toxins had di-chain structure made of heavy and light chains. The toxins of C beta-Yoichi, C-468, CD6F, and C-CB19 reacted with anti-C-ST heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain in immunodiffusion tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas D-CB16 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-D-1873 light chain. However, C-6813 toxin reacted with anti-D-1873 heavy chain and anti-C-ST light chain but not with anti-C-ST heavy chain or anti-D-1873 light chain immunoglobulin G. These results indicate common antigens in the heavy chains of C-6813 and D-1873 toxins and in the light chains of C-6813 and C-ST toxins. Further, they provide evidence for heterogeneity within type C1 toxin subunits.
KIRETI DRVICTORN. "Osgood Schlatter disease: An Audit Profile of 35 Adolescents.". In: The Annals of African Surgery Volume 6 . Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; Submitted. Abstract
BackgroundOsgood-Schlatter disease is a common cause of anterior knee pain inthe adolescent. Treatment is usually conservative with surgery reservedfor those who do not respond to this treatment. There is little publishedwork regarding the experience with the disease in our local set up. This series documents the experience with 35 adolescents treated for the disease.DesignCase seriesSubjectsThirty five adolescents with clinical and radiological diagnoses ofOsgood-Schlatter disease at Nairobi and Kenyatta National Hospitals,between 2001and 2007.MethodPatients were evaluated for demographics, knee involvement, activitiesassociated with pain and treatment outcomeResultsThere were 28 males and 7 females, aged 10 to 16 years (mean 12.8years). Thirteen had bilateral knee involvement. Twenty two were involved in active sports while the rest had constant pain and unable to sit or kneel. A family history of the disease was documented in one case.Thirty adolescents responded well to the conservative treatment. Inthe five adolescents who underwent surgery, the patella tendon wasedematous with thickening of the tendon sheath and neovascularisation.All the operated adolescents returned to active sports with 6 weeks after the surgery.ConclusionOsgood-Schlatter disease is a self-limiting condition in majority ofadolescents. Surgery when indicated has an excellent outcome.
Mutembei. "One-health concerns over Antimicrobial Resistance." One-health Conference, Kampala, Uganda; 2019.
Tamimi IFM, Patel NB. "Open field ethogram and olfactory preference in naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glabus). .". In: Society of Neuroscientists of Africa. Entebbe, Uganda; 2017.imaan_-_sona_poster__27_may_2017.pdf
Henry M. "One-Health approach for animal disaster management." KVA national conference, Kisumu; 2017.
Liu Y, Gureya D, Al-Shishtawy A, Vlassov V. "OnlineElastMan: Self-Trained Proactive Elasticity Manager for Cloud-Based Storage Services.". In: 2016 International Conference on Cloud and Autonomic Computing (ICCAC). Augsburg, Germany; 2016:. Abstract

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Olago D, Kanoti J, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Taylor R, Dulo SI, Ayah R. "An overview of groundwater and sanitation challenges in Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: 23rd IAH Congress . Montepellier, France; 2016.
D.W. Gakuya, G.M.Muchemi, A.G.Thaiyah, P.B.Gathura. "One health:The potential of zoonotic diseases in human,livestock and wildlife interface in Kenya.". In: Pathways Kenya 2016:integrating Human Dimensions into Fisheries and wildlife management programme. Mount Kenya Safari Park,Nanyuki,Kenya; 2016.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Agacho AA. "Organic Binders to Enhance Efficiency of Charcoal Stoves (Jikos) & Water Filters.". In: 8th International Conference of the Africa Materials Resecrah Society (A-MRS). Accrea, Ghana; 2015. Abstract

Porous clay ceramics are used as thermal insulators in high temperature applications such as kins and chacoal stoves (Jikos).

Chern M-J, Ernest O, Horng TL. "On the Efficacy of the Direct Forcing Immersed Boundary Method as Observed in Fluid Structure Interaction.". In: First Association of Computational Mechanics Taiwan Conference. Taipei; 2015.
Thaiyah AG, Kirui G, Mwanthi M, Koskei P, Mulei CM. "One Health key knowledge and training needs among service providers in Kenya.". In: 3rd International One Health congress. Amsterdam, Netherlands; 2015.
Gachago MM. "Ocular Manifestations Of Diabetes Mellitus.". In: KNH/UON 3rd International Scientific Conference: Diabetes Symposium. Kenyatta National Hospital/ University of Nairobi; 2015.
Mecha J, Gitahi-Kamau N, Ilovi S, L. Njagi, Njuguna E, Mutai K, Katei I, Inwani I. "Optimising adolescent HIV care in a large Kenyan care and treatment centre.". In: IAS Conference on Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention, Vancouver, . Canada; 2015.
Gakuya DW, Okoth MO, Muraya J, Nganga CJ, Muthee JK. "An outbreak of acute helminthosis in a sheep and goat farm in Machakos County.". In: 9th Biennial Scientific Conference and Exhibition of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Nairobi, Kenya; 2014.
JC W, Matu NK, Stephen L and Laloo R., TK M, LW G. "Occurrence of red-complex aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans among patients with periodontal disease at the university of Nairobi dental hospital.". In: 32rd KDA Conference and exhibition. Sarova Panafric hotel Nairobi; 2014.
D.W. Gakuya, Okoth MO, J.Muraya, C.J.Nganga, J.K.Muthee. "An outbreak of acute helminthosis in a sheep and goat farm in Machakos County.". In: 9th Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scientific conference and Exhibition. PHPT Auditorium,CAVS,University of Nairobi; 2014.an__outbreak_of__acute_helminthosis__in__a_sheep_and_goat__farm__in_machakos_county.pdf
Wasamba P. "Oral Literature Scholarship in Kenya: Achievements, Challenges and Prospects.". In: Preservation of Ethiopian Cultural and Literary heritage. Debre Markos, Ethiopia; 2014.oral_literature_scholaship_in_kenya_-wasamba-.pdf
F.W N, B.O A, Hilonga. "Organic Binders To enhance Fuel Efficiency Of Charcoal Stoves (JIKOS) and in Water Filters.". In: 7TH International Conference of the Africa Materials research Society (A-MRS). Addis Ababa, Ethopia; 2013.juami_conference_presentation_2013.pdf
Gathumbi PK, Varma VS, Gathumbi JK, Shah DN. "Ocular Neoplastic Lesions of the Horse in Kenya from Specimens Recceived between 1967 and 2013 in the University of Nairobi, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitiology.". In: 47th Annual Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Mombasa, Kenya; 2013.
and D.M Munyasi OMFMSM. "An overview of small scale stone crusher Industry in Western Kenya in the proceedings of the 20th Engineers International conference.". In: 20th Engineers International conference. Tom Mboya Labour College- Kisumu; 2013.
P. K. Gathumbi., V. S. Varma. GSJKDN. "Ocular neoplastic lesions of the horse in Kenya from specimens received between 1967 and 2013 in the University of Nairobi, Department of Veterinary Pathology Microbiology and Parasitology.". In: Kenya Veterinary Association 47th Annual Scientific Conference. Whitesands Hotel, Mombasa; 2013. Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the trends in ocular tumours that affect the horse in
Kenya and to relate the histological characteristics to the clinico-epidemiological parameters.
The study design used the retrospective and prospective suspected cases presented to the
Department for histological diagnosis and from which a neoplastic diagnosis of the eye or its
adnexa was recorded. The procedure involved retrieval of diagnostic reports from retrospective
cases and histopathological examination of both retrospective and prospective cases. Each
case was evaluated for the type and frequency of histological lesions and clinicoepidemiological
data. Parameters included analyses of age, sex, breed, geographical origin,
diagnosis, location of neoplasms, the pathology of the lesion, and the clinical features
presented. The histological features were compared between cases and cellular behaviour was
correlated with clinico-epidemiological parameters.
The results showed that the most common ocular tumour was squamous cell carcinoma of the
adnexa. Occasional diagnosis included melanoma, adenoma, fibroma and lymphoma of the
adnexa. In a few cases, non neoplastic growths such as lymphoid hyperplasia of third eyelid
were key differential diagnoses. True ocular tumours were rarely observed.

Ogara WO, G. N, Andanje SA, O. N, Mainga AO, Nduati DW. "One Health approach to an integrated ecosystem study, A case of human carnivore conflict in samburu county, Kenya.". In: EAQUA. Sportman Arms, Nanyuki, Kenya; 2013.
Masumi OH. "Occupational First Aid Course.". In: Occupational First Aid Course. Kenya Red Cross; 2012.
MM K, Mbuthia PG, Maingi N, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW. "Occurrence and lesions associated with Echnostoma revolutum in free-range indigenous chickens in Kenya.". In: Biennial FVM scientific conference and the 46th KVA annual scientific conference . Safari park hotel, Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.2012-occurrence_and_lesions_of_echinostoma_revolutum__in_chickens.pdf
Gathumbi J.K. "Overview of sampling and analytical methods for mycotoxins. .". In: COMESA Regional training on food safety/aflatoxin control for Regionally harmonized sampling and laboratory procedures. KEPHIS Hqs, Nairobi, Kenya.; 2012.
Kyalo, M.M., Mbuthia PG, Maingi, N., Nyaga, P. N., Njagi, L. W., Mutune, M.N., Otieno, R.O, Gachoka, J.M., Musofe PLN, Bunn D. "Occurrence and lesions associated with Echinostoma revolutum in free-range chickens in Kenya.". In: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, CAVS Biannual Conference and 46th KVA Annual Scientific Conference and 12th World Veterinary Day. Nairobi, Kenya; 2012.2012-occurence_of_lesions_associated_with_echinostomum_revolutum_in_free-range_chcickens_in_kenya.pdf
Kyalo MM;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga PN;, Njagi LW;, Mutune MN;, Otieno RO;, Gachoka JM;, Musofe PLN;, Bunn D. "Occurrence and lesions associated with Echinostoma revolutum in free-range chickens in Kenya."; 2012.
Kyalo MM;, Mbuthia PG;, Maingi N;, Nyaga PN;, Njagi LW;, Mutune MN;, Otieno RO;, Gachoka JM;, Musofe PLN;, Bunn D. "Occurrence and lesions associated with Echinostoma revolutum in free-range chickens in Kenya."; 2012.
Kipkoech, D. N.;, Ng’anga NW;, Kabira JN;, Abong GO;, Nderitu JH. "On‐farm seed potato storage practices in Kenya: A case study of Nyandarua."; 2012.
Kipkoech, D. N.;, Ng’anga NW;, Kabira JN;, Abong GO;, Nderitu JH. "On‐farm seed potato storage practices in Kenya: A case study of Nyandarua."; 2012.
Verdoodt A;, Moussandek R;, Mureithi SM;, Vermang, J.; Ye L. "Opportunities and challenges in assessing and combating land degradation.".; 2012. Abstract

Technology development for assessing and combating land degradation faces various challenges, both
in high and low income countries. This paper aims to highlight knowledge gaps on spatio-temporal
soil functioning and on efficiency of soil conservation measures: (1) “What are current challenges
related to assessing land degradation?”, (2) “What do we know about the impact of land degradation
on food security?”, and (3) “What is the efficiency of conservation measures?”. The discussion
encompasses soil degradation at field plot to continental scale, as well as bottlenecks relevant to both
low and high-income countries. Key issues identified within each theme are illustrated using a number
of case studies. They illustrate the need for innovative approaches to systematic assessments of the
dynamic nature of soil functioning and degradation, of the impact of soil degradation on various
ecosystem services, to support the identification and design of suitable soil management, soil
conservation or soil improvement measures. Experimental trials and process-based models reflecting
ecosystem functioning, though highly time and data demanding, are still needed to pursue better local
insights and feed process-based land degradation models applied at watershed scale.

THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT. 2012. DSM for mapping soil classes in Somalia. In Vargas et al. Workshop Proceedings for "GSP / e-SOTER Workshop: Towards Global Soil Information: Activities within the GEO Task Global Soil Data". 20-23 March 2012. FAO. Rome.". In: SR-CRSP Technical Report Series No. 43 pp. 64. (Co-authored with Rex Campbell and Herbert Lionberger). FAO; 2012. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Soil occurs in nature in groups with unique response characteristics to its forming factors. These characteristics should ideally be represented as a family of curves in the models for producing soil maps. However, the current approaches for producing soil maps use a single model which either blocks/controls the grouping effects or do not statistically recognize the natural landscape groupings. This study tested mixed-effects modelling technique for ingenious recognition of soil groupings and consequent improvement of the accuracy of the resultant soil maps. Mixed-effects modelling is a form of regression analysis for simultaneous modelling of the average landscape characteristics and individual groups within the landscape. It can model a family of curves and potentially remove inadequacies inherent in the current models for soil mapping. Its potential in regression kriging of continuous and categorical soil attributes has been shown in this paper, where it produced about 60% accuracy with holdout validation. Compared to the current application of a single model in regression kriging, mixed-effects modelling produced about five times improvement of the mapping accuracy. It is anticipated that its adoption will contribute to improved soil mapping
AKUON MRPETERODERO. "Optimized hybrid green power model for remote telecom sites,.". In: PowerAfricaIEEE. IEEE; 2012. Abstract
Site Installation results of a hybrid green power model are discussed to assist power solution design engineers in proper implementation of various components.
Mukhwana A, Iribe MP. "Othello." Oxford University Press; 2012. Abstract
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WAMBUGU LN, KYALO DN. "Open and Distance Education as a Strategy for Improving Higher Education in the 21st Century in Kenya- a case of the University of Nairobi.". In: 3rd ACDE Conference and General Assembly . Dar es Salaam , Tanzania; 2011.
Aleri JW, Abuom TO, Kitaa JM, Kipyegon AN, Mulei CM. "An overview of Rabbit conditions presented to the Small Animal Clinic University of Nairobi Kenya.". In: 45th Annual Scientific Conference of the Kenya Veterinary Association. Kisumu Hotel, Kisumu Kenya; 2011.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Oral health seeking behavior of persons living with HIV at two Comprehensive Care Centers in Kenya.". In: African Journal of oral sciences. 2011;5: 18-24 (in Press). Gathece LW, Wang; 2011. Abstract

There is limited research on oral health seeking behavior in the Sub- saharan Africa. The few existing reports show very low utilization of oral health care services. The objective of this study was to assess the oral health seeking behaviour of persons living with HIV. It was a cross¬sectional study conducted at the Kenyatta National Hospital and Mbagathi district hospital Comprehensive Care Centers (CCC). Two hundred and fifty two HIV sero-positive males and females age between 19-73 years who presented themselves at the two Ccc. About a third 67.5% of the respondents said they had ever visited a dental clinic. Only 6.9% were visiting a dental clinic regularly. Less than half of the respondents (43.5%) were satisfied with the treatment received in the clinics. The main reason for satisfaction was pain relief. For those who were not satisfied with the treatment, the main reason for dissatisfaction was the use of local anaesthesia. For the respondents who had never visited a dental clinic, the main reason (60%) was their HIV status. "ajority of persons living with HIV/AIDS do not seek dental treatment regularly. The main reason for not seeking treatment is their HIV status. Only less than a half of those who seek treatment are satisfied with treatment given.

RAI MRVYASYASHWANT. ""Of Association and Collusion".". In: Executive, Nairobi, 20-22.; 2011. Abstract
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OGUTU MRJOSEPHONYANGO. "Ogutu J. O (2011), ICT Integration in Secondary Education. The case of Nepad e-schools project in Kenya.". In: BSc. Dissertation University of Nairobi. Lambert Academic Publishing; 2011. Abstract
800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Information and communication technologies (ICT) have become common place entities in all aspects of life. Across the past twenty years the use of ICT has fundamentally changed the practices and procedures of nearly all forms of endeavour within business and governance. Within education, ICT has begun to have a presence but the impact has not been as extensive as in other fields.   In this study, the researcher sought to find out how the use of ICT in education lends itself to more student-centered learning settings. The study seeks to determine the various impacts of ICT on contemporary secondary education in Kenya as well as potential challenges.   The study was conducted through survey method. The researcher sought permission from the Ministry of Education in Kenya to collect research data from the sampled schools since all of them were public secondary schools. The researcher constructed questionnaires which were used to collect data from various respondents in the sampled Nepad e-schools in Kenya. The researcher used three categories of respondents in each school namely; the administrators, the teachers and the students. The completed questionnaires were then coded, entered into the computer using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) and then analysed.   The study revealed that both students and teachers have developed a positive attitude towards the use ICTs and related accessories in the teaching/learning process. This was reflected by the frequency of use of the facilities and the interest as indicated by the respondents. The study also found out that the schools under study were already using educational management software for various processes undertaken in the schools.  The study also revealed some challenges faced by the schools. Notable challenges included lack of funding to support the purchase of the technology to improve access, lack of training among teachers to adopt ICT as teaching tools and lack suitable e-content for various subjects.
OGUTU MRJOSEPHONYANGO. "Ogutu, J.O. (2010) & Waluvengo E (2011), Towards Enterprise Architecture for Road Transport Administration in Kenya.". In: A paper presented at The 1st International Conference on Emerging and Future Information Communication Technologies (ICEFICT 2011) Conference on Convergence, Connectivity and Collaboration,11th . Kenya Methodist University; 2011.
HASSAN PROFSAIDI. "Onget KW, Ogeng.". In: Ann. Afr. Surg. J Morph Sci; 2011. Abstract
Unilateral variations in the formation of the median nerve, with the presence of the third head of the biceps brachii entrapping the nerve are very rare. These variations were observed on the right side, of a 30 year old male cadaver during routine dissection at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The median nerve was formed by the union of three contributions; two from the lateral cord and one from the medial cord. An additional head of the biceps brachii looped over the formed median nerve. On the left side the median nerve was formed classically by single contributions from the medial and the lateral cords. These variations are clinically important because symptoms of high median nerve compression arising from similar formations are often confused with more common causes such as radiculopathy and carpal tunnel syndrome.
NGINYE MICHAEL. "Online Teaching of Languages." Journal of Language,Technology and Entrepreneurship in Africa,; 2011. Abstract
n/a
Ndung'u I. "Oral Narratives ." ???????; 2011. Abstract
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APOLOT DROKALEBOFAITH. "Oscar Mayunzu, D. Shitanda, F. Okalebo and L. Simiyu. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant properties of Extracts of Mondia whytei roots. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (X): XX-XX, 2010. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (x): xx-xx, 2010 ISBN 16.". In: Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (x): xx-xx, 2010. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition; 2011. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts of Mondia whytei (M. whytei) root barks were screened for their inhibitory effects on some fungal and bacterial strains. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC25923), Escherichia coli (E. coli) 0157:H7 (PSSCMI 0032), Bacillus subtillus, Candida albicans and Asparagus niger were used as test organisms. The water extract lacked significant activity against all organisms except Staphylococcus. aureus where the water extract exhibited the highest activity. However, the ethanol extract had significant activity against Candida albicans and Asperigillus niger with minimuminhibitory values of 58.59 and 14.65 μg/ml respectively. Methanol had high Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of less than 14.65 and 14.7 μg/ml for Asperigillus niger and E. coli respectively. From the results it was concluded that activity varied with the solvent used. Contrary to previous reports, the plant seems to lack significant antibacterial activity except against E. coli. The popularity of a herbal recipe is not always a measure for its potency. However, M. whytei had antifungal activity since the ethanol and methanol extracts showed significant activity against the tested strains of fungi. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was also evaluated using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. M. whytei exhibited substantial inhibition of the DPPH activity with EC50 of 413 mg/l for the crude extracts. The results suggest that M. whytei has significant antioxidant activity as demonstrated by the DPPH assay. This antioxidant activity of the crude extracts can be attributed to the presence of 2-Hydroxy-4-Methoxybenzaldehyde that is a known antioxidant in the root extracts.  Key words: Aqueous, ethanol extract, methanol extract
ALERI DRJOSHUAWAFULA. "An overview of rabbit conditions presented to the Small Animal Clinic, University of Nairobi (2011). Aleri, J.W., Abuom, T.O., Kitaa, J.M., Kipyegon, A.N and Mulei, C.M.". In: 45th Kenya Veterinary Association Conference in Kisumu 2011. KVA; 2011. Abstract
Description: This book describes four types of indigenous water retention structures used in East Africa. These structures are the Berkad tank, the Charco dam, sand wiers and hillside water retention ditches.
Kavoi, B.M ETAL. "Olfactory Mucosa after Administration of Vinblastine Sulphate in Adult Rabbits.". In: 2nd International Conference on Neuroinfection and World Impact. University of St. Denis, Reunion Island; 2010.
Wairire GG. "Organizing Field Placements for Social Work Students as an integral part of the Social Work Degree Programme.". In: Strengthening Social Welfare Workforce in Africa Conference. Southern Sun Cape Sun Hotel, Cape Town, South Africa; 2010.
"On the minimal number of generators of an Ideal of general points in a projective space, P4.". In: ICM2010 Conference Proceedings. 2010; 2010. Abstract

A short Communication presented at the ICM2010 in Hyderabad - India, on the 21st  of August 2010 .
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OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Ochola, S.O., Eitel, B. and Olago, D.O. Vulnerability of schools to floods in Nyando River catchment, Kenya. The Journal of Disaster Studies, Policy and Management. doi:10.1111/j.0361-3666.2010.01167.x.". In: Journal of Climatic Change. The Journal of Disaster Studies, Policy and Management. doi:10.1111/j.0361-3666.2010.01167.x; 2010. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
CHESELEMI MRWAFULAJAMES. "Off-grid lighting products in Kenya.". In: African Crop Science Journal, 2 (1): 111-116. VDM Verlag; 2010. Abstract

Less than 20% of Kenya's population is connected to the grid. Only 5% of the country's rural population, which accounts for over 70% of the total population enjoys electricity connectivity. To compensate for this deficiency in rural areas, kerosene has been the preferred choice for lighting. Kerosene is used in approximately 92% of all households. Off-grid lighting products such as LED lights are poised to play a pivotal role in the transformation of the lighting scenario in the rural areas of the developing world. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

WILSON DRGITAU, CHRISTOPHER DROLUDHE. "Oludhe, C., Ogallo, L., Ambenje, P., Atheru, Z. and Gitau, W., 2010: Eastern Africa [in .". In: Bulletin of America Meteorological Society. The Cleveland Museum of Natural History; 2010.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, CT, Vargas, RR, Alim,SM, Paron P. 2010. Mixed-effects modelling of time series NDVI-rainfall relationship for detecting human-induced loss of vegetation cover in drylands. Journal of Arid Environments, 74:1552-1563.". In: Journal of Arid Environments. Journal of Arid Environments; 2010. Abstract
Many researchers have used time-series analysis of remotely sensed images to gain understanding of the dynamics of loss of vegetation cover in drylands. However, complex interactions between vegetation and climate still mask the potential of remote sensing signals to detect human-induced loss of vegetation cover. This paper presents mixed-effect modelling method for time-series NDVI-rainfall relationship to account for the complex interaction between vegetation and climate. Mixed-effects method is a form of statistical modelling that can simultaneously model environmental relationships for a population and for different groups within the population. In this study, it was used to model the NDVI-rainfall relationship in Somalia and for different vegetation types in the country. Its time-series application removed the interaction between vegetation and rainfall and identified areas experiencing human-induced loss of vegetation cover in the country. On average, it gave an accurate relationship between rainfall and NDVI (r2 > 60%) and detected areas with human-induced loss of vegetation cover (kappa = 75%). Although the potential of mixed-effects was shown using vegetation types, other factors such as soil types and land use can also be included in the method to improve accuracy of time-series NDVI images in detecting human-induced loss of vegetation cover in the drylands.
MATHENGE DRMURIITHIIAN, KWAMBOKA DRONYAMBUCALLEN. "Onyambu CK, Muriithi IM, Ngare SM. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis: A Report of Two Cases. EAMJ.2010;87:220-224. .". In: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. EAMJ; 2010. Abstract
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is an uncommon yet potentially life threatening condition which is often under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of the variability of the clinical signs and symptoms. The imaging findings are often subtle thus the need for a high index of suspicion. The superior sagittal and transverse sinuses are the most frequently involved. The correct diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis relies on neuroimaging studies. The two cases reported highlight the fact that the radiologist may be the first clinician to suspect and diagnose this condition. This ultimately affects prognosis as early diagnosis and treatment reduces morbidity and mortality.
O DROPEREALFRED. "OPEN AND DISTANT LEARNING MATERIALS WRITTEN & REVIEWED: 1. SMR 103: Quantitative methods & Computer Applications I 2. SMR 309: Hydrometeorology I 3. SMR 307: Thermodynamics & Cloud Physics.". In: University of Nairobi. A Matimba, M Oluka, B Ebeshi, J Sayi, Bolaji, J Del Favero , C Van Broeckhoven, AN Guanta; 2010. Abstract
Oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a frequent and well documented complication in immunosuppressed individuals including patients on immunosuppressive medication. We report the development of severe oral infection with HSV type 1 in a 34 year old woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus and end stage renal disease (ESRD) following cadaveric renal transplantation at the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. The role of acyclovir in therapy and chemoprophylaxis is discussed.
Mogambi H. "Overcoming challenges of feature writing .". In: International Conference on Writing.; 2009.
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Optical characterization of sputtered TiO2 compact under layers for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.". In: 1st International conference on Solar Energy Materials Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Elsevier; 2009. Abstract

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Karani PF. "Opportunities and Constraints in teacher training.". In: Coordination of primary teacher training and University education. Multimedia University of Kenya, Mbagathi, Nairobi.; 2009.
Kyule MD. "Overview on Presentation and discussion of report on the General History of Africa Textbook project.". In: Fourth ordinary session of the conference of Ministers of Education of the African Union (COMEDAF- IV). Mombasa, Kenya; 2009.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Objectives and Key Recommendations of the Draft National Land Policy." Safari Park Hotel ; 2009.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "An Overview of the Key Issues in the Draft National Land Policy." Panari Hotel ; 2009.
A PKARANIFLORIDA. "Opportunities and Constraints in teacher training: Primary versus Secondary Education levels.". In: Consultative Workshop on Coordination of primary teacher training and University education.; 2009.
A PROFOMWANDHOCHARLESO. "Oehmke F, Weyand j, Hackethal A, Konrad L, Omwandho C, Tinneberg HR. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Justus Liebig university of Giessen, Giessen, Germany. IMPACT OF ENDOMETRIOSIS ON QUALITY OF LIFE:A PILOT STUDY.". In: Gynecol. Endocrinol. 2009 Nov; 25(11):722-5:.; 2009. Abstract

Endometriosis affects 6-10% of women in reproductive age, 35-50% of whom experience pain, infertility or both. Mild cases are managed medically but surgery provides relief to women in pain. However, symptoms recur in 75% of cases within 2 years. We investigated the impact of endometriosis on quality of life among 65 women aged 18-60 years working at a city supermaket in Giessen, Germany. Of the 65 women, 12 had undergone surgeries, 22 had dysmenorrhoea, 24 dyspareunia and 3 were infertile. Of the 22 women with dysmenorrhoea, 10 had difficulties perfoming gardening, housework, sports and leisure activities. Five of these 10 women experienced social isolation, 6 professional setbacks; 6 declined efficiency at work and 3 had taken time off work. Of the 24 women with dyspareunia, 7 experienced minimal , 12 light and 5 moderate to strong pain. only 16 of these 24 women discussed the problem with their partnes. This study demonstrates that pain is a major cause of physical, psycho-social, emotional and professional or work related impairment among women with endometriosis. Because endometriosis is  likely to impose emotional and financial burdens, we suggest that future studies should be extended to include interviews with family members.

GITHII MW. "OPERATIONS RESEARCH II DISTANCE LEARNING MANUAL.". In: Proceedings of the Third Conference on Information Technology and Economic Development. 2004 Ghana .INTERCED. Ghana: Ahmed C.M., Dabelic R., Waiboci L., Jager L.D., Heron L.L. and Johnson H.M.; 2009. Abstract

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Nderi GJ, Gichuhi S, Kollman M, Matende I. "Outcome of glaucoma surgery at Mombasa Lighthouse for Christ Eye Center.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. Elsevier; 2009. Abstract

OBJECTIVES:
The main objective was to evaluate the outcome of glaucoma surgeries in a centre for eye care in Kenya.
 
DESIGN:
Retrospective case series.
 
SETTING:
The study was conducted at Mombasa Light House for Christ Eye Centre- Kenya.
 
SUBJECTS:
All patients diagnosed to have glaucoma and managed by surgery between 2004-2007.
 
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Records from 2004 to 2007 were retrieved and data collected on the surgeries done using a structured questionnaire. 2008 was left for follow up to avail a one year minimum follow up time.
Analysis was done using SPSS version 13.
 
RESULTS:
265 operations were recorded in this period. 213 were retrieved and the outcomes analysed. There was good IOP control over the follow up period with a gradual rise post operation, though the pressures remained within normal. Most of the patients were controlled with no need for medications, or much less medication use.
 
The average intra-ocular pressure at two year follow up was 15.0mmHg against a baseline of 28.7mmHg (p< 0.001). 29 eyes (13.6%) required medication for intra-ocular pressure control. One type of medication was able to control the pressures post operatively. Surgery reduced topical antiglaucoma medication use by 72%.
 
 
CONCLUSION:
Intra-ocular pressure was well controlled surgically for the two year follow up.
 
RECOMENDATIONS:
Surgical intervention can be taken as a first option for glaucoma control in our set up, especially as most of our patients present late.

I DROMWENGAELIJAH. "Oboko, R. O.,Wagacha,P. W., Omwenga, E. I.,Odotte Z. (2009). Non-Obtrusive Determination of Learning styles in Adaptive Web-Based Learning.". In: The East African Journal of Information Sciences (EAJIS) VOL 1 No.002 (2009). African Wildlife Foundation. Nairobi; 2009. Abstract
Cholelithiasis is a common clinical condition in patients with sickle cell disease and there are conflicting reports on laboratory indices useful in predicting those patients who are likely to have gallstones. There is however lack of similar studies from Kenya. We therefore studied the role of clinical (Body Mass Index), haematological (reticulocyte count, haemoglobin level), and biochemical (serum bilirubin: direct and indirect, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum transaminase) indices in predicting sickle cell anaemia patients likely to develop gallstones. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted from October 1993 to December 1994 on consecutive male and female patients of all ages with homozygous sickle cell disease (HbSS) confirmed by cellulose acetate paper electrophoresis. A total of 64 patients aged between three and 37 years were recruited into the study. They were classified into two groups: stone formers and non-formers. The difference in the two groups with respect to clinical, haematological and biochemical indices were determined by Chi-square contingency test. Body mass index (BMI), reticulocyte count and alkaline phosphatase were found to have a significant positive association with increased likelihood of gallstone formation at p values of 0.004, 0.007 and 0.007, respectively. The rest of the study indices had no association. The cut-off points were reticulocyte counts above ten per cent and alkaline phosphatase levels above 13 K.A. units. Though sickle cell anaemia patients with BMI > 20 had significant increased likelihood of cholelithiasis, we could not determine its cut-off value.
I POMWENGAELIJAH. "Oboko, R. O.,Wagacha,P. W., Omwenga, E. I.,Odotte Z. (2009). Non-Obtrusive Determination of Learning styles in Adaptive Web-Based Learning.". In: The East African Journal of Information Sciences (EAJIS) VOL 1 No.002 (2009).; 2009. Abstract
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OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Odada, E.O., Ochola, W.O. and Olago, D.O. Drivers of ecosystem change and their impacts on human well-being in Lake Victoria basin. African Journal of Ecology, 47(1): 46-54.". In: Journal of Climatic Change. African Journal of Ecology, 47(1): 46-54.; 2009. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Odada, E.O., Ochola, W.O. and Olago, D.O. Drivers of ecosystem change and their impacts on human well-being in Lake Victoria basin. African Journal of Ecology, 47(1): 46-54.". In: Journal of Climatic Change. African Journal of Ecology, 47(1): 46-54.; 2009. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Odada, E.O., Ochola, W.O. and Olago, D.O. Understanding future ecosystem changes in Lake Victoria basin using participatory local scenarios. African Journal of Ecology, 47(1): 147-153.". In: Journal of Climatic Change. African Journal of Ecology, 47(1): 147-153.; 2009. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Odada, E.O., Ochola, W.O. and Olago, D.O. Understanding future ecosystem changes in Lake Victoria basin using participatory local scenarios. African Journal of Ecology, 47(1): 147-153.". In: Journal of Climatic Change. African Journal of Ecology, 47(1): 147-153.; 2009. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
OCHIENG DROLAGODANIEL. "Olago, D.O., Opere, A. and Barongo, J. Holocene palaeohydrology, groundwater and climate change in the lake basins of the Central Kenya Rift. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 54(4): 765-780.". In: Journal of Climatic Change. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 54(4): 765-780.; 2009. Abstract
Separation of midgut membrane proteins from the tick, Ambylomma variegatum, using a nonionic detergent (Triton X-114), resulted in two protein fractions, namely DET (detergent) and AQ (aqueous). In immunoblotting analysis with polyclonal antibodies against these fractions, 4 proteins (Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000, 86,000 and 95,000,) and 2 proteins (M, approximately 54,000 and 67,000) were detected in the DET and AQ fractions, respectively. Three of the DET fraction proteins Mr approximately 27,000, 67,000 and 95,000 were glycosylated since they bound to the lectin, concanavalin A. In 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the AQ and DET fraction proteins were found to be acidic in nature. In a series of bioassay experiments, rabbits were first immunised with both DET and AQ fractions and then infested with ticks. The egg batch weights of these ticks were reduced by 50% compared to control ticks. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the hatchability of eggs laid by ticks fed on rabbits previously immunised with both DET (14%) and AQ (33%) fractions. Based on the egg hatchability, the reproductive capacity of ticks was reduced by 77 and 48% by DET and AQ fractions, respectively.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto CT, Vargas RR, Paron P. 2009. Soil erosion and sedimentation modelling of the areas between river Juba and Shabelle in South Somalia. Technical Report No. 16. FAO-SWALIM. Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Land Degradation and Development. FAO-SWALIM; 2009. Abstract
Soil loss is a major concern for land managers due to its influence on biomass production, surface water quality and landscape beauty. In Somalia, the risk of soil loss is accelerated by the removal of vegetation, bad land use practices and negative impacts of urbanization. The political upheavals and consequent insecurity in the country are major limitations for detailed database and research in soil loss. This study tested opportunities in pedometrics, remote sensing, limited field data collection and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to model the risk of soil loss in northwestern Somalia. The approach successfully predicted the risk of soil loss with accuracy of 79 per cent. It also showed that RUSLE is only relatively accurate and stable in identifying areas with low risk of soil loss and therefore is useful in modelling early warning signs of erosion. About 24 per cent of northwestern Somalia was depicted to have no significant human-induced soil loss while 68 per cent of the region is in threat of soil loss if no action is taken against the removal of vegetation, land use practices and policies on land tenure systems. About 8 per cent of the area is at high risk of soil loss due to negative effects of urbanization and lack of proper management of steep slopes. It is anticipated that this approach can be integrated in the assessment of soil erosion in areas with poor database.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. and L.O. Gumbe. 2009. Estimating water infiltration and retention characteristics using a computer program in R. Computers & Geosciences 35: 579-585.". In: Computers and Geosciences. Computers and Geosciences; 2009. Abstract
Infiltration and water retention functions are widely used soil hydraulic properties in the geosciences. They contain coefficients known as hydraulic parameters that are traditionally obtained through curve-fitting. Computer programs for the curve-fitting process are available for certain infiltration or water retention models. However, these programs are either not freely accessible or do not estimate certain hydraulic parameters. They are also inefficient and prone to errors for applications involving large datasets. This paper discusses the use of a freely accessible HydroMe package for fast, efficient, and accurate estimation of soil hydraulic parameters in some commonly used infiltration and water retention models. The package is executable in the freely downloadable R programming software. It contains a program for estimating the parameters in infiltration models previously proposed. The program is capable of estimating parameters from arrays of grouped data in one single pass without having to enter the data each time for the parameter estimation. It incorporates mixed-effects and covariate modelling techniques for improved estimation accuracy. These techniques are not common in any other computer programs in the geosciences. Through covariate modelling, the package provides opportunity to include environmental correlates in the estimation of soil hydraulic parameters. Therefore, HydroMe not only improves the estimation accuracy and efficiency, but also provides insight into environmental risk factors that influence the management of soil and water resources.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T. and Vargas, R.R. 2009. Combining pedometrics, remote sensing and field observations for assessing soil loss in challenging drylands: a case study of northwestern Somalia. Land Degradation and Development 20: 101-115.". In: Land Degradation and Development. Land Degradation and Development; 2009. Abstract
Soil loss is a major concern for land managers due to its influence on biomass production, surface water quality and landscape beauty. In Somalia, the risk of soil loss is accelerated by the removal of vegetation, bad land use practices and negative impacts of urbanization. The political upheavals and consequent insecurity in the country are major limitations for detailed database and research in soil loss. This study tested opportunities in pedometrics, remote sensing, limited field data collection and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to model the risk of soil loss in northwestern Somalia. The approach successfully predicted the risk of soil loss with accuracy of 79 per cent. It also showed that RUSLE is only relatively accurate and stable in identifying areas with low risk of soil loss and therefore is useful in modelling early warning signs of erosion. About 24 per cent of northwestern Somalia was depicted to have no significant human-induced soil loss while 68 per cent of the region is in threat of soil loss if no action is taken against the removal of vegetation, land use practices and policies on land tenure systems. About 8 per cent of the area is at high risk of soil loss due to negative effects of urbanization and lack of proper management of steep slopes. It is anticipated that this approach can be integrated in the assessment of soil erosion in areas with poor database.
THINE DROMUTOCHRISTIAN. "Omuto, C.T., Vargas, R. R., Alim, M.S., Ismail, A., Osman, A., Iman. H.M. 2009. Land degradation assessment and a monitoring framework in Somalia. FA0-SWALIM Technical Report L-14, FAO-SWALIM, Nairobi, Kenya.". In: Land Degradation and Development. FAO-SWALIM; 2009. Abstract
Soil loss is a major concern for land managers due to its influence on biomass production, surface water quality and landscape beauty. In Somalia, the risk of soil loss is accelerated by the removal of vegetation, bad land use practices and negative impacts of urbanization. The political upheavals and consequent insecurity in the country are major limitations for detailed database and research in soil loss. This study tested opportunities in pedometrics, remote sensing, limited field data collection and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to model the risk of soil loss in northwestern Somalia. The approach successfully predicted the risk of soil loss with accuracy of 79 per cent. It also showed that RUSLE is only relatively accurate and stable in identifying areas with low risk of soil loss and therefore is useful in modelling early warning signs of erosion. About 24 per cent of northwestern Somalia was depicted to have no significant human-induced soil loss while 68 per cent of the region is in threat of soil loss if no action is taken against the removal of vegetation, land use practices and policies on land tenure systems. About 8 per cent of the area is at high risk of soil loss due to negative effects of urbanization and lack of proper management of steep slopes. It is anticipated that this approach can be integrated in the assessment of soil erosion in areas with poor database.
A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ongeti K, Saidi H, Ogeng.". In: journal. Surgical Society of Kenya; 2009. Abstract
Background: Accurate evaluation of low back pain is essential for its rational management. The extent of use of clinical and imaging findings in identificationof prolapsed intervertebral disk varies between centers. In Kenya, thediagnostic procedure is obscure.Objective: To assess the evaluation of low back pain patients for prolapsed intervertebral disk at a Kenyatta National Hospital, a teaching and referralhospital in Kenya.Study Design: A retrospective chart studyPatients and Methods: Historical, physical and imaging findings of patients who presented with low back pain and subsequently diagnosed with prolapsed inter-vertebral disk between Jan 1997 and December 2007 were evaluated.Results: Of the six hundred and three patients (267 males, 336 females) whowere evaluated, risk factors were recorded in 39.5% patients, 35.3%patients had sciatica while straight leg raising test was performed in52.2% patients. Investigations performed in these patients included plainroentograms (38.5%), CT scan (9.1%) and MRI (44.1%).Conclusion: The evaluation of low back pain for prolapsed inter-vertebral disk was incomplete. History of sciatica, SLRT, crossed SLRT and MRI use arerecommended for routine evaluation of low back pain for PID.
A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Ongeti KW, Ogeng.". In: journal. Surgical Society of Kenya; 2009. Abstract
Background: Accurate evaluation of low back pain is essential for its rational management. The extent of use of clinical and imaging findings in identificationof prolapsed intervertebral disk varies between centers. In Kenya, thediagnostic procedure is obscure.Objective: To assess the evaluation of low back pain patients for prolapsed intervertebral disk at a Kenyatta National Hospital, a teaching and referralhospital in Kenya.Study Design: A retrospective chart studyPatients and Methods: Historical, physical and imaging findings of patients who presented with low back pain and subsequently diagnosed with prolapsed inter-vertebral disk between Jan 1997 and December 2007 were evaluated.Results: Of the six hundred and three patients (267 males, 336 females) whowere evaluated, risk factors were recorded in 39.5% patients, 35.3%patients had sciatica while straight leg raising test was performed in52.2% patients. Investigations performed in these patients included plainroentograms (38.5%), CT scan (9.1%) and MRI (44.1%).Conclusion: The evaluation of low back pain for prolapsed inter-vertebral disk was incomplete. History of sciatica, SLRT, crossed SLRT and MRI use arerecommended for routine evaluation of low back pain for PID.
O MROPIYOELISHATOYNE. "Opiyo Elisha T. O., Erick Ayienga, Katherine Getao, Bernard Manderick, Okello- Odongo, Ann Now.". In: In Proceedings of the International Conference on Research for Sustainable Development and Institutional Capacity Building. UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI; 2009.
M PROFSYAGGAPAUL. "Opportunities in a falling market: what has been happening at the low end of the urban land market.". In: Urban LandMark Conference,South Africa. Urban LandMark; 2009. Abstract
Falling land and property prices which have been experience globally since 2008,present both a challenge and an opportunity.What opportunities does such a market present to government,the private sector and to communities trying to establish themselves in urban areas? The myth is that such opportunities would assist the poor, but the reality is that the prices are already too high to be within the reach of the poor.Irrespective of how low they fall,short of affirmative action through grants,cross subsidies and other innovative approaches falling prices remain a pipe dream for the urban poor..
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Oral manifestion of diabetes mellitus, relation to blood sugar levels, type and duration of diabetes.". In: African Journal of oral Sciences. 2009;5:16-20. Mohamed A.O, Mutara L.N, Gathece L.W.; 2009. Abstract
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya. A case report is presented of a 53 year old man who presented with posterior dislocation of the hip after a road traffic accident. Initial management by closed reduction failed due to presence of an occult free intra-articular fragment. This fragment was not visualised on plain A-P and lateral X-ray views. The cause of the failed closed reduction was eventually detected by CT scan. Open reduction and removal of the bone fragment was done and the hip remained stable thereafter. It is concluded that plain X-rays are not adequate in the diagnosis of free intra-articular bone fragments within the hip joint and CT scanning is advised for accurate detection of such occult bine fragments.
NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Organisational learning in the IS implementation process.". In: VLIR-IUC-UON International Conference, 2-4 February 2009. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2009. Abstract
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NDUKU DRWAUSIAGNES. "Organisational learning in the IS implementation process.". In: VLIR-IUC-UON International Conference, 2-4 February 2009. Wiley; 2009. Abstract
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JOSEPH DROTHIENOCALEB. "Othieno, CJ; Obondo, A; Mathai, M; Loewenson, R EQUINET PRA paper: Improving adherence to ante-retroviral treatment for people with harmful alcohol use in Kariobangi, Kenya.". In: Equinet. Equinet; 2009. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This study aimed to explore the understanding of and factors in adherence to ARV treatment in people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) who are engaged in harmful alcohol use and to intervene on prioritised factors to improve adherence, using participatory research and action (PRA) methods. We sought to determine the perceptions of and understanding of alcohol abuse and ARV treatment among PLWHA, their peers, family members and health workers. We aimed to increase collaboration between the mental health workers from clinic and hospital level and the community to respond to identified barriers to improve adherence to ARV treatment in PLWHA who use alcohol in a socio-economically deprived urban area in Nairobi (Kariobangi). The work was implemented within an EQUINET programme that aimed to build capacities in participatory action research to explore dimensions of (and impediments to delivery of) Primary Health Care responses to HIV and AIDS. The majority of the PLWHA included in the study were socially disadvantaged, unemployed, and with low education. Social support was equally poor since a large number were widowed, separated or divorced. Most of the PLWHA who participated were single or divorced women, some of them admitted that they sometimes engaged in commercial sex to cater for their basic needs. These factors, together with poor health, limited their economic opportunities and security. In this context, alcohol use, noted by PLWHA, community members and health workers to be prevalent in the community, is not only encouraged by poor living and social conditions, but also by cost (it is relatively cheap) and by the social pressure to use alcohol to escape the mental stress caused by poverty. This is exacerbated by social attitudes that do not discourage alcohol use, and misconceptions that in fact encourage alcohol use, such as that alcohol can kill the HIV virus. This study suggests that the problem of alcohol abuse is poorly recognised for both communities and health workers: It was generally under reported to services, with low numbers of people on ARVs reported to have alcohol related problems, so that health workers see only a small share of the problem. A survey of the local health centres providing ARVs showed that screening for alcohol use was not routinely done and protocols for managing alcohol related disorders were not available. For PLWHA on ARVs, there are already challenges in dealing with the timing, frequency of medication and appointments and the availability and cost of food to support treatment. For PLWHA who use alcohol these difficulties are compounded. There are a range of services in the community that could potentially address these barriers that are involved in nutrition, psychosocial, medical care, PHC, HIV prevention and treatment services, counselling, social, legal, information and referral support for PLWHA. However these do not explicitly deal with the treatment of alcohol and drug related problems in the community or the needs of PLWHA on ARVs who use alcohol, and their adherence to treatment. Reflecting on these problems, the participants implemented a programme of counselling and education. The health workers were taught how to use the AUDIT in identifying problem drinkers and how to recognise and manage alcohol related disorders such as withdrawal fits. The PLWHA and their family members were encouraged to support one another and to identify symptoms of harmful alcohol use among themselves. The process was perceived by those involved to have reduced the harmful use of alcohol in those involved; to have made some improvements in community and health service support; in management of mental health and communication with families and in reducing stigma around alcohol use and HIV. The scores of the PLWHA on the repeat AUDIT questionnaire were however significantly lower than the baseline level.
W DRMUTHOMIJAMES. "Otieno, P. E., Muthomi, J. W., Chemining.". In: Journal of Biological Sciences 9 (4): 326-332. 12th KARI Biennial Conference Proceedings; 2009. Abstract
Field experiments were conducted to investigate the response of grain legumes to rhizobia inoculation, farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizer nitrogen. The grain legumes were common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.var GLP 2), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.), green gram (Vigna radiate L.) and lablab (Lablab purpureus L.). The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement and replicated thrice. Parameters determined were the number of nodules and nodule dry weight per plant, seed yield and yield components. Nitrogen fertilizer application significantly reduced the number of nodules in most of the legume species. In contrast, rhizobia inoculation increased number of nodules and nodule dry matter in most species but this was not translated into increase in plant growth or grain yield. Application of manure improved nodulation and grain yield only in the short rains. However, fertilizer application significantly increased dry matter in both seasons and total grain yield during short rains. The study indicated that the effect of rhizobia inoculation, farmyard manure and nitrogen fertilizer on grain legumes is variable depending on species, parameter being measured and other environmental factors. Keywords: Dry matter, grain legumes, grain yield, nitrogen source, nodulation.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Outsourcing & Vision 2030: An Analysis into Kenya.". In: UoN research meeting. Botswana Journal of Agriculture and Applied Sciences; 2009.
N. DRIRAKIW. "Outsourcing & Vision 2030: An Analysis into Kenya.". In: Journal of Environmental Geology (38) 3, pp 259-264. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences; 2009.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Oyugi JO, Oyugi FJO, Otieno CA, Jaoko W, Bwayo JJ & Anzala O (2009) Serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion in estimating incidence of HIV-1 among adults visiting a VCT centre at a Kenyan tertiary health institution. East African Medical.". In: UoN research meeting. East African Medical Journal 86(5): 212-8; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Oyugi JO, Oyugi FJO, Otieno CA, Jaoko W, Bwayo JJ & Anzala O (2009) Serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion in estimating incidence of HIV-1 among adults visiting a VCT centre at a Kenyan tertiary health institution. East African Medical.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. East African Medical Journal 86(5): 212-8; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Oyugi JO, Vouriot FCM, Alimonti J, Wayne S, Luo M, Land AM, Zhujun AO, Yao X, Sekaly RP, Elliott LJ, Simonsen JN, Ball TB, Jaoko W, Kimani J, Plummer FA & Fowke KR (2009) A common CD4 gene variant is associated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection in Ke.". In: UoN research meeting. Journal of Infectious Diseases 199 (9):1327-1334; 2009. Abstract
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W. PROFJAOKOGODFREY. "Oyugi JO, Vouriot FCM, Alimonti J, Wayne S, Luo M, Land AM, Zhujun AO, Yao X, Sekaly RP, Elliott LJ, Simonsen JN, Ball TB, Jaoko W, Kimani J, Plummer FA & Fowke KR (2009) A common CD4 gene variant is associated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection in Ke.". In: Beverage among the Abagusii of Western Kenya. Journal of Infectious Diseases 199 (9):1327-1334; 2009. Abstract
Ninety seven patients were examined for dental caries using two standard methods: (a) clinical examination based on WHO Basic Methods Oral Health surveys and (b) radiographic examination. Clinical examination method under records caries by upto 40%. Such under recording may give an impression of a decreasing caries prevalence in epidemiological studies.
B PROFPATELNILESH, G. PROFKIOYPAUL. "Oyungu, E., Kioy, P.G., Patel, N.B. (2009) Proconvulsant Effect of Khat (Catha edulis) in Spargue Dawley Rats. J. Ethnopharmacol 30: 121(3): 476-8. Epub 2008 Nov 8.". In: Ethiop. 12(2), 121 - 128. International Journal of BiochemiPhysics; 2009. Abstract
Department of Medical Physiology, Moi University, P.O Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya. erenoyungu2002@yahoo.co.uk ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Catha edulis (khat) is a plant whose fresh young leaves are used by an estimated five million people in eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula as a drug of recreation. The fresh leaves and shoots are rich in cathinone, a psychostimulant with effects similar to those of amphetamines. Psychostimulants produce a dose-related excitation of the central nervous system which can lead to seizures and convulsions. However there are no reports on studies of the effect of this herb on brain excitability and seizures. This knowledge is useful for doctors who may prescribe drugs whose side effects include lowering seizure threshold because there could be additive proconvulsant effect among khat users. AIM OF THE STUDY: to determined whether khat lowers pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure threshold. METHODOLOGY: Male Sprague dawley rats were given fresh aqueous khat extract, old aqueous khat extract (3 g/kg bw), methylphenidate or saline and the timed intravenous (PTZ) seizure threshold test was used to study its effect on seizure threshold. RESULTS: Fresh khat (3 g/kg) and methylphenidate (4 mg/kg) lowered PTZ seizure threshold. CONCLUSION: Khat lowers seizure threshold. PMID: 19056477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
D M. "On the Minimal Resolution Conjecture for P3.". In: Internation Journal of Contemporary Mathematics. Hikari Limited; 2008. Abstract

The Minimal Resolution Conjecture is known to be true for projective spaces of dimension 2 and 3. In this article I used a variant method to prove it for P3.

Galukande E;, Mulindwa HE;, Wurzinger M;, Mwai AO;, Sölkner J. "On-farm comparison of milk production and body condition of purebred Ankole and Crossbred Friesian–Ankole cattle in south western Uganda."; 2008. Abstract

Increasing land pressure due to the rapidly growing population, growing demand for livestock products in urban centres and new land policies in Uganda are changing the life styles of the hitherto extensive grazers of the long horned Ankole cattle in south western Uganda. A production system where two separate herds are kept on one farm, a pure bred Ankole herd and a herd of Friesian - Ankole crosses is emerging. The Friesian-Ankole crosses are kept as a source of milk, most of which is sold to generate income. The Ankole are kept for cultural reasons, a buffer against shock in case of prolonged drought and disease outbreak and for income through sale of live animals. This study investigates the life cycle efficiency of the different genotypes on farm. Eighteen farmers have been selected and in each farm up to 30 animals have been selected per herd covering the complete age /sex range of the herd. During the selection the crossbred status was evaluated based on information from the farmer and phenotype. All selected animals were tagged. The animals are currently followed up on monthly intervals and this will last for a period of two years. During the visits body condition, tick count, health status, milk production of cows, growth parameters in young animals (weight approximated by the measurement of chest circumference) are recorded. Other information collected includes disease and parasite control measures (methods and costs involved), labour costs, calving dates, any supplementation, rainfall and temperature patterns. This paper discusses preliminary results on performance traits of the different genotypes for the first year of the study.

C DG. "An overview of Reproductive Health and HIV .". In: Annual Africa Biomedical Research Conference. Karen, Nairobi, Kenya; 2008.
W. PROFMAKAWITIDOMINIC. "Owuor BO, Odhiambo CO, Otieno WO, Adhiambo C, Makawiti DW, Stoute JA.Reduced immune complex binding capacity and increased complement susceptibility of red cells from children with severe malaria-associated anemia.Mol Med. 2008 Mar-Apr;14(3-4):89-97.". In: Mol Med. 2008 Mar-Apr;14(3-4):89-97. Groebner-Bases-Bibliography-RICAM; 2008. Abstractmol14_3p0089.pdf

Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes 1-2 million deaths per year. Most deaths occur as a result of complications such as severe anemia and cerebral malaria (CM) (coma). Red cells of children with severe malaria-associated anemia (SMA) have acquired deficiencies in the complement regulatory proteins complement receptor 1 (CR1, CD35) and decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55). We investigated whether these deficiencies affect the ability of erythrocytes to bind immune complexes (ICs) and regulate complement activation. We recruited 75 children with SMA (Hb < or = 6 g/dL) from the holoendemic malaria region of the Lake Victoria basin, western Kenya, and 74 age- and gender-matched uncomplicated malaria controls. In addition, we recruited 32 children with CM and 52 age- and gender-matched controls. Deficiencies in red cell CR1 and CD55 in children with SMA were accompanied by a marked decline in IC binding capacity and increased C3b deposition in vivo and ex vivo. Importantly, these changes were specific because they were not seen in red cells of children with CM or their controls. These data suggest that the declines in red cell CR1 and CD55 seen in children with SMA are of physiologic significance and may predispose erythrocytes to complement-mediated damage and phagocytosis in vivo.

A. DROGENGOJULIUS. "Obimbo MM, Bundi PK, Collis F, Ogeng.". In: East African Orthopaedic Journal. Kenya Orthopaedic Association; 2008. Abstract
Background: Prolapsed intervertebral disk (PID) disease can be managed conservatively or surgically with different reported outcomes.Objective: The present study aimed at assessing the management and outcomes of slipped intervertebral disk disease at the Kenyatta National hospital.Study Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study.Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) a referral and teaching Hospital in Kenya.Patients and Methods: Consecutive files of all cases of slipped intervertebral disk disease from January1997 to December 2007 were retrieved from the Medical records at the Kenyatta National Hospital. The biodata, management methods and the outcomes of the procedures were recorded. The collecteddata was analyzed using the SPSS 17.0 for Windows.Results: Six hundred and three cases were reviewed. All patients received analgesics and bed rest.Five percent of the patients were put on bilateral traction for two weeks while 4% of the patients had corsets. Thirty five per cent of the patients were surgically managed. Over a third of the surgically managed patients had laminectomies. Microdiscectomy was increasingly popular in the latter half ofthe study period. Of the managed patients 95% reported improvement while 92% were complication free. The rate of reherniation and reoperation was 1.5% and 1.2% respectively.Conclusion: The management of PID at Kenyatta National Hospital is largely successful with few cases of complications. In selected patients both conservative and surgical care are used in tandem. Microdiscectomy is an increasingly popular surgical procedure at the KNH.
DR. OYIEKE FLORENCEAWINO, DR. NYAMASYO GIDEONNZIOKAH. "Obonyo DN, Songa JM, Oyieke FA, Nyamasyo GHN and Mugo SN, 2008. Bt-transgenic maize does not deteroviposition by two important African cereal stem borers, Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Sesamiacalamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuid.". In: Journal of Applied Biosciences 10: 424 . Survey Review; 2008. Abstract
Objective: To assess Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Sesamia calamistis Hampson(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) ovipositionalresponses on Bt (Event 216, containing the Cry1Ab gene) andisogenic non-Bt (CML 216) maize plants. Methodology and results: Stem borer moths were allowed to oviposit on maize plants in oviposition cagesunder both choice (cages containing both Bt and non-Bt plants) and non-choice conditions (cagescontaining either only Bt or non-Bt plants). There were no significant differences in the mean numbers of egg batches per plant, eggs per batch, eggs laid per plant and egg hatchability between Bt and non-Bt plants in both choice and non-choice tests. Conclusion and application of findings: Event 216 did not deter oviposition by Chilo partellus and Sesamia calamistis. This factor should be taken into consideration when designing suitable refuge arrangements for managing resistance. Although most of the larvae exposed to the Bt plants would be killed, thus reducingchances of the pests developing resistance, an effective resistance management strategy would require that the Bt plants are further engineered to incorporate additional genes that would make them unattractive for oviposition by stem borer moths.
WANJIKU DRNJUGUNAMARGARET, STEPHEN DRGICHUHI. "Ocular injuries in children. East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):39-45. PMID: 18543526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Murithi I, Gichuhi S, Njuguna MW.". In: East Afr Med J. 2008 Jan;85(1):39-45. Livestock Research for Rural Development; 2008. Abstract

Department of Ophthalmology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology, referral system and visual outcomes of eye injuries in children. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Nairobi, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Children aged upto 15 years with eye injuries hospitalised between January 1 st, 2000 and December 31st, 2004. RESULTS: There were 182 cases. Male: female ratio was 2:1. Median age was seven years (IQR 4-10) with bimodal peaks at four and seven years. The most common cause (35%) was sticks. One hundred and twenty seven cases (70%) were open- globe injuries. One hundred and fourty one (77%) presented with visual acuity worse than 6/60 seven eyes were badly damaged and were removed (evisceration enucleation). Ninety five children (52%) were referred from Central and Eastern provinces while 87 (48%) were from Nairobi province. Most [26 (31%)] cases in Nairobi were from Kibera, Dandora and Kariobangi. Median duration between injury and arrival at first medical facility was one day but three days from injury to KNH after referral. Only 29% got tetanus toxoid, antibiotics, analgesics or eyepads at the referring facility. Median hospitalisation was seven days with a median bill of KSh 5,275/= (US$ 70.00). Fourty four children (24%) had their bills waived for inability to pay. At the last recorded follow-up 81 (57%) children had better visual acuity, 16.9% had light perception (PL). Corneal scar was the most common complication. CONCLUSIONS: Eye injuries in KNH are severe, mostly affecting pre-school children from low-income settings. There is delay in arriving at KNH and inadequate care at the referring centres. Outcomes were poor although better than on admission. This may affect education, careers and quality-of-life. Injury-prevention programmes are recommended. PMID: 18543526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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