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MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K Githeko, KHM Kollmann, HS Adala, P Courtright: Prevalence, pattern and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy; East African Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 13., No. 2 (2007).". In: Br J Ophthalmol . 2007 Oct; 91 ( 10 ): 1265-8 . Epub 2007 May 2. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2007.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. ( 2008 ). "Motivation." in The Theory and Practice of Management inAfrica.". In: Nairobi University Press. ( Editors: Professor F.N. Kibera, Professor L.K. Rutashobya, Mr. W. Balunywa ).; 2008. Abstract
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O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (1996). Severity of Consequences for the Leader and Subordinates Work History as Determinants of Leader Attribution.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, vol. 2.; 1996. Abstract

The effects of the level of seriousness of consequences of a subordinates performance and the nature of a subordinate's work history on leader attribution and response were investigated in a 2 x 3 factorial design with a sample of 46 male and 38 female junior and middle-level managers. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of six experimental conditions. Two variables, "consequences" of subordinate's performance and subordinate's "work history" were manipulated in a laboratory setting. As expected, (1) the level of internal attribution and response directed at the subordinate increased with the increase in the seriousness of consequences; (2) Internal attribution and the level of response directed at the subordinate were greater in the "poor work history" situation than in the "good work history" situation. Contrary to expectation, however, there was no significant difference between the two levels of serious consequences, i.e., "serious" and "serious with consequences" for the manager.

O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (1996). The Effect of Subordinate Attraction on Leader Behaviour: A Laboratory Study of the Upward Influence Process in Organizations.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, vol. 1.; 1996. Abstract

The process of upward influence in organization work units is not well understood. No. attempt has been made to specify the processes underlying role-making behaviours. A conceptual model of organizational upward influence which attempst to integrate the existing research findings, specifically the various personal and situational variables is presented. The model attempts to capture, from a subordinate's vantage point, some of the bsic processes associated with reward and punishment behaviours of leaders. Hypothesis was developed from the model linking attraction with Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and various subordinate outcomes such as promotion, pay raise, etc. The study was conducted in a laboratory setting. 54 postgraduate students participated as subjects. Overall, the results supported the major prediction. The main finding was that attraction, to a large extent, did not have direct effect on subordinate outcomes. Rather, it affected these outcome variables through LMX. Also, there were cases where LMX depended on attraction for its effects on the various subordinate outcome variables. The results were discussed in terms of the relative predictive power of attraction and LMX and the interraction between them. Implications of the study for research and practice are outlined and future research directions sugggested.

O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (1998) "Consumer Motives and Trends in Cigarette Smoking: Implications for Public Policy".". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, Vol. 4, 44-57.; 1998. Abstract

The theory of consumption values is used to analyze and explain trends in cigarette smoking worldwide. The analysis shows that the problem of smoking in increasing worldwide, particularly in the developing countries. The impact of the campaign against smoking that has been going on for more than a decade appears to have been limited. This may be partly due to private health organizations. To a large extent, various forms of control and warning messages on the harmful effects of smoking are directed at the individual. Yet most of these messages consist almost exclusively of warnings and threates that do not traget the smoker's consumption values. Research by Sheth, et.al (1991) found that emotional value was salient in discriminating between smokers and non-smokers. Based on the finding, it is concluded that people should be encouraged rather than threatened. This can be achieved by telling them good things about not smoking rather than bad things that are associated with smoking. Overall, the theory of consumption values provideds a useful framework for explaining and predicting behaviour of cigarette smokers and for formulating public policies and strategies for containing the incidence of smoking and its attendant effects.

O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (1998). "The Emerging Paradigm of Human Resource Management.".". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, Vol. 4, 76-88.; 1998.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (1999). "Small Enterprise Development in Kenya: A Critical Examination of Macro Institutional setting and Policy Framework.".". In: Nairobi Journal of Management Vol.5, 1999, 1-22.; 1999. Abstract

The Phenomenal increase in the number and variety of small and micro businesses represents one of the most significant developments in Kenyan economy since the conspicuously present in the urban centres and the courntyside and all sectors of the economy. Some are registered with either the Central government or the local authorities or both and, thus, operate formally while others are not. It is estimated that there were about 90,000 such businesses operating in the country in 1995 (Gemini, 1995). In the literature on the Kenyan businesses, a distinction is often made between four categories or enterprises, namely micro, small, medium and large. Micro enterprises are those that have less than ten employees, small enterprises employ from ten to fifty people, and medium and large firms have more than fifty employees. This paper focuses on small enterprises. However, the word "small" is used to refer to all businesses employing fifty or less people. In other words, no distinction is made between "micro" and "small" enterprises. This is necessitated by the fact that the prevalence of various forms of flexible or loose employment contracts in many micro and small businesses in the country makes such classification less useful since, among other things, the total number of man-hours and the total wage ill are not necessarily a function of the total number of employees. For convenience, the tern "small business sector" is used to refer to the entire population of the micro and small businesses operating in the country.

O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (2000). "Liability of Size and Age: Some Evidence from Micro and Small Enterprise (MSE) sector in Kenya.".". In: Business Investment Insight, Vol. 1.3, 18.; 2000. Abstract

There has been an increasing awareness at the Public Policy level that the micro and small enterprise sector in Kenya offers a greater potential for employment creation and income generation. This change in focus is a reflection of a strategic shift worldwide from emphasis on large centralized business establishments to more open, flexible, and creative systems of management. The pertinent literature assocites problems of micro and small enterprise survival and growth with enterprise size and newness (age). The data used in this study was obtained from secondry sources. The main findings are that smaller firms are more likely to fail; the influence of enterprise size and age on growth and survival varies from one sector of the economy to another, gender of the pioneer of an enterprise has a moderating effect on the influence of enterprise size and age on the risk of failure, and enterprise location appears to have no moderating influence on the effect of size and age on enterprise failure and growth.

O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (2001) "Overview of Human Resource Situation in Kenya.".". In: Business Investment Insight, Vol. 1.3, 18.; 2001.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (2001) Gender Differences and the Effect of Health Warnings and legislation on cigarette smoking:.". In: The African Journal of Finance and Managment, Vol. 9, No. 2, 65-77.; 2001. Abstract

The widespread existence of smoking as a form of social behaviour despite groing worldwide disapproval has placed cigarette smoking at the heart of a growing controversy. The World Health Organization (WHO) now periodically reports on the effect of tobacco consumption on the health of smokers. In South Africa, new legal steps are being takentowards the control of tobacco smoking. This is in line with world-wide trends towards tougher tobacco legistlation. Research on the topic of tobacco and smoking are numerous and represennts world-wide attampts on the understand and eradict what is generally considered a deadly epidemic. however, the role of gender in cigarette consumption and tobacco-control is springly an under-researched aspect of smoking. While few attempts have been made to study the underlying circumstances of smoking by differentiating between the genders, the possible response to tobacco-control measures by men and women seem to have not commanded much attention. The present study was a response to the need to gain a better understanding of the differences in the smoking profiels of women and men and whether these differences ae reflected in the way the two sexes respond, first, to health warnings on smokings and, secondly, to legislation prohibiting advertisng of tobacco products. 50 women and 50 men drawn from tertiary institutions and retail businesses participated in the study by completing a questionnaire. The results show some similarities and differences between female and male smokers. In the light of this, it seems appropriate to suggest that more gender sensitive approaches to dealing with smoking problems might achieve better outcomes.

O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (2006) "Strategic Behaviour of Small Export-oriented Firms in Kenya".". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, Vol.7.; 2006. Abstract
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O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. (July, 1997). Team Building as a Management Technique.". In: Banking Times, pp.19.; 1997.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. and Ruth Odera (1996). Factors that are Important in Vertical Integration Decisions: A Study of Kenyan Manufacturing Firms.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management, vol. 1.; 1996. Abstract

The principal objective of this study was to identify the factors that the management of verticaly integrated firms consider in making decisions to integrate either backword or forward. In order to meet this objective, the information sought for the study was collected through the use of a questionnaire. The sample consisted of 52 vertically integrated firms. 31 questionnaires were completed and provided the information used in this report. The study found out that he fator that influence a firm's decision to integrate vertically include certainity of demand for the firm's products, availability of adequate manufacturing facilities, investment costs, and the need for high market share. For textile and steel manufacturers, certain factor were important. The factors were: the need for improved co-ordination for a firm's activities, need for synergies, need for greater control over the firm's economic resources, level of competition in the industries and the mining firms, the need to control the firm's economic resources, the need to build new infrastructures, sze of buiness, and the level of competition in the industry are important

O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. and Weber, Y. (1987). The Effects of Job Level and Cultural Background on Need Importance.". In: The Proceedings of the 1987 Convention of the South-Eastern (U.S.A.) Decision Sciences Institute.; 1987.
O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "K'Obonyo, P.O. Management of Social Services: Examples from the Health Sector.". In: Medicus, vol. 15, No. 1, pp.6-12.; 1996.
KIMANI DRMURUNGARU. "K'Oyugi and Kimani M. Demographic and Reproductive Health Situation in North East and North West Somalia.". In: In Health Line Vol. 5 No. 3. James Murimi; 2001. Abstract
According to the millennium assessment report, during the last century, global drylands have experienced anthropogenic induced climate changes that are predicted to continue and even to accelerate during the present century. The traditional pastoralist spatial domains are facing unprecedented changes due to population growth, urban sprawl and an appetite for land not anticipated by the planners who designated such lands as trust lands. A case in point is Kajiado district which has seen most community owned land blocks subdivided and tenure changed to private especially in areas surrounding It is therefore not only the pastoralists that are finding their roaming area constricted but also the wild animals. A recent court case to protect the migratory corridors of wild animals is a good example. In fact there are more wild animals among these communities than are confined in parks in Kenya. With the inevitable land use changes, and their impacts on livelihoods and environment, this paper explores the literature on the interaction of environmental conservation amid global warming and the potential role of biogas in mitigating the livelihood and vulnerability associated with it. Further, the technology helps manage green house gases and has potential for using the clean development mechanism to raise carbon credits which could be ploughed back in propping the livelihoods of rural communities. The paper highlights the preconditions of successful biogas interventions which include partial or complete confinement of animals in zero grazing units alongside improvement/change of animal breeds to more economically viable ones. However, this raises the greater question whether the radical change of livelihood approaches is at all viable? Key words: Global warming, livelihoods, conservation, biogas, carbon markets
Wani I. "K-sign in retrocaecal appendicitis: a case series." Cases journal. 2009;2:157. Abstract

BACKGROUND: Variations in position of the vermiform appendix considerably changes clinical findings. Retrocaecal appendicitis presents with slightly different clinical features from those of classical appendicitis associated with a normally sited appendix. K-sign looks for the presence of tenderness on posterior abdominal wall in the retrocaecal and paracolic appendicitis. This is the first case report of this kind in the literature. The K-sign has been named, as a mark of respect, after the region of origin of this sign, Kashmir, so called as "Kashmir Sign". The sign being present in view of inflamed appendix crossing above its non palpable position above iliac crest on the posterior abdominal wall and the tenderness is by irritation of posterior peritoneum. CASE PRESENTATION: The author is reporting a case series of four patients in whom a K-sign, a clinical sign, was elicited and found positive on the posterior abdominal wall for presence of tenderness in a specific area bound by the 12th rib superiorly, spine medially, lateral margin of posterior abdominal wall laterally and iliac crest inferiorly and was found to be present in three retrocaecal and one paracolic appendicitis. Each case had tenderness in this specific area on posterior abdominal wall. All had appendectomy and having histopathological evidence of appendicitis. CONCLUSION: K-sign can be useful in diagnosis of retrocaecal and paracolic appendicitis. Significance of K-sign being in view of difficulty in diagnosis of retrocaecal appendicitis and its subsequent complications.

B. PROFESTAMBALEBENSON. "K. Fonck, N. Kidula, W. Jaoko, B. Estambale, P. Claeys, J. Ndinya-Achola, P. Kirui, J. Bwayo, M. Termmerman (2000). Validity of vaginal discharge algorithm among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Nairobi, Kenya. Sexually Transmitted Infections 76, 33-38.". In: Sexually Transmitted Infections 76, 33-38. Taylor & Francis; 2000. Abstract
Bancroftian filariasis infection, disease and specific antibody response patterns in a high and a low endemicity community in East Africa were analyzed and compared to assess the relationship between these parameters and community transmission intensity. Overall prevalences of microfilaremia and circulating filarial antigenemia were 24.9% and 52.2% in the high and 2.7% and 16.5% in the low endemicity community, respectively. A positive history of acute attacks of adenolymphangitis was given by 12.2% and 7.1% of the populations, 4.0% and 0.9% of the adult (> or = 20 years old) individuals presented with limb lymphedema, and 25.3% and 5.3% of the adult males had hydrocele, in the high and the low endemicity community, respectively. Both infection and disease appeared earlier and reached much higher levels in the high than in the low endemicity community. The observed overall and age-specific infection and disease patterns in the two communities were in agreement with the view that these are primarily shaped by transmission intensity. No statistically significant relationships between infection status of fathers and mothers and that of their children were observed in any of the communities for either microfilaremia or for circulating filarial antigenemia. The overall levels (prevalence and geometric mean intensity) of filarial-specific IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, and IgE were significantly higher in the high endemicity community than in the low endemicity dommunity. Surprisingly, the opposite pattern was found for IgG3. Community transmission intensity thus appears to be an important determinant of observed inter-community variation in infection, disease, and host response patterns in Bancroftian filariasis.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann (book chapter): Augen.". In: DAAD (2000). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann African warriors: The training of African ophthalmologists in Kenya Z. prakt. Augenheilkd. (December 2000).". In: Augenheilkd. (December 2000). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2000. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann Blindheitsverh.". In: Augenheilkd. 26: 415-417 (2005). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann Zur Karriere von neurotisch und psychosomatisch erkrankten Patienten im Vorfeld einer station.". In: Doctorate, Georg-August- University G. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1984. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
R. DRILAKODUNERA, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann, A. Kakembo, F. Ngounou, D. Ilako, H. S. Adala Eye injuries in developing countries. Abstract German Society of Ophthalmology, Mannheim (1996).". In: Abstract German Society of Ophthalmology, Mannheim (1996). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.
R. DRILAKODUNERA, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann, A. Kakembo, F. Ngounou, D. Ilako, H. S. Adala Eye injuries in developing countries. Abstract German Society of Ophthalmology, Mannheim (1996).". In: Abstract German Society of Ophthalmology, Mannheim (1996). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1996. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
R. DRILAKODUNERA, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann, A. Kakembo, F. Ngounou, D. Ilako, H. S. Adala Eye injuries in developing countries. Abstract German Society of Ophthalmology, Mannheim (1996).". In: Abstract German Society of Ophthalmology, Mannheim (1996). Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1996. Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of active trachoma (TF) in children aged one to nine years and potentially blinding trachoma (TT) in adults aged 15 years and older in six known trachoma-endemic districts in Kenya. DESIGN: Community based survey. SETTING: Six known trachoma endemic districts in Kenya (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot, Kajiado Baringo and Meru North). SUBJECTS: A total of 6,982 children aged one to nine years and 8,045 adults aged 15 years and older were randomly selected in a two stage random cluster sampling method: Twenty sub-locations (clusters) per district and three villages per sub-location were randomly selected. Eligible children and adults were enumerated and examined for signs of trachoma. RESULTS: Blinding trachoma was found to be a public health problem in all the surveyed districts. Active trachoma was a district wide public health problem in four districts (Samburu, Narok, West Pokot and Kajiado) and only in some of the sub-locations of the other two (Baringo and Meru North). CONCLUSIONS: There is need for district trachoma control programmes preferably using the WHO recommended SAFE strategy in all the surveyed districts. Extrapolation of these survey results to the entire country could not be justified. There is need to survey the remaining 12 suspected endemic districts in Kenya.

MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann, H. de Kaspar, A. Scheider, J. Nasemann, V. Klauss Endogenous endophthalmitis: Infectious agents and clinical course. German Journal of Ophthalmology 2 (1993).". In: German Journal of Ophthalmology 2 (1993). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1993. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann, J.E. Nasemann, M.W. Ulbig A case of benign reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Der Ophthalmologe (1994).". In: Der Ophthalmologe (1994). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1994. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.

MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann, S.T. Schaal, V. Klauss, T. L.". In: Trop. med. Parasitol. 42 (1991). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann, T. Kreutzer, V. Klauss (book) Augen.". In: Das NAW-Buch: Akutmedizin der ersten 24 Stunden Urban & Schwarzenberg (2005) (. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2005. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann, V. Klauss (book) Augenverletzungen. In: C. Madler, K.-W. Jauch, K. Werdan (eds.): Augen.". In: Das NAW-Buch: Praktische Notfallmedizin Urban & Schwarzenberg (1994 ) (. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1994. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "K. H. M. Kollmann, V. Klauss, T. L.". In: Trop. Med. Parasitol. 42 (1991). I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 1991. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in patients with HIV infection. DESIGN: A hospital based cross sectional study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and Kikuyu Eye Unit (KEU) during the period November 2003 and May 2004. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients. RESULTS: Four hundred and nine HIV positive patients aged 25 to 53 years were screened. Male to Female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and three had conjunctival growths. Thirty two had histologically proven conjunctiva squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Estimated prevalence of CSCC among HIV positive patients was 7.8%. The average duration of growth of the conjunctival masses was 21.8 months. The average size of the lesions at the time of presentation was 6.6 mm. Twenty two (68.8%) patients had primary CSCC, while ten (31.2%) had recurrent lesions. The pattern of the histopathology results was: fifteen (46.9%) patients had poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; nine (28%) had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma; five patients (15.6%) had CIN; two patients (6.3%) had dysplasia and one patient (3.1%) had a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of CSCC in HIV/AIDS patients was 7.8%. Patients present late with advanced lesions. Recurrence rates from previous surgery are high. The often uncharacteristic complaints and findings on presentation complicate the clinical diagnosis. Active search for early manifestations of CSCC in HIV / AIDS patients, complete surgical excision and close follow up is necessary. Alternative treatment methods and techniques like the topical use of antimetabolites should be explored further.
J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "K. Household management of Visceral Leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in Baringo District. Medical Insights Journal, Vol.1, No.2 pp. 12-18.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1999. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "K. Kiprop, A. W. Mwang.". In: African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, vol.4 pp.479-487 (1999) (ISSN 1023-070X/99). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1999. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
MR. NGUYO JOSEPHM. "K. O. Abuga, P. M. Mwagiru, G. N. Thoithi, J. M. Nguyo, J. K. Ngugi, O. K. King.". In: The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.; 2003. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Malaria control in Africa relies primarily on early effective treatment for clinical disease, but most early treatments for fever occur through self-medication with shop-bought drugs. Lack of information to community members on over-the-counter drug use has led to widespread ineffective treatment of fevers, increased risks of drug toxicity and accelerating drug resistance. We examined the feasibility and measured the likely impact of training shop keepers in rural Africa on community drug use. METHODS: In a rural area of coastal Kenya, we implemented a shop keeper training programme in 23 shops serving a population of approximately 3500, based on formative research within the community. We evaluated the training by measuring changes in the proportions of drug sales where an adequate amount of chloroquine was purchased and in the percentage of home-treated childhood fevers given an adequate amount of chloroquine. The programme was assessed qualitatively in the community following the shop keeper training. RESULTS: The percentage of drug sales for children with fever which included an antimalarial drug rose from 34.3% (95% CI 28.9%-40.1%) before the training to a minimum of 79.3% (95% CI 71.8%-85.3%) after the training. The percentage of antimalarial drug sales where an adequate amount of drug was purchased rose from 31.8% (95% CI 26.6%-37.6%) to a minimum of 82.9% (95% CI 76.3%-87.3%). The percentage of childhood fevers where an adequate dose of chloroquine was given to the child rose from 3.7% (95% CI 1.2%-9.7%) before the training to a minimum of 65.2% (95% CI 57.7%-72.0%) afterwards, which represents an increase in the appropriate use of over-the-counter chloroquine by at least 62% (95% CI 53.7%-69.3%). Shop keepers and community members were strongly supportive of the aims and outcome of the programme. CONCLUSIONS: The large shifts in behaviour observed indicate that the approach of training shop keepers as a channel for information to the community is both feasible and likely to have a significant impact. Whilst some of the impact seen may be attributable to research effects in a relatively small scale pilot study, the magnitude of the changes support further investigation into this approach as a potentially important new strategy in malaria control.
P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER. "K. Ogasawara, P.P. Wambua, T. Gotohda and K. Onoe. Modification of the T cell responsiveness to synthetic peptides by substituting amino acids on agretopes. International Immunology. Vol. 2, No.3, 219, 1990.". In: International Immunology. Vol. 2, No.3, 219, 1990. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1990. Abstract
T cell receptors, major histocompatibility complex molecules, and antigens constitute tri-molecular complexes which induce T cell activation. T cells in I-Ab mice generate proliferative responses to a synthetic peptide composed of residues 43-58 of pigeon cytochrome c (p43-58) and its analogs with substitution at position 50 (50A, 50V, 50L, 50N, 50Q, 50K, and 50M). However, none of these peptides stimulate T cells in I-Ak mice. We substituted two residues at positions 46 and 54 of p43-58(50D), 50V, 50L, 50E, and 50K with two amino acids on agretopes of the I-Ak binding HEL52-61 peptide and immunized I-Ak mice with these newly synthesized peptides: 46D50D54R, 46D50V54R, 46D50L54R, 46D50E54R, and 46D50K54R. Apart from 46D50D54R, these peptides elicited T cell responses in I-Ak mice in an immunogen-specific manner, but did not stimulate those in I-Ab mice. Further, 46D50V54R inhibited competitively the responses of I-Ak restricted T cell hybridomas specific for 46D50E54R. These results demonstrate that the residues at positions 46 and 54 on the peptides act as an agretope and the residue at position 50 acts as an epitope in I-Ak mice, as in I-Ab mice, and provide the possibility of opening up a new method to prepare peptide antigens which induce T cell responses in each murine strain by introducing appropriate amino acids on agretopes.
P.M. MRWAMBUAPETER. "K. Onoe, K. Iwabuchi, C. Iwabuchi, H. Arase, S. Hatakeyama, P. P. Wambua, N. Fukushi, I.Negishi, R. A. Good and K. Ogasawara. Donor and Recipient specific tolerance in cells from Semi-Allogeneic, H-2 subregion compatible or Full Allogenic Bone Marrow Chim.". In: Immunobiology. 1989 Jun;179(2-3):172-89. IAHS Press Wallingford, UK.; 1989. Abstract

Specificities of tolerance induced in allogeneic bone marrow (BM) chimeras which had been established by injecting allogeneic BM cells pretreated with anti-Thy-1 mAb alone (without complement (C)) were analyzed using Simonsen's splenomegaly assay. Lymphocytes from fully allogeneic, semi-allogeneic and H-2 subregion compatible BM chimeras were specifically unresponsive to donor and recipient antigens (Ag). However, cells from H-2 subregion compatible chimeras initiated as vigorously a GVHR in F1 recipient mice, which were disparate at H-2K and I-A regions, as did spleen cells of donor mice, which were incompatible at the entire H-2 and minor histocompatibility regions of the recipients. The donor cells from such chimeras that initiated these considerable GVHR were either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, synergistic effects by the CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were also observed. We found no evidence for a suppressive mechanism(s) in maintenance of the specific tolerance in allogeneic chimeras. Further, when lymphoid cells from these chimeras were adoptively transferred to irradiated mice of the donor strain and maintained for 5 days in the absence of recipient Ag (tolerogen), the adoptively transferred cells were shown to retain their unresponsiveness to the recipient Ag. These results reveal that T lymphocytes from allogeneic BM chimeras prepared by our method had been specifically induced to a tolerant state to both donor and recipient Ag and that the major mechanism of induction and maintenance of long-lasting tolerance is attributable to clonal deletion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets rather than to the development of a population of suppressor cells of any sort.

J. DRMUNGUTIKAENDI. "K. Social Conditions and Cultural Beliefs on Malaria. African Journal of Medical Practice, Vol. 5 No.6, pp. 286-288.". In: Institute of Physics CMMP `94, Warwick, U.K., 19-21 December 1994, Paper 1.4ss.11, p. 157. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
N PROFKANYARIPAULW. "K. SRIVASTVA, A. OYEJIDE, P.W.N. KANYARI, T.A. NGATIA, P. MBAABU-MATHIU ( 2002). " What is your diagnosis? Oozing ostrich egg". Lab Animal 31:23-24.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Ostriches of various ages, unhatched embryos and chicks found to have oedema during post-mortem examination are described here. Unhatched eggs and chicks originated from a commercial farm, where there was a complaint of poor hatchability of eggs and high chick mortality. Of 35 embryos examined, 29(82.9%) had severe subcutaneous oedema either generalized (23) or localized(6). Of 311 chicks, 232(74.6%) had oedema of varying degrees of severity. In 10 chicks, the oedema was subcutaneous and severe, in 5 it was only serous effusions in body cavities and in 217, it was manifested as wetness of subcutaneous tissues. Adult and juvenile ostriches originated from three farms, where they were kept as pets. Of 22 birds, 16(72.7%0 developed a general sickness and 10(62.3%) of them died. Post-mortem examination revealed emaciation and either subcutaneous oedema or serous effusion in body cavities. Additional lesions included combinations of steatites, haemorrhages and pneumonia. The sick birds responded to improved diets that were also supplemented with multivitamins and minerals.
KAMAU DRGACHIGI. "K. wa Gachigi, "Crack Detection in Green Ceramics Using Ultrasonic NDT and Artificial Neural Networks", presented at weekly Ferroelectrics seminar at MRL, The Pennsylvania State University, Fall, 1994.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAMAU DRGACHIGI. "K. wa Gachigi, A.Bhalla and L.E. Cross, "Measurement of Piezoelectric Coefficients Using Double Beam Laser Interferometry", presented at the Am.Ceram.Soc. Conference in cincinnati, Ohio, Spring, 1991.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1991. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAMAU DRGACHIGI. "K. wa Gachigi, S. Sato and T. Nomura, "On the Mechanism of Thermal Shock Resistance in SiO2-Modified (Ba,Sr,Ca)TiO3 Ceramic Varistor", The Society of Materials Engineering for Resources of Japan, Akita City, Japan, June 24th, 1997.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAMAU DRGACHIGI. "K. wa Gachigi, U. Kumar and J.P. Dougherty, "Grain Size Effects in Barium Titanate", Ferroelectrics, vol. 143, pp.229-238, 1993.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1993. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAMAU DRGACHIGI. "K. Yamakawa, K. wa Gachigi, S. Troiler-McKinstry and J.P. Dougherty, "Phase Transitions of Antiferroelectric Lead Zirconate Thin Films in High Electric Fields", Ferroelectric Letters, vol. 20, pp. 149-155, 1996.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
"K.A. Patel and I.O. Kibwage. (1993). The community Pharmacist.". Pharm. J. of Kenya. 5(1): 10 - 11.; 1993. Abstract

A comparative in-vitro performance of carbamazepine 200mg tablet products available on the Kenyan market was evaluated. The products which include the innovator product, Tegretol, have similar quality consonant with pharmacopoeial specifications. A batch of one of the products had a carbamazepine content of 106.6% label claim which was outside the upper limits of 105%. One product packaged in multiple-unit containers of a 1000, had an unacceptable high friability of 6.82% loss in weight. All products had good dissolution profiles and released at least 70% of the dose within 45 minutes. Drug dissolution from tablets was found to vary between batches for one product. At each sampling time, most generics had wide variations in amount of dissolved drug. The effect of such variations on tablet efficacy cannot be ascertained in the absence of bioavailability data.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "K.A. Sinei and J.W. Mwangi (1995). Effect of tuber of Adenia globosa Engl. On isolated rat uterus preparation. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 33: 346-347.". In: E.A. Medical J. 58: 593-600. The Kenya Medical Association; 1981. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "K.A. Sinei, J.W. Mwangi, K.J. Achola, A.M. Mwaura and R.W. Munenge (1994). Potential of uterine stimulatory action of Adenia globosa Engl. by oxytocin in vitro. African J. of Health Sciences. I (4): 191-3.". In: African J. of Health Sciences. I (4): 191-3. The Kenya Medical Association; 1994. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
I.O.Kibwage. "K.A.M Kuria, M. De Proft, IJ. Hoogmartens and G.M. Laekeman. Cultivating the African plant Ajuga remota in Belgium and confirming it's biological activity against plasmodium falciparum. Zeitschrift fur Arzenei-& Gewurzpflanzen(Z.Arzn.Gew.Pfe.6:69-72."; 2001. Abstract

Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological investigations led to
identification of Ajuga remota Benth (Lamiaceae) as being frequently
used in herbal medicine treatment of malaria in Kenya. The
antimalarial activity of the plant has been confirmed by in vitro testing
against Plasmodium falciparum. In order to ensure a continuous
production of plant material we started local cultures in ieuven
(Belgium).
Micropropagation of Ajuga remota starting from seeds ona general
culture medium was not successful. Sowing the seeds in full soil in
the greenhouse resulted in a germination rate of more than 75 %.
Intensive watering was necessary to initiate germination. Within 4
months the plant could be harvested and decoctions were prepared
from the dried material. The antimalarial activity of Belgian Ajuga
remota decoctions in vitro expressed as ICso (mean ± SO) was
998 ± 168 uqirn'. This was comparable with the ICso of Kenyan
grown Ajuga remota: 974 ± 112 j.1g/ml. Greenhouse cultivation
seems to provide satisfying conditions to grow enough plants and
enabling further research into validating Kenyan herbal medicine
practice.

MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "K.A.M. Kuria (1976). Ajuga remota Benth. Isolation and characterisation of the herb's bitter principle. M.Sc.(Pharmacy) thesis.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. EAMJ; 1976. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "K.A.M. Kuria and G. Muriuki (1984). A New Cardiotonic Agent from Ajuga Remota Benth (Labiatae). East African Med. J. 61, 533-538 (July 1984).". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. EAMJ; 1984. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "K.A.M. Kuria, G. Muriuki, I. Kibwage, W. Masengo, A.M. Mwaura, P. De Witte, G. M Laekman. Cytotoxic activity of Ajuga remota. Submitted in February 2002 for publication in Fitoterapia.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. EAMJ; 2002. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "K.A.M. Kuria, M. De Proft, W.Masengo,I.Kibwage, L.Quirynen, L.Maes, L.Janssen, J.Hoogmartens and G.M. Laekeman (2001). Cultivating the African plant Ajuga remota in Belgium and confirming its biological activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Zeitschrift .". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. EAMJ; 2001. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "K.A.M. Kuria, S. De Coster, G. Muriuki, W. Masengo, I. Kibwage, J. Hoogmartens, G.M. Laekeman (2001). Antimalarial activity of Ajuga remota Benth (Labiatae) and Caesalpinia volkensii Harms (Caesalpiniaceae): in vitro confirmation of ethnopharmacological u.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. EAMJ; 2001. Abstract

A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "K.J. Achola, J.W. Mwangi and R. Munenge (1995). Pharmacological activity of Oxalis corniculata. International Journal of Pharmacognosy 33: (3) 247-249.". In: International Journal of Pharmacognosy 33: (3) 247-249. The Kenya Medical Association; 1995. Abstract
A methanol extract of Syzygium guineense bark inhibited intrinsic contractions of rabbit isolated ileum. The inhibition, at bath concentrations of 0.5 - 2.0 mg/ml, was dose-related but non-linear. It produced sustained hypotension in anaesthetized rats. A dose of 5 ug lowered systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure by 16%, 22% and 17%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. Maximum effect was obtained at a dose of 40 ug when the systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures fell by 23%, 36% and 28%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. The greater fall in blood pressure was in diastolic than systolic blood pressure. The extract caused a weaker but similar effect to isoprenaline on rabbit isolated heart. While the effect on rabbit isolated ileum supports the folkloric use of the plant as an antispasmodic, further work is required to confirm and categorize the observed pharmacological activities.
W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "K.J. Achola, J.W. Mwangi and R.W. Munenge (1996). Pharmacological activities of Vernonia glabra. International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 34: (2) 141-144.". In: International Journal of Pharmacognosy. 34: (2) 141-144. The Kenya Medical Association; 1996. Abstract

Persons with congenital or acquired immunosuppression have long been known to have an increased incidence of lymphoproliferative disorders. Unsurprisingly, therefore, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. Three cases with HIV-associated lymphoma aged 30, 32 and 35 years respectively are presented. Two had cutaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while one had Hodgkin's lymphoma. Standard chemotherapy for lymphoma was given with good tumour regression. Two of the patients died within six months of lymphoma diagnosis due to other complications of HIV.

W PROFMWANGIJULIUS. "K.J. Achola, R.W Munenge and J.W Mwangi (1995). Pharmacological activities of Gardenia jovis-tonantis. International Journal of Pharmacognosy 33: (3) 250-252.". In: International Journal of Pharmacognosy 33: (3) 250-252. The Kenya Medical Association; 1995. Abstract
A methanol extract of Syzygium guineense bark inhibited intrinsic contractions of rabbit isolated ileum. The inhibition, at bath concentrations of 0.5 - 2.0 mg/ml, was dose-related but non-linear. It produced sustained hypotension in anaesthetized rats. A dose of 5 ug lowered systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure by 16%, 22% and 17%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. Maximum effect was obtained at a dose of 40 ug when the systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures fell by 23%, 36% and 28%, respectively below the pre-drug levels. The greater fall in blood pressure was in diastolic than systolic blood pressure. The extract caused a weaker but similar effect to isoprenaline on rabbit isolated heart. While the effect on rabbit isolated ileum supports the folkloric use of the plant as an antispasmodic, further work is required to confirm and categorize the observed pharmacological activities.
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "K.M. Bhatt and Bhatt S.M., Recent development in the management of opportunistic infections in AIDS. Medics 1996; vol. 15, 11 .". In: AIDS. Medics 1996; vol. 15, 11 . Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1996. Abstract

Meningococcal meningitis has been recognised as serious problem for almost 200 years. In Africa the disease occurs in epidemics periodically during the hot and dry weather in the "meningitis belt" and in east Africa, which is outside this belt the epidemics tend to occur during the cold and dry months. The infection is mainly transmitted from person to person by nasopharyngeal carriers in crowded places like refugee camps and army barracks. The rural/urban migration, the basic structural conditions of housing in squatter settlements and slums together with an overcrowded transport system have also contributed to the transmission of meningococcal meningitis. The earlier treatment of meningococcal meningitis was by the way of repeated CSF drainage. The first important advance in the treatment was intrathecal injection of antimeningococcal serum. A major break through in the treatment was the introduction of sulphonamides which was the preferred treatment until emergence of resistance to sulphonamides in mid 1960's. Penicillin remains the drug of choice currently. Mass immunisation of selected communities using polyvalent A and C polysaccharide vaccine is a useful control measure. Chemoprophylaxis is generally not recommended during epidemics. Given the current population densities and rural/urban migration together with financial constraints, future epidemic in Kenya may be more explosive unless strict surveillance programmes are maintained.

M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "K.M. Bhatt and Bhatt S.M., Recent development in the management of opportunistic infections in AIDS. Medics 1996; vol. 15, 11 .". In: AIDS. Medics 1996; vol. 15, 11 . Taylor & Francis; 1996. Abstract

Meningococcal meningitis has been recognised as serious problem for almost 200 years. In Africa the disease occurs in epidemics periodically during the hot and dry weather in the "meningitis belt" and in east Africa, which is outside this belt the epidemics tend to occur during the cold and dry months. The infection is mainly transmitted from person to person by nasopharyngeal carriers in crowded places like refugee camps and army barracks. The rural/urban migration, the basic structural conditions of housing in squatter settlements and slums together with an overcrowded transport system have also contributed to the transmission of meningococcal meningitis. The earlier treatment of meningococcal meningitis was by the way of repeated CSF drainage. The first important advance in the treatment was intrathecal injection of antimeningococcal serum. A major break through in the treatment was the introduction of sulphonamides which was the preferred treatment until emergence of resistance to sulphonamides in mid 1960's. Penicillin remains the drug of choice currently. Mass immunisation of selected communities using polyvalent A and C polysaccharide vaccine is a useful control measure. Chemoprophylaxis is generally not recommended during epidemics. Given the current population densities and rural/urban migration together with financial constraints, future epidemic in Kenya may be more explosive unless strict surveillance programmes are maintained.

M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "K.M. Bhatt, Bhatt S.M. and N.B. Mirza, Meningococcal meningitis E.A.M. J. 1996; Vol. 73, 35 .". In: E.A.M. J. 1996; Vol. 73, 35 . Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1996. Abstract

Meningococcal meningitis has been recognised as serious problem for almost 200 years. In Africa the disease occurs in epidemics periodically during the hot and dry weather in the "meningitis belt" and in east Africa, which is outside this belt the epidemics tend to occur during the cold and dry months. The infection is mainly transmitted from person to person by nasopharyngeal carriers in crowded places like refugee camps and army barracks. The rural/urban migration, the basic structural conditions of housing in squatter settlements and slums together with an overcrowded transport system have also contributed to the transmission of meningococcal meningitis. The earlier treatment of meningococcal meningitis was by the way of repeated CSF drainage. The first important advance in the treatment was intrathecal injection of antimeningococcal serum. A major break through in the treatment was the introduction of sulphonamides which was the preferred treatment until emergence of resistance to sulphonamides in mid 1960's. Penicillin remains the drug of choice currently. Mass immunisation of selected communities using polyvalent A and C polysaccharide vaccine is a useful control measure. Chemoprophylaxis is generally not recommended during epidemics. Given the current population densities and rural/urban migration together with financial constraints, future epidemic in Kenya may be more explosive unless strict surveillance programmes are maintained.

M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "K.M. Bhatt, Bhatt S.M. and N.B. Mirza, Meningococcal meningitis E.A.M. J. 1996; Vol. 73, 35 .". In: E.A.M. J. 1996; Vol. 73, 35 . Taylor & Francis; 1996. Abstract

Meningococcal meningitis has been recognised as serious problem for almost 200 years. In Africa the disease occurs in epidemics periodically during the hot and dry weather in the "meningitis belt" and in east Africa, which is outside this belt the epidemics tend to occur during the cold and dry months. The infection is mainly transmitted from person to person by nasopharyngeal carriers in crowded places like refugee camps and army barracks. The rural/urban migration, the basic structural conditions of housing in squatter settlements and slums together with an overcrowded transport system have also contributed to the transmission of meningococcal meningitis. The earlier treatment of meningococcal meningitis was by the way of repeated CSF drainage. The first important advance in the treatment was intrathecal injection of antimeningococcal serum. A major break through in the treatment was the introduction of sulphonamides which was the preferred treatment until emergence of resistance to sulphonamides in mid 1960's. Penicillin remains the drug of choice currently. Mass immunisation of selected communities using polyvalent A and C polysaccharide vaccine is a useful control measure. Chemoprophylaxis is generally not recommended during epidemics. Given the current population densities and rural/urban migration together with financial constraints, future epidemic in Kenya may be more explosive unless strict surveillance programmes are maintained.

M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "K.M. Bhatt., Bhatt S.M., Tombe, Blackwater fever at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya: E.A.M.J. 1994; Vol. 71, 755 .". In: E.A.M.J. 1994; Vol. 71, 755 . Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1994. Abstract
Blackwater fever was an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the beginning of this century particularly in West and Central Africa. There has been a marked reduction in the incidence of blackwater fever since 1950 and only sporadic cases occur nowadays. At the Kenyatta National Hospital, three cases of blackwater fever have been seen in the past four years whereas not a single case had been reported between 1975 and 1988. Two of the patients fit into the classical description of blackwater fever and one was possibly due to drug induced haemolysis in a G6PD deficiency patient.
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "K.M. Bhatt., Bhatt S.M., Tombe, Blackwater fever at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya: E.A.M.J. 1994; Vol. 71, 755 .". In: E.A.M.J. 1994; Vol. 71, 755 . Taylor & Francis; 1994. Abstract
Blackwater fever was an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the beginning of this century particularly in West and Central Africa. There has been a marked reduction in the incidence of blackwater fever since 1950 and only sporadic cases occur nowadays. At the Kenyatta National Hospital, three cases of blackwater fever have been seen in the past four years whereas not a single case had been reported between 1975 and 1988. Two of the patients fit into the classical description of blackwater fever and one was possibly due to drug induced haemolysis in a G6PD deficiency patient.
PROF. MUKIAMA TITUSK, PROF. MUKIAMA TITUSK. "K.M.Mavuti, E.N.Kimani & T.Mukiama (2005) Growth patterns of the pearl oyster Pinctada margarifera in Gazi Bay, Kenya. African Journal of Marine Sciences 27: 567-575.". In: African Journal of Marine Sciences 27: 567-575. WFL Publisher; 2005. Abstract
Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) from Meru district in Eastern Kenya were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The oil was dominated by monoterpens which accounted for 92.48%. This monoterpene fraction was characterized by a high percentage of eugenol (68.8%). The other major monoterpenes were methyl eugenol (13.21%), cis-ocimene (7.47%), trans-ocimene (0.94%), β-pinene (1.10%) and camphor (0.95%). The sesquiterpenes present in fairly good amounts were germacrene D (4.25%) and trans-caryophyllene (1.69%). The minor sesquiterpenes were α-farnesene (0.85%) and β-bisabolene (0.74%). The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against both Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosae, Salmonella typhi, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis) bacteria and a pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. The oil had pronounced antibacterial and antifungal activities on all the microbes.
MOSES DRKURIAKIMANIARTHUR. "K.Njunge, Gichuru Muriuki, J.W. Mwangi and K.A.M. Kuria (2002). Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects of Myrica salicifolia (Myricaceae).Phytother. Res. 16, S73 - S74.". In: East Centr. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci. EAMJ; 2002. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
"K.O. Abuga, P.M. Mwagiru, G.N. Thoithi, J.M. Nguyo, J .K. Ngugi, O.K. King’ondu, H.N. Mugo and I.O. Kibwage. Quality of Antiretroviral Drugs Analyzed in the Drug Analysis and Research Unit during 2000-2003. ." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sci.. 2003;6(1):20-23. Abstract

Dombeya rotundifolia (Planch) belongs to the Sterculiaceae family and is wide spread in Kenya growing at an altitude of between 900 and 2250m [1]. It is used in traditional medicine in the treatment of rheumatism and diarrhea [2] syphilis [3], heart problems, hemorrhoids, dyspepsia, to regulate the menses and to hasten the onset of labor [4], to manage abdominal pains, intestinal ulceration, headache and haemorrhage, as a tonic and to cause abortion [5-6]
Some general phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been carried out on D. rotundifolia. It has notable anti-bacterial and anti infalammatory activity, and has been found to contain cardiac glycosides, saponins and tannins. It does not contain cyanogenic glycosides and alkaloids [6] the ethanol leaf extract are bacteriostatic against staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol and water extraxt and antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus [6-7]. There is no report on previous isolation of compounds from this plant

"K.O. Mang'era, G.K. Rutere, J.K. Thuranira, R. Mithamo, A. Ochieng, S. Vugigi, E. Ogaja, J.O. Kibwage. Drug Quality Control Work at Drug Analysis Research Unit: Observations During 1987 - 1990.". 1992. Abstract

During the period 1987 to 1990, the Drug Analysis and Research Una received and analysed 130 samples, 70
samples were of local origin while 60 were imports. A total of 103 samples satisfied requirements for quality. AU
samples of methylated spirit and absorbent gauze received were of unsatisfactory quality.

MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "K.W. Simiyu, P.B. Gathuma, M.N. Kyule, L.W. Kanja, J.N. Ombui, and M.M. Kagiko (1998). Prevalence of Escherichia coli toxins and antibiotics resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from river water. Ken. Vet. 23: 205 .". In: journal. FARA; 1998. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Kaahwa, A.R., Okoth, M.W. and Imungi, J.K. 1999. The effect of homogenization stabilizer and amylase treatment on viscosity of passion fruit juice. J. Food Technol. Afr. 4(1): 22.". In: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Newsletter for Sub-Saharan Africa, Issue 17Rome, Italy. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1999. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
WANDAYI PROFOKOTHMICHAEL. "KAAHWA, A.R.; OKOTH, M.W; AND J.K. IMUNGI. The effect of homogenization, stabilizer and amylase on viscosity of passion fruit juice. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa 2(3)120-125 (1998).". In: The Journal of Food Technology in Africa 2(3)120-125 (1998). University of Nairobi.; 1998. Abstract

Operations Research techniques involving modelling a situation or a problem and finding an optimal solution for it. These tools are not designed nor intended to replace managerial decision making, but rather their purpose is to aid in the decision-making process by providing a quantitative basis for decision making. Unfortunately, the proliferation of OR tools in organizational decision making has been lacking, with concerns been expressed about the limited awareness of the business community of OR's potential and capability. Current study was based in the premise that students provide an appropriate avenue, as agent of change, in sensitizing and demonstrating the potential and capacity of OR tools/techniques in resolving various problems, both in public and private sector. Study aimed at evaluating the use of OR as tools of data analysis at MBA level. A sample of 100 MBA research projects undertaken between 2005 and 2007 was randomly selected and their objectives and selected data analysis tools recorded. Where OR tools were not used, the research evaluated if there was a possibility of using OR tools. Results indicated low usage of OR as data analysis, though there was a high potential for the use of OR tools.

ODUOR PROFOKELLODOMINIC. "KAAYA, G.P. & ODUOR-OKELO, D. (1980). The effect of Tryponosoma conglense infection on the testis and epididymis of the goat. Bull. Anim. Health. Prod. Afric. 28: 1-5.". In: J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111 C (2): 191-196. Kisipan, M.L.; 1980. Abstract
Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corn oil or 5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg or 30 mg per kg body weight of heptachlor solution every other day for up to 18 days. The rats were killed at the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were assayed for progesterone and oestrogen by radioimmunoassay. Ovarian cells from the rats were isolated and incubated either on their own, or in the presence of LH or FSH, and production of progesterone and oestrogen determined. Control incubations consisted of cells from corn oil-treated rats. The latter were also incubated on their own or in the presence of LH or FSH. Heptachlor significantly suppressed blood progesterone and oestradiol levels (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), the degree of suppression depending on the dose and the stage of the oestrous cycle in which samples were obtained. Production of oestradiol by ovarian cells from heptachlor-treated rats was lower than for corn oil-treated controls. Cells from rats treated with low doses of heptachlor (5 mg per kg body weight) showed an increased production of progesterone, while high doses (> 20 mg per kg body weight) suppressed production.
NDEGWA PROFGAKUULAWRENCE. "Kabetu CE, Gakuu LN.Anaesthesia in the elderly with special reference to management of orthopaedic patients. East Afr Med J. 1997 Oct;74(10):652-5. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1997 Oct;74(10):652-5. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1997. Abstract
Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Elderly patients are placing increased demands on the health care resources in Kenya. The population of old patients has increased and complex surgical/orthopaedic procedures are being done on old patients. Due to the normal physiological alterations that occur with age, as well as the effects of common chronic diseases, elderly patients are less resilient than younger patients and are at risk of developing a variety of intraoperative and postoperative complications peculiar to their age. If and when complications develop in the elderly patients they have no reserves to withstand them and recovery is prolonged. In this article we review the factors that affect the peri-anaesthetic patients with special reference to orthopaedic and trauma elderly patients and we highlight the factors that may modify the treatment and surgery in these patients. We also recommend modifications for developing countries to lessen the financial burden on health care units.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Kabira, J.N. and Imungi, J.K. 1991. Possibility of incorporating potato flour into three traditional Kenya foods. African Study Monographs 12:211.". In: Presented at the Seminar of Post harvest Management of Food Crops. Nairobi, 29 - 30 January 1992. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1991. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Kabira, J.N. and Imungi, J.K. 1994. Effect of substituting wheat flour with dehydrated uncooked potato flour or rheological properties of dough and baking quality bread. Proc. 5th Symp. ISTRCAB. pp 332-335.". In: Proc. 5th Symp. ISTRCAB. pp 332-335. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1994. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Kabira, J.N., Imungi, J.K. and Anandajaysekerani, P. 1990. A preliminary techno-economic study of potato flour production in Kenya. Presented at the KARI Annual Science Conference, Nairobi 5 -7 September 1990.". In: Presented at the KARI Annual Science Conference, Nairobi 5 -7 September 1990. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1990. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Kabira, J.N., Imungi, J.K., Haas, J. and Amado, R. 1991. Proximate composition, mineral contents and protein nutritional quality of potato flour from solar-dried raw potato slices. In production, Post harvest Technology and Utilization of potatoes in the .". In: KARI/CIP Technical Workshop, Nairobi, 5th - 7th September 1990. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1991. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Kabira, J.N., Oyunga, M. and Imungi, J.K. 1991. Determination of the potential use of potato flour for Chapati and Mandazi preparation in Kenya. Presented at the KARI/CIP Technical Workshop,Nairobi.". In: Presented at the KARI/CIP Technical Workshop,Nairobi. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1991. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
K PROFIMUNGIJASPER. "Kabira, J.N., Oyunga, M. and Imungi, J.K. 1991. Determination of the potential use of potato flour for Chapati and Mandazi preparation. Proc. KARI/CIP Technical Workshop, Nairobi, 5th - 7th September 1990.". In: KARI/CIP Technical Workshop, Nairobi, 5th - 7th September 1990. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1991. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage L.W., Kiarie G.E., Gitau G.K., Wakhungu J.W., and Mutero C.M, (2003). Crop-livestock interactions and nutrient cycling in the Mwea agroecosystem.". In: Paper presented at the . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2003. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L. W ,(2002). .The role of poultry production in poverty alleviation: Current trends in peri-urban and rural areas of Kenya.". In: Paper presented at the 2nd Kenya Livestock Technologists Association (KELITA) Scientific Conference, held at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) in July 2002. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2002. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Kabuage, L. W., P. N. Mbugua and B. N. Mitaru (1991): Effect of feeding diammoniamum citrate on body fat level and performance in broiler chickens: Bull. Anim Hlth. Pro.Afr. 39: 405-409.". In: In proceedings: VIIIth World conference on animal production. Seoul, Korea. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1991.
NJENGA PROFMBUGUAPAUL. "Kabuage, L. W., P.N. Mbugua and B. N. Mitaru (1988): Effect of diet on carcass fat in broiler chickens.". In: In proceedings: Animal production society of Kenya conference. Heinrich Boll Foundation.; 1988.
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W. (1994). Poultry nutrition and management. Agriculture in Pretoria, South Africa on 1-4 April 1996.". In: Paper presented at the 2nd All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture in Pretoria, South Africa on 1-4 April 1996. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1996. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
G DMAINAJOYCE. "Kabuage, L.W. and Maina, J.G. (2005). Assessment of Rice Based Feedstuffs for Poultry Production at Mwea Irrigation Scheme.". In: African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD) conference (12th – 14th September 2005) at Jomo Kenyatta Institute of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi. The Kenya Medical Association; 2005. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N. and Mitaru, B.N. (1988). Effect of dietary treatments on body fat level and performance in broiler chickens. Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Regional Conference for Eastern and Southern Africa in Nairo.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Regional Conference for Eastern and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya; 23rd-25th Nov., 1988. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N. and Mitaru, B.N. (1992). Nutritional value of grain amaranth in broiler diets.". In: Paper presented at the 1st All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya; 23rd-27th November, 1992 - 1992. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1992. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N. and Mitaru, B.N. (1993). The effect of feeding raw and extruded grain amaranth diets on performance in broiler chickens. Paper presented at the World Conference on Animal Production in Edmonton, Canada; 28th June - 2nd July, 19.". In: Paper presented at the World Conference on Animal Production in Edmonton, Canada; 28th June - 2nd July, 1993. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1993. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N. and Ngatia, T.A. (1994). Production, health and economic data in a broiler chicken research project. The Kenya Veterinarian, Special issue, Vol. 18, No.". In: Paper presented at the 2nd All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture in Pretoria, South Africa on 1-4 April 1996. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1994. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N. and Ngatia, T.A. (1996). Effect of amino acid supplementation of raw and thermal processed amaranth diets on broiler.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Regional Conference for Eastern and Southern Africa in Nairobi, Kenya; 23rd-25th Nov., 1988. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1996. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N. and Ngatia, T.A. (1998). Effect of pelleting and inclusion of molasses in grain amaranth diets on broiler performance and carcass composition. Paper presented at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Biennial Scienti.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Symposium held on 11-12 March 1999, at KARI-Naivasha. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N. and Ngatia, T.A. (1998). Utilisation of minerals in grain amaranth diets by broiler chickens. Paper presented at the BSAS/ KARI/APSK/ILRI conference held at KARI conference centre on 27th- 30th January 1998.". In: Paper presented at the BSAS/ KARI/APSK/ILRI conference held at KARI conference centre on 27th- 30th January 1998. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1998. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N. and Ngatia, T.A. (2002). Effect of steam pelleting and inclusion of molasses in amaranth diets on broiler chicken performance, carcass composition and histopathology of some internal organs. Published by FAO-AGRIP.". In: Paper presented at the . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2002. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N., Mitaru, B.N., Ngatia, T.A. and Schafer, K. (2002). Effect of fortifying amaranth diets with amino acids, casein and ethylene diamine tetraacetate on broiler performance, amino acid availability and mineral utilisation. South A.". In: Paper presented at the . Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 2002. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
WANGECHI DR(MRS) KABUAGELUCY. "Kabuage, L.W., Mbugua, P.N.and Mitaru, B.N. (1990). Effect of energy and protein levels in the diet on performance of broiler chickens.". In: Paper presented at the Animal Production Society of Kenya Symposium at Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1990. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
KIRITI DRNG'ANG'ATABITHAWAGITHI. "Kabubo, F. M. and Kiriti-Nganga, T. (2008), .". In: International Journal of Afro-Asian Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp.40-56. Serials Publications; 2008.
K. DRMARIARAJANEWANJIKU. "Kabubo-Mariara J. (2002). Labour Force Participation in Kenya." African Journal of Economic Policy. 2002;Vol 9, No. 2.Website
Mutungi OK. "Kadenge Randu V. Republic ." E.A. L.J., p. 283; 1975. Abstract
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HASHIM DRABDULKADIR. Kadhis’ Intellectual legacy in the East African Coast: The contributions of Al-Amin Al-Mazrui, Muhammad Kassim Al-Mazrui and Abdulla Saleh Farsy. Islamic University in Uganda: Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and culture (IRCICA); 2006.kadhis_intellectual_legacy.pdf
Mwangi EM. "Kafue Flats.". In: Golson, J.G (ed.) Biomes and Ecosystems: An Encyclopedia. Pasadena, CA.: Salem Press; 2013.mwangi_2013_kafue_flats.pdfmwangi_2013_kafue_flats.pdf
M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "Kager P. Rees, P.H., Manguyu, Bhatt K.M., Bhatt, S.M.: Splenic aspiration: experiences in Kenya. Trop. Geogr. Med .1983; Vol. 35, 125 .". In: Trop. Geogr. Med .1983; Vol. 35, 125 . Vaccine 26:2788- 2795; 1983. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

M PROFBHATTSHRIKANTBABU, M PROFBHATTKIRNA. "Kager P. Rees, P.H., Manguyu, Bhatt K.M., Bhatt, S.M.: Splenic aspiration: experiences in Kenya. Trop. Geogr. Med .1983; Vol. 35, 125 .". In: Trop. Geogr. Med .1983; Vol. 35, 125 . Taylor & Francis; 1983. Abstract

We describe the technique of splenic aspiration in 113 patients presenting with splenomegaly. It was used initially to establish a diagnosis, and in those patients with kala azar, to follow the response of the parasites to therapy until 'parasitological cure'. In all 671 aspirations were performed. No complications occurred in the 69 patients with active kala azar, who collectively had more than 600 aspirations. One patient in a moribund condition had a fatal haemorrhage. The aspirate suggested a lymphoma, confirmed at autopsy. In 68 of the 69 patients with active kala azar, the diagnosis was established at the first aspiration. The essentials of the technique are the use of a small calibre needle (21 G), and speed, the needle being in the spleen for less than a second, with the consequent procurement of a few drops of material only.

WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kaggwa, E., and Munyua, W.K. (1988): Relapses in dogs Experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and treated With diminazene aceturate or isometamidium chloride. Vet. Parasitol. 27: 199-208.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kaggwa, E., Munyua, W.K. and Mugera, G.M. (1984): Pathogenecity of Trypanosoma brucei brucei in dogs. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 32: 360-368.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kaggwa, E., Munyua, W.K. and Mugera, G.M. (1984): Pathogenecity of Trypanosoma brucei brucei in dogs. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 32: 360-368.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1984. Abstract
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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kaggwa, E., Munyua, W.K. and Mugera, G.M. (1984): The role of the spleen in Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in dogs. Zbl. Vet. Med. B. 31: 470-479.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1984. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kaggwa, E., Munyua, W.K. and Mugera, G.M. (1984): The role of the spleen in Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in dogs. Zbl. Vet. Med. B. 31: 470-479.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1984. Abstract
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WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kaggwa, E., Munyua, W.K. and Mugera, G.M. (1985). The Pathology Of Trypanosoma brucei brucei in the dog. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr.33 (2): 89-99.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1985. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kaggwa, E., Munyua, W.K. and Mugera, G.M. (1985). The Pathology Of Trypanosoma brucei brucei in the dog. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr.33 (2): 89-99.". In: Proc. 8th Inter. Congress of Parasitol. (I.C.O.P.A.) October 10-14, Izmir-Turkey.; 1985. Abstract
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MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko , M.M. Plaque. Kenya Farmer, March, 1981 pp. 21.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. (1978). Bacteriological limitations for meat and meat products in Kenya. The Kenya Veterinarian, 2:15.". In: journal. FARA; 1978. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. (1979). Hydatidosis: Its prevalence in two small municipal abattoirs. The Kenya Veterinarian 3:46.". In: journal. FARA; 1979. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. (1998). Challenges to Veterinary Medicine in the next Millennium. Ken. Vet. 23: 50 - 51.". In: journal. FARA; 1998. Abstract
Objectives: To determine the occurrence of food borne disease outbreaks in Kenya and the efforts employed to combat them. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Forty two districts in Kenya between 1970 and 1993. Study subjects: Food-borne disease outbreak episodes due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, chemicals, aflatoxins, plant and animal poisons. Outcome measures: Number and aetiological causes of food-borne disease outbreaks reported in the study period. Results: Thirty seven food poisoning outbreaks were reported to the Ministry of Health from various parts of the country in the study period 1970 to 1993, and only 13 of these involving a total of 926 people were confirmed to be due to particular aetiological agents. Foods that were involved included milk and milk products, meat and meat products, maize flour, bread scones and other wheat products, vegetables and lemon pie pudding. A high number of food poisoning cases were treated as outpatients in various health facilities. Conclusions: Under-reporting, inadequate investigation of outbreaks and inadequate diagnostic facilities suggest that food-borne disease outbreaks are more that is recorded by the Ministry of Health.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1988) Cross reactions between antigens of hydatid cyst fluid and other cestodes and their implications in the serological diagnosis of hydatidosis in cattle. Excerpta medica 810:366.". In: journal. FARA; 1988. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kagiko, M.M. and Gathuma, J.M. (1988). Cross-reactions between antigens of hydatid cyst fluid and other cestodes and their implications in the serological diagnosis of hydatidosis in cattle. Excerpta Medica 810, 366.". In: journal. FARA; 1989. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Anthrax, Kenya Farmer, March 1981 pp. 14.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Biological Weapons .". In: journal. FARA; 1982. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Brucellosis, Kenya Farmer, April 1981, pp. 35.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Human Taeniasis and cysticercosis, Kenya Farmer, December 1981, pp. 41.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Hydatid Disease and cyticencosis, Kenya Farmer, September 1981, pp. 57.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Limitations of Biological control of Arthropods. Kenya Farmer, June 1982, pp. 41.". In: journal. FARA; 1982. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Staphylococcal Food Intoxication. Kenya Farmer, August 1982, pp. 17.". In: journal. FARA; 1982. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Toxoplasmosis. Kenya Farmer, Jan. 1983, pp. 28.". In: journal. FARA; 1983. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Tuberculosis, Kenya Farmer, May 1981, pp. 35.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Waging Biological Warfare Against Pests, Kenya Farmer, April 1982, pp.21.". In: journal. FARA; 1982. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M. Zoonotic diseases: An Occupation Hazard. Kenya Farmer, Feb. 1981, pp. 12.". In: journal. FARA; 1981. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M., Lindqvist, K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1990) A comparison between cattle, sheep and goat liver and lung hydatid cyst fluid for the presence of two hydatid antigens. Bull soc. Franc. Parasit. 8 (Supplement 2) 964.". In: journal. FARA; 1990. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM, MWANGI PROFGATHUMAJ. "Kagiko, M.M., Lindqvist, K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1990). Comparison between cattle, sheep and goat liver and lung hydatid cyst fluid for the presence of two hydatid antigens. Bull. Soc. Fran. Parasitols. 8, 964.". In: journal. FARA; 1990. Abstract
Bacillus cereus strains were tested for production of diarrheal enterotoxin by the reverse passive latex agglutination test and for presence of B. cereus enterotoxin gene (bceT) by polymerase chain reaction. About 50% of 56 B. cereus strains reacted positive in broth culture in the reverse passive latex agglutination test, while the bceT gene was detected in 41.1 % of the strains. A 741 bp probe prepared from the polymerase chain reaction product detected bceT gene in all strains that were positive with the polymerase chain reaction. This study indicated a likelihood of two or more enterotoxins being produced by B. cereus which may be involved in causing diarrheal type food poisoning.
MUCHAI PROFKAGIKOM. "Kagiko, M.M.; Lindqvist K. and Gathuma, J.M. (1986). Immunological characterisation of the antigens of hydatid cyst fluid. Proc. 9th International Congress of Infections and Parasitic Diseases. Abstract No. 1150.". In: journal. FARA; 1986. Abstract
Experimentally, two hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigens (antigens 4 and 5) were found to be the most immunogenic antigens in HCF.  The two antigens were precipitated together from HCF.  This was done by adding 2M phosphotungstic acid and 2M magnesium chloride pollutions to clarified HCF whilte continuously stirring the mixture.  The precipitate formed was suspend in physiological saline (PS).  This antigens solutions was used to coat microtitre plates fro indirect ELISA.  Indirect ELISA was performed on 180 randomly selected bovine sera. The sensitivity of the test was found to be 98% while the specificity was 70%.  The predictive value was 89%.  Although the specificity of the test was relatively low, the test using these partially purified antigens was found to be useful because of its high sensitivity.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Kagira, J.M., Kanyari, P.W.N., Munyua, W.K. & Waruiru, R.M., 2002. The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in commercial pig farms in Thika District, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 50: 1-11.". In: In: Proc. 12th Annual meeting of the ENRECA Livestock Helminth Research Project, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, June 21-24. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Kagira, J.M., Kanyari, P.W.N., Munyua, W.K. & Waruiru, R.M., 2003. The control of parasitic nematodes in commercial piggeries Kenya as reflected by a questionnare survey on management practices. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod., 35: 79-84.". In: In: Proc. of the Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Verinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, November 3-5. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kagira, J.M., Kanyari, P.W.N., Munyua, W.K. and Waruiru, R.M. (2002). The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in commercial pig farms in Thika District, Kenya. Bull.Anim.Hlth. Prod. Afr. 50: 1-11.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kagira, J.M., Kanyari, P.W.N., Munyua, W.K. and Waruiru, R.M. (2003): Resistance to anthelmintics in commercial pig herds in Thika District, Kenya. Israel J. Vet. Med. 58 (1): 31-36.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kagira, J.M., P.W.N.Kanyari, W.K. Munyua, and R.M. Waruiru (2003). The control of parasitic nematodes in commercial piggeries in Kenya as reflected by a questionnaire survey on management practices. Trop. Anim. Hlth. Prod. 35: 79-84.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Kagira, J.M., Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K. & Kanyari, P.W.N., 2001. Worm control practices and implications for development of anthelmintic resistance on commercial pig herds in Thika, District, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr., 49: 250-253.". In: In: Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Scientific Conference, KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya, November 11-15. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Kagira, J.M., Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K. & Kanyari, P.W.N., 2002. Anthelmintic resistance survey in commercial pig herds in Thika, District, Kenya.". In: In: Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Scientific Conference, KARI Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya, November 11-15. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
M DRWARUIRUROBERT. "Kagira, J.M., Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K. & Kanyari, P.W.N., 2003. Anthelmintic resistance survey in commercial pig herds in Thika, District, Kenya. Israel J. Vet. Med., 58: 31-36.". In: In: Proc. of the Biennial Scientific Conference of the Faculty of Verinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya, November 3-5. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role.
WILLIAM PROFMUNYUAKIMANI. "Kagira, J.M., Waruiru, R.M., Munyua, W.K. and Kanyari, P.W.N. (2001). Worm control practices and implications for the development of anthelmintics resistance on commercial pig herds in Thika district, Kenya. Bull. Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. 49: 250-253.". In: Paper Presented in The 5th International Operations Research of Eastern Africa Conference, White Sands Hotel, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 16th . EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2001. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The research sought to find out the extent to which mobile phone users were aware about safe disposal of mobile phones. In addition the research went ahead to establish the avenues available to mobile phone manufacturers and users in order to enhance safe mobile disposal through a survey.  The research revealed that there was the need for the mobile manufacturers to manufacture handsets from recyclable materials. The manufacturers should also avail information on handset disposal at the point of sale and do a follow-up using the available media. The mobile services providers can also play an important role on mobile phone disposal by availing the information on the face of the scratch cards. In addition they can notify the subscribers on the available disposal channels through text messages. The government through the designated agencies such as the Communications Commission of Kenya (CCK) and National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) needs to be more assertive in mobile phone disposal measures. Key words: Recycle, Disposal; Mobile Phone; handsets; Environment; Design; Kenya
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Kagunya D.K.J. (1977). Animal brucellosis in the North Eastern Province of Kenya. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nairobi.". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1977. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Kagunya D.K.J. (1989). Diagnosis and Control of Psuedomonas aeruginosa infections: A Review. Bulletin of animal Health and Production in Africa :.". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1989. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Kagunya D.K.J. (1989). Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Paper read at a Veterinary Pathology Departmental Seminar on 25th October 1989.". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1989. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
J DRKAGUNYADAVIDK. "Kagunya D.K.J. and Waiyaki P.G. (1978) A serological survey of animal brucellosis in the North Eastern Province of Kenya. Kenya Veterinary, Vol. 2 No. 2 pp.35-38.". In: Proceedings of the First Annual Scientific conference of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nairobi, 1989. Special Issue. Pp. 127-131. Lelax Global (K) Ltd; 1978. Abstract
The book is a biography of the author. He begins with fundamenbtal question whether we can determine our destiny or we are just fulfiling what has already been ordained. He then explains how he has grown over the yeas experiencing changes.  
KIMANI PROFWAITHAKA. "Kahangi, E.M., and Waithaka, Kimani. 1981. Flowering of cabbage and kale in Kenya as influenced by altitude and GA3 application.Journal of Horticultural Science, 56:185-188.". In: Paper presented at Plant Biotechnology Workshop on . EAMJ; 1981. Abstract
A cross sectional study of 115 patients admitted at the Department of Orthopedics, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya was carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wounds. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 33.0 %. The drugs tested and their corresponding sensitivity was amoxycillin (13.2 %), co-amoxyclav (39.5 %), oxacillin (55.3 %), erythromycin (44.7 %), gentamicin (60.5 %), ciprofloxacin (62.2 %), minocycline (86.8 %), cefuroxime (57.9 %), and clidamycin (84.2 %). These results show the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus aureus and can be used to choose suitable drugs in the management of wounds for hospitalized patients.
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kahihura D, Kamau RK, Ndavi PM: A prospective Study on the Outcome of Caesarean Section at Chogoria Hospital; J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. vol. 16 No. 1, 18: 2003.". In: East Cert Afr. vol. 16 No. 1, 48: 2003. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
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PROF. MWAURA FRANCISB. "KAHINDI J.H.P., N. K. KARANJA , D. ODEE & F.B. MWAURA (2004). The Diversity of Biological Nitrogen-fixing Systems in Kenya. J. Trop. Microbiol. 3: 3-13.". In: Vol. 5 April 2002 15-17. eamj; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats.  Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.   The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively. The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.  KEY WORDS Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial
M PROFNYARIKIDICKSON. "Kahsay, N.G., Ngugi, K.R. Musimba, N.K.R. & Nyariki, D.M. (1999). The performance of Husani dairy goats under water restriction in the arid western lowlands, Eritrea. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 47, 97-101.". In: Geology, Geochemistry and Economic Mineral Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, 147 pp. Philosophical Issues Invoked by Shona People; 1999. Abstract
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K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Kahuho, S.K. .". In: East Afr Med J. 1980 Jul;57(7):490-4. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1980. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Kahuho, S.K., Ayim E.N.: .". In: East Afr Med J. 1983 Mar;60(3):134-9. Links. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1983. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
K DRKAHUHOSAMUEL. "Kahuho, S.K.: .". In: Nairobi Journal of Medicine, 1988;2:81-83. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1988. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Kahunyo J.M., Maitai C.K., Froslie A. Organochlorine pesticide residues in chicken fat: a survey. Poult Sci. 1986 Jun;65(6):1084-9.". In: J Toxicol Environ Health.1986;19(4):449-64. African Crop Science Society; 1986. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

K PROFMAITAICHARLES. "Kahunyo JM, Froslie A, Maitai CK. Organochlorine pesticide residues in chicken eggs: a survey. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1988;24(4):543-50.". In: J Toxicol Environ Health. 1988;24(4):543-50. African Crop Science Society; 1988. Abstract

One hundred and five chicken egg samples were taken from seven geographical locations in Kenya and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues using gas-liquid chromatography. Nine organochlorine compounds were detected: alpha- and gamma-HCH/BHC (hexachlorocyclohexane/benzene hexachloride), aldrin, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], p,p'-DDD (TDE) [2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] (tetrachlorodiphenylethane), o,p'-DDD [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane], o,p'-DDT [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane], and p,p'-DDT. Eighteen of the samples contained DDT levels exceeding the practical residue limit (0.5 ppm). The mean DDT residue content was 0.68 ppm, a result influenced greatly by the high contamination in the 18 samples. Both individual and mean residue levels for other organochlorine pesticides detected were well within the respective practical residue limits.

K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kaihura DM, Koigi-Kamau R, Ndavi PM. A prospective study on outcome of cesarean section at Chogoria Hospital. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 2003; 16: 18-27.". In: J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 2003; 16: 18-27. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 2003. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M. PROFPATRICKNDAVI, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kaihura DM, Koigi-Kamau R, Ndavi PM. A prospective study on outcome of cesarean section at Chogoria Hospital. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 2003; 16: 18-27.". In: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and central Africa. Volume 17 No 1:1-80 February 2004. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
Effects of calcium supplementation in patient at risk of pregnancy induced Hypertension. (This was an experimental double blind randomized clinical trial.) J. Obset. Gynaecol. East Cent.Afr 2005, 18:49-59
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kaihura DM, Koigi-Kamau R, Ndavi PM. A prospective study on outcome of cesarean section at Chogoria Hospital. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 2003; 16: 18-27.". In: J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 2003; 16: 18-27. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 2003. Abstract
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K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kaihura DM, Koigi-Kamau R, Ndavi PM. A survey of knowledge, attitude and use of emergency contraception among undergraduate female students in two Kenyan universities. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1999; 15: 36-44.". In: East Cent Afr 1999; 15: 36-44. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1999. Abstract
Kamau RK, Osoti AO, Njuguna EM. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 1%76-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. BACKGROUND: Cancer of the uterine cervix is the most common female cancer in Kenya. Despite being preventable, it is often diagnosed when it is already late. For this reason, only palliative therapy is provided. Hence, it is expected that their daily routines and that of their caregivers are severely disrupted. OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which diagnosis and treatment of inoperable cervical carcinoma affects quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting Radiotherapy Department at the Kenyatta National Hospital. SUBJECTS: Women undergoing radiotherapy for inoperable cervical cancer. RESULTS: There is high prevalence of profound disruptions in nearly all domains of QOL. In the social domain, between 33% and 44% had the perception that family members and friends had withdrawn social support. Reduction in various economic facets was reported by 47.4%-52.6%, with 44.7% reporting a fall in the overall living standards. There were significant changes in the sexual domain, as a result in which 28.3% reported marital discordance. In the personality domain, decreased self-esteem and self-projection in life occurred in 30.9% and 36.2% respectively. On functional outcomes (EORTC QLQ-C30), only 32%-41% reported not being affected in the various facets of emotional function. Physical functions were affected in 19%-79%, role functions in 69%-75%; symptoms in 49%-80%; cognitive functions in 46%-56%; social functions in 63%-71% and financial aspects by 63%. On global QOL, 53% and 47% respectively reported high level disruption in overall physical health and overall QOL. CONCLUSION: Severe deterioration of QOL occurs as a result of diagnosis of inoperable cervical cancer and subsequent therapies. For this reason there is need to establish severe disease and end-of-life research and management services that would ensure better coping with cancer for patients and for home-based caregivers. PMID: 17633581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
K PROFKAMAUREUBEN, OTIENO DRODAWAFRANCISXAVIER. "Kaihura DM, Koigi-Kamau R, Ndavi PM. A survey of knowledge, attitude and use of emergency contraception among undergraduate female students in two Kenyan universities. J Obstet Gynecol East Cent Afr 1999; 15: 36-44.". In: East Cent Afr 1999; 15: 36-44. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1999. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya in 1997 to compare pill-taking outcomes between 20 "advance provision" clients and 280 "standard" clients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Six family planning clinics in Central and Western Kenya. SUBJECTS: Women presenting as new clients at MOH family planning clinics. INTERVENTIONS: Researchers used prospective tracking to compare indicators of pill-taking success between non-menstruating clients given pills to carry home for later use and menstruating clients who began pill use immediately. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pill-taking outcomes such as side effects, compliance, knowledge, satisfaction, and a continuation proxy. RESULTS: Among clients returning for re-supply, those receiving advance provision of pills did no worse than, and often had superior outcomes to, their counterparts who started taking pills immediately after the clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Advance provision of pills, already practiced worldwide, is safe and feasible. Explicit mention should be made of advance provision of pills in national family planning guidance documents and training curricula in Kenya and throughout sub-Saharan Africa.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "KAIMENYI J.T., GUTHUA, S.W., KIAIRA M.K., OTIENO F: Cancrum Oris: Case report. J. of Oral Diseases (In press).". In: J. of Oral Diseases (In press). Elsevier; 1983. Abstract
Analysis of 355 cases with fractures of the mandible indicated that 74.9% of the cases were due to interpersonal violence and 13.8% were caused by road traffic accidents. The men to women ratio was 8.4:1 and 75.5% of the fracture cases had single fractures while 24.5% had multiple fractures. In cases with a single fracture, the most commonly involved mandibular site was the body (42.2%). The angle of mandible was most frequently fractured (50.5%) in cases with multiple fractures.
J PROFCHINDIAMARK. "Kaimenyi J.T., Ndung'u F.L., Maina S.W. and Chindia M.L.: Oral Health awareness of Kenyan children aged 9 - 15 years in a peri-urban and urban school. East African Medical Journal, 69:337-340, 1992.". In: East African Medical Journal, 69:337-340, 1992. Hekima III (1) 27-42; 1992. Abstract

We report the first three patients diagnosed with focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in Kenya. Clinically they presented as focal or diffuse papillomatous lesions in the oral mucosa. Histopathological features rule out other similar lesions inter alia multiple fibro-epithelial and viral warts.

W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Kaimenyi JT, Guthua SW, Wakiaga J, Kisumbi B.Utilization of dental auxiliaries in private dental surgeries in Kenya.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Dec;71(12):811-5. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT, Guthua SW, Wakiaga J, Kisumbi B.Utilization of dental auxiliaries in private dental surgeries in Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1994 Dec;71(12):811-5.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Dec;71(12):811-5. African Meteorological Society; 1994. Abstract
This study was done to determine the nature of utilization of dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies in private dental surgeries in Kenya. A self administering questionnaire with pre-paid postage was mailed to 138 dentists. 27.5% responded. 81.6% used dental auxiliaries and the main reason was to improve efficiency in managing patients. 93.5% of the auxiliaries were on job trained secondary school graduates. 63.2% of the respondents delegated duties which were mainly non-clinical. 26.3% did not delegate any duties. In a descending order, the reasons for non delegation were: that it would be risky to patients, not allowed by law, they did not find it necessary and that auxiliaries were not held responsible if something went wrong. The main duties delegated to the auxiliaries were cleaning of instruments and sterilization, mixing of restorative materials and preparing amalgam. Delegation was done primarily based on auxiliaries capability to perform the procedure and meet the set standards. 57.9% indicated that they rarely encountered medical emergencies. Syncope was the commonest emergency encountered. 72.7% indicated that auxiliaries could not handle medical emergencies because they were not trained. It is concluded that most dentists did not delegate clinical duties to dental auxiliaries and medical emergencies were rare.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Kaimenyi JT, Guthua SW.Occurrence of ulcerative oral lesions at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.Afr J Health Sci. 1994 Nov;1(4):179-181.". In: Afr J Health Sci. 1994 Nov;1(4):179-181. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
This study was done as part of a WHO international survey of orofacial mutilations and NOMA cases referred to out-patient clinic and care centers in 1992. Files of 16,000 patients who were treated at the Dental Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) were scrutinized for the occurrence of NOMA and other ulcerative oral lesions. Of these, 30% had acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis with a male to female ratio of 5:1. 25% had aphthous ulcers with a male to female ratio of 3:2. Equal numbers of patients (10%) had angular cheilitis, aspirin burn and oral candidiasis. Similarly, equal numbers of patients (5%) had NOMA, atypical ulceration and radiotherapy induced ulceration. It was concluded that NOMA and other ulcerative oral lesions were rare among the patients who were treated at the Dental Unit of KNH.
W PROFGUTHUASYMON. "Kaimenyi JT, Guthua SW.Residual facial deformity resulting from cancrum oris: a case report.East Afr Med J. 1994 Jul;71(7):476-8. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jul;71(7):476-8. Review. Elsevier; 1994. Abstract
Cancrum oris cases are occasionally treated in various hospitals in Kenya. Despite this, only one case has been reported in literature. Besides, no epidemiological or treatment studies of cancrum oris has been carried out in Kenya. We report an unusual case of a 17 year old Kenyan female with oral cutaneous fistula and tissue atrophy on the left cheek following cancrum oris infection in childhood. Since most cancrum oris cases are a sequela of acute necrotizing gingivitis (ANG), prevention of cancrum oris can be achieved by early and prompt remedial measures once a diagnosis of ANG is established. Failure to do this might lead to cancrum oris with its attendant disfiguring complications some of which might be impossible to treat in developing countries where the requisite personnel is lacking or inadequate.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT, Guthua SW.Residual facial deformity resulting from cancrum oris: a case report.East Afr Med J. 1994 Jul;71(7):476-8. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1994 Jul;71(7):476-8. Review. African Meteorological Society; 1994. Abstract
Cancrum oris cases are occasionally treated in various hospitals in Kenya. Despite this, only one case has been reported in literature. Besides, no epidemiological or treatment studies of cancrum oris has been carried out in Kenya. We report an unusual case of a 17 year old Kenyan female with oral cutaneous fistula and tissue atrophy on the left cheek following cancrum oris infection in childhood. Since most cancrum oris cases are a sequela of acute necrotizing gingivitis (ANG), prevention of cancrum oris can be achieved by early and prompt remedial measures once a diagnosis of ANG is established. Failure to do this might lead to cancrum oris with its attendant disfiguring complications some of which might be impossible to treat in developing countries where the requisite personnel is lacking or inadequate.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT, Hassan SR, Mutema AM. Managing dental caries at the dental unit of Kenyatta National Hospital Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr Med J. 1987 Dec;64(12):860-3.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Dec;64(12):860-3. African Meteorological Society; 1987. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3505209 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT, Ndungu FL, Maina SW, Chindia M.Oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness of Kenyan children aged 9-15 years in a peri-urban and urban school.East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):67-70.". In: East Afr Med J. 1993 Feb;70(2):67-70. African Meteorological Society; 1993. Abstract
The oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness of 541 Kenyan children from a peri-urban and urban school and aged 9-15 years, were investigated. 80.2% of the urban children and 43.1% of the peri-urban children had visited a dentist before. 12.4% of the urban children and 9.2% of the peri-urban children knew that bacteria cause dental caries. Over 87% of the children from either school knew that dental caries and periodontitis can be prevented. The main reason for visiting a dentist was to have tooth extraction. Failure to brush teeth was believed to be the cause of gingival bleeding by 38.9% of the peri-urban children and 37.6% of the urban children. 67.2% of the peri-urban children and 39.5% of the urban children brushed their teeth thrice daily. 21.1% of the peri-urban children and 2% of the urban children used a chewing stick to brush their teeth. More urban children (96.5%) used a toothbrush than peri-urban children (64.8%). None of the children from either school admitted using traditional cleaning aids such as the finger and charcoal. It is concluded that there were no consistent differences in oral hygiene habits and dental health awareness between peri-urban and urban children.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT, Ndungu FL.Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV positive and AIDS patients among public service dentists in Nairobi.Afr J Health Sci. 1994 Aug;1(3):116-121.". In: Afr J Health Sci. 1994 Aug;1(3):116-121. African Meteorological Society; 1994. Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, practices and attitudes towards HIV Positive/AIDS patients among 112 dentists from public institutions in Nairobi using a self-administered questionnaire. 94(83.9%) responded. Over 74% had managed HIV positive/AIDS patients. In general, respondents' knowledge and preventive measures against HIV infection were satisfactory. 8.5% did not find use of protective eye wear absolutely necessary. 33% used protective covers routinely. 52.1% advocated for the screening of all suspected cases of AIDS before treatment. 27.7% felt that HIV positive health workers and those with AIDS should not be allowed to treat patients. 53.2% felt that they should be given the right to decide on treating HIV Positive/AIDS patients. 10.6% supported the idea that AIDS patients be isolated from uninfected individuals. It is concluded that a substantial number of dentists were wanting in their attitudes towards HIV positive/AIDS patients.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT, Sachdeva P, Patel S.Cause of tooth mortality at the dental unit of Kenyatta National Hospital of Nairobi, Kenya.Odontostomatol Trop. 1988 Mar;11(1):17-20. No abstract available.". In: Odontostomatol Trop. 1988 Mar;11(1):17-20. African Meteorological Society; 1988. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3249689 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB, GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Kaimenyi JT, Wagaiyu EG, Ndungu FL.Efficacy of traditional chewing sticks in plaque control.East Afr Med J. 1987 Sep;64(9):624-7. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Sep;64(9):624-7. EM Ngatia, LW Gathece, FG Macigo, TK Mulli, LN Mutara, EG Wagaiyu.; 1987. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB, GACERI DRWAGAIYUEVELYN. "Kaimenyi JT, Wagaiyu EG, Ndungu FL.Efficacy of traditional chewing sticks in plaque control.East Afr Med J. 1987 Sep;64(9):624-7. Review.". In: East Afr Med J. 1987 Sep;64(9):624-7. African Meteorological Society; 1987. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3333346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT.Demography and seasonal variation of acute necrotising gingivitis in Nairobi, Kenya. Int Dent J. 1999 Dec;49(6):347-51.". In: Int Dent J. 1999 Dec;49(6):347-51. African Meteorological Society; 1999. Abstract
The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of Acute Necrotising Gingivitis (ANG), its sex and age distribution, ethnicity and seasonal variation amongst patients at the Dental Unit of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) in Nairobi, Kenya. Cards of patients who were seen in the Dental Unit of KNH in 1992/1993, were scrutinised for positive diagnosis of ANG, age, sex, presenting signs and symptoms and treatment that was given. Of the 53,572 patients who were treated, (0.15 per cent) had ANG. Their age range was 1.5-46 years (Mean = 14.5 years), with 58.5 per cent being below 11 years and 32.9 per cent being between 21 and 40 years. The most affected ethnic groups were the Luos and Kikuyus, while 72 per cent of the patients were seen in March and April, and between September and December. It is concluded that the frequency of ANG was low, ANG affected children and adults, and that ANG varied seasonally. PMID: 10907433 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT.Inappropriateness of the term "periodontal disease". Indian J Dent Res. 1993 Jul-Dec;4(3-4):81-9.". In: Indian J Dent Res. 1993 Jul-Dec;4(3-4):81-9. African Meteorological Society; 1993. Abstract
Traditionally, diseases that affect the periodontium have over the years been referred to as periodontal disease. This implies that these diseases are a single disease entity or only one disease, "periodontal disease," affects the periodontium. To date, dental literature is replete with several diseases that affect the periodontium. Most of these diseases exhibit unique bacteriological, immunological, biochemical and clinical features. It is these characteristics that qualify them to be regarded as individual or different disease entities. Biased by these recent reports on distinct diseases that affect the periodontium, several dental authors have written articles where they have preferred the term "periodontal diseases" to "periodontal disease," when discussing and reporting on the diseases that affect the periodontium. This paper suggests and discusses the reasons why scientists have continued to use the term periodontal disease and presents arguments why this terminology is inappropriate. It is suggested that the term "periodontal disease" be replaced by the term "periodontal diseases".
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi JT.The origins of bad breath (fetor oris) from the oral cavity and its management.East Afr Med J. 1985 May;62(5):360-2.". In: East Afr Med J. 1985 May;62(5):360-2. African Meteorological Society; 1985. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 4042945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
M DRWAKIAGAJOHN, M DRWAKIAGAJOHN. "Kaimenyi, J., T., Guthua S.,W., Wakiaga J.M. and Kisumbi B.K.: Utilisation of Dental Auxiliaries in Private Dental Surgeries in Kenya. East African Medical Journal 71: 811-85,1994.". In: East Afr Med J. 1995 Sep;72(9):568-76. University of Nairobi Press; 1994. Abstract
This paper presents the age, sex and site distribution of oral tumours and tumour like conditions in Kenya. It confirms some important points. First, there is an overall lower mean age for oral tumours in African series compared to non African series. Secondly, sex bias in the distribution of oral tumours is less marked for most tumours in Africans. Thirdly, there is difference in site distribution and oral tumours between Africans and non-African populations.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T (1986). Filling the gaps in services. Africa Health 8:24-25.". In: Africa Health 8:24-25. African Meteorological Society; 1986. Abstract

No abstract available. PMID: 6535699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T (1988). Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis .". In: The Nairobi University Journal of Dentistry 4:7-4. African Meteorological Society; 1988. Abstract

Department of Peridontology & Preventive Dentistry, Guy's Hospital Dental School, UMDS, London, UK. Bone loss in chronic periodontitis was assessed from panoramic radiographs by direct measurement from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and by measuring the proportion of the tooth length supported by bone. Mesial and distal bone levels of all available teeth were assessed for 50 patients aged 30-39 years referred for periodontal treatment. 85% and 74% of surfaces were measurable by the proportional and direct techniques, respectively. 27% of surfaces had no bone loss according to the proportional score, whereas 22% had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of less than 2 mm. In addition, over half the surfaces with a proportional bone loss score of zero had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 2 mm or more, and for each proportional bone loss score, there was considerable overlap in the CEJ to alveolar bone distances recorded. The validity of the CEJ to alveolar bone measurements was established by comparison with direct measurements at periodontal surgery. The results support the use of direct measurement from the CEJ to alveolar bone rather than the assessment of the proportion of the tooth length within the bone when investigating bone loss from panoramic radiographs. This population of 30-40-year-old periodontal patients had a mean of 50% of sites with a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 3 mm or more, and at such sites, there was a mean additional bone loss of 2.1 mm.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T (1989). Diet, Nutrition and Oral Health. East African Medical Journal 66:565 .". In: East Afr Med J. 1989 Sep;66(9):565-6. African Meteorological Society; 1989. Abstract
Two hundred and thirty one miraa chewers and 199 non miraa chewers were assessed for gingivitis, loss of attachment and oral hygiene status. The mean gingivitis score among miraa chewers was 1.6 and 1.7 among non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). The mean facial gingivitis score among miraa chewers was 1.5 and 1.6 among non miraa chewers (P greater than 0.05). The mean distal gingivitis score among miraa chewers was 1.5 and 1.7 among non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). The mean lingual gingivitis score among miraa chewers was lower than that of non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). The means of loss of attachment of the teeth of miraa chewers were equal to those of non miraa chewers. Although the mean surface plaque scores of miraa chewers were generally lower than those of non miraa chewers, only the mean lingual plaque score of miraa chewers was found to be significantly lower than that of non miraa chewers (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that the oral hygiene status of miraa chewers was generally better than that of non miraa chewers and there was no evidence to show that chewing miraa is detrimental to periodontal health.
T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T and Ashley F.P (1988) Assessment of bone loss in periodontitis from panoramic radiographs. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 15:170-174.". In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology 15:170-174. African Meteorological Society; 1988. Abstract

Department of Peridontology & Preventive Dentistry, Guy's Hospital Dental School, UMDS, London, UK. Bone loss in chronic periodontitis was assessed from panoramic radiographs by direct measurement from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and by measuring the proportion of the tooth length supported by bone. Mesial and distal bone levels of all available teeth were assessed for 50 patients aged 30-39 years referred for periodontal treatment. 85% and 74% of surfaces were measurable by the proportional and direct techniques, respectively. 27% of surfaces had no bone loss according to the proportional score, whereas 22% had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of less than 2 mm. In addition, over half the surfaces with a proportional bone loss score of zero had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 2 mm or more, and for each proportional bone loss score, there was considerable overlap in the CEJ to alveolar bone distances recorded. The validity of the CEJ to alveolar bone measurements was established by comparison with direct measurements at periodontal surgery. The results support the use of direct measurement from the CEJ to alveolar bone rather than the assessment of the proportion of the tooth length within the bone when investigating bone loss from panoramic radiographs. This population of 30-40-year-old periodontal patients had a mean of 50% of sites with a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 3 mm or more, and at such sites, there was a mean additional bone loss of 2.1 mm.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T and Muthami L.N. (1988) Dentists view on the use of tropical forms of fluorides in Kenya. Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya 1:82 .". In: Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya 1:82 . African Meteorological Society; 1988. Abstract

Department of Peridontology & Preventive Dentistry, Guy's Hospital Dental School, UMDS, London, UK. Bone loss in chronic periodontitis was assessed from panoramic radiographs by direct measurement from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and by measuring the proportion of the tooth length supported by bone. Mesial and distal bone levels of all available teeth were assessed for 50 patients aged 30-39 years referred for periodontal treatment. 85% and 74% of surfaces were measurable by the proportional and direct techniques, respectively. 27% of surfaces had no bone loss according to the proportional score, whereas 22% had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of less than 2 mm. In addition, over half the surfaces with a proportional bone loss score of zero had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 2 mm or more, and for each proportional bone loss score, there was considerable overlap in the CEJ to alveolar bone distances recorded. The validity of the CEJ to alveolar bone measurements was established by comparison with direct measurements at periodontal surgery. The results support the use of direct measurement from the CEJ to alveolar bone rather than the assessment of the proportion of the tooth length within the bone when investigating bone loss from panoramic radiographs. This population of 30-40-year-old periodontal patients had a mean of 50% of sites with a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 3 mm or more, and at such sites, there was a mean additional bone loss of 2.1 mm.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T and Muthami L.N. (1988) Oral hygiene practices among dentists and their families. Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya 2:10-13 and 16.". In: Pharmaceutical Journal of Kenya 2:10-13 and 16. African Meteorological Society; 1988. Abstract

Department of Peridontology & Preventive Dentistry, Guy's Hospital Dental School, UMDS, London, UK. Bone loss in chronic periodontitis was assessed from panoramic radiographs by direct measurement from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and by measuring the proportion of the tooth length supported by bone. Mesial and distal bone levels of all available teeth were assessed for 50 patients aged 30-39 years referred for periodontal treatment. 85% and 74% of surfaces were measurable by the proportional and direct techniques, respectively. 27% of surfaces had no bone loss according to the proportional score, whereas 22% had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of less than 2 mm. In addition, over half the surfaces with a proportional bone loss score of zero had a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 2 mm or more, and for each proportional bone loss score, there was considerable overlap in the CEJ to alveolar bone distances recorded. The validity of the CEJ to alveolar bone measurements was established by comparison with direct measurements at periodontal surgery. The results support the use of direct measurement from the CEJ to alveolar bone rather than the assessment of the proportion of the tooth length within the bone when investigating bone loss from panoramic radiographs. This population of 30-40-year-old periodontal patients had a mean of 50% of sites with a CEJ to alveolar bone distance of 3 mm or more, and at such sites, there was a mean additional bone loss of 2.1 mm.

T. PROFKAIMENYIJACOB. "Kaimenyi, J.T and Wagaiyu, E.G. and Ndung.". In: East African Medical Journal 64:624-627. African Meteorological Society; 1987. Abstract
No abstract available. PMID: 3249689 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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