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Forthcoming
Habwe J, Foundation KFJK. "The Ekegusii Determiner Phrase. Analysis in the Minimalist Programme. ." International Journal of Linguistics and Communication. Forthcoming.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Editor, Local Social Development Systems in Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya and Zimbabwe (forthcoming 2006) - Chapter on Kenya.". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
ODERA PROFALILAPATRICK. "Editor, Local Social Development Systems in Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya and Zimbabwe (forthcoming) - Chapter on Kenya.". In: Acta Crystallographica C. International Union of Crystallography; Forthcoming. Abstract
Presented here is a 16-year-old girl who was referred on 30th January 1996 with diagnosis of cord compression with spastic paraplegia with sensory level at T7/T8. CT scan myelogam confirmed soft tissue density mass displacing cord to the left with no dye being seen beyond T3. Thoracic spine decompressive laminectomy was performed on 1st January 1996 at Nairobi West Hospital extending from T3 to T6 level, which revealed a fibrous haemorrhagic tumour. Histology showed meningioma (mixed fibrous type and meningoepitheliomatous type) with many psammoma bodies. She had a stormy post-operative period, with infection and wound dehiscence. This was treated with appropriate antibiotics and wound care. She was eventually rehabilitated and was able to walk with the aid of a walking frame because of persistent spasticity of right leg. She was seen once as an outpatient by author on 6th July 1996, she was able to use the walking frame, but the right leg was still held in flexion deformity at the knee. She was thus referred to an orthopaedic surgeon for possible tenotomy. She was able to resume her studies at the University ambulating using a wheel chair and walking frame. She presented with worsening of symptoms in 2001 (five years after her first surgery). MRI scan thoracic spine revealed a left anterolateral intradural lesion extending from T3 to T5 vertebral body level compressing and displacing the spinal cord. She had a repeat surgery on 6th March 2001 at Kenyatta National Hospital; spastic paraparesis and urinary incontinenece persisted. She also developed bed sores and recurrent urinary tract infections. She was followed up by the author and other medical personnel in Mwea Mission Hospital where she eventually succumbed in 2005, nine years after her first surgery. This case is presented as a case of incompletely excised spinal meningioma to highlight some of the problems of managing spinal meningiomas when operating microscope and embolisation of tumours are not readily available. Also the family experienced financial constraint in bringing the patient for regular follow-up, and getting access to appropriate antibiotics, catheters and urine bags.
Submitted
P.OCHILO. "The Electronic Media and Advocacy for Health.". In: The International Planned Parenthood Federation Seminar,for IPPF affiliate Personnel from four of IPPF’s six Worldwide Regions - Africa Arab World, Western Hemisphere, East and South Asia and Oceanic. ; Submitted.
Osano SN, Mwea SK. "The Effects of Vegetation Roots on Stability of Slopes.". In: 2nd International Civil Engineering Conference on Civil Engineering and Sustainable Development. Mombasa, Kenya; Submitted.
Mbuge DO, MM K, E BKM, S M, DA M, J A. "The Effect of Drying Temperature on Nutrient levels in Oyster Mushroom." AJST. Submitted.
Mbuge DO, Kanyara MM, B.K.Mutai E, Murunga S, Mutuli DA, Agullo J. "The Effect of Drying Temperature on Nutrient levels in Oyster Mushroom." AJST. Submitted; ( ). Abstractdocument_2.pdf

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Mutembe N, Elly D. "Effect of Financial Literacy on Voluntary Retirement Planning Among Employees of State Corporations Under the Ministry of Health in Nairobi County, Kenya ." African development finance journal . Submitted;1(1):1-27 . Abstracteffect_of_financial_literacy_on_voluntary_retirement_planning_among_employees_of_state_corporations_under_the_ministry_of_health_in_nairobi_county_kenya.pdf

Purpose - The study sought to determine the effect of financial literacy on voluntary retirement planning among employees of state corporations under the Ministry of Health in Nairobi County, Kenya. Methodology – This study adopted a descriptive study design and uses primary data collected using a questionnaire with a five point Likert scale on the parameters of each variable. The study applied simple random sampling technique to select respondents to participate in the study. Data is analysed using means, percentages and frequencies. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the relationship between financial literacy and voluntary retirement planning. Findings – Financial literacy was found to influence the level of voluntary retirement planning among the employees since they are able to make key decisions that involve money in such a way that there is minimal risk to them. The study also established that financial literacy has a positive impact on voluntary retirement planning, however the results indicate that other factors such as income levels, age, marital status and level of education are also strongly related to retirement planning. Implications – To boost the voluntary retirement planning process, the eventuality of retirement should be made obvious for all the employees in the Kenyan economy so as to influence peoples’ attitude and receptiveness to the process. There is therefore need to develop financial education programs that focus particularly on important financial planning aspects for employees that will help them strike a balance between consumption and saving. Value – The findings of this study would also be valuable to the Retirement Benefits Authority and the Government of Kenya in development of policies and regulations

Olang' POR. Effects of Spinal Anesthesia during Elective Caesarean Section on Neonatal outcome at the Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

Utero-placental circulation and hence fetal well-being depends on maternal blood pressure.
Spinal anesthesia for cesarean section causes sudden and severe drops in blood pressure thus
threatening fetal and neonatal acid-base balance. Several protocols have been formulated to
prevent maternal hypotension but none has been shown to totally eliminate this risk.

This was a prospective non-randomized descriptive study that adopted a consecutive sampling
method. All eligible ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) I and ASA II mothers slated
for elective cesarean section at the Labour Ward of The Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi
were visited in the ante-natal ward the day or night before surgery and an informed consent
obtained for inclusion in the study. Any pre-selected mother who ended up needing emergency
surgery or changed her mind about inclusion in the study was excluded. Similarly, any willing
mother who did not qualify for spinal anesthesia was excluded from the study.
A sample size of 172 cases was taken and this required approximately 15 weeks of data
collection. Maternal blood pressures were recorded every minute until delivery. Immediately
after delivery, a section of the umbilical cord was clumped with 2 clumps. Umbilical arterial and
venous blood samples were collected in heparinized syringes and taken to the laboratory within
one hour of collection and analyzed for blood gases and pH as a measure of foetal! neonatal
compromise. Apgar scores were also noted at birth and after 5 minutes and later correlated with
the cord blood gas analyses and maternal blood pressures.
The anesthesia provider was requested to complete a data sheet which was then collected by the
principal investigator on the same day the surgery was performed.
Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 16.0 and presented in the form of tables,
graphs and charts.

A total of 172 patients were successfully recruited into the study and the total number of
umbilical cord blood samples analyzed (both arterial and venous) was 316. 28 blood samples
clotted and were not available for analysis.
43 babies (27.2%) were born with neonatal acidemia defined as umbilical arterial blood pHS 7.2.
There was, however, no significant relationship between neonatal acidemia and low Apgar
scores; neither was there a significant relationship between low Apgar scores and maternal
hypotension. 104 patients (65.8%) had a wedge inserted under the right hip as recommended for
prevention of aorto-caval compression. There was, however, no significant difference in the
incidence of maternal hypotension among those with a wedge and those without. Vasopressors
were used in 84 patients (53.2%). These included the use of ephedrine alone or epinephrine
alone or a combination of the two in the process of treating or preventing maternal hypotension.
The use of Va sopressors resulted in significantly fewer incidences of hypotension (p=0.018). The
use of preload with crystalloids before induction of spinal anaesthesia was noted to be
significantly related to the use of Vasopressors whenever the volume of preload was less than
500mls (p=0.027). Similarly, maximum levels of spinal block above T6 resulted in significant
incidences of maternal hypotension (p=O.OO1). Maternal height < 155cm did not have any
significant effect on the incidence of maternal hypotension.

Maternal hypotension can lead to poor neonatal outcome due to its effects on placental perfusion
and hence foetal oxygenation. This study has shown that vasopressor use during spinal
anaesthesia effectively minimizes the incidence of maternal hypotension. Crystalloid preload of
over 500mls is effective in preventing or moderating maternal hypotension.
A well conducted spinal anaesthetic for caesarean section with meticulous control/management
of adverse effects results in healthy neonates and mothers

Githaiga JW. Evaluation of diagnostic peritoneal lavage and needle paracentesis in the management of penetrating and blunt abdominal trauma, at Kenyatta National Hospital.; Submitted. Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and sensitivity of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of intra-abdominal injury using the dipstick method. DESIGN: Prospective study, involving the performance of diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the out patient department and surgical wards prior to surgical intervention. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital-General Surgical and Orthopaedic wards and outpatient department. The study was conducted over a duration of six months, starting from January 1995 to July 1995. RESULTS: Ninety six patients with penetrating (68) and blunt (28) abdominal trauma underwent diagnostic peritoneal lavage as evaluation of the severity of abdominal trauma. Dipstick (combur 9 strips) was used to evaluate lavage effluent for red blood cells, white blood cells, protein and bilirubin. Forty three patients had positive diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) results, of which 40 (93%) had positive findings at laparatomy and three (7%) had negative findings at laparatomy. The remaining 53 patients had negative DPL results and were managed conservatively. One patient with a negative DPL result became symptomatic and had a positive laparatomy. Conservatively managed patients were discharged after 24 hours observations without any complications. DPL had an accuracy and sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 98%. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic peritoneal lavage is a cheap, safe and reliable method for assessment of abdominal trauma. The method is easy to perform by trained junior doctors in the OPD, or as a bedside procedure. Use of this method reduced negative laparotomy rate from 50% to 6.9% and average duration of stay from 6.5 days to 1.9 days. This method is recommended as a basic tool in the assessment of abdominal trauma patients

Muirhead JD, Kattenhorn SA, Lee H, Mana S, Turrin BD, Fischer TP, Kianji G, Dindi E, Stamps DS. "Evolution of upper crustal faulting assisted by magmatic volatile release during early-stage continental rift development in the East African Rift." Geosphere. Submitted;12(6):1-31.
D.N. Kariuki PMC. Explore Chemistry, Form 4.; Submitted.
Janet Muhalia Chumba, Andanje Mwisukha RMK. "Extent of public support for physical education in Kenya." International Journal of Business and Social Science. Submitted;4(10). Abstract

Abstract The mass media have a fundamental role to play in the development of Sports.
Their contribution towards uplifting performance and popularizing sports is particularly
critical in the developing countries where sports programmes tend to receive minimal
attention and resource allocation. The mass media are important tools for marketing,
publicizing and popularizing sports. Their specific roles include bringing talent into the
limelight, giving recognition/appreciation to outstanding sports personalities and ...

Munyoki JM,, Kibera FN, Ogutu M. "Extent To Which University- Industry Linkage Exists In Kenya: A Study Of Medium And Large Manufacturing Firms In Selected Industries In Kenya." Business Administration and Management . Submitted;Vol 1(4):163-169, .
Wazid AM, Anyenda OE, Tole NM. "Eye Lens and Thyroid gland dose during CT head scanning in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya." South Africa Journal of Radiology. Submitted.
W PROFNJENGALYDIAH. "e-learning module II contents for 'Coordination Chemistry'.". In: A 3rd year BED Science course material. UoN; Submitted. Abstract
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Githiga R, Ambuko J, Hutchnison M, Owino W. "Effect of Activebag® modified atmosphere packaging on the postharvest characteristics of mango fruits, Mangifera indica L, cultivar Tommy Atkins." Journal of Applied Biosciences. Submitted;83:7535-7544. Abstract
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Hutchinson MJ, Muniu FK, Ambuko J, Mwakangalu M, Mwangombe AW, Okello JJ, Olubayo F. "Effect of Cattle Manure and Calcium Ammonium Nitrogen on Growth and Leaf Yield of Local Cowpea Accessions in Coastal Kenya.". Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Effects of Chemical Events on Environment in Africa.". In: Pontifical Academy of Science's Study Week on "Chemical Events in the Atmosphere and Their Impact", November 1983, P.649-673. Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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Maloba S, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino WO. "Effects of ethephon and potassium nitrate on off-season flower induction in mango.". Submitted. Abstract
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OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "The Electric Dipole Moments of Monohalogen Derivatives of German.". In: Letters. 7, 71 (1971). Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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N PROFKAMAUGEOFREY. "Electrocatalytic decomposition of organohalides in microemulsion,".". In: Submitted to Journal of Electrochimica Acta. Survey Review; Submitted. Abstract
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DR. ANYANGO BEATRICE. "Enviromental Risk Assesment of Genetically Modified Organisms.Vol. 2. Methodologies for Assesing Bt.Cotton in Brazil .. CAB International, Wallingford , UK .". In: Royal Botanic Gardens , Kew , England. El-Banhawy, E. M.; Submitted. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
NGUTA DRJOSEPHMWANZIA. "Ethnodiagnostic Skill of the Digo Community for Malaria: A lead to traditional bioprospecting. J.M.Nguta*, J.M.Mbaria; D.W.Gakuya;P.K.Gathumbi; J.D.Kabasa; S.G.Kiama.". In: Frontiers in Pharmacology. Frontiers, 2011; Submitted. Abstract
Malaria is a major public health problem that is presently complicated by the development of resistance by Plasmodium falciparum to the mainstay drugs. Thus, new drugs with unique structures and mechanism of action are required to treat drug-resistant strains of malaria. Historically, compounds containing a novel structure from natural origin represent a major source for the discovery and development of new drugs for several diseases. This paper presents ethnophytotherapeutic remedies, ethnodiagnostic skills, and related traditional knowledge utilized by the Digo community of the Kenyan Coast to diagnose malaria as a lead to traditional bioprospecting. The current study was carried out in three Digo villages of Diani sub-location between May 2009 and December 2009. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and open and close-ended questionnaires. A total of 60 respondents (34 men and 26 women) provided the targeted information. The results show that the indigenous knowledge of Digo community on malaria encompasses not only the symptoms of malaria but also the factors that are responsible for causing malaria, attributes favoring the breeding of mosquitoes and practices employed to guard against mosquito bites or to protect households against malaria. This knowledge is closely in harmony with scientific approaches to the treatment and control of the disease. The Digo community uses 60 medicinal plants distributed in 52 genera and 27 families to treat malaria. The most frequently mentioned symptoms were fever, joint pains, and vomiting while the most frequently mentioned practices employed to guard against mosquito bites and/or to protect households against malaria was burning of herbal plants such as Ocimum suave and ingestion of herbal decoctions and concoctions. The Digo community has abundant ethnodiagnostic skills for malaria which forms the basis of their traditional bioprospecting techniques. Keywords: malaria, antimalarials, ethnopharmacology, ethnodiagnostic skills, Digo community, bioprospecting
OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM, OYOO PROFWANDIGASHEM. "Evidence for the pseudo Octahedral Geometry and Ready Racemization of 1,1 1 Tris-(pyridine-2-carboxaldiminomethyl)-ethaneiron(II),.". In: Soc. Chem. Commun., 1572 (1970). Academic Press Elsevier. Int.; Submitted. Abstract
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JAMES DRMWAURA. "Experiences, Knowledge and Perceptions of Women on Gender Based Violence; A case study of Komu Sub-location, Thika Municipality, Kenya.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal volume 37. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted.
NJOGU DRMBUGUAMARTIN. "Extraction of vernonia oil from Vernonia galamensis seeds and it.". In: Journal of Kenya Chemical Society. University of Nairobi.; Submitted.
In Press
2019
Ruto LC, Otieno DJ, Oluoch-Kosura W, Mureithi S, Nyberg G. "Emerging forms of land market participation and implications on pastoralists’ livelihoods in Kenya.". In: 20th Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. Washington DC, USA; 2019.
Marangu D, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia in children: A systematic review." Paediatr Respir Rev. 2019. Abstract

To describe the clinical-radiological-pathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of children with suspected exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP).

Owino B, Ogacho A, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Odari V. "Effect of TiO2 Compact Layer on Photovoltaic Characteristics of TiO2/Nb2O5 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.". In: 10th International Conference of the African Materials Research Society (AMRS2019). Arusha, Tanzania, ; 2019.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Alphayo I. Lutta, Lance W. Robinson, Oliver V. Wasonga, Ruto E, Jason Sircely, Nyangito MM. "Economic valuation of grazing management practices: Discrete choice modeling in pastoral systems of Kenya." Journal of Environmental Planning and Management . 2019.
Kithinji AM. "The Effect of Bank Restructuring on Financial Performance Controlled by Customer Deposits: An Empirical Investigation of Commercial Banks in Kenya ." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR INNOVATIVE RESEARCH IN MULTIDISCIPLINARY FIELD. 2019;5(1):13-19. Abstract

Abstract: The ability of commercial banks to provide market knowledge, transaction efficiency and contract
enforcement create demand for its services in the financial markets. Commercial banks operating in Kenya have
undertaken restructuring so as to be more competitive, to restore bank solvency, to increase the banking sector
capacity for financial intermediation and to improve financial performance. Previous researches done on the aspects
of bank restructuring and financial performance found conflicting results and some of them did not include the
intervening effect of deposits on this relationship. The study is informed by the theory of financial intermediation,
agency theory, and the institutional theory. This study sought to investigate the relationship between bank
restructuring, deposits and financial performance of commercial banks in Kenya. The population of the study was
the 44 commercial banks licensed and registered under the banking act to do business in Kenya but data availed
from financial statements of 39 commercial banks which were in operation for the period 2002 to 2014. Descriptive
and inferential data analysis methods were used to analyze the secondary data collected. The empirical findings
conclude that commercial banks use all the four types of bank restructuring which were financial, capital, operational
and asset restructuring. The findings of the first model revealed that capital restructuring, and asset restructuring
were the only variables found to have significant positive and negative influence respectively on the performance of
commercial banks in Kenya. In testing the second hypothesis, deposit were used as an intervening variable on the
relationship between bank restructuring and financial performance, where financial restructuring and capital
restructuring was found to significantly cause an increase in the profit margin of commercial banks while operational
restructuring and deposits were found to have a significant negative effect on bank profits. The composite variable
of financial services was not found to have a significant effect. Therefore, the research disclosed that operational
restructuring, and deposits did not influence banks profitability. The research concludes that the performance of most
commercial banks in Kenya is determined through restructuring banks’ financial and capital ratios The study
recommends that there is need to institute policy reforms geared towards viable restructuring and deposit
mobilization and that to continuously improve bank performance banks should encourage more borrowing and funds
from shareholders and banks need to continuously focus on restructuring rather than ownership.

Key Words: Bank Restructuring, Capital, Financial, Asset, Operational, Deposits.
1. INTRODUCTION:
Bank restructuring is usually undertaken to address the problems in individual banks experiencing

Mutundi AN, Muthomi JW, Olubayo FM, Leley PK, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Farm Saved Maize (Zea mays L.) Seed on Intensity of Foliage Diseases." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2019;11(8):45-57.
Muia SM, Kariuki MI. "Effect of Financial Management Practices on Performance of Savings and Credit Co-Operative Societies in Mombasa County, Kenya. ." Journal of Economics and Finance (IOSR-JEF). 2019;10(4):47-57.
Kithinji AM. "The Effect of Government Expenditure on Fiscal Deficits in Kenya." THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLEDGE . 2019;7(2):122-125. Abstract

Abstract:
In many economies world over, accountability and transparency as well as fiscal discipline in public expenditures take
priority as the main catalysts to economic growth. However, large fiscal deficits have been reported in most developing
countries which lead to inflation and currency devaluations. In this case, Kenyan government is no exception as its
expenditures are consistently way above its revenues. This study therefore attempted to assess the relationship between
government expenditure and fiscal deficit in Kenya. This study used a causal research design. Secondary data was
obtained from the financial records of National Bureau of Statistics, The Economic Surveys, Kenya Institute of Policy
Analysis and Research (KIPRA) and the Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR) ranging from year 2004/05 to
2010/11. Regression model was used to estimate the effect of government expenditure on fiscal deficits. The study
established that a unit increase in government expenditure, increases fiscal deficit of GDP. The study recommends that
the government of Kenya should come up with strong working policy to regulate the expenditure of its resources.

Keywords: Government expenditure, fiscal deficits, recurrent expenditures, development expenditures, budget deficits

Okumu OO, Muthomi JW, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu JH. "Effect of Legume Extracts on Germination, Seedling Health of Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Soil Microorganisms." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science. 2019;28(1):1-13.
Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. Abstract

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. AbstractEnergy Procedia

Description

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations …

HM M. "Effective monitoring and Evaluation of progress in postgraduate training." Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture postgraduate induction workshop, Nakuru; 2019.
"The effects of aflatoxin exposure on Hepatitis B-induced immunity in Kenyan children." Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2019. 2019:1-14. Abstractresearchgate

Background: Globally, approximately three million children die each year from vaccine preventable infectious diseases mainly in developing countries. Despite the success of the expanded immunization program, not all infants and children around the world develop the same protective immune response to the same vaccine. A vaccine must induce a response over the basal immune response that may be driven by population-specific, environmental or socio-economic factors. Mycotoxins like aflatoxins are immune suppressants that are confirmed to interfere with both cell-mediated and acquired immunity. The mechanism of aflatoxin toxicity is through the binding of the bio-activated AFB1-8, 9-epoxide to cellular macromolecules. Methods: We studied Hepatitis B surface antibodies [anti-HBs] levels to explore the immune modulation effects of dietary exposure to aflatoxins in children aged between one and fourteen years in Kenya. Hepatitis B vaccine was introduced for routine administration for Kenyan infants in November 2001. To assess the effects of aflatoxin on immunogenicity of childhood vaccines Aflatoxin B1-lysine in blood serum samples were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence detection while anti-HBs were measured using Bio-ELISA anti-HBs kit. Results: The mean § SD of AFB1-lysine adducts in our study population was 45.38 § 87.03 pg/mg of albumin while the geometric mean was 20.40 pg/mg. The distribution of AFB1-lysine adducts was skewed to the right. Only 98/205 (47.8%) of the study population tested positive for Hepatitis B surface antibodies. From regression analysis, we noted that for every unit rise in serum aflatoxin level, anti-HBs dropped by 0.91 mIU/ml (¡0.9110038; 95% C.I ¡1.604948,¡0.21706). Conclusion: Despite high coverage of routine immunization, less than half of the study population had developed immunity to HepB. Exposure to aflatoxin was high and weakly associated with low anti-HBs antibodies. These findings highlight a potentially significant role for environmental factors that may contribute to vaccine effectiveness warranting further research.

W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of Azolla and inorganic nitrogen application on growth and yield of rice in Mwea Irrigation Scheme." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (3):1-8.
W.A 1. O, GN C’wa, J.I K, P.N N. "Effects of inorganic nutrient P and N application on Azolla biomass growth and nutrient uptake." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research. 2019;14 (02):1-9.
Marete GN, Kanja LW, Mbaria JM, Okumu MO, Ateku PA, Korhonen H, Joutsjoki V. "Effects of the Use of Good Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxin Levels in Maize Grown in Nandi County, Kenya." SCi. 2019;1(28)(MDPI):1-19.
Oyang WA, P.A K, J.I. K. "Effects of Varied Nitrogen Levels and Plant Density on Growth and Yield of Nerica 1 Rice Variety ." Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS) . 2019;12(3):72-77.
Ogolla KO, Chebet J, Waruiru RM, Gathumbi PK, Okumu PO, Aboge GO. "Efficacy of Ivermectin, Liquid Paraffin, and Carbaryl against Mange of Farmed Rabbits in Central Kenya." Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2019;130:1487-1504.
Lydia W. Njenga, Njogu REN, Fodran P, Kariuki DK, Amir O. Yusuf, Scheblykin I, Ola F. Wendt, Wallenti C-J. "Electronically Divergent Triscyclometalated Iridium(III)2-(1-naphthyl)pyridine Complexes and Their Application in Three-Component Methoxytrifluoromethylation of Styrene ." Synlett. 2019;30:A-G.
Nyberg, Gert, Stephen M. Mureithi, Deborah N. Muricho, Ostwald M. "Enclosures as a land management tool for food security in African drylands." Journal of Land Use Science. 2019:1-12.
Yohannis MA, Agnes N. Wausi, Hutchinson MJ, Waema TM. "Enhancing Access and Use of Climate Information through ICTs." Journal of Climate Change and Sustainability. 2019;3(1):1-12. AbstractWebsite

Although the role of ICTs in improving human life in Kenya is acknowledged widely, the focus of much
of ICT-related developments has been on human experiences at the level of disease and needs for
communication and mobility. Less obvious is how such technological interventions may be used to
address seemingly abstract yet grave concerns like climate change and its impact on the quality of human
life. This review paper, therefore, shall investigate the different situations where ICTs may be deployed
in relaying packaged and relevant localized climate information that can help rural farmers in Kitui
County, Kenya to make pertinent and timely decisions to improve their productivity and, ultimately, their
livelihoods. We hypothesize that rural communities' use ICT tools such as the mobile phones and the
community radios to access localized climate information (weather, seasonal forecasts, and agroadvisories)
and that livelihood assets and livelihood strategies positively change with the increasing
availability and use of the ICT-based climate information. The idea of the paper presented is to merge
theoretical and applied research outcomes to narrow the gap between the theory of ICTs usage and the
practice of it, while linking it to climate information and enhanced rural livelihood strategies. The review
of this paper shall be captured in social-scientific terms, and shall contribute to knowledge by helping
researchers and policymakers to determine climate information needs of rural ASAL communities,
knowledge on innovations related to ICTs, among others.

Wainaina Samuel Murigi, Mbaria James Mucunu, Wakonyu KL, Misonge OJ. "Ethnobotanical Survey of Plants Used For Management of Arthritis In Nyamira North Sub-County of Nyamira County, Kenya." The Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine. 2019;130(2019)(ISJN):1510-1531.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of Formulated Nano-NPK Slow Release Fertilizer Composite on the Perfomance and Yeild of Maize, Kale and Capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;05:10.
Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):Pages 9-19. AbstractAnnals of Agricultural Sciences

Abstract

Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control. Capsicum tissues had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher N content both in SRF and CF higher application rates of 125-159-45 & 100-100-100, respectively, compared to control. At final harvest, soil samples planted with maize and amended with the highest SRF rate showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher P content, compared to lower rates and the control. The agronomic optimal rate of SRF determined by quadratic function were found to be higher than that of CF. SRF was found to enhance growth and yields of crops just like CF and could potentially have greater benefits such as improving soil health and resilience.

Rop K, Karuku GN, Mbui D, Njomo N, Michira I. "Evaluating the effects of formulated nano-NPK slow release fertilizer composite on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum." Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;64(1):9-19. Abstract

Abstract

Effect of formulated slow release NPK fertilizer [cellulose-graft-poly(acrylamide)/nanohydroxyapatite/soluble fertilizer] composite (SRF) on the performance and yield of maize, kale and capsicum was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. No significant difference in growth parameters was observed between SRF and commercial fertilizer (CF) treatments. SRF recorded higher dry matter and yields relative to CF with similar application rates, though statistically insignificant. P deficiency was observed in maize at lowest SRF application rate of 45-57-17. N deficiency in CF was observed at the 8th week, but not in SRF with similar application rates during the same period. Kale showed both N and P deficiencies in the 7th week, while capsicum alone showed N deficiency in the 14th week in SRF at low application rates. NPK content in both maize and kale tissues, was significant between the amendments and control. Capsicum tissues had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher N content both in SRF and CF higher application rates of 125-159-45 & 100-100-100, respectively, compared to control. At final harvest, soil samples planted with maize and amended with the highest SRF rate showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher P content, compared to lower rates and the control. The agronomic optimal rate of SRF determined by quadratic function were found to be higher than that of CF. SRF was found to enhance growth and yields of crops just like CF and could potentially have greater benefits such as improving soil health and resilience.

M.Adwet W, J.Pant H, J.Mangala M, A.Masinza S. "Evaluation of hydraulic performance of an anaerobic pond using radiotracer technique." Applied Radiation and Isotopes. 2019;145:101-105.
Mundia J, Makunda C, Maina SM, Gachie SN. "An Evaluation of Interior Styles in the Serviced Apartment Sector in Nairobi." Africa Design Review Journal. 2019;1(1):54-73.
Mewa, E. A. OKRMWCN. "Experimental evaluation of beef drying kinetics in a solar tunnel dryer." Renewable Energy. 2019;139:235-241.
Otange B, Birech Z, Rop R, Julius Oyugi. "Estimation of HIV-1 viral load in plasma of HIV-1-infected people based on the associated Raman spectroscopic peaks." Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. 2019. Abstract
n/a
2018
"The entitled family relations." People Daily, May 29, 2018.
Kanyinga K. "Expected break with past is still elusive." Sunday Nation, March 10, 2018.
Marangu D, Pillay K, Banderker E, Gray D, Vanker A, Zampoli M. "Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: an important cause of interstitial lung disease in infants." Respirol Case Rep. 2018;6(7):e00356. Abstract

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP), an important cause of interstitial lung disease, often goes unrecognized. We conducted a retrospective study of children with histologically confirmed ELP at Red Cross Children's Hospital, South Africa. Twelve children of Zimbabwean heritage aged 2.1-10.8 months were identified between 2012 and 2017. Repeated oral administration of plant-based oil for cultural reasons was reported by 10 of 11 caregivers. Cough (12/12), tachypnoea (11/12), hypoxia (9/12), and diffuse alveolar infiltrates on chest radiography (12/12) were common at presentation. Chest computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacification with lower zone predominance (9/9) and interlobular septal thickening (8/9). Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens appeared cloudy/milky, with abundant lipid-laden macrophages and extracellular lipid on Oil-Red-O staining (12/12), with polymicrobial (6/12) and Mycobacterium abscessus (2/12) co-infection. Antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, and therapeutic lavage were interventions in all eight and five patients, respectively. Clinicians should consider ELP in children with non-resolving pneumonia in settings with similar practices.

Mwangi N, Ng'ang'a M, Gakuo E, Gichuhi S, Macleod D, Moorman C, Muthami L, Tum P, Jalango A, Githeko K, Gichangi M, Kibachio J, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Effectiveness of peer support to increase uptake of retinal examination for diabetic retinopathy: study protocol for the DURE pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial in Kirinyaga, Kenya." BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):871. Abstract

All patients with diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy (DR), a progressive and potentially blinding condition. Early treatment of DR prevents visual impairment and blindness. The natural history of DR is that it is asymptomatic until the advanced stages, thus annual retinal examination is recommended for early detection. Previous studies show that the uptake of regular retinal examination among people living with diabetes (PLWD) is low. In the Uptake of Retinal Examination in Diabetes (DURE) study, we will investigate the effectiveness of a complex intervention delivered within diabetes support groups to increase uptake of retinal examination.

Gitobu CM, Gichangi PB, Mwanda WO. "The effect of Kenya's free maternal health care policy on the utilization of health facility delivery services and maternal and neonatal mortality in public health facilities." BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):77. Abstract

Kenya abolished delivery fees in all public health facilities through a presidential directive effective on June 1, 2013 with an aim of promoting health facility delivery service utilization and reducing pregnancy-related mortality in the country. This paper aims to provide a brief overview of this policy's effect on health facility delivery service utilization and maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate in Kenyan public health facilities.

Malusi B, L.O O. "Effect of Handedness on Completion Rate of Chemistry Timed Tasks by LeftHanded Learners .". In: The IAFOR International Conference on Education. Dubai; 2018.iicedubai2018_39167.pdf
Mumbi M. "Evolution of Colonial Architecture and its contribution to Tropical Architecture.". In: annual Eastern African Regional Workshop, Nairobi. ADD Building, University of Nairobi; 2018.
Karuga SW, GATARI MJ, Marijnissen JCM, Kelder EM. "Electrospray synthesis of porous cathode material for lithium ion batteries.". In: Aerosol Technology Conference (AT2018). Bilbao, Spain; 2018.
Kelder EM, Marijnissen JCM, Karuga WS. "EDHA for energy production, storage and conversion devices." Journal of Aerosol Science. 2018;125(2018):119-147.
Mandala, N E, Aduda J, Iraya C. "The Effect of Board Structure and CEO Tenure on the Performance of Financial Institutions in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2018;7(1):59-77.jfia_vol_7_1_4.pdfjfia_vol_7_1_4.pdf
Mewa, Eunice. A. OMKCRWNMN. "Effect of drying air temperature and slice thickness on the physical and microbiological quality of dried beef." LWT - Food Science and Technology. 2018;92:484-489.
Kasaya MA, Munjuri MG. "Effect of Employee Involvement on Job Performance in the Medical Research Industry in Kenya." International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management. 2018;6(5):826-847.job_involvement_and_job_performance.pdf
Ndombi EM, Abudho B, Kittur N, Carter JM, Korir H, Riner DK, Ochanda H, Lee Y‐M, S EW. "Effect of four rounds of annual school‐wide mass praziquantel treatment for schistosoma mansoni control on schistosome‐specific immune responses." Parasite Immunology. 2018:e12530.
STELLAH NEKESA WANYONYI, EVANS MUNGAI MWANGI NATHANGICHUKI. "Effect of habitat disturbance on distribution and abundance of Papyrus endemic birds in Sio Port Swamp, Western Kenya." Bonorowo Wetlands. 2018;8(2):51-62.
A Obiero, J Kalai OU. "Effect of Home Related Factors on Students Discipline in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Education and Social Science. 2018;5(10):2415-1246 .
Mutiso PM, Kinama JM, O C. "Effect of in situ moisture conservation techniques on yield and water use efficiency of pearl millet in Makueni, Kenya ." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR) . 2018;12(6):186-196.
Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Wanderi SW, Muthomi JW, Nzuve FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize and Promiscuous Soybean on Growth and Yield. ." Journal of Experimental Agriculture International. 2018;12(2):1-21.
Pierre HJM, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Intercropping Maize-Soybean on Grain Quality Traits in Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(2):341-351.
Okumu OO, Muthomi J, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu J. "Effect of lablab green manure on population of soil microorganisms and establishment of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)." American Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;5(3):44-54.
Onjala J, Awiti J, Gideon M. "Effect of Public Spending on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Economics. 2018;6(2).
Buyela SN, Muthomi JW, Mwang’ombe AW, Njau P, Olubayo F. "Effect of Seed Treatment on Wheat Seed Viability and Vigour." American Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;5(1):1-9.
Mdenye BB, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM'mogi, Kivuva BM, Muthomi JW. "Effect of storage methods of cassava planting materials on establishment and early growth vigour." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR) . 2018;12(1):1-10.
6. Muriithi EM. "Effect of teacher characteristics on learner academic achievement in physics in Kenyan secondary schools." International Journal of Education and Research. 2018;6(3):169-178.
Okumu O, Muthomi J, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu J. "Effect of time after incorporation of lablab green manure on root rot pathogens and establishment of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018;6(4):113-121.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Karuku G, Kironchi G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda ." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Karuku G, Kironchi, G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana, D., Mureithi, S.M., and Karuku G, Kironchi G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Bill Okemwa, Nathan Gichuki, Munir Virani, James Kanya, Jenesio Kinyamario AS. "Effectiveness of LED lights on bomas in protecting livestock from predation in southern Kenya." Conservation Evidence. 2018.
JJ C, G O, W M. "Effectiveness of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminder on Birth Preparedness in a Rural Community in Kenya." Obstetrics and Gynaecology International Journal. 2018.
Ogolla KO, Okumu PO, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru. RM. "Effects of Anticoccidial Drugs on Gross and Histopathological Lesions Caused by Experimental Rabbit Coccidiosis." SOJ Veterinary Sciences. 2018;4(3): 1-10.symbiosis.pdf
Josyline K, Philip N, Lucy I, Paul N, Johnstone I, Reuben R, Osero B, Chritopher A. "Effects of Lambdacyhalothrin incorporated into 1,4-Dichlorobenzene on sand fly and mosquito vectors in endemic areas of Kenya. ." Journal of Zoological Research . 2018;2(1):1-6.
Ebanda RO, Michieka RW, Otieno DJ, Geiger V. "The effects of sociocultural determinants on cultural dimensions: A case of East Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2018;13(4)(ISSN 2324-7584):19-37.
O. ER, W MR, Otieno DJ. "The Effects of Sociocutural Determinants on Cultural Dimensions: A Case of East Africa." The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social and Community Studies. 2018;13(4):19-37.
Kingi, P. M. "Effects of Teachers’ Participation in School Community Partnership and Motivation." IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS. 2018;7(4):48-55.
Ogolla KO, Gathumbi PK, Waruiru RM, Okumu PO, Kitala PM, Chebet J. "Efficacy of Sulphachloropyrazine, Amprolium Hydrochloride, Trimethoprim-Sulphamethoxazole, and Diclazuril against Experimental and Natural Rabbit Coccidiosis." Journal of veterinary medicine. 2018;1:11.
Miruka AC, Kariuki DK, Yusuf AO, Onyatta JO. "Efficiency of a Wastewater Treatment Plant in the City of Nairobi." International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2018;38(1):152-162.
Kinyungu TN, Muthomi JW, Subramanian S, Miano DW, Olubayo FM, Wagura J. "Efficiency of aphid and thrips vectors in transmission of viruses causing maize lethal necrosis disease." World Journal of Agricultural Research . 2018;6(4):144-152.
Nguu J, Nyongesa F, Robinson Musembi, Aduda B. "Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterization of TiO2/Nb2O5 Composite Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.". 2018. AbstractJournal article website

In this study, Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) technique was used to fabricate TiO2/Nb2O5 composite
thin films on FTO coated glass for application as photoelectrodes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC). A
TiO2/Nb2O5 ratio of 1:1 was used in a 2-propanol suspension solution with a solid loading of 0.25g/L. Optical
investigations showed that the film with thickness of 5.5 µm deposited at 35.0 V for 90.0 s had the highest
transmittance of 55.0 % at a wavelength (λ) of 1,300 nm. The optical band gap energy (Eg) was 3.884 eV and was
found to be dependent on the annealing time. The solar cell fabricated from this film had an open circuit voltage
(VOC) of 0.66 V, fill factor (FF) of 57.0%, short current density (JSC) of 5.25 mA/cm2 and photo conversion
efficiency (PCE) of 2.0%. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis indicate that the DSSC device
with thinner photoelectrodes have more efficient electron transport in the photoanode compared to thicker
photoelectrodes to achieve higher conversion efficiencies.
Keywords: electrophoretic deposition, dye-sensitized solar cell, TiO2/Nb2O5 composite thin films

Nguu J, Nyongesa F, J. Musembi, Aduda B. "Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterization of TiO2/Nb2O5 Composite Thin Films for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells." Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry. 2018;6(1):1-8.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Nyaga WG. "Electrophoretic Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films for Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water." Tanzania Journal of Science. 2018;44(4):65-76. AbstractFull Text Link

In this study, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was used to deposit titanium dioxide (TiO 2) thin films on conducting glass substrates for application in photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in water. Phenol was used as a model pollutant. The EPD suspension related parameters and deposition conditions were first optimized for good quality film deposits. The suspension stability and deposition conditions that result in good adherence of TiO 2 particles to the substrate with homogeneous film coatings are ethanol, a TiO 2 solid loading of 4 wt%, a 0.2 wt% iodine concentration in the solvent and a deposition voltage of 20 V in a time of 3.5 minutes. The photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 thin films decreased exponentially with the ultraviolet light (UV) illumination time and it was also dependent on film thickness, and sintering temperature of the TiO 2 thin films. Highest rate of photocatalytic activity was observed at an optimal film thickness of 95±2 µm sintered at 300 C. The implications of these results are discussed for design of inexpensive wastewater purification systems for light industries as well for semi urban small communities

and Joseph Kabiru PMEMN. "Emerging conditions of labour in the cut flower industry in Kenya." International Jounal of Education and Research. 2018;6(2411-5681):1-12.
Sihanya B. "Emerging electoral jurisprudence in Kenya and Nigeria." International Conference on Emerging Electoral Jurisprudence in Africa in Nigeria. 2018.
Mandala, N K, E, Aduda J, Iraya C. "An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship between Board Structure and Performance of Financial Institutions in Kenya." Journal of Finance and Investment Analysis. 2018;7(1):37-57.
Twalib MH, K'OBONYO PO. "EMPLOYEE JOB TENURE; AN ACCOLADE OR AN ABASH?" International Journal of Innovation Research and Knowledge.. 2018;3(3):11-21. Abstract

The objective of the study is to determine the effect of job tenure on employees’ career mobility. The study used a descriptive survey and a population study of 169 employees with a response rate of 122(72.2%). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data and the hypothesis formulated was analyzed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis that job tenure influences employee career mobility (R2=.141, F=19.77, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was 0.376 which also confirms that there is a positive but weak relationship between length of service and career mobility. The study recommends that employees who have served and organization for long should be considered for promotion this brings about employees loyalty and commitment to the organization. The paper suggests that other variables can be added in terms of moderating and mediating variables to strengthen the model.

and Onyango C.M., Kunyanga Catherine N. WKMIRGDN. "Employer Perceptions and Attitudes towards Agricultural University Training in Kenya." International Journal for Innovation Education and Research. 2018;6:175-185.
ODUOR, Karanja, N.K, Onwonga, R.N., Mureithi, S.M., Pelster D, Nyberg G. "Enhancing soil organic carbon, particulate organic carbon and microbial biomass in semi-arid rangeland using pasture enclosures." BMC ecology. 2018;18(1):45.
iJames M. Gathungu BS& M. "Entrepreneur Financial Literacy, Financial Access, Transaction Costs and Performance of Microenterprises in Nairobi City County in Kenya." Global Journal of Management and Business Research: An Administration and Management. 2018;18(6).
Henry M. "Environmental Governance and its role in Kenya." International Scientific Conference for Asia and Pacific, Yokohama, Japan.; 2018.
Maweu JM. "Equality, Difference and the Complementarity of African and Western Philosophy.". In: Thinking Polyloguous: Considerations Concerning An Intercultural-Philosophical Minimal Rule. Vienna: Polylog; 2018.
Farquhar C, Nduati RW, JN. W. "Ethical Obligations in Short-Term Global Health Clinical Experiences: The Devil Is in the Details." Ann Intern Med.. 2018; 1;(168(9):):672-673.
Asingo PO. "Ethnicity and Political Inclusivity in Kenya: Retrospective Analysis and Prospective Solutions.". In: Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya: The National Study. Nairobi: Kenya Human Rights Commission; 2018.Ethnicity and Politicization in Kenya
K. MM, S.M. G, C.M. O, P.W. M. "Evaluation of Agronomic Performance of Green Gram Accessions Grown under Reduced Light Intensity in the Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya ." International Journal of Plant & Soil Science . 2018;23(2):1-11.
Musungayi EM, Ngugi K, Ngugi K, Muthomi JW, Were VW, Olubayo FM, Nzuve FM. "Evaluation of resistance of cassava half-sib progenies to cassava mosaic disease and their agronomic performances in Western Kenya." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;10(12):78-91.
Derese S. "Evaluation of β-Sitosterol Loaded PLGA and PEG-PLA Nanoparticles for Effective Treatment of Breast Cancer: Preparation, Physicochemical Characterization, and Antitumor Activity." Pharmaceutics. 2018;10(4):232. Abstract

β-Sitosterol (β-Sit) is a dietary phytosterol with demonstrated anticancer activity against a panel of cancers, but its poor solubility in water limits its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. In this study, poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA) and block copolymers of poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (lactic acid)(PEG-PLA) were used to encapsulate β-Sit into nanoparticles with the aim of enhancing its in vitro anticancer activity. β-Sitosterol-loaded PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles (β-Sit-PLGA and β-Sit-PEG-PLA) were prepared by using a simple emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The nanoparticles were characterized for size, particle size distribution, surface charge, and encapsulation efficiency. Their cellular uptake and antiproliferative activity was evaluated against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells using flow cytometry and MTT assays, respectively. β-Sit-PLGA and β-Sit-PEG-PLA nanoparticles were spherical in shape with average particle sizes of 215.0±29.7 and 240.6±23.3 nm, a zeta potential of− 13.8±1.61 and− 23.5±0.27 mV, respectively, and with narrow size distribution. The encapsulation efficiency of β-Sit was 62.89±4.66 and 51.83±19.72% in PLGA and PEG-PLA nanoparticles, respectively. In vitro release in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and PBS/with 0.2% Tween 20 showed an initial burst release, followed by a sustained release for 408 h. β-Sit-PLGA nanoparticles were generally stable in a protein-rich medium, whereas β-Sit-PEG-PLA nanoparticles showed a tendency to aggregate. Flow cytometry analysis (FACS) indicated that β-Sit-PLGA nanoparticles were efficiently taken up by the cells in contrast to β …

Kaoga J, Ouma G, Olago D, Ouma G. "The Evidence of Changing Rainfall Patterns in Kajiado County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 2018;7(6):223-228. Abstract137075-327682-1-pb.pdfWebsite

The Maasai pastoralists have in the past decade experienced disruptions as precipitation season shifts. These shifts have adversely affected their economies and livelihoods. Moreover, they have been losing up to 30 % of their herd annually to drought related disasters, yet the locals’ capacity on climate pattern shifts is inadequate. To address this gap, a study focused on Kajiado County due to its harboring large of livestock. The study aimed at determining the historical precipitation characteristics. To achieve this, the study utilized Climate Hazards group Infra-Red Precipitation with Stations data set (CHIRPS) for the period 1983-2014 for each of the five sub-counties within Kajiado County. The key findings, encompassed: declining trend in the average annual precipitation; shifting from the usual bi-modal rainfall seasons with March to May (MAM) experiencing worst failure compared to October to December (OND) and the shortening of the famine cycles.

Shihembetsa DLU. "Examining Contemporary Housing for the Urban Poor: The case of Pumwani Housing. ." International Journal of Creative Research and Studies (IJCRS).. 2018;Volume-2,(Issue-9, September):201 (1-23). ISSN 0249-4655.
Bulinda, D. M. MJW. "Extent to which system migration influence the implementation of core banking systems project: A case of NIC Bank Kenya LTD." International Journal of Innovative Research and Knowledge. 2018;3(10):156-166.
NALYANYA KM, Ronald ROPK, ONYUKA A, Birech Z, SASIA A. "Effect of crusting operations on the mechanical properties of leather." Revista de Pielarie Incaltaminte. 2018;18:283. Abstract
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Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on haematological and biochemical parameters of sheep and goats." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;53:5-16. Abstract
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2017
Kanyinga K. "Election or no election, the country is more polarised than ever before." Sunday Nation, October 21, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Election risks plunging us deeper into tribal division." Sunday Nation, June 17, 2017.
Kanyinga K. "Election is about Kenya, not voter mapping." Sunday Nation, February 25, 2017.
Oiye S, Mwanda W, Mugambi M, Filteau S, Owino V. "Exclusive Breastfeeding Is More Common Among HIV-Infected Than HIV-Uninfected Kenyan Mothers at 6 Weeks and 6 Months Postpartum." Breastfeed Med. 2017;12:283-289. Abstract

To compare breastfeeding practices determined by mothers' own recall versus a stable isotope technique (deuterium oxide dilution) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum.

Soki KB, Were AJ, OGOLA EN, Nyale GM, Murage MM. "An echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary pressures in hemodialysis patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya." East African Medical Journal. 2017;94(6). AbstractWebsite

Abstract

Background: A high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has been noted. In these patients, PH increases morbidity and mortality and worsens prognosis post-renal transplant. Its aetiopathogenesis may be multifactorial, involving the process of haemodialysis itself.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of PH among patients with ESRD undergoing haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), using Doppler echocardiography

Design: 117 patients were consecutively recruited into this cross-sectional study.
Medical history was used to exclude patients with possible PH of known aetiology. Patients were examined for features of fluid overload. Each patient then underwent haemodialysis followed by echocardiography within two hours. Haemoglobin was measured.

Setting: The Renal Unit, KNH, a tertiary hospital in Nairobi

Subjects: Patients undergoing regular haemodialysis within the renal unit, thirteen years and above, who gave written informed consent or assent.

Results: 63.2% of the participants were male. Mean age was 44 years. Prevalence of PH among ESRD patients was 32.5%, with a median PASP of 47.3mmHg and a range of 36.1–79 mmHg. A strong association between PH and EF of less than 50%, as a marker of LV dysfunction, was demonstrated.

Conclusion: The prevalence of PH among end-stage renal disease patients was high. This suggests an indication for routinely screening haemodialysis patients for PH.

Keywords: ESRD: End stage renal disease, LV: Left ventricle, KNH: Kenyatta National Hospital, PASP: Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, PH: Pulmonary Hypertension

Mutegi R.G., Muriithi. M.K., G. W. "Education Policies in Kenya : Does Free Secondary Education Promote Equity in Public Secondary Schools?" In International Journal of Development Research. 2017;7(11):16696-16699 .abstract2.pdf
Mutegi RG, Muriithi MK, Wanjala G. "EDUCATION POLICIES IN KENYA: DOES FREE SECONDARY EDUCATION PROMOTE EQUITY IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS?" International Journal of Development Research. 2017;07(11):16696-16699.policies_in_education.pdf
Richard K, Faith O, Margaret O, Anne N, Wallace B. "Effect of ABCB1 C3435T Polymorphism on Clinical Outcomes in Kenyan HIV Patients on Lopinavir-Based Regimens." Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2017;7:478-488. Abstract13-jpp2017041704.pdf

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Mungai LM, Elly D. "The Effect of Alternative Investments on the Financial Performance of Pension Funds in Kenya." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):160-181. Abstract

Purpose - This research focused on the effects of alternative investments on the
financial performance of pension schemes in Kenya.
Methodology - This research was descriptive and Secondary data covering a period
of 5 years, 2012-2016, and comprised a population of 442 segregated pension
schemes and from which a sample of 90 schemes was selected using stratified
sampling technique. Only data from 385 schemes was available. The remaining 57
schemes did not qualify for sampling due to incomplete data, data received did not
pass sense checks and also responses to queries were not received on time. The data
was obtained from the Retirement Benefit Authority and the Actuaries Survey from
Alexander Forbes Consulting. Diagnostic tests carried out were tests for normality,
multicollinearity and autocorrelation. They were used to test for data fitness before
any further analysis. The study also employed the use of a linear multiple regression
model to analyze the effect of alternative investments on the financial performance of
pension funds in Kenya. The tests of significance used in the study were the t-test, F

J Okwako, Musembi R, F Nyongesa, Ogacho A. Effect of Annealing on Structural and Optical Properties of CZTS thin films Deposited by SILAR Technique.. TUNISIA: ANSOLE DAYS; 2017.
Ogilo F. "EFFECT OF BANKING REGULATIONS ON FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN KENYA." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;Vol. 2 No. 9, November-2017(2(9)):72-78.
Mwangi JT, Kibui AW. "Effect of Chemistry Practicals on Students’ Performance in Chemistry in Public Secondary Schools of Machakos and Nairobi Counties in Kenya." International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2017;Volume 6(Issue 8):586-588.
and Digolo, P.O.O. KNMWGBNS. "Effect of Computer Based Instruction on Learner Performance in art and Design in Public secondary Schools in Kenya." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies, . 2017;5(6):99-103.
Wanjiru KG, Digolo Patrick Ochieng Obonyo, Boniface N, Owino MS. "Effect of Computer Based Instruction on Learners’ Performance in Art and Design in public secondary schools in Kenya. ." The International Journal of Humanities & Social Studies.. 2017;5(6).
Shakur H, Roberts I, Fawole B, Chaudhri R, El-Sheikh M, desina Akintan, QURESHI ZAHIDA, Kidanto H, Vwalika B, Abdulkadir A, Etuk S, Noor S, Asonganyi E, Alfirevic Z, Beaumont D, Ronsmans C, Arulkumaran S. "Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Lancet. 2017. AbstractWebsite

Summary
Background
Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of
tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration
of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage.
Methods
In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a
clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries.
We randomly assigned women to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual
care. If bleeding continued after 30 min, or stopped and restarted within 24 h of the first dose, a second dose of 1 g of
tranexamic acid or placebo could be given. Patients were assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box
containing eight numbered packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Participants, care givers, and those
assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. We originally planned to enrol 15
000 women with a composite primary
endpoint of death from all-causes or hysterectomy within 42 days of giving birth. However, during the trial it became
apparent that the decision to conduct a hysterectomy was often made at the same time as randomisation. Although
tranexamic acid could influence the risk of death in these cases, it could not affect the risk of hysterectomy. We therefore
increased the sample size from 15
000 to 20
000 women in order to estimate the effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of
death from post-partum haemorrhage. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with
ISRCTN76912190 (Dec 8, 2008); ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00872469; and PACTR201007000192283.
Findings
Between March, 2010, and April, 2016, 20
060
women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive
tranexamic acid (n=10
051) or placebo (n=10
009), of whom 10
036 and 9985, respectively, were included in the analysis.
Death due to bleeding was significantly reduced in women given tranexamic acid (155 [1·5%] of 10
036 patients
vs
191
[1·9%] of 9985 in the placebo group, risk ratio [RR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·65–1·00; p=0·045), especially in women given
treatment within 3 h of giving birth (89 [1·2%] in the tranexamic acid group
vs
127 [1·7%] in the placebo group,
RR 0·69, 95% CI 0·52–0·91; p=0·008). All other causes of death did not differ significantly by group. Hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (358 [3·6%] patients in the tranexamic acid group
vs
351 [3·5%] in the placebo
group, RR 1·02, 95% CI 0·88–1·07; p=0·84). The composite primary endpoint of death from all causes or hysterectomy
was not reduced with tranexamic acid (534 [5·3%] deaths or hysterectomies in the tranexamic acid group
vs
546 [5·5%]
in the placebo group, RR 0·97, 95% CI 0·87-1·09; p=0·65). Adverse events (including thromboembolic events) did
not differ significantly in the tranexamic acid versus placebo group.
Interpretation
Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding in women with post-partum haemorrhage with no
adverse effects. When used as a treatment for postpartum haemorrhage, tranexamic acid should be given as soon as
possible after bleeding onset.
Funding
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Pfizer, UK Department of Health, Wellcome Trust, and
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Mbogo NW, Kinama JM, Onyango CM, JN K. "Effect of inorganic fertilizer and cattle manure on growth and yield of two Kenyan potato varieties." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR). 2017;10(1):65-72.
Njiru FAK, Elly D. "Effect of Monetary Policy on Credit Supply in Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):28-43. Abstract

Purpose- This paper sought to establish the effect of monetary policy on credit supply in Kenya.
Methodology- This study adopted a descriptive research design. Descriptive statistics such as mean, median, minimum, maximum and standard deviation were used to describe the trend of the variables. Breusch Godfrey serial correlation LM test was used to test correlation of the study variables. Stationarity tests on time series data was conducted using augmented dickey fuller test statistic. Regression analysis was used to establish the influence of monetary policy on credit supply.
Findings- The study concluded that CRR, OMO and Inflation are significant and have a negative effect on credit supply. The model was also fit to explain the relationship as 76% (R2= 0.761160) variation of the dependent variable (Credit supply) was explained by the independent variables (OMO, CRR, CBR and Inflation) in the long run. Adjusted R- square which provides adjustment to the R Square was73% (Adjusted R2= 0.736664) indicating 73% variation in credit supply was explained by independent variables (OMO, CRR, CBR and Inflation). F- Statistic 31.07233 was significant at 1% level P=0.0000.
Implications – The study recommends that the Central Bank of Kenya should come up with monitoring and evaluation programmes of monitoring how credit supply is influenced by various monetary policy instruments and should streamline the economic environment in which banks operate by ensuring CRR, OMO and Inflation are maintained at a constant.
Value –The study narrowed in scope to commercial banks and excluded the non-banking organizations. Additionally a study should be done on the impact of monetary policy on money supply to capture both banking and non-banking institutions. The research had a presumption that the relationship of the variables was linear therefore more studies should be carried out explore nonlinear relationship on the variables of study,
Key Words: Credit Supply, Monetary policy

Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, Mbau JS. "Effect of piospheres on physio-chemical soil properties in the Southern Rangelands of Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017;6:14.
Mbogo PK, Aduda J, Mwangi M. "The Effect of Portfolio Size on the Financial Performance of Portfolios of Investment Firms in Kenya." American Journal of Finance. 2017;1(2):1-15.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, CKK G. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, Mureithi SM, Koech OK, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017;6(1):41.
Kinyanjui E, Ochieng DE. "Effect of Remittances from Diaspora on Financial Sector Deepening in the East African Community ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):82-10. Abstract

Abstract
Purpose – This paper investigated the effect of diaspora remittances on financial sector deepening in the East African Community. Personal diaspora remittances were used as a measure of remittances from diaspora. The three proxies for financial deepening that were employed in the study were domestic credit as a ratio of GDP, total credit provided by the financial sector as a percentage of GDP and degree of monetization, M2 as a percentage of GDP.
Methodology – The study adopted an explanatory research design. It employed panel data analysis - fixed effects method, to model the linear regression equation. The population of the study was the five East African Community member countries and covered a 20-year period (1997 to 2016). The data for this study was obtained from the World Bank statistics website.
Findings – This study established that there exists a positive relationship between remittances from diaspora and financial sector deepening in the EAC but this relationship is not significant. The three models analyzed in this study, show that a 0.31, 0.08 and 0.28 change respectively, in remittances in the respective models, leads to a unit change in the level of financial sector deepening in the EAC.
Implications – The results of this study show that an increase in the level of remittances leads to increased financial deepening in the EAC economies. There is therefore need for the government in liaison with the private sector, to provide a conducive environment for development of financially innovative products that ease and reduce the cost of sending remittances as this will foster further financial deepening, which has the positive effect of financial inclusion, access to credit and economic growth.
Value – This study recommended the fostering of activities that are geared towards the ease of sending remittances and cost reduction of sending the remittances through employment of new financial technologies. Further studies have also been recommended to increase the frontiers of the study especially on developed countries in order to gain more conclusive understanding and generalizability of the remittances-financial sector deepening nexus.

Key Words; Diaspora remittances, Financial sector deepening, East Africa Community

Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia P G, W O. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:435-443.

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