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E
Wachira, P.M, Okoth, S.A. "Effect of Soil fertility management practices on nematode edstroying fungi in Taita, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agro ecosystems. 2011;13(1):51-57.
Wepukhulu M, Kimenju J, Anyango B, Wachira P.M, G.K K. "Effect of soil fertility manangement practices and Bacillus subtilis on plant parasitic nematodes associated with common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystem. 2011;13(1):27-34.
Ngunjirir J, Keiyoro P, Ochanda H, Oyieke FA. Effect of soil pH on Tunga penetrans population.; 2013.
Ngunjirir J, Ochanda H, Oyieke FA, Keiyoro P. "Effect of soil pH on Tunga penetrans population.". 2013.
Marenya PP;, Barnett CB. "The effect of soil quality on fertilizer use rates among smallholder farmers in western Kenya."; 2009. Abstract

Studies of fertilizer use in sub-Saharan Africa have been dominated by analyses of economic and market factors having to do with infrastructure, institutions, and incentives that prevent or foster increased fertilizer demand, largely ignoring how soil fertility status conditions farmer demand for fertilizer. We apply a switching regression model to data from 260 farm households in western Kenya in order to allow for the possibility of discontinuities in fertilizer demand based on a soil carbon content (SCC) threshold. We find that the usual factors reflecting liquidity and quasi-fixed inputs are important on high-SCC plots but not on those with poorer soils. External inputs become less effective on soils with low SCC, hence the discernible shift in behaviors across soil quality regimes. For many farmers, improved fertilizer market conditions alone may be insufficient to stimulate increased fertilizer use without complementary improvements in the biophysical conditions that affect conditional factor demand. JEL classification: Q12, Q18, Q24

Zemek J, Bílik V, Zákutná L. "Effect of some aldoses on growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inhibited with molybdenum." Folia Microbiol. (Praha). 1975;20(6):467-9. Abstract

The inhibitory effect of molybdenum ions on growth of yeasts at pH 5.5 was found to be decreased by aldoses in the following order: D-talose greater than L-mannose greater than L-ribose greater than D-lyxose greater than L-galactose greater than L-arabinose greater than L-glucose greater than L-xylose. Increased concentrations of molybdenum brought about morphological changes of yeast cells. Cells grown under these conditions were smaller, had thicker walls and formed clusters.

MBUYA TO, ODERA BO, NG’ANG’A SP, ODUORI MF. "Effect of Some Casting Parameters on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aluminium Castings of Various Automobile Components." The Kenya Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2007;3(1):29-43. AbstractWebsite

Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated.
PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

K DRMBURUMARYWAMBUI. "Effect of source, time and method of nitrogen application on growth and yield components of potato in Kenya. African Crop Science Journal 8:1-8.". In: Poster presented at the fifth Regional meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry 12-16 August 2002,Entebbe. University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract
Kent papers in POlitics and International Relations, Series 4, No. 4.
S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effect of source, time and method of nitrogen application on growth and yield components of potato in Kenya. African Crop Science Journal, 8(4): 387-402.". In: Poster presented at the fifth Regional meeting of the Forum for Agricultural Resource Husbandry 12-16 August 2002,Entebbe. Taylor & Francis; 2000. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Sila MM, Nyamasyo GHN, Nderitu JH. "Effect of Steinernema kari and Heterobabditis indica against sweet potato weevil.". In: African Crop Science Society.; 2003.
Sila, M. M. N, N. GH, Nderitu JH. "Effect of Steinernema kari and Heterobabditis indica against sweet potato weevil (Cylas punticollis )." agric entomology. 2003;2(5):23-25.
Mutegi CK, Wagacha JM, Christie ME, Kimani J, Karanja L. "Effect of storage conditions on quality and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.)." International Journal of AgriScience. 2013;3:746-758.
Karuri EG;, Ojijo NKO. "Effect of storage conditions on sweet potato roots."; 1995. Abstract

Four sun-cured lots of sweet potato (cv KSP20) roots were stored under different conditions in the laboratory. One lot was stored in environmental cabinets operated at five temperature levels of 5, 10, 15, 20, arid 29°C.The other two lots were stored in open wooden boxes, one filled with soil and the other saw-dust. A control sample was exposed to the ambient air in the laboratory. Objective physical and chemical indices were used to monitor the quality changes in the stored roots. Although the storage time and temperature were important in influeincing the quality of the roots, temperatures of 10°C or lower and also higher than 15°C were unsuitable for storage. At those temperatures sprouting, rotting, pithiness, shrivelling or a combination of the physiological factors became more important in quality deteriaration. Subsequently, prolonged storage was possible only at 15 and 20°C and also in saw-dust and soil cover. Roots stored in soil or saw-dust were as wholesome as those at 15°C, save for the sprouting which depleted the dry matter content, and had superior appearance. Exponential decay could predict Vitamin C and B-carotene loss. Reducing sugar developed in all samples but was highest in the ambient air storage. Using the back-extrusion test, it was shown that there were no significant differences between boiled roots after 4 weeks of storage under all conditions.

Mdenye BB, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM'mogi, Kivuva BM, Muthomi JW. "Effect of storage methods of cassava planting materials on establishment and early growth vigour." International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (IJAAR) . 2018;12(1):1-10.
Mdenye BB, Kinama JM, Olubayo FM, Kivuva BM, Muthomi. JW. "Effect of Storage Methods on Carbohydrate and Moisture of Cassava Planting Materials." Journal of Agricultural Science . 2016;8(12):100-111.
MATOGO DROMWEGAABIUD. "Effect of storage on the quality and safety of grains: a case study of Tharaka District, Kenya. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, Vol 3 No 2.". In: Kenya J. Sci. and Tech. (B) vol. 7 (1) 23-28,. Departmental seminar; 2003. Abstract
Oyieke H.A. and Misra A.K:
Musuva JK, Radon JC. "The Effect Of Stress Ratio And Frequency On Fatigue Crack Growth.". 1979. AbstractWebsite

Fatigue crack growth tests were performed on compact tension specimens (CTS) made in two thicknesses 12 and 24 mm. Tests were conducted at two frequencies of 0·25 and 30 Hz, applying a stress ratio R varying from – 0·7 to 0·7. The results were analysed using the linear elastic fracture mechanics approach. They showed that the increase in both positive and negative R caused increased fatigue crack growth rates. Also an empirical effective stress intensity factor range, ΔKeff, was found more appropriate to correlate the fatigue crack growth data than the ΔK factor frequently used in crack growth studies. The loading frequency had only a little influence on crack growth rates at low R. However, at high R, growth rates were significantly higher at lower frequencies. It is suggested that this frequency influence may be associated with environmental effects, due to the embrittlement caused by hydrogen from the moist air, while the crack was fully open.

MULI MRMUTUAJOHN. "Effect of sulphur on the degree of cross - linking at the Post graduate seminar held at Kenyan University.". In: African Crop Science Conference. University of Nairobi Case, in the proceedings of the IST-Africa 2008 Conference; Windhoek, Namibia; 1998. Abstract
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D.W G, P.N M, S.M M, S.G K, G.M M, A N. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa Oleifera (LAM) leaf meal in layer chicken feed. International Journal of poultry science 13(7): 379-384." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2014;13(7):379-384.fin2600.pdf
D.W. G, Mbugua PN, B. K, Kiama SG. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal in Broiler Chicken Feed." International Journal of Poultry Science . 2014;13 (4): 208-213, 2014. Abstracteffect_of_supplementation_of_moringa_oleifera_leaf_mela_in_broiler_chicken_feed.pdf

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing Moringa oleifera leaf meal
(MOLM) at different levels in broiler chicken. Broiler starter and finisher diets were formulated using raw
materials obtained from local feed manufacturers. MOLM was first analyzed for crude protein and then added
to diets at levels of 0% (T1), 7.5% (T2), 7.5% (T3) (without Methionine and lysine), 15 (T4) and 30% (T5). Two
hundred (200) day old broiler chicks were randomly allocated into the 5 treatment groups with 4 replicates
of 10 birds each and the diets introduced. The feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), weight gain, lipid
profile, abdominal fat pad and feed digestibility were determined. The MOLM crude protein level was 23.33%.
The weight gain was significantly different between the various diets with the highest weight gain being in
T1 at 1464 and the lowest in diet T5 at 500. MOLM supplementation at levels above 7.5% decreased the feed
intake and dry matter digestibility. The abdominal fat pad (AFP) was significantly higher in T1 compared to
T2, T4 and T5. The males had a significantly high levels of High density lipids (HDL) than females in T2, T3
and T4 (p<0.05). The yellow colour of the carcass increased with the increased levels of MOLM. It was
concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) was well tolerated and can only be included in the feed
to levels of up to 7.5% as higher levels affected weight gain, feed intake and digestibility. Further studies on
the yellowing of the carcass, its quality and acceptability by consumers is needed.
Key words: Moringa oleifera leaf meal, broiler chicken, feed intake, weight gain, abdominal fat pad, feed
digestibility

Gakuya DW, Mbugua PN, Kavoi B, Kiama SG. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal in Broiler Chicken Feed." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2014;13(4):208-213.
Gakuya DW, Mbugua PN, Kavoi BM, Kiama SG. "Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal in Broiler Chicken Feed." International Journal of Poultry Science . 2014;13:208-213.
D.W. Gakuya, P.N.Mbugua, S.M.Mwaniki, S.G.Kiama, G.M.Muchemi, A.Njuguna. "Effect of supplementation of Moringa oleifera(LAM) leaf meal in layer chicken feed." International Journal of Poultry Science. 2014;13(7):379-383.effect_of_supplementation_of_moringa_oleiferalam_leaf_meal_in_layer_chicken_feed.pdf
D.D.Keruyu, Z.I.Oonge, P.K.Ndiba. "The Effect of Surface Treatment on Corrosion Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2014;7(1).
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Effect of synthetic pyrethroids and other compounds on the susceptibility and development of the egg stage of the predacious mite, Amblyseius gossipi (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae). Entomophaga, 30: 265 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banahwy, E. M. and Abou-Awad, B.A; 1985. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
"The effect of tax amnesty on anti money laundering in Bangladesh ." Journal of Money Laundering Control. 2014;17(2):243-255.
6. Muriithi EM. "Effect of teacher characteristics on learner academic achievement in physics in Kenyan secondary schools." International Journal of Education and Research. 2018;6(3):169-178.
Kimilu R.K, Nyang’aya J.A, Onyari JM. "The effect of Temperature and blending on the specific gravity and viscosity of Jatropha Methyl ester." Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2011;6(12):97-105.
Khadioli N, Tonnang ZEH, Muchugu E, Ong’amo G, Achia T, Kipchirchir I, Kroschel J, LeRu B. "Effect of temperature of the phenology of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidopteran); simulation and visualization of the potential future distribution of C. partellus in Africa." Bulletin of Entomological Research. 2014;(104):823-832.
Khadioli N, Tonnang ZEH, Muchugu E, Ong’amo G, Achia T, Kipchirchir I, Kroschel J, LeRu B. "Effect of temperature of the phenology of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)(Lepidopteran); simulation and visualization of the potential future distribution of C. partellus in Africa." Bulletin of Entomological Research. 2014;(104).
KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Effect of temperature on properties of bituminous mixtures.". In: Accepted for presentation in the 8th Conference on asphalt pavements for Southern Africa Sun City South Africa,. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
Khadioli N, Tonnang ZEH, Ong’amo G, Kroschel J, LeRu B. "Effect of temperature on the life history parameters of noctuid lepidopteran stem borers, Busseola fusca (Fuller) and Sesamia calamistis Hampson." Annals of Applied Biology. 2014;(165):373-386.
Khadioli N, Tonnang ZEH, Ong'amo G, Achia T, Kipchirchir IC, Kroschel J, Ru LB. "Effect of temperature on the life history parameters of noctuid lepidopteran stem borers, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis." Annals of Applied Biology. 2014;165(3):373-386.
Luambano ND, Manzanilla-López RH, Kimenju JW, Powers SJ, Narla RD, Wanjohi WJ, Kerry BR. "Effect of temperature, pH, carbon and nitrogen ratios on the parasitic activity of Pochonia chlamydosporia on Meloidogyne incognita. Biological Control.". 2015;80:23-29.
undefined Mutisya DL, El-Banhawy EM, Kariuki CW, Khamala CP, Fiaboe KKM, undefinedKungu MM. "Effect of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus progressivus, on the development and reproduction of the introduced predatory mite, Phytoseiulus longipes ( Acari: Tetranychidae;Phytoseiidae )." Systematic& Applied Acarology. 2012;17:378-383.
AMAKOVE DRWALAELIZABETH. "Effect of the chronic dose of diazepam on the intensity and characteristics of the precipitated abstinence syndrome in the dog. Sloan JW, Martin WR, Wala E.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jun;265(3):1152-62.". In: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jun;265(3):1152-62. Kisipan, M.L.; 1993. Abstract
The ability of different chronic doses of diazepam to produce dependence was studied in groups of six dogs who received diazepam p.o. (0.05625, 0.225, 0.5625, 4.5, 9 or 36 mg/kg/day) every 8 hr. After 5 to 6 weeks of stabilization, the intensity of precipitated abstinence was measured by benzodiazepine-precipitated abstinence scores (BPAS) after the p.o. administration of graded doses of the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil (0.66, 2, 6, 18, 36 and 72 mg/kg or a placebo). A modified Latin square design was used. Dogs receiving the two lowest stabilization doses of diazepam showed only liminal signs of precipitated abstinence even with 72 mg/kg of flumazenil. The intensity of the precipitated abstinence syndrome increased with the stabilization dose of diazepam. There was also a dose-related increase in BPAS for increasing doses of flumazenil for all doses of diazepam except the 9-mg/kg/day dose. Not only were quantitative differences observed in precipitated abstinence signs for different levels of diazepam dependence, but the pattern of abstinence signs differed also. Dogs dependent on high doses of diazepam were more sensitive to flumazenil than those dependent on lower doses. Furthermore, seizure activity was seen only in dogs dependent on 9 and 36 mg/kg/day of diazepam. BPAS increased linearly with plasma and brain total and free levels of the sum of diazepam and its metabolites (oxazepam and nordiazepam), but not with free plasma and brain levels of diazepam.
WANJOHI PROFWARUTADOUGLAS. "The Effect of the Debt Crisis on the Family in Africa.". In: Tangaza Occassional Papers, No. 1. Starmat Designers & Allied, Nairobi; 1991. Abstract
The Educational Mission of the Church: An African Perspective
Sinei KA, JW M. "Effect of the tuber of Adenia globosa extract on the isolated rat uterus." Int. J. Pharmacog.. 1995;33 (3).
Okoth OS, Okelo S, Aila F, Awiti AO, Onyango M, Ogutu M, Odera O. "Effect of the Youth Enterprise Development Fund on Youth Enterprises in Kenya." International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics. 2013. AbstractWebsite

This study sought to determine the effect of the Youth Enterprise Development Fund (YEDF) on youth enterprises. The study location was in Siaya County, Kenya and stratified random sampling was used to select 28 financiers of YEDF and 202,897 youths in the County. The sample size constituted 128 respondents; 28 in the first stratum and 100 in the second stratum. The data was collected using survey questionnaires and analyzed through multiple linear regression analysis. The study concluded that the YEDF has not had a significant effect on youth enterprises. The study recommends an increase in the number of financial intermediaries (FIs) in partnership with the fund and an active involvement of all the stakeholders in mobilization of the youth on group formation and YEDF activities.
Keywords: Development, Kenya, Youth enterprise

Okumu O, Muthomi J, Ojiem J, Narla R, Nderitu J. "Effect of time after incorporation of lablab green manure on root rot pathogens and establishment of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018;6(4):113-121.
T
Ndiritu A, Chandi J, Kidombo H, Keiyoro P, Mbwesa J. "THE EFFECT OF TIME MANAGEMENT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF DISTANCE LEARNERS: A CASE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI DISTANCE LEARNERS."; 2013. Abstract

Vision 2030 reveals the magnitude of wastage in the transition from secondary to University Education. It notes that secondary school enrolment has risen from 112,229 in the 2006/2007 academic year to 118,239 in 2007/2008 academic year; the passage to university is at 3 percent. To raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of university students from the present 3 per cent to the projected 15 per cent, the government must continue increasing the number of students joining higher education from 130,000 (2008) to 450,000 (2015). This can be done by expanding the capacities of existing universities through establishment of new courses in Distance Education. The University of Nairobi’s School of Continuing and Distance Education runs a course in distance education. It has been observed that many students fail to score a total of 40% in a given course and they re-sit the failed units. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases, which is a very high failure rate. High failure rate and the ever increasing time taken to graduate is a chronic problem in Distance learning. One of the reasons why there could be poor performance is lack of quality time in reading. It is therefore worth knowing how efficiency in distance learning can be enhanced. To find out the effect of time management of academic performance a study was carried out. A total number of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique. This sample was taken from 4,500 University of Nairobi students who were registered for B.Ed degree in different levels of study in the school of continuing and distance Education. A mixed mode method approach was used in data collection. Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between time management and academic performance. The analysis indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic [r= 0.569]. The value of r2 =0.324, indicated that time management accounts for about 32.4% of the variation in average performance.
Key words: Time management, Distance Learning

E
Chandi J, Ndiritu A, Kidombo H, Mbwesa J, Keiyoro P. "The effect of time management on academic performance of Distance learners: A case of the University of Nairobi Distance Learners.".; 2013. Abstract

Vision 2030 reveals the magnitude of wastage in the transition from secondary to University Education. It notes that secondary school enrolment has risen from 112,229 in the 2006/2007 academic year to 118,239 in 2007/2008 academic year; the passage to university is at 3 percent. To raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of university students from the present 3 per cent to the projected 15 per cent, the government must continue increasing the number of students joining higher education from 130,000 (2008) to 450,000 (2015). This can be done by expanding the capacities of existing universities through establishment of new courses in Distance Education. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. It has been observed that many students fail to score a total of 40% in a given course and they re-sit the failed units. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases, which is a very high failure rate. High failure rate and the ever increasing time taken to graduate is a chronic problem in Distance learning. One of the reasons why there could be poor performance is lack of quality time in reading. It is therefore worth knowing how efficiency in distance learning can be enhanced. To find out the effect of time management of academic performance a study was carried out. A total number of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique. This sample was taken from 4,500 University of Nairobi students who were registered for B.Ed degree in different levels of study in the school of continuing and distance Education. A mixed mode method approach was used in data collection. Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between time management and academic performance. The analysis indicated a strong relationship between time management and academic [r= 0.569]. The value of r2 =0.324, indicated that time management accounts for about 32.4% of the variation in average performance.
Key words: Time management, Distance Learning

Seneveratne A, Absaloms H, Ginige T, Fry M. Effect of Timer Management on Protocol Execution Performance. Wollongong, Australia; 1993.
Owino B, Ogacho A, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Odari V. "Effect of TiO2 Compact Layer on Photovoltaic Characteristics of TiO2/Nb2O5 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.". In: 10th International Conference of the African Materials Research Society (AMRS2019). Arusha, Tanzania, ; 2019.
MONARI FRONICA, Porkiyal PGP. "Effect of Training Needs Assessment on Performance : The case of Non-teaching Staff of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences, UON.". In: The 4th International Research Society of Eastern Africa (ORSEA)ch . Nairobi, Kenya; 2009.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "The effect of treatment of vaginal infections on shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Wang CC, McClelland RS, Reilly M, Overbaugh J, Emery SR, Mandaliya K, Chohan B, Ndinya-Achola J, Bwayo JJ, Kreiss JK. Infect Dis. 2001 Apr 1;183(7):1017-22.". In: Infect Dis. 2001 Apr 1;183(7):1017-22. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2001. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Mwangi MW, Monda EO, Okoth SA, Jefwa JM. "Effect of Trichoderma harzianum and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) seedlings, napier (Pennisetum purpureum L) and tea (Camellia sinensis L) cuttings." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2009;(11):423-429. Abstract

A green-house study was conducted to investigate the ability of an isolate of Trichoderma harzianum (P52) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing growth in tomato seedlings, tea and napier grass cuttings. The effect of these bio-inoculants on growth was compared with the influence of Diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer and the interactions of these three factors (P52, AMF and DAP). The plants were grown in plastic pots filled with sterilized soils. A completely randomized design was used and growth measurements taken on height shoot and root dry weights. It was observed that isolate P52 and DAP fertilizer individually enhanced growth in tomatoes, tea and napier while AMF only enhanced growth in tomatoes. Combinations of P52 and DAP; P52, AMF and DAP enhanced growth significantly (P<0.05). Trichoderma harzianum and AMF showed potential for use as biofertilizers to reduce on chemical inputs in the perspective of sustainable agriculture and conservation of natural resources.

Maichomo MW;, Gathuma JM;, Ndung'u JM;, Matere CN. "Effect of trypanosomosis and tick borne diseases on productivity of Orma / Zebu cattle in an (ASAL) area of south western Kenya."; 2008. Abstract

Trypanosomosis and tick-borne diseases (TBD’s) have a profound impact on the livelihoods of agro-pastoralists in the ASAL areas of Kenya whose transhumance nature exposes livestock to tsetse-infested areas and also new ground may be sources of parasites. Both diseases are endemic and cause suboptimal production, which is enhanced in presence of endoparasites and nutritional stress. Trypanosomosis infected animals have pronounced immunosuppression and easily succumb to TBD’s even in presence of endemic stability and perhaps trypanotolerant animals will show minimal loss in production. A trial was conducted in trypanosomosis endemic foci to assess productivity of three hundred Orma zebu (OZ) (trypanotolerant Orma boran x Maasai zebu) and Sahiwal zebu (SZ) (susceptible Sahiwal x Maasai zebu) crosses, which were monitored monthly from birth to 18 months for prevalence of trypanosomosis and TBDs, and body weight changes. Diagnosis was based on parasitology and serology. Growth rate and disease prevalence were used as outcome measures of productivity. Factors associated with these outcome variables were assessed using multiple regression [Proc Reg, SAS version 9.1, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA] and logistic regression [Proc Logistic] fitted at 95% confidence level. Daily weight gain for the O/Z and S/Z were 0.209 g/d and 0.212 g/d respectively and comparable. Prevalence of trypanosomosis, TBD and EPG counts were 1.9% and 2.5%; 59% and 62%; 48 and 42 in the O/Z and S/Z respectively. Factors significantly associated with disease distribution were season and age of calves. Enhanced trypanotolerance in O/Z crosses can be utilized for effective reclamation of tsetseinfested lands.

Farah Z;, Meyer J;, Wangoh J;, Eberhard P;, Gallmann P;, Rehberger. B. "Effect of Ultra - High - Temperature treatments on camel milk.".; 2010.
Farbman AI, Brunjes PC, Rentfro L, Michas J, Ritz S. "The effect of unilateral naris occlusion on cell dynamics in the developing rat olfactory epithelium." The Journal of Neuroscience. 1988;8:3290-3295. AbstractWebsite

The effect of unilateral naris occlusion on the cellular dynamics of developing olfactory epithelium was investigated in postnatal rats. Nares of rat pups, at 1, 5, and 10 d postnatally, were cauterized; after a 30 d survival period, the olfactory mucosa was examined histologically, and quantitative estimates were made of total number of receptor neurons (together with basal cells), supporting cells, and epithelial thickness. In each group, there were significant differences between occluded and patent sides in total numbers of neurons and in epithelial thickness but no difference in number of supporting cells. The differences were greater in the animals that had been occluded for 1–30 d than in the 5–35 or 10–40 d groups, suggesting that the earlier postnatal days are more sensitive to the effects of occlusion. We evaluated the number of mature olfactory neurons by staining immunohistochemically with an antibody against olfactory marker protein. There were no differences in the number of mature receptor neurons between the occluded and non-occluded sides, indicating the effect of naris occlusion was on the neurons in the immature and/or the “almost mature” population. Using 3H-thymidine autoradiography, we determined that there was a 40% reduction in the rate of neurogenesis in the animals occluded 1–30 d after birth. Further, the rate of cell proliferation in nasal respiratory epithelium declined by approximately the same amount.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

K'Obonyo P, Busienei JR, Ogutu M. "Effect of Universalistic Perspective of Human Resource Strategic Orientation On Performance Of Large Private Manufacturing Firms in Kenya.". In: AIBUMA Conference. NAIROBI; 2013. Abstract

The study was set to investigate the effect of universalistic perspective of human resource strategic orientation on performance of large private manufacturing firms in Kenya. The target population was all large private manufacturing firms in Kenya that were registered members of Kenya Association of Manufacturers. The research adopted descriptive research design which utilized both descriptive and inferential statistics for effective generation of the required output. Using probability sampling, a sample of 108 firms was chosen. Data was collected using questionnaires developed by other researchers and that these were modified by the researcher. The respondents
were human resource managers, finance managers, corporate planning managers or any other senior manager. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version seventeen (17) was used to analyze the data. The results of this study showed that there was high positive correlation between universalistic human resource strategic orientation and firm performance. These results to a great extent show that all forms of universalistic human resource strategic orientation enhance performance of manufacturing firms and most particularly those registered with the Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM). These findings can also be generalized
to cover all other manufacturing firms in the country. As of the direction for further study, the researcher recommends that future research in universalistic human resource strategic orientation focus on public manufacturing firms and for the sake of knowledge, consider the use of longitudinal research design as opposed to the survey research designed which was central to this study. Further still, researchers should consider moderating or intervening variables. The main contribution of this paper lies in highlighting the fact that, proper configuration of universalistic human resource strategic orientation in manufacturing firms, will enable them enhance performance.

W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effect of use of latex rubber gloves by dental students at the University of Nairobi Dental school.". In: 26th KDA annual scientific Conference and 22rd International Association of Dental Researchers (IADR) East and Southern African Division, Intercontinental Hotel Nairobi. October 16th to 18th 2008. Karimi M, Gathece L, Wakiaga J.; 2008. Abstract
According to UN demographic projections, the world population aged 60 years and above is increasing rapidly. It is estimated that by the year 2025, there will be about 1.2 billion people above the age of 60 years worldwide. The older population in Africa currently estimated to be slightly over 42 million is projected to reach 205 million by 2050. Many of the elderly enter old age after a life of deprivation with limited access to resources. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional and oral health status of elderly persons as a part of a wider study carried out in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods: Data were collected from 289 persons aged 45 years and above using a semi-structured questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed by dental examination, while nutritional status was assessed using Body Mass Index (BMI) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). Results: The study established that many of the elderly persons suffered from dental problems, especially periodontitis, dental caries, tooth mobility and missing teeth. The level of malnutrition using the MUAC was 18.8% while by BMI it was 11.4%. 46.4% had normal nutritional status while some of them (40.9%) were overweight, with more females (48.0%) than males (25.9%) being overweight. Conclusions: Undernutrition, obesity and dental problems are issues of concern among the elderly in Nairobi.
Yole DS, Obanda VO, Kithome K, Ochanda H. "The effect of vaccinating S. mansoni-infected BALB\c mice either before or after treatment. ." African Journal of Health Sciences . 2005;12:65-77.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. The effect of variations in maize stover placement on maize growth and nitrogen uptake in continuous maize cropping systems in two regions of Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Stover placement (surface mulch, incorporated or a mixture of mulch and incorporation) was compared with stover removal in the presence and absence of 50kg N fertilizer/ha in trials over two successive seasons in continuous maize cropping systems in two regions in Kenya. Stover applied at 4 tonnes DM/ha was found to have highly variable effects on maize growth and yield according to site., method of stover placement, N application and season. Relative to controls without stover, stover incorporation reduced yield by 39% in the first season, followed by yield increases of 15% in the second season. In the first season there was little or no response to N in the presence of stover. Low N uptake and N use efficiency suggested N immobilization in the incorporation treatment. Yield responses and large N uptake in the following season suggested mineralization of N immobilized in the previous season. Surface mulching at the Kabete site increased grain yields in the first season by 39% and 6% compared to stover removal without and with fertilizer, resp. In the second season, surface mulching markedly reduced yields possibly due to a combination of reduced phytotoxicity and N immobilization. At the Katumani site, stover amendments increased yields compared to removal in both seasons with incorporation results being superior to surface mulch. At this site, in both seasons, application of N reduced the effect of stover mulching and incorporation. You must log in to CAB Direct in order to view search results. If you have forgotten your log

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. The effect of variations in maize stover placement on maize growth and nitrogen uptake in continuous maize cropping systems in two regions of Kenya..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Stover placement (surface mulch, incorporated or a mixture of mulch and incorporation) was compared with stover removal in the presence and absence of 50kg N fertilizer/ha in trials over two successive seasons in continuous maize cropping systems in two regions in Kenya. Stover applied at 4 tonnes DM/ha was found to have highly variable effects on maize growth and yield according to site., method of stover placement, N application and season. Relative to controls without stover, stover incorporation reduced yield by 39% in the first season, followed by yield increases of 15% in the second season. In the first season there was little or no response to N in the presence of stover. Low N uptake and N use efficiency suggested N immobilization in the incorporation treatment. Yield responses and large N uptake in the following season suggested mineralization of N immobilized in the previous season. Surface mulching at the Kabete site increased grain yields in the first season by 39% and 6% compared to stover removal without and with fertilizer, resp. In the second season, surface mulching markedly reduced yields possibly due to a combination of reduced phytotoxicity and N immobilization. At the Katumani site, stover amendments increased yields compared to removal in both seasons with incorporation results being superior to surface mulch. At this site, in both seasons, application of N reduced the effect of stover mulching and incorporation. You must log in to CAB Direct in order to view search results. If you have forgotten your log

Koech OK, Kinuthia RN, Mureithi SM, Karuku GN, WANJOGU RG. "Effect of Varied Soil Moisture Content on Seed Yield of Six Range Grasses in the Rangelands of Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014;2(5):174-179.
Kipchirchir KO, Ngugi RK, Karuku G, Wanjogu R, Mureithi SM. "Effect of varied soil moisture content on seed yield of six range grasses in the rangelands of Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research . 2014;2(5)(1):174-179.
Koech OK, Ngugi RK MSMKJNWRK. "Effect of varied soil water content on seed yield of six range grasses in the rangelands of Kenya." Universal Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014;2(5):174-179.
Kamanu JK;;, Chemingwa GN;, Nderitu JH, Ambuko J. "Effect of varying inorganic nitrogen fertilizer regimes on growth, yield and quality of snapbeans.". In: Agro2011. UoN; 2011.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. The effect of varying rates of compost and diammonium phosphate on soil physical properties and crop performance..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Long-term use of compost (4, 8, 12 or 125 kg/ha for maize and 10, 20, 30 or 200 kg/ha for beans) on improving crop yields and soil physical characteristics was studied at the steep-land research site, Kabete campus, Kenya. Preliminary results showed that maize yields under compost were lower than under diammonium phosphate (DAP). Compost increased the maize yield by 15% compared to an increase of 50% caused by DAP. Bean yield did not show any response to any rates of compost or DAP. The use of compost improved soil physical conditions, mainly bulk density and infiltration rates.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. The effect of varying rates of compost and diammonium phosphate on soil physical properties and crop performance..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

Long-term use of compost (4, 8, 12 or 125 kg/ha for maize and 10, 20, 30 or 200 kg/ha for beans) on improving crop yields and soil physical characteristics was studied at the steep-land research site, Kabete campus, Kenya. Preliminary results showed that maize yields under compost were lower than under diammonium phosphate (DAP). Compost increased the maize yield by 15% compared to an increase of 50% caused by DAP. Bean yield did not show any response to any rates of compost or DAP. The use of compost improved soil physical conditions, mainly bulk density and infiltration rates

Misoi, G.K., Gichaga FJ, Carson RN. "Effect of Vehicle Speeds on Corrugation Formation." African Journal of Science and Technology.. 1986;5 (1):47-58.
Gichaga FJ, Misoi GK, Carson RN. Effect Of Vehicle Speeds On Corrugation Formation.; 1986.
Fifková E. "Effect of visual deprivation and light on synapses of the inner plexiform layer." Experimental Neurology. 1972;35:458-469. AbstractWebsite

The effect of unilateral lid closure on synaptic contacts of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) has been studied. The operation was carried out on 14-day-old albino rats which survived for 8 weeks and were kept in a room illuminated 8 hr a day. The open eye as well as the deprived one are affected by unilateral lid closure. The presence of two processes caused by unilateral deprivation was postulated: the effect of deprivation itself, which stimulates the formation of new amacrine contacts in the IPL of the closed eye; the effect of an assumed excess of light to the open eye with the consequent damage to receptors. Because of direct connection between receptors and bipolar elements the damage of the receptors seems to induce changes in the bipolar terminals that decreases the density of bipolar contacts in the IPL of the open eye.

Gyllensten L, Malmfors T, Norrlin M-L. "Effect of visual deprivation on the optic centers of growing and adult mice." The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 1965;124:149-160. AbstractWebsite

The thickness of the visual cortex, the diameter of cell nuclei and the mean volume of internuclear material per nucleus in the visual cortex, geniculate bodies and superior colliculi were determined in growing and adult mice. The influence of prolonged stay in complete darkness was investigated.In the visual cortex of normal mice, a peak in nuclear size occurred 20–30 days after birth, followed by a peak in relative volume of internuclear material.In growing mice, reared in darkness from birth, a highly significant decrease in relative volume of internuclear material occurred in all visual centers. The decrease was greatest in the geniculate bodies and greater in the granular and supragranular layers of the cortex than in the infragranular. In the cortex, the decrease was most pronounced after two months and became less pronounced during prolonged stay in darkness. No similar normalization was observed in subcortical visual centers. In the same mice, visual deprivation caused a highly significant decrease in the thickness of the visual cortex and in the diameter of its cell nuclei. The decrease in nuclear diameter was greater in the granular and supragranular than in the infragranular layers of the cortex and exhibited a similar normalization during prolonged stay in darkness as the decrease in relative volume of internuclear material.In adult mice, visual deprivation caused decrease in internuclear material.

KINYUA PROFMWEASIXTUS. "Effect of voids on hardening of asphaltic concrete on flexible road and airport pavements .". In: East African Journal of Engineering. Longhorn; 2004. Abstract
Kenya experienced extraordinarily heavy rainfall between May 1997 and February 1988 due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. This period of about 10 Months of heavy rainfall caused widespread landslides and floods in various parts of the country. An enormous number of landslides occurred in Central, Western and to the Coast Provinces. This triggered a nation-wide crusade to plant trees in an effort to counter future landslide phenomenon. However, little quantitative research has been conducted to assess the impact of plant roots on soil strength. As a result, planting of trees tend to be more empirical without consideration of the structural measures for reinforcing soil that combine the ecological benefits of vegetation. This paper describes the contribution of plant roots of various species to soil shear strength. Soil samples with roots of various plant species were tested in a large modified direct shear apparatus in a laboratory set-up. Shear stress results of rooted soils were compared with results of soil without roots of similar soil types. The contribution of roots to soil strength was estimated by comparing the difference between the maximum shear stress of the shear-displacement curves obtained for soils with and without roots for the different species tested. Results suggested that the rooted soils contributed more to soil strength than rootless soils. However there was varying degree of shear strength contribution for different root species suggesting that for each species, contribution of shear strength was governed by root density. The results suggested that a composite soil-root system consumes energy while resisting shear displacement. This feature could be included in stability analysis of vegetated hillslopes in terms of energy associated with shearing in a soil-root system.
M.Mwangi, J.K.Mwiti. "The Effect of Voluntary Disclosure on Stock Market Returns of Companies Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2015;6(1):99-105. Abstract

Voluntary disclosure is aimed at providing a clear view to stakeholders about the business’s long-termsustainability and reducing information asymmetry and agency conflicts between managers and investors. Theobjective of this study was to determine the effects of voluntary disclosures on stock market returns of companieslisted at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. The study sampled twenty firms for the period 2009 to 2013. Itemployed multiple linear regression of market performance of the firms in the five year period against voluntarydisclosure, exchange rate, interest rate and rate of inflation.The results were that each of the factors waspositively related to market performance for firms listed at the NSE. The study recommends companies to havevoluntary disclosure above the statutory requirements set by the regulatory agencies as it can result in increasedstock returns.

Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Karuku G, Kironchi G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda ." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana D, Mureithi SM, Karuku G, Kironchi, G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Uwizeyimana, D., Mureithi, S.M., and Karuku G, Kironchi G. "Effect of water conservation measures on soil moisture and maize yield under drought prone agro-ecological zones in Rwanda." International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 2018;6(3):21.
Kabira, WM; Gachukia EW; MFO. "The effect of women's role on health: The paradox .". 1997.Website
Kariuki MI. "Effect of Working Capital Liquidity on the Financial Performance of Hire Purchase Companies in Kenya." Journal of Economics and Finance. 2017; 8(1):50-9.
Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. Abstract

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations

Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM, Mulaa FJ. "Effective biotransformation of Reactive Black 5 Dye Using Crude Protease from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428." Energy Procedia. 2019;157:815-824. AbstractEnergy Procedia

Description

Effective effluent treatment is a paramount step towards conserving the dwindling clean water resources. The present study describes the use of crude protease extract from Bacillus Cereus Strain KM201428 biotransformation of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5). Batch experimental results displayed over 97% decolorization efficiency with initial dye concentration of 1.0 x 10-4M. The decolorization process was highly dependent on contact time, dye concentration and pH. The optimum contact time and pH for decolorization were 120 hours and pH 9 respectively at 25˚C. Biotransformation of RB5 dye was monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and formed metabolites characterized by LC–QTOF-MS. Comparison of resultant LC–QTOF-MS chromatograms after decolorization confirmed complete cleavage of RB5 dye. First order kinetic fitted well with experimental data for different RB5 dye concentrations …

OCHILO.P. "Effective Communication for Health as "The Missing Link".". In: Ministry of Health Seminar on Effective Communication within Global Theme of Health for All by the Year 2000. NAIROBI; 1987.
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effective communication methods of dental health education.". In: The 1st joint congress of the East & Southern Africa and Kuwait divisions: West African and Jordanian sections, Hilton hotel Nairobi, 26th . Ngugi MN, Mutara LN, Gathece LW.; 2004. Abstract

Department of Periodontology/ Community and Preventive Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676 - 00202, Nairobi, Kenya. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of oral hygiene habits and practices on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Githongo sublocation in Meru District. SUBJECTS: Eighty five cases and 141 controls identified in a house-to-house screening. RESULTS: The relative risk (RR) of oral leukoplakia increased gradually across the various brushing frequencies from the reference RR of 1.0 in those who brushed three times a day, to 7.6 in the "don't brush" group. The trend of increase was statistically significant (X2 for Trend : p = 0.001). The use of chewing stick as compared to conventional tooth brush had no significant influence on RR of oral leukoplakia. Non-users of toothpastes had a significantly higher risk of oral leukoplakia than users (RR = 1.8; 95% confidence levels (CI) = 1.4-2.5). Among tobacco smokers, the RR increased from 4.6 in those who brushed to 7.3 in those who did not brush. Among non-smokers, the RR of oral leukoplakia in those who did not brush (1.8) compared to those who brushed was also statistically significant (95% CL = 1.6-3.8). CONCLUSION: Failure to brush teeth and none use of toothpastes are significantly associated with the development of oral leukoplakia, while the choice of brushing tools between conventional toothbrush and chewing stick is not. In addition, failure to brush teeth appeared to potentiate the effect of smoking tobacco in the development of oral leukoplakia. Recommendations: Oral health education, instruction and motivation for the improvement of oral hygiene habits and practices; and therefore oral hygiene status, should be among the strategies used in oral leukoplakia preventive and control programmes.

Oriaso SO. "Effective Communication to help poor women in Kenya escape the HIV and AIDs trap. ." Africa Journal of Communication. 2013;1, 2(Dec):1-20.
Ayiemba EHO, J.O. Oucho. E, et al. "Effective Family Planning Programmes for Africa: Lessons from Kenya’s Experience.". In: Population and Development in Kenya. Nairobi: School of Journalism Press, University of Nairobi; 2000.
MURIITHI MRKINYUA. "Effective Graphics for New Readers in Third World.". In: Journal of the African Association for Literacy and Adult Education (AALAE). ELOQUENT BOOKS NY, Strategic Book Group, Connecticut, USA. ISBN-978-1-60911-081-9.Pages1; 1988. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Macrophytes have been shown to perform important ecological roles in Lake Naivasha. Consequently, various studies regarding the impact of biotic factors on the macrophytes have been advanced but related studies on environmental parameters have lagged behind. In an attempt to address this gap, sampling on floating species and submergents was carried out in eight sampling sites in 2003 to investigate how they were influenced by a set of environmental factors. Soil texture (sandy sediments; P < 0.05, regression coefficient = - 0.749) and wind were the most important environmental parameters influencing the distribution and abundance of floating macrophytes. Combination of soil texture and lake-bed slope explained the most (86.3%) variation encountered in the submergents. Continuous translocation of the floating dominant water hyacinth to the western parts by wind has led to displacement of the submergents from those areas. In view of these findings, the maintenance and preservation of the steep Crescent Lake basin whose substratum is dominated by sand thus hosting most submergents remain important, if the whole functional purpose of the macrophytes is to be sustained.
Sivapalasingam S, McClelland RS RACCMGMMJAP, Shafi J, Masese L FAMEJKAEMW &. "An Effective Intervention to reduce intravaginal practices among HIV-1 uninfected Kenyan women." AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses . 2014;30(11)::1046-57.
HM M. "Effective monitoring and Evaluation of progress in postgraduate training." Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture postgraduate induction workshop, Nakuru; 2019.
MBUYA TO, ODERA BO, Ng'ang'a SP, Oduori FM. "Effective Recycling of Cast Aluminium Alloys for Small Foundries.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

A method of effective recycling of aluminium castings suitable for small foundries was investigated. Automotive cast aluminium scrap obtained from various scrap vendors was sorted into groups of similar components, namely; pistons, cylinder heads and housings (gearbox and rear-axle housings). This sorting method was adopted with the hypothesis that the resulting alloys could be closely equivalent to the commercial alloys that were originally used to make the components. The remainder of the scrap was grouped as miscellaneous scrap and contained various parts such as alternator covers, exhaust manifolds, oil sumps and other assorted scrap. As hypothesised, the chemistry of the resulting alloys were found to be consistently equivalent to the commercial alloys commonly used to cast the various components that were melted. For example, the alloy chemistry of secondary alloys from piston scrap was consistently equivalent to commercial piston alloys such as AC8B and LM26. Furthermore, alloys from cylinder head scrap were equivalent to commercial alloys such as 319, LM27 and AC2B. On the other hand, the alloy chemistry from unsorted scrap was not found to be consistent nor equivalent to a specific group of commercial alloys except for the 319 and 380.0 workhorse alloys. These results are discussed against the possibility of reusing the alloys in casting components similar to those that they were recycled from, in addition to other possible applications.

O. PROFKOBONYOPETER. "Effective Seminar Presentation: Notes for Managers.". In: Journal of the Kenya Institute of Management.; 1989.
Keya E;, Karuri EG;, Okoth MW. "Effective teaching of food science and technology courses."; 1990.
OTIENO DRJOWI. "The effective Utilization of Instructional Resources in University Staff Development.". In: Part Two of the Papers presented in the workshop in Mombasa Kenya august 1991. (University Staff Development, Part two). The Kenya Medical Association; 1991. Abstract
Quality of health education during STD case management in Nairobi was assessed in 142 healthcare facilities, through interviews of 165 providers, observation of 441 STD patients managed by these providers, and 165 visits of simulated patients. For observations, scores were high for education on contact treatment (74-80%) and compliance (83%), but unsatisfactory for counselling (52%) and condom promotion (20-41%). The World Health Organization (WHO) indicator for STD case management Prevention Indicator 7 (PI7) (condom promotion plus contact treatment) was poor (38%). Public clinics strengthened for STD care generally performed best, whereas pharmacies and mission clinics performed worst. Compared with observations, scores were higher during interviews and lower during simulated patient visits, indicating that knowledge was not fully translated into practice. Interventions to improve the presently unsatisfactory service quality would be wide distribution of health education materials, ongoing training and supervision of providers, implementation of STD management checklists, and the introduction of pre-packaged kits for STD management.
DOROTHY MRSOMOLLO. "Effective ways of communicating the dangers of HIV infection among rural women in Kenya.". In: J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):359-64. Earthscan, London. 978-1-84407-469-3 (*); 1993. Abstract

Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. An epidemic of meningococcal disease occurred in Nairobi, Kenya, during 1989, outside the "meningitis belt" of sub-Saharan Africa. About 3800 cases occurred between April and November (250/100,000 population). The case-fatality rate was 9.4% among hospitalized patients. Areas that included Nairobi's largest slums had particularly high attack rates. The epidemic displayed an unusual age distribution, with high attack rates among those 20-29 years old. A vaccination campaign was conducted. By early January, the weekly case count had fallen to 25 from a high of 272 (in September). A case-control study estimated the vaccine efficacy to be 87% (95% confidence interval, 67%-95%). A model estimated that the vaccination campaign reduced the number of cases by at least 20%. Multilocus enzyme electrophoretic typing demonstrated that the strain responsible for this large epidemic is closely related to strains that caused other recent epidemics, documenting further spread of what may be a particularly virulent clonal complex of group A Neisseria meningitidis.

P. PROFMUREITHILEOPOLD. "Effectively Increasing Employment an Agenda for Business. I.D.S Working Paper No. 152 Also privately circulated by S.G Hawkins and Associates.". In: Gabbay R. &Siddique A., ed., Good Governance Issues and Sustainable Development: The Indian Ocean Region (New Delhi: Vedams Books). ISCTRC; 1974. Abstract
Differentiation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic (midgut) forms is an important first step in the establishment of an infection within the tsetse fly. This complex process is mediated by a wide variety of factors, including those associated with the vector itself, the trypanosomes and the bloodmeal. As part of an on-going project in our laboratory, we recently isolated and characterized a bloodmeal-induced molecule with both lectin and trypsin activities from midguts of the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis [Osir, E.O., Abubakar, L., Imbuga, M.O., 1995. Purification and characterization of a midgut lectin-trypsin complex from the tsetse fly, Glossina longipennis. Parasitol. Res. 81, 276-281]. The protein (lectin-trypsin complex) was found to be capable of stimulating differentiation of bloodstream trypanosomes in vitro. Using polyclonal antibodies to the complex, we screened a G. fuscipes fuscipes cDNA midgut expression library and identified a putative proteolytic lectin gene. The cDNA encodes a putative mature polypeptide with 274 amino acids (designated Glossina proteolytic lectin, Gpl). The deduced amino acid sequence includes a hydrophobic signal peptide and a highly conserved N-terminal sequence motif. The typical features of serine protease trypsin family of proteins found in the sequence include the His/Asp/Ser active site triad with the conserved residues surrounding it, three pairs of cysteine residues for disulfide bridges and an aspartate residue at the specificity pocket. Expression of the gene in a bacterial expression system yielded a protein (M(r) approximately 32,500). The recombinant protein (Gpl) bound d(+) glucosamine and agglutinated bloodstream-form trypanosomes and rabbit red blood cells. In addition, the protein was found to be capable of inducing transformation of bloodstream-form trypanosomes into procyclic forms in vitro. Antibodies raised against the recombinant protein showed cross-reactivity with the alpha subunit of the lectin-trypsin complex. These results support our earlier hypothesis that this molecule is involved in the establishment of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies.
MINYAFU DRAYOTROBERT. "Effectiveness and process of Adult Literacy Education in Kenya, Ph.D Thesis.". In: Unpublished PhD Thesis. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1985. Abstract
This analysis attempted to capture the key economic and financial trends in the budget in the 1995/6 year and to provide the rationale for them. These trends were linked to fundamental requisites for development and sustainable growth.
M. Otim, Kasina M, Nderitu J, Katafiire M, Mcharo M, Kaburu M, Bwire G, Bwire J, Ol F. "Effectiveness and profitability of insecticide formulations used for managing snap bean pests." Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2016; 17 (1): 111-124.Effectiveness and profitability of insecticide formulations used for managing snap bean pests1.pdf
W.D. O, S.O. D, P.M.A O. "Effectiveness of Aerobic Microbials in Breaking Down of Hydrocarbons in Effluent Discharges from Petroleum Service Stations." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2016;Vol. 9(No. 2):95-109.
MARTINON MUMMA-CA. "The Effectiveness Of Au In Promoting Peace And Security:.". In: The Case Of Eastern African Standby Force (Easbrig). Leipzig Germany; 2009.20.effectiveness_of_au.pdf
Ndiritu GM. Effectiveness of cash budgeting in public institutions. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2007. Abstractndiritu_george_muriuki_-_effectiveness_of_cash_budgeting_in_public_institutions.pdf

This study involved understanding the cash budget process and its effectiveness in Telkom Kenya Limited. The firm understudy is wholly owned by the government and has been in existence for over six years. Cash budget is an indispensable tool which assists organizations to manage their cash flows over a given period of time. The study therefore attempted to evaluate how the firm has employed a cash budget as a management tool. It involved understanding the cash budgeting process and its effectiveness in improving the management of cash. It also involved appreciating the role of liquidity management in the firm by ensuring sustenance of enough cash for operations while investing excess cash profitably. The study also assessed the weaknesses the firm faces in management of cash and how this management tool can be implemented as a strategy to alleviate the same. The study was done through interviewing the relevant staff using an interview guide to understand how the cash budget is prepared and used in decision making in the organization. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and historical information used as benchmark. Information relating to how the cash budget helped in forecasting cash flows and its flexibility in accommodating un-budgeted transactions assisted to evaluate cash budget effectiveness. The relevant literature was used as the benchmark to evaluate effectiveness. The study revealed that the firm ends up loosing huge cash amounts due to lack of established and operationalised mechanisms and strategies to harmonize cash collection and expenditure. There were many pitfalls with loose controls which ensured that the cash budget does not capture the total cash movement in the organization. There was also cash planning mismatch due to poor coordination between the various operationally related departments vested with management of cash. For example actualization of projects by engineers took longer than foreseen but is usually cash budgeted for. Operational expenditure also took the larger chunk of the cash generated instead of capital expenditure thus leading to dwindling cash sources in the future. To ensure the cash budget is. valuable and effective, the firm needs to strive and achieve set standards. As a prerequisite also, the firm's operations when managing cash need to be coordinated and harmonized to ensure that the cash budget objectives are achievable.

Nyakundi A, Mberia H, Ndeti N. "The Effectiveness of Communication Campaigns in Enhancing Knowledge of Mental Health in Kenya.". In: School of Human Resource Development Annual Research Conference. JKUAT Main Campus; 2013.
Headmond P, Wangia S, Magomere T. "Effectiveness of community radio in disseminating market information among small holder maize farmers: Experience from Suba Sub-County, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research. 2017;6(3)(ISSN):2278-0211.
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Githigia S, S. T, M L. "Effectiveness of grazing management in controlling GI nematodes in weaner lambs on pasture in Denmark." International Conference of the World Asociation for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. 2001;(18):118-119. Abstract

The problem of anthelmintic resistance calls for alternative control methods, including grazing management. Dose- and – move and move- only strategies of control methods were compared in this study.

In early May, 1999, 16 ewes with twin lambs (2-3 weeks old) were turned out on infected pasture. On 1st July, the lambs were allocated to 4 groups of 8 lambs and weaned to clean pasture. Two groups (dose – and –move) were treated with anthelmintics while the other two (move- only) were not treated. Each group was allocated to a separate paddock sampled every two weeks and set stocked until slaughter.

Chemining’wa N, Ngeno J, Muthomi JW, Shibairo SI. "Effectiveness of indigenous pea rhizobia (Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae) in cultivated soils of central Kenya." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2012;57:4177-4185.effectiveness_of_indigenous_pea_rhizobia.pdf
Bill Okemwa, Nathan Gichuki, Munir Virani, James Kanya, Jenesio Kinyamario AS. "Effectiveness of LED lights on bomas in protecting livestock from predation in southern Kenya." Conservation Evidence. 2018.
JJ C, G O, W M. "Effectiveness of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminder on Birth Preparedness in a Rural Community in Kenya." Obstetrics and Gynaecology International Journal. 2018.
"Effectiveness of Non-nucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy in Women Previously Exposed to a Single Intrapartum Dose of Nevirapine: A Multi-country, Prospective Cohort Study."; 2010. Abstract

Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine (NVP) reduces the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission
but also induces viral resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. This drug resistance largely
fades over time. We hypothesized that women with a prior single-dose NVP exposure would have no more than a 10%
higher cumulative prevalence of failure of their NNRTI-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the first 48 wk of therapy
than would women without a prior exposure.
Methods and Findings: We enrolled 355 NVP-exposed and 523 NVP-unexposed women at two sites in Zambia, one site in
Kenya, and two sites in Thailand into a prospective, non-inferiority cohort study and followed them for 48 wk on ART. Those
who died, discontinued NNRTI-containing ART, or had a plasma viral load $400 copies/ml at either the 24 wk or 48 wk
study visits and confirmed on repeat testing were characterized as having failed therapy. Overall, 114 of 355 NVP-exposed
women (32.1%) and 132 of 523 NVP-unexposed women (25.2%) met criteria for treatment failure. The difference in failure
rates between the exposure groups was 6.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8%–13.0%). The failure rates of women
stratified by our predefined exposure interval categories were as follows: 47 of 116 women in whom less than 6 mo elapsed
between exposure and starting ART failed therapy (40%; p,0.001 compared to unexposed women); 25 of 67 women in
whom 7–12 mo elapsed between exposure and starting ART failed therapy (37%; p = 0.04 compared to unexposed women);
and 42 of 172 women in whom more than 12 mo elapsed between exposure and starting ART failed therapy (24%; p = 0.82
compared to unexposed women). Locally weighted regression analysis also indicated a clear inverse relationship between
virologic failure and the exposure interval.
Conclusions: Prior exposure to single-dose NVP was associated with an increased risk of treatment failure; however, this risk
seems largely confined to women with a more recent exposure. Women requiring ART within 12 mo of NVP exposure
should not be prescribed an NNRTI-containing regimen as first-line therapy.
Please see later in the article for the Editors’ Summary.

Stringer JSA, McConnell MS, Kiarie J, Bolu O, Anekthananon T, Jariyasethpong T, Potter D, Mutsotso W, Borkowf CB, Mbori-Ngacha D, Muiruri P, Ong'ech JO, Zulu I, Njobvu L, Jetsawang B, Pathak S, Bulterys M, Shaffer N, Weidle PJ. "Effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy in women previously exposed to a single intrapartum dose of nevirapine: a multi-country, prospective cohort study." PLoS Med.. 2010;7(2):e1000233. Abstract

Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine (NVP) reduces the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission but also induces viral resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. This drug resistance largely fades over time. We hypothesized that women with a prior single-dose NVP exposure would have no more than a 10% higher cumulative prevalence of failure of their NNRTI-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the first 48 wk of therapy than would women without a prior exposure.

Mwangi N, Ng'ang'a M, Gakuo E, Gichuhi S, Macleod D, Moorman C, Muthami L, Tum P, Jalango A, Githeko K, Gichangi M, Kibachio J, Bascaran C, Foster A. "Effectiveness of peer support to increase uptake of retinal examination for diabetic retinopathy: study protocol for the DURE pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial in Kirinyaga, Kenya." BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):871. Abstract

All patients with diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy (DR), a progressive and potentially blinding condition. Early treatment of DR prevents visual impairment and blindness. The natural history of DR is that it is asymptomatic until the advanced stages, thus annual retinal examination is recommended for early detection. Previous studies show that the uptake of regular retinal examination among people living with diabetes (PLWD) is low. In the Uptake of Retinal Examination in Diabetes (DURE) study, we will investigate the effectiveness of a complex intervention delivered within diabetes support groups to increase uptake of retinal examination.

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Nyavanga EJ, Chebet IM, Barasa M, Ndetei DM. "Effectiveness of Psychoeducation on Improving Opinions About Mental Illness Among Primary School Teacher Trainees in Kenya." Science Journal of Public Health . 2016;4(6):422-429. AbstractWebsite

Opinions about mental illness have been found to be negative among college students and the general population. Studies have indicated that improving literacy levels would improve opinions and lead to individuals to seek help and family to provide the needed support. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of psycho-education on the opinions about mental illness among public primary teacher trainees in Kenya. Convenience sampling was used to identify four public teacher colleges out of the twenty. Self-administered demographic questionnaire and opinions about mental illness scale were presented to the participants to collect data in four evaluations for the experimental group and three for the control group. The ethical protocol was followed from getting authority to informed consent from the participants. Out of the 2925 questionnaires presented, 2775 were returned fully filled, a return rate of 94.34%. Summative scores improved among the experimental group in the second, and third assessments, but this reduced to almost the original measure in the fourth assessment. This study found that psycho-education of mental illness is effective in improving negative opinions about mental illness among these participants and this study recommended mental health studies is included in the teachers’ curriculum.

H W, H O, B G. "Effectiveness of Street Youth Integration in East Africa." Postmodern Openings. 2011;6:57-75.
Khatete I, D A. "Effectiveness of the board of Governors in the Recruitment of Secondary School Teachers in Gucha District ." Journal of Education and Practice. 2013;Vol 4, No 28 (2013).
Otieno AO, Karuku GN, Raude JM, Koech OK. "Effectiveness of the Horizontal, Vertical and Hybrid Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland Systems in Polishing Municipal Wastewater." Environmental Management and Sustainable Development. 2017;6(2):158-173.
EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Effectiveness of the predacious mite, Amblyseius gossipi as a predator of three tetranychid miets (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Z. Angew. Ent., 62: 189 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Badry, E. A., Afifi, A. M., Issa, G. I. and El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1968. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Maingi, N., Thamsborg, S.M., Gichohi, C.M., Munyua, W.K., Gathuma, J.M., Nansen P. "Effectiveness of the strategic use of closantel and albendazole in controlling gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep in Kenya.". In: 15th International Conference of the WAAVP. Yokohama, Japan; 1995.
Maingi N;, Thamsborg SM;, Gichohi CM;, Munyua W k;, Gathuma JM;, Nansen P. "Effectiveness Of The Strategic Use Of Closantel And Albendazole In Controlling Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep In Kenya."; 1995.
Maingi N;, Thamsborg SM;, Gichohi CM;, Munyua W k;, Gathuma JM;, Nansen P. "Effectiveness Of The Strategic Use Of Closantel And Albendazole In Controlling Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep In Kenya."; 1995.
Maingi N;, Thamsborg SM;, Gichohi CM;, Munyua W k;, Gathuma JM;, Nansen P. "Effectiveness Of The Strategic Use Of Closantel And Albendazole In Controlling Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep In Kenya."; 1995.
Wanjala G. "The Effectiveness of the Teachers' Service Commission in maintaining a Balanced Teaching Force at the Secondary School Level." The Fountain , Journal of the Faculty of Education.. 2009;3(1):1-11. Abstract

This paper discusses the research study that was carried out in an effort to assess the effectiveness of the Teachers' Service Commission in maintaining a balanced teaching force in all secondary schools in Kenya. The research had two main hypotheses : Ho1 : Teachers are equitably distributed in all provinces in Kenya ; and Ho2 : Teacher related factors have an impact on the role of the Commission in teacher distribution. The analysis of the data revealed that there are disparities in teacher distribution between subject areas and regions. These disparities can be viewed as indicators of potential ineffectiveness in the Teachers' Service Commission's role in maintaining a balanced teaching force at the secondary school level.

Awino ZB, Lorika J, K'Obonyo P. "Effectiveness of the Value Chain Strategy in the Selected Producer-owned Dairy Groups in Kenya." Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management (BAM). 2011;1(3):93-100.
Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Effectiveness of three grass species as filter strips for soil conservation on cropland..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effectiveness of different grass spp. in reducing runoff and soil loss was studied at Kabete campus, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Half metre wide strips of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), Nandi setaria (Setaria anceps) and tall Signal grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis) were established on 11m x 2m runoff plots, and runoff and soil loss were monitored for each rainfall event during the long and short rains of 1990. In terms of runoff control, there was no significant difference between treatments during early establishment; however, runoff form plot with filter strips was always lower than controls. B. ruziziensis was most effective at runoff and soil loss reduction and this was attributed to growth habit and slow rate of establishment. The capability of the strips to impede runoff improved with time.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Effectiveness of three grass species as filter strips for soil conservation on cropland..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effectiveness of different grass spp. in reducing runoff and soil loss was studied at Kabete campus, University of Nairobi, Kenya. Half metre wide strips of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), Nandi setaria (Setaria anceps) and tall Signal grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis) were established on 11m x 2m runoff plots, and runoff and soil loss were monitored for each rainfall event during the long and short rains of 1990. In terms of runoff control, there was no significant difference between treatments during early establishment; however, runoff form plot with filter strips was always lower than controls. B. ruziziensis was most effective at runoff and soil loss reduction and this was attributed to growth habit and slow rate of establishment. The capability of the strips to impede runoff improved with time.

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Muindi F. "THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRADE UNION LEADERSHIP AND THE FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS.". In: African Journal of Business & Management (AJBUMA) . Nairobi; 2010. Abstractthe_effectiveness_of_trade_union_leadership_and_the_factors_influencing_the_leadership_effectiveness.pdf

Without effective leadership, the process of creating an environment that is positive for fostering Relationships and conducive to effective production would falter and the organization would suffer loss, either monetary, personnel, or production. This study on the leadership effectiveness in the Kenya union of sugar plantation and allied workers (KUSPAW) aimed at determining the effectiveness of Trade Union leadership and determining the factors influencing the leadership effectiveness. A descriptive survey research design was used. Stratified sampling using the proportionate allocation method was used to determine the size of each stratum (national board members, branch officials and shop stewards). A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. The data was analyzed descriptively using the distribution (frequency), central tendency (Mean and mode) and dispersion (range, variance and standard deviation).The results revealed that the KUSPAW leadership’s ‘laissez-faire’ and ‘Management by exception: passive’ had acceptable scores of 0.5 and 0.6 respectively against a benchmark of 0-1. The leadership also has an acceptable score in contingent reward (2.9) measured against a 2-3 validated benchmark. The two leadership styles that did not meet the expectations are ‘Management by exception: active’ and
transformational leadership with scores of 2.4 and 2.9 measured against benchmarks of 1-2 and 3.0-3.75
respectively. The outcomes ratings (3.0) also failed to attain the benchmark in excess of 3.5. The study concludes that the KUSPAW leadership is relatively ineffective and recommends that the whole leadership is taken through a leadership course, albeit refresher for those with the training.
Keywords: leadership, leadership effectiveness, trade unions

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Maingi, N., Otieno, R.O, Weda, E.H., Gichohi VM. "Effectiveness of wet season deworming in controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep in the highlands of Kenya.". In: I0th International Conference of Associations of Institutions of Tropical Veterinary Medicine . Copenhagen, Denmark; 2001.
Maingi, N., Weda, E.H., Otieno RO, Gichohi VM. "Effectiveness of wet season deworming in controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep in the highlands of Kenya.". In: 10th Annual Seminar of the DANIDA-funded Ruminant Helminth Research Project. Na1robi, Kenya; 2001.
O. J. Olwendo, P. Baki, Mito C, and Doherty P. "Effects of TEC disturbances on Satellite Tracking Using GPS-SCINDA receiver over the Kenyan Space." Nigerian Journal of Space Research. 2010;7:73-85.Website
Kisuthi GG,.;Knapp M;, Shibario JK,; Nderitu JH;, Kiarie N. "Effects if four biopesticides on the spider mite tetranychanus evansi Baker and Pritchard in the laboratory.". In: European Association of Acarologists (EURAAC). Berlin germany; 2004.
Kithusi 12. GG, Knapp SK, Shibairo SI, Nderitu JH, Njoroge K. "Effects of biopestcides on spider-mites (Tranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard) in the laboratory." Phytophaga. 2004;14:1-8.
MUSEMBI NICODEMUSNDAWA, Hutchinson MJ, Waithaka K. "The Effects of 6-Benzylaminopurine and Gibberellic acid on Postharvest Physiology of Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) Flowers: I. Novel Synergism Improves Water Balance and Vase Life.". In: 1st International Symposium on Ornamentals in Africa (Organized by The ISHS). Morendat Conference Centre - Naivasha; 2013.

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