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Magutu PO, Chirchir MK, Mulama OA. "The Effect of Logistics Outsourcing Practices on the Performance of Large Manufacturing Firms in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: ORSEA.; 2013. Abstractthe_effect_of_logistics_outsourcing_practices_on_the_perform.pdf

Abstract. Outsourcing of services has become a common practice among large manufacturing firms worldwide and this is due to the various benefits that accrue to a firm as a result of outsourcing. Contracting out production of goods and services to a firm with competitive advantages in terms of reliability, quality and cost was found out to be the main driver of outsourcing. However the various studies covered have not extensively delved into logistics outsourcing practices in relation to the performance of large scale manufacturing firms. As a result, this study explored outsourcing practices viz a viz the performance of large manufacturing firms Nairobi, Kenya. The population of the study in this research was all the large scale manufacturing companies that are based in Nairobi. Stratified random sampling method was applied to come up with the sample size, since the population in different large manufacturing firms is considered heterogeneous, implying that a simple random sample would have been unrepresentative. The response rate was 83%. The results established that the firms were outsourcing transportation management, warehouse management and material handling management. The firms opted to outsource their services due to its advantages and its possible influence on organizational performance, as it enables the firms to focus on its core competencies. The outsourcing practices adopted by the large manufacturing firms will in the long run determine their survival as they would seek to reduce operating costs, improved customer satisfaction and timely delivery of services to clients which in turn increase productivity and reduce lead time and improved profits. The study confined itself to large manufacturing firms in Nairobi and the findings may not be applicable in other sectors as a result of uniqueness of the manufacturing firms. It is therefore recommended that the study is replicated in other service sectors to establish the logistics outsourcing services and performance.

Magutu PO, Chirchir MK, Mulama OA. "The Effect of Logistics Outsourcing Practices on the Performance of Large Manufacturing Firms in Nairobi, Kenya.". In: ORSEA. Uganda; 2013. Abstractthe_effect_of_logistics_outsourcing_practices_on_the_perform.pdf

Abstract. Outsourcing of services has become a common practice among large manufacturing firms worldwide and this is due to the various benefits that accrue to a firm as a result of outsourcing. Contracting out production of goods and services to a firm with competitive advantages in terms of reliability, quality and cost was found out to be the main driver of outsourcing. However the various studies covered have not extensively delved into logistics outsourcing practices in relation to the performance of large scale manufacturing firms. As a result, this study explored outsourcing practices viz a viz the performance of large manufacturing firms Nairobi, Kenya. The population of the study in this research was all the large scale manufacturing companies that are based in Nairobi. Stratified random sampling method was applied to come up with the sample size, since the population in different large manufacturing firms is considered heterogeneous, implying that a simple random sample would have been unrepresentative. The response rate was 83%. The results established that the firms were outsourcing transportation management, warehouse management and material handling management. The firms opted to outsource their services due to its advantages and its possible influence on organizational performance, as it enables the firms to focus on its core competencies. The outsourcing practices adopted by the large manufacturing firms will in the long run determine their survival as they would seek to reduce operating costs, improved customer satisfaction and timely delivery of services to clients which in turn increase productivity and reduce lead time and improved profits. The study confined itself to large manufacturing firms in Nairobi and the findings may not be applicable in other sectors as a result of uniqueness of the manufacturing firms. It is therefore recommended that the study is replicated in other service sectors to establish the logistics outsourcing services and performance.

Lulalire FR, Karimi PN, Mwagangi EM, Wandolo G. "Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Mothers suffering from Toxemia of Pregnancy and their Neonates." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2016;5(2): 59-64. Abstract

Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Mothers suffering from Toxemia of Pregnancy and their Neonates
Faith R. Lulalire a,b, Peter N. Karimi a,*, Evans M. Mwagangi a, and George Wandolo c
a Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy. University of Nairobi, Kenya
b Ministry of Health, Kenya
c Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
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* Corresponding author: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of
Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya; Tel: +254-72-2604216; Email: ndirang@yahoo.com
Background: Severe pre-eclampsia is one of the major causes of high maternal mortality rate in both developed and developing countries. The goals of management are to prevent progression to eclampsia thus preventing convulsions, to control the blood pressure and to prevent untoward effects in the foetus. The first-line option for the treatment and prevention of eclamptic seizures is magnesium sulphate.
Objective: To determine the serum magnesium, urea and electrolyte levels in neonates of mothers treated with magnesium sulphate and compare the findings with the levels in non-exposed neonates.
Methodology: A quasi experimental design was adopted where test subjects were neonates of mothers suffering from preeclampsia and severe eclampsia and were being treated with magnesium sulphate just before delivery at Pumwani Maternity hospital. The control group comprised neonates of hypertensive mothers without preeclampsia being treated using other drugs. Blood samples were obtained from the mother at onset of labor and from the neonates at birth and analyzed in the clinical chemistry laboratory of the University of Nairobi.
Results: A total of 54 mothers and their neonates were enrolled with 27 in each arm of the study. The mean maternal serum magnesium in the test group was significantly higher than in the control group (p = 0.008). The mean neonatal serum magnesium in the test group was also significantly higher compared to the control group (p = 0.008). There were statistically significant differences in serum sodium (p = 0.015), urea (p = 0.043) and creatinine (p = 0.008) levels between the maternal test and control groups. There were significant differences in serum urea (p = 0.007) and
chloride (p = 0.017) between the neonatal test and control groups. The calcium and potassium levels were elevated in the test group but not to significant levels. There was a positive correlation between maternal and neonatal serum magnesium levels in both groups stronger in the test group (r = 0.56, p = 0.003) as compared to the control group (r = 0.35, p = 0.087).
Conclusion: Maternally administered magnesium sulphate raises urea and creatinine levels to significant levels in mothers. Calcium levels are also raised while in mothers not receiving magnesium sulphate they were slightly lower.
In neonates the urea and chloride levels are elevated to significant levels while the calcium and potassium levels are not significantly elevated. We suggest monitoring of both in the immediate post-partum period.
Keywords: Preeclampsia, eclampsia, magnesium sulphate, neonate, serum urea and electrolytes.
Received: November, 2015
Published: May, 2016

Muthomi JW;, Kinyungu TN;, Nderitu JH;, Olubayo FM;, Kabira J. "Effect of maize border crop placement distance on aphid population and aphid-transmitted virus diseases in potato.". In: 12th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, KARI,. Nairobi; 2010.
Macharia CM, Nderitu JH. "The effect of maize stem borers infestation on yield of maize." E. Afr. Agri. For. J.. 1997;4(4).
W. DRGATHECELOICE. "Effect of malocclusion on the oral health related quality of life of 12-14 year-olds in Viwandani slums, Nairobi.". In: . 1st International Scientific Conference; College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi. June 15th to 17th 2011. Opondo IA, Kemoli A, Ngesa JL, Gathece LW.; 2011.
Ngesa JL. "Effect of malocclusion on the oral health-related quality of life of 12-14 year-olds in.". In: 1st CHS International Scientific Conference. CHS - University of Nairobi; 2011.
Awuor OB, Zipporah O, Ooko J. "The Effect of Managerial Ownership on Stock Performance of Firms Listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange." Scholars Journal of Economics, Business and Management. 2017;4:279-290. Abstract
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ODHIAMBO ODONGOSETH. THE EFFECT OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHIES ON STUDENT SATISFACTION IN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES AND THE NON-EVANGELICAL PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000. Abstract

The study addressed the effect of marketing management philosophies on student satisfaction in Public Universities and the non-evangelical private universities in Kenya and was motivated by the observed phenomenal disparities that seemed to characterize the two sets of universities.

Whereas the private Universities seemed to remain relatively calm, devoid of student unrests and the ability to complete programmes in time, Public Universities stood on the opposite end with frequent institutional shut down due to unrests resulting into failure to complete programmes as scheduled.

In spite of this observed phenomenal challenge, the researched was not aware of any study that had been conducted in this area that seemed to point to the significant of the marketing management philosophy in practice and the resultant effect on student satisfaction, and therefore saw the need to conduct the research to generate information that would fill the then prevailing information gap.

The study was an exploratory census survey of 11 accredited Universities in which 173 respondents were interviewed from the ranks of the senior administrative staff corroborated with the participation of significant number of students. The primary data was collected using questionnaires consisting of six sections, each pertaining to the major dimension of the respective marketing management philosophies.

Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics which entailed means, percentages and standard deviation .T-statistics and chi-squares were also used in the analysis and from the findings, it emerged that there were indeed significant differences in the marketing management philosophies practiced by the two sets of universities. Private universities were found to practice with marketing and societal marketing concepts as opposed to public universities whose practices seemed to point the direction of production and product concepts.

The study concluded that there is a direct relationship between the level of student satisfaction and the marketing management philosophy practiced and consequently recommended to the public universities to consider using the modern and more robust marketing management philosophies which identifies and take into consideration the interests and desires of students as it designs its academic and operational programmes.

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Tobias Homan, Alexandra Hiscox, Collins K Mweresa, Masiga D, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Prisca Oria, Nicolas Maire, Pasquale AD, Mariabeth Silkey, Jane Alaii, Teun Bousema, Cees Leeuwis, Smith TA, Takken W. "The effect of mass mosquito trapping on malaria transmission and disease burden (SolarMal): a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial." The Lancet. 2016;388(10050):1193-1201.
Khasakhala" "AA. "Effect of Maternal Education on infant and child survival in rural Kenya ." Demography India. 2003;32(1):93-108.
Ambuko J, Githiga RW, Hutchnison MJ, Gemma H, Owino WO. "Effect of maturity stage and cultivar on the efficacy of 1-mcp treatments in mango fruits.". In: II All Africa Horticulture Congress 1007.; 2012:. Abstract
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Hutchnison MJ, Owino WO, Gemma H, Ambuko J, Githiga RW. "Effect of maturity stage and cultivar on the efficacy of 1-MCP treatments in mango fruits.". 2013. Abstract
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Owino WO, Gemma H, Hutchnison MJ, Githiga RW, Ambuko J. "Effect of maturity stage and variety on the efficacy of 1-mcp treatments in mango fruits.". 2012. Abstract
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W. PROFMWANGOMBEAGNES. "The effect of media and light regimes on cultural and morphological characteristics and sporulation of Phaeoisariopsis griseola. East Africa Agricultural and Forestry journal (1994) 59 (3): 241-251.". In: Proceedings of the International Workshop under European Commission contract N. ERB IC18 CT97 0139: pp 95-104 (1998). J Hum Ecol, 26(3): 163-173 (2009).; 1994. Abstract
Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler, is an economically important disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill). Information on the mechanisms of resistance to this disease in pigeonpea is limited. To study the role of vascular occlusion in wilt resistance, isolates of F.udum were inoculated onto resistant and susceptible varieties of pigeonpea and observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. The presence of F. udum in wilt susceptible plants was characterized by mycelia and conidia in the xylem vessels, plugging in some vessels, disintegration of xylem parenchyma cells in the infected areas, and the formation of cavities due to heavy colonization in the pith cortex vascular bundle. Resistance to F. udum in the roots and stems of wilt resistant plants was associated with low fungal colonization and high occlusion due to tyloses and gels in the xylem vessels. There were significant differences (P = 0:05) in the number of xylem vessels occluded by tyloses in resistant and susceptible plants with a maximum of 22.5% and 8.0% occlusion, respectively. It is probable that tyloses and gels formed as a result of F. udum interaction in wilt resistant plants are part of a resistance mechanism. Key words: Fusarium wilt,cajanus cajan, resistance, tylose, vascular occlusion
Zhang J, Pazoki M, Simiyu J, Johansson MB, Cheung O, Häggman L, Johansson EMJ, Vlachopoulos N, Hagfeldt A, Boschloo G. "The effect of mesoporous TiO2 pore size on the performance of solid-state dye sensitized solar cells based on photoelectrochemically polymerized Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) hole conductor." Electrochimica Acta. 2016;210:23-31.
Mnene WN;, Ekaya WN;, Kinyamario JI;, Hanson J. "Effect of method of harvesting, storage container type and duration on seed germination of four rangeland grasses."; 2006. Abstract

The study tested 2 techniques of harvesting pasture grass seed (hand stripping and cutting with stalks), 4 storage containers (Aluminium tins, Polythene, Cotton cloth and brown paper bags), and 10 post harvest periods of storage (0-72 weeks) of four species seed lots harvested in two different seasons during 2001-2002 at Kiboko, Kenya. The species were C. roxburghiana, C. ciliaris, E. superba and E. macrostachyus and seeds were stored from 0 to 72 weeks post harvest. The Germination (percentage) test using caryopses extracted with sandpaper and placed in covered Petri dishes lined with moist filter paper was used for duration of 14 days. The overall mean daily germination (percentage) was 3.61+ 0.060, ranging from 2.5percentage for C. ciliaris to 6.4percentage for E. macrostachyus. Harvesting by cutting with stalks resulted in superior seeds than by stripping them. Seeds stored in aluminium tins germinated better than those in plastic, cloth or brown paper bags. Seeds stored for less than eight weeks had lower germination percentage which then increased with storage.

Mnene WN;, Ekaya WN;, Kinyamario JI;, Hanson J. "Effect of method of harvesting, storage container type and duration on seed germination of four rangeland grasses."; 2006. Abstract

The study tested 2 techniques of harvesting pasture grass seed (hand stripping and cutting with stalks), 4 storage containers (Aluminium tins, Polythene, Cotton cloth and brown paper bags), and 10 post harvest periods of storage (0-72 weeks) of four species seed lots harvested in two different seasons during 2001-2002 at Kiboko, Kenya. The species were C. roxburghiana, C. ciliaris, E. superba and E. macrostachyus and seeds were stored from 0 to 72 weeks post harvest. The Germination (percentage) test using caryopses extracted with sandpaper and placed in covered Petri dishes lined with moist filter paper was used for duration of 14 days. The overall mean daily germination (percentage) was 3.61+ 0.060, ranging from 2.5percentage for C. ciliaris to 6.4percentage for E. macrostachyus. Harvesting by cutting with stalks resulted in superior seeds than by stripping them. Seeds stored in aluminium tins germinated better than those in plastic, cloth or brown paper bags. Seeds stored for less than eight weeks had lower germination percentage which then increased with storage.

Gichuki FN;, Mungai DN;. Effect of micro-catchment size on survival and growth of two semiarid tree species..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effects of three different micro-catchment sizes on survival and growth of plant species was assessed and success in establishment and growth of Croton megalocarpus and Cassia spectabilis was compared in a semi-arid region of Kitui District, Kenya. Both species were planted in 25 x 25 cm, 45 x 45 cm, and 65 x 65 cm spherical micro-catchments. Height and diameter were measured and a survival count was taken. Results show that then micro-catchment size influenced (P>0.05) lateral growth of both species. Lateral growth of C. spectabilis in the smaller two micro-catchments (3.66 and 4.60 cm, resp.) was not significantly different (P>0.05), but was less than in the largest micro-catchment(5,31 cm). These results indicate that the two species are suitable for afforestation in these areas and that their survival is not limited by provision of a catchment in the area.

Mungai DN;, Gichuki FN;, Gachene CKK. Effect of micro-catchment size on survival and growth of two semiarid tree species..; 2000. AbstractWebsite

The effects of three different micro-catchment sizes on survival and growth of plant species was assessed and success in establishment and growth of Croton megalocarpus and Cassia spectabilis was compared in a semi-arid region of Kitui District, Kenya. Both species were planted in 25 x 25 cm, 45 x 45 cm, and 65 x 65 cm spherical micro-catchments. Height and diameter were measured and a survival count was taken. Results show that then micro-catchment size influenced (P>0.05) lateral growth of both species. Lateral growth of C. spectabilis in the smaller two micro-catchments (3.66 and 4.60 cm, resp.) was not significantly different (P>0.05), but was less than in the largest micro-catchment(5,31 cm). These results indicate that the two species are suitable for afforestation in these areas and that their survival is not limited by provision of a catchment in the area.

Onyango EB, Khasakhala A, Agwanda AT, Kimani M, Oyugi BK. "The effect of Migration on Under 2 mortality in Kenya." African Population studies. 2011;25(2):543-555.
Onyango" "EB, Khasakhala" "A, Agwanda" "AT, Kimani" "M, Koyugi" "B. "The effect of Migration on under 2 mortality in Kenya." African Population Studies. 2011;25(2):543-555.
Mose BR, Maranga SM, MBUYA TO. "Effect of Minor Elements on the Fluidity of Secondary LM25 and LM27-Type Cast Alloys.". 2009. AbstractWebsite

In this study, the effect of individual and combined additions of Fe, Mn, Cr, Sr and Al-5Ti-1B grain refiner on the fluidity of secondary LM25 and LM27-type cast alloys was investigated. No change in fluidity was observed when the Fe level was increased from 0.14 to 0.4% in LM25, but it increased by 21% when Fe was raised to the critical content of 0.48%. Furthermore, a decrease of 32% resulted when the Fe level was increased to 0.6%. A combination of 0.3%Mn or 0.6%Cr with 0.6%Fe in LM25, resulted in a fluidity increase of 13 and 8%, respectively compared to the base alloy, but a combination of 0.6%Fe, 0.3%Mn and 0.2%Cr decreased the fluidity by 9%. A 34% increase in fluidity was observed when the Fe content in LM27 was raised from 0.41% to the critical level of 0.6%Fe with further increase when Mn was raised to 0.3%Mn. Increasing the Fe content to 1% in LM27 led to a drop in fluidity of 9%. Addition of 0.015%Sr and 0.02%Sr increased the fluidity of LM25 and LM27 by 9% and 21% respectively. Furthermore, a 0.28% Al-5Ti-1B grain refiner addition decreased the fluidity of LM 25 and LM27 by 2% and 19% respectively while a combined addition of 0.02%Sr and 0.28%Al-5Ti-1B decreased the fluidity of LM27 by 8%. Possible reasons for these observations are discussed.

Yumbya P, Ambuko J, Shibairo S, Owino W. "Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) on the Shelf Life and Postharvest Quality of Purple Passion Fruit (Passiflora Edulis Sims)." Journal of Post-Harvest Technology. 2014;2:25-36. Abstract
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N. DREKAYAWELLINGTON. "Effect of moisture availability on nitrogen and phosphorus uptake by plants under semi-arid soil conditions. Journal of Human Ecology, 13:357-361.". In: African Journal of Range and Forage Science (2003) 20(3): 265-270. ARCHWAY Technology Management Ltd; 2002. Abstract
Fifteen yearling goats with similar weight were used to evaluate the potential of Zizyphus spina-christi leaves as a supplement to goats fed on Cynodon dactylon grass. Animals were randomly assigned to five feeding regimes and individually stall-fed for a preliminary period of 14 days, followed by 14 days of feeding to determine dry matter intake and digestibility, and a 3-month  feeding period to determine body weight changes. The treatments were formulated based on leaf: grass ratios of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Z. spina-christi leaves had higher crude protein and lower fibre content than C. dactylon grass (P<0.05). Dry matter intake, digestibility and body weight changes increased significantly (P < 0.05) as the level of supplementation increased. Thus, Z. spina-christi foliage is a potential feed supplement in the dry season, as the dry season grasses are deficient in the required nutrients and cannot meet goat requirements
Njiru FAK, Elly D. "Effect of Monetary Policy on Credit Supply in Kenya ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):28-43. Abstract

Purpose- This paper sought to establish the effect of monetary policy on credit supply in Kenya.
Methodology- This study adopted a descriptive research design. Descriptive statistics such as mean, median, minimum, maximum and standard deviation were used to describe the trend of the variables. Breusch Godfrey serial correlation LM test was used to test correlation of the study variables. Stationarity tests on time series data was conducted using augmented dickey fuller test statistic. Regression analysis was used to establish the influence of monetary policy on credit supply.
Findings- The study concluded that CRR, OMO and Inflation are significant and have a negative effect on credit supply. The model was also fit to explain the relationship as 76% (R2= 0.761160) variation of the dependent variable (Credit supply) was explained by the independent variables (OMO, CRR, CBR and Inflation) in the long run. Adjusted R- square which provides adjustment to the R Square was73% (Adjusted R2= 0.736664) indicating 73% variation in credit supply was explained by independent variables (OMO, CRR, CBR and Inflation). F- Statistic 31.07233 was significant at 1% level P=0.0000.
Implications – The study recommends that the Central Bank of Kenya should come up with monitoring and evaluation programmes of monitoring how credit supply is influenced by various monetary policy instruments and should streamline the economic environment in which banks operate by ensuring CRR, OMO and Inflation are maintained at a constant.
Value –The study narrowed in scope to commercial banks and excluded the non-banking organizations. Additionally a study should be done on the impact of monetary policy on money supply to capture both banking and non-banking institutions. The research had a presumption that the relationship of the variables was linear therefore more studies should be carried out explore nonlinear relationship on the variables of study,
Key Words: Credit Supply, Monetary policy

Mwachaka PM, Saidi H, Odula PO, Mandela PI. "Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities." Journal of ophthalmic & vision research. 2015;10:144. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka PM, Saidi H, Odula PO, Mandela PI. "Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities." Journal of ophthalmic & vision research. 2015;10:144. AbstractWebsite
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Mwachaka PM, Saidi H, Odula PO, Mandela PI. "Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities." J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2015;10(2):144-150.
Fifková E. "The effect of monocular deprivation on the synaptic contacts of the visual cortex." Journal of Neurobiology. 1969;1:285-294. AbstractWebsite

The effect of visual deprivation on synaptic contacts in the visual cortex was studied with the electron microscope. The deprivation was achieved by unilateral lid suture in 14-day old white rats before eye opening after which the animals were kept for 8 weeks. The density and the size of synaptic contacts in the upper part of the visual cortex (from the surface of layer II up to V) were estimated. The mean density of synapses of the visual cortex supplied by the deprived eye was 20% less than on the control side, the upper levels of the cortex being more affected. The mean size of synaptic contacts was larger (+7.5%) in the upper levels of the deprived cortex. No right left difference in density and size were found in control animals.

Aduda BO, Ravirajan P, Choy KL, Nelson J. "Effect of morphology on electron drift mobility in porous TiO2.". 2004.Website
Onyango EBO, Khasakhala A, Agwanda AT, KIMANI M, K'Oyugi B. "Effect of mother's migration on under-two mortality in Kenya." African Population Studies. 2011;25(2):543-555.effect_of_mothers_migration_on_under-two_mortality_in_kenya.pdf
Murungaru K, Khasakhala A, Agwanda AO, K'Oyugi BO, Onyango E. "Effect of Mother’s Migration on Under-two Mortality in Kenya." African Population Studies. 2011;25(2):543-555.
WANGUI DRGITAURUTH. "Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on inflammatory markers in Nepalese women. Hindle LJ, Gitau R, Filteau SM, Newens KJ, Osrin D, Costello AM, Tomkins AM, Vaidya A, Mahato RK, Yadav B, Manandhar DS. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Nov;.". In: Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Nov;84(5):1086-92. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2006. Abstract
BACKGROUND: Multiple micronutrient supplementation of Nepalese women during pregnancy is associated with a significant increase in birth weight. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that improved birth weight in infants of mothers supplemented with micronutrients is associated with a decrease in inflammatory responses and an increase in the production of T helper 1 cells and T helper 2 cells. DESIGN: The study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of 15 micronutrients, compared with iron-folate supplementation (control), given during pregnancy with the aim of increasing birth weight. Blood samples were collected at 32 wk of gestation, 12-20 wk after supplementation began, for the measurement of inflammatory markers. Breast-milk samples were collected 1 mo after delivery for the measurement of the ratio of milk sodium to potassium (milk Na:K). In an opportunistically selected subgroup of 70 women, mitogen-stimulated cytokine production was measured ex vivo in whole blood. RESULTS: Blood eosinophils; plasma concentrations of the acute phase reactants C-reactive protein, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP), neopterin, and ferritin; milk Na:K; and the production of interleukin (IL) 10, IL-4, interferon gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in whole blood did not differ significantly between the supplemented and control groups. Plasma C-reactive protein and AGP were higher in women who had a preterm delivery, and AGP was higher in women who delivered a low-birth-weight term infant than in women who delivered a normal-birth-weight term infant. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate an association between systemic inflammation in late pregnancy and compromised delivery outcome in Nepalese women but do not support the hypothesis that multiple micronutrient supplementation changes cytokine production or inflammatory markers.
Zhao Z, Jiang C. "Effect of myopia on ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer measurements: a {Fourier}-domain optical coherence tomography study of young {Chinese} persons." Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology. 2013;41:561-566. AbstractWebsite

Background To investigate the change of the ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer under different refractive conditions, as measured by optical coherence tomography. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Participants A total of 107 eyes from 107 subjects were studied. Methods Ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fibre layer were studied by a spectral-domain system. Their relationship against spherical equivalents and axial length was studied. Main Outcome Measures The thickness of ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fibre layer at different area and under different refractive conditions as measurements by optical coherence tomography. Results The average, superior and inferior macular ganglion cell complex thickness was significantly associated with both spherical equivalents (all P {\textless} 0.05) and axial length (all P {\textless} 0.05). Peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thicknesses from the superior, inferior and temporal quadrants were associated with both spherical equivalents (all P {\textless} 0.01), axial length (all P {\textless} 0.05) and ganglion cell complex thickness (all P {\textless} 0.001), except for the nasal part. However, if the retinal nerve fibre layer thickness was studied in sections, then some parts of the upper and lower temporal part showed no correlation with either spherical equivalents or axial length (all P {\textless} 0.05). Conclusions The thicknesses of the ganglion cell complex and most of the peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer were correlated with refraction and axial length. Therefore, when using these for clinical purposes, attention must be paid to the refractive state of the patient.

Njenga HN, Oyake L, Kamau GN. "Effect of Nairobi Industrial Area's Effluents on Levels of Ngong Pollution." International Journal of BioChemiPhysics. 2009;Vol 17(No 1).helenvol17_nairobi_river.pdf
D. E. "EFFECT OF NATIONAL ANNUAL BUDGET READING ON EQUITY RETURNS AT THE NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE." DBA Africa Management Review. 2016;6(1):107-118. AbstractEffect_of_national_annual_budget_reading_on_equity_returns_at_the_nairobi_securities_exchange1.pdf

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of budget reading on equity returns at
Nairobi Securities Exchange. The study adopts descripting staristics design using event model
methodology to establish the correlation between the variables. Secondary data on stock
performance around the 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 budget reading dates was collected
from the NSE database. Data analysis was done using SPSS program to generate the descriptive
statistics, and the study finds that the reading of national budget has significant effect on the
stock returns at NSE during the event period, depending on information content. Analysis of the
AAR, CAR and SCAR of the companies in the NSE-20 share index, during the 5 day event
period before and after the annual national budget reading finds that other than year 2010 that
records no statistical significance of SCAR, the SCAR p value for 2009, 2011, 2012 and 2013
are all less than p = 0.05, suggesting that the market returns for four years deviated significantly
from their means during the event period of budget readings. Therefore, the study recommends
that investors, investment banks, listed companies and the capital markets authority to consider
the effect of national budget reading on stock returns, to formulate policies that can cussion
investors against the effects of budget reading.

and Yalla GPPO. "Effect of National Strategy Implemetation on Competitiveness: A case of Kenya's Trade, International Marketing and Investment Strategies." International Journal of Business and Public Management. 2011;Vol 1, No. 1: (April, 2011):60-68.
Opiyo N, Were F, Govedi F, Fegan G, Wasunna A, English M. "Effect of Newborn Resuscitation Training on Health Worker Practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya.". 2008;3(2):1-7. Abstract

Background: Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya.

Methods/Principal Findings: We conducted a randomised, controlled trial with health workers receiving early training with NRT (n = 28) or late training (the control group, n = 55). The training was adapted locally from the approach of the UK Resuscitation Council. The primary outcome was the proportion of appropriate initial resuscitation steps with the frequency of inappropriate practices as a secondary outcome. Data were collected on 97 and 115 resuscitation episodes over 7 weeks after early training in the intervention and control groups respectively. Trained providers demonstrated a higher proportion of adequate initial resuscitation steps compared to the control group (trained 66% vs control 27%; risk ratio 2.45, [95% CI 1.75–3.42], p,0.001, adjusted for clustering). In addition, there was a statistically significant reduction in the frequency of inappropriate and potentially harmful practices per resuscitation in the trained group (trained 0.53 vs control 0.92; mean difference 0.40, [95% CI 0.13–0.66], p = 0.004).

Conclusions/Significance: Implementation of a simple, one day newborn resuscitation training can be followed immediately by significant improvement in health workers’ practices. However, evidence of the effects on long term performance or clinical outcomes can only be established by larger cluster randomised trials.

Opiyo N, Were F, Govedi F, Fegan G, Wasunna A, English M. "Effect of newborn resuscitation training on health worker practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya." PLoS ONE. 2008;3(2):e1599. Abstract

Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya.

O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Effect of newborn resuscitation training on health worker practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya. Opiyo N, Were F, Govedi F, Fegan G, Wasunna A, English M.PLoS ONE. 2008 Feb 13;3(2):e1599.". In: PLoS ONE. 2008 Feb 13;3(2):e1599. John Benjamins Publishing Company; 2008. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a randomised, controlled trial with health workers receiving early training with NRT (n = 28) or late training (the control group
O PROFWASUNNAAGGREY, N PROFWEREFREDRICK. "Effect of newborn resuscitation training on health worker practices in Pumwani Hospital, Kenya. Opiyo N, Were F, Govedi F, Fegan G, Wasunna A, English M.PLoS ONE. 2008 Feb 13;3(2):e1599.". In: PLoS ONE. 2008 Feb 13;3(2):e1599. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2008. Abstract
{ BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia kills 0.7 to 1.6 million newborns a year globally with 99% of deaths in developing countries. Effective newborn resuscitation could reduce this burden of disease but the training of health-care providers in low income settings is often outdated. Our aim was to determine if a simple one day newborn resuscitation training (NRT) alters health worker resuscitation practices in a public hospital setting in Kenya. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a randomised, controlled trial with health workers receiving early training with NRT (n = 28) or late training (the control group
WAITA SEBASTIAN. "Effect of nitration on pressed TiO2 photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells." African Journal of Science and Technology,Vol. 8 No. 2, pp 63-71. 2007. AbstractWebsite

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B WH, J S, M WS, B.O A, M MJ. "Effect of nitration on pressed TiO2 photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells." African Journal of Science and Technology. 2007;8(2):63-71.wafula_hb_aduda_bo_et_al.pdf
Wafula HB, Simiyu J, Waita S, Aduda BO, Mwabora JM. "EFFECT OF NITRATION ON PRESSED TIO2 PHOTOELECTRODES FOR DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS.". 2013.Website
M. PROFMUNAVURAPHAEL. "Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorous on the Essential Oil Yield and Quality of Chamomile (Matricaria Chamomilla L.) Flowers; E. Afr. Agric. For. J., 55 (4)., 261-264.". In: Journal of Pharmacognosy 30 (1): 9-16. Journal of School of Continuous and Distance Education ; 1990. Abstract
   
Sharma BD, Jalota SK, Kar S, Singh CB. "Effect of nitrogen and water uptake on yield of wheat.". 1992.Website
Onyango CM, Imungi JK, Onwonga RN. "Effect of Nitrogen Source, Crop Maturity Stage and Storage Conditions on Phenolics and Oxalate Contents in Vegetable Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus).". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2012.
MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA, K PROFIMUNGIJASPER, ONWONGA DRRICHARDNDEMO. "Effect of Nitrogen Source, Crop Maturity Stage and Storage Conditions on Phenolics and Oxalate Contents in Vegetable Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus).". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2012. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} This article gives practical guide on methods of handling data in qualitative research paradigm. It briefly states the characteristics of qualitative research and gives short description of some of the commonly used designs. The article also discusses the stages to be followed when carrying out qualitative research. It is the authors hope that this article will offer useful tips on how to successfully use qualitative approach to collect and analyze data quickly and effectively.
MORAA DRONYANGOCECILIA, K PROFIMUNGIJASPER, ONWONGA DRRICHARDNDEMO. "Effect of Nitrogen Source, Crop Maturity Stage and Storage Conditions on Phenolics and Oxalate Contents in Vegetable Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus).". In: Journal of Agricultural Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education; 2012. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
W DRBARJALINON. "Effect of Noise and Inertia on Modulation Induced Negative Differential Resistance.". In: Physical Review B, vol. 47, p 14200, June 1993. ISCTRC; 1993. Abstract

This research examines the relationship between commercial banks (CBs) and the small enterprise sector (SES) and identifies constraints' which impede the flow of financial assistance from the commercial banks to the latter in Kenya. The variables that were examined included; requirements for successful loan application, lending levels, degree of risk attached to small enterprise lending, levels of economic impact and stages in business development at which banks become willing to support. For the small enterprises, the study sought to profile the business and its owner and, to examine its financing. The sampling units were drawn from CBs and SES within Nairobi. In data collection, questionnaires, interview and document review was employed. The study found that high interest rates and long processing procedures kept small businesses away from banks. The study established that, on the part of the banks, the entrepreneurs lacked business management skills and did not keep proper records. Moreover, the banks experienced general reproach from the small business owners, based upon conventional beliefs.

EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "The effect of non-prey food, mainly pollen, on the development, survival and fecundity of Ambylseius gossipi (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Ent. Exp. & Appl., 11: 269 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1968. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
El-Banhawy EM, El-Sawaf BM, El-Borolossy MA, Afia SI. "Effect of organic and chemical fertilization on the distribution of soil predacious mites and nematodes in a citrus orchard." Egyptian. J.Bio.Pest Control. 1997;(8):89-96.
Onyango CM;, Harbinson J;, Shibairo SI;, Imungi JK. "Effect of organic and in organic fertilisers on yield and quality of amaranth in sub-Saharan Africa."; 2011. Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of manure and mineral fertilization on yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (as protein equivalents), Vitamin C and nitrate accumulation in Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The vegetables were produced in field trials, set up in the University of Nairobi, Kenya, during the long rains period between March and May in 2007 and 2008 using diammonium phosphate (DAP; 20, 40 and 60 kg N ha-1) and manure; 40 kg N kg ha-1,) and the yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (K-N; a proxy for protein content), vitamin C and nitrate levels were measured. The manure treatment produced little increase in productivity though it increased K-N levels. The DAP treatments produced increases in yield, but these saturated at 40 kg N ha -1. The K-N content of the leaves was high, ranging from 2.5 % to just over 4 %, and, broadly, increased with fertiliser application though the variation between the treatments was lower than that for yields. Nitrate levels, however, also increased with DAP fertilisation, resulting in an increase in the nitrate:K-N at high DAP applications, especially in younger plants. There were no clear correlations between ascorbic acid content and K-N. Nonetheless, the plants grown under different fertilisation regimes can be placed into three broad groups; those characterised with low to moderate K-N contents and low to high ascorbic acid contents, moderate to high K-N and low to high ascorbic acid content, and lastly high K-N and low ascorbic contents. Therefore, the growth environment of amaranth, can have a major impact not only on the productivity of the crop but its nutritional value. In this respect the mineral nutrient supply to the crop is of particular importance.

Onyango CM;, Harbinson J;, Shibairo SI;, Imungi JK. "Effect of organic and in organic fertilisers on yield and quality of amaranth in sub-Saharan Africa."; 2011. Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of manure and mineral fertilization on yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (as protein equivalents), Vitamin C and nitrate accumulation in Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The vegetables were produced in field trials, set up in the University of Nairobi, Kenya, during the long rains period between March and May in 2007 and 2008 using diammonium phosphate (DAP; 20, 40 and 60 kg N ha-1) and manure; 40 kg N kg ha-1,) and the yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (K-N; a proxy for protein content), vitamin C and nitrate levels were measured. The manure treatment produced little increase in productivity though it increased K-N levels. The DAP treatments produced increases in yield, but these saturated at 40 kg N ha -1. The K-N content of the leaves was high, ranging from 2.5 % to just over 4 %, and, broadly, increased with fertiliser application though the variation between the treatments was lower than that for yields. Nitrate levels, however, also increased with DAP fertilisation, resulting in an increase in the nitrate:K-N at high DAP applications, especially in younger plants. There were no clear correlations between ascorbic acid content and K-N. Nonetheless, the plants grown under different fertilisation regimes can be placed into three broad groups; those characterised with low to moderate K-N contents and low to high ascorbic acid contents, moderate to high K-N and low to high ascorbic acid content, and lastly high K-N and low ascorbic contents. Therefore, the growth environment of amaranth, can have a major impact not only on the productivity of the crop but its nutritional value. In this respect the mineral nutrient supply to the crop is of particular importance.

Onyango CM;, Harbinson J;, Shibairo SI;, Imungi JK. "Effect of organic and in organic fertilisers on yield and quality of amaranth in sub-Saharan Africa."; 2011. Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the influence of manure and mineral fertilization on yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (as protein equivalents), Vitamin C and nitrate accumulation in Amaranthus hypochondriacus. The vegetables were produced in field trials, set up in the University of Nairobi, Kenya, during the long rains period between March and May in 2007 and 2008 using diammonium phosphate (DAP; 20, 40 and 60 kg N ha-1) and manure; 40 kg N kg ha-1,) and the yield, Kjeldahl nitrogen (K-N; a proxy for protein content), vitamin C and nitrate levels were measured. The manure treatment produced little increase in productivity though it increased K-N levels. The DAP treatments produced increases in yield, but these saturated at 40 kg N ha -1. The K-N content of the leaves was high, ranging from 2.5 % to just over 4 %, and, broadly, increased with fertiliser application though the variation between the treatments was lower than that for yields. Nitrate levels, however, also increased with DAP fertilisation, resulting in an increase in the nitrate:K-N at high DAP applications, especially in younger plants. There were no clear correlations between ascorbic acid content and K-N. Nonetheless, the plants grown under different fertilisation regimes can be placed into three broad groups; those characterised with low to moderate K-N contents and low to high ascorbic acid contents, moderate to high K-N and low to high ascorbic acid content, and lastly high K-N and low ascorbic contents. Therefore, the growth environment of amaranth, can have a major impact not only on the productivity of the crop but its nutritional value. In this respect the mineral nutrient supply to the crop is of particular importance.

Ayuke FO, Opondo-Mbai ML, Rao MR, Swift MJ. "Effect of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on soil mineral nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate N) and maize yields in western Kenya.". In: proceedings of the 8th Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility and Programme African Network meeting. Arusha, Tanzania; 2001. Abstract

The effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil mineral N and maize yields were evaluated in a Kandiudalfic Eutrodox soil of western Kenya. Leaf biomass of tithonia (Tithonia diversifolia [Hemseley] A. Grey) and senna (Senna spectabilis D.C. & H.S. Irwin) at 5 t ha-1 dry weight were incorporated into the soil and compared with the response obtained from control without any input and fertilizer at 120 kg N, 150 kg P and 100 kg K ha-1 from urea and triple super phosphate (TSP). Soil mineral (inorganic), N, was measured at the beginning of the trial and subsequently at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after applying the treatments. Maize grain and stover yields were estimated at harvest. Total inorganic nitrogen in the soil at the beginning of the season was at a similar level in all treatments. It increased rapidly after applying the materials and at the onset of rains for all treatments probably because of rapid nitrogen mineralisation in all treatments. After four weeks, inorganic nitrogen decreased progressively until end of the experiment in all the treatments. The highest contribution of mineral N to the soil by the organic residues was noted at four weeks stage and this was significantly higher with tithonia than senna. This could be due to rapid N mineralization by these residues. Senna treatment that had the lowest mineral N during the first weeks of the trial, showed that N mineralization was slow with the mineral N reaching highest level at four-week stage. However, it is interesting to note that while soil N under tithonia was statistically higher than in senna at four weeks, it was higher under senna at later stage observations. Thus tithonia decomposed completely in about four weeks, while senna was still mineralizing at 8 weeks. Fertilizer use increased maize grain yield by 63% over the control. Although tithonia biomass increased maize grain yield by 38% over the control and did not differ significantly from fertilizer treatment, senna increased maize yield by only 6% over the no input control. Higher yield with tithonia than senna was partly because of higher nutrient concentration and hence greater amounts of nutrients added for the same quantity of material applied. The study indicates that high quality residues such as tithonia can be used as sources of nutrients to improve crop yields.

Keywords: Biomass transfer, Tithonia diversifolia, Senna spectabilis, mineral nitrogen, maize yield.

Abong' GO, Okoth MW, Imungi JK, Kabira JN. "Effect of packaging and storage temperature on the shelf life of crisps from four Kenyan potato cultivars." American Journal of Food Technology. 2011;6(10):882-892.2011_-_crisps_and_shelf_life.pdf
S PROFIGONSANGWASHIBAIRO. "Effect of packaging materials on weight loss and nutrient quality changes of recharged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batats Poir) during short-term storage. Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology.6: 29-47.". In: In press. African Crop Science Proceedings 7: -. Taylor & Francis; 2004. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Hepatocellular carcinoma results when cancerous cells are localized in the liver. It is distributed globally with high prevalence in sub-Saharan African, southern Asia, China and Japan. Diagnosis is experimental and in many cases inaccurate due to unreliability of markers. Prognosis is poor and the cost of treatment prohibitive. Conventional radiation and chemotherapy lead to loss of hair, fertility and general weakening of the body`s immune system increasing a patient`s risk to infection. These observations underscore the need for improved, or additional methods of cancer diagnosis and management. We investigated the effect of polysaccharide rich Pleurotus pulmonarius fruit body extracts on progression of chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma in CBA mice. Addition of Pleurotus pulmonarius extracts in diet delayed progression of carcinogenesis suggesting   that these extracts may be useful as   adjuvants to conventional cancer therapies.   Key words: carcinogenesis; mice; mushroom extracts; pleurotus pulmunarius   Corresponding author: Ms Carolyne Wasonga, Department of Biochemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi,  Kenya. E-mail: carox27@yahoo.ca     Charles O.A. Omwandho, Susanne E. Gruessner, John Falconer, Hans-R Tinneberg, Timothy K. Roberts. IS OVINE PLACENTAL IGG TOXIC TO HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD NATURAL KILLER CELLS?
Kemboi DC, Chege HW, Bebora LC, Nyaga PN, Njagi LW, Maingi N. "Effect of parasite control on immune response to Newcastle Disease vaccination in village chicken, Mbeere sub county." Livestock Research for Rural Development . 2014;26(2).kemboi_et_al.2014-_effect_of_parasite_on_immune26.pdf
Kemboi. DC, Chegeh. HW, Bebora. LC, Nyaga. PN, Njagi. LW, Maingi. N, Mbuthia PG, Githinji. JM. "Effect of parasite control on immune response to Newcastle Disease vaccination in village chicken, Mbeere sub county." Livestock Research for Rural Development. 2014;Vol 26 (2).
Kemboi. DC, Nyaga. PN, Mbuthia. PG, Chegeh. HW, Bebora. LC, Njagi. LW, Maingi. N, Githinji. JM. "Effect of parasite control on immune response to Newcastle Disease vaccination in village chicken, Mbeere sub county." Livestock Research for Rural Development.. 2014;26.(2).
DC K, HW C, C BL, Maingi N, Nyaga P N, Njagi L W. "Effect of parasite control on Newcastle disease vaccination response in free-ranged family chicken in Eastern province, Kenya.". In: 47th Kenya Veterinary Association (KVA) annual Scientific conference. Mombasa; 2013.abstract_-_kemboi_et_al.pdf
Pulei A, Gichangi P, Makanya A, Ogeng’o J. "Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits." Anatomy Journal of Africa. 2014;3(1):268-274.
J.N.Mwero, S.O.Abuodha, S.W.Mumenya, G.O.Rading, F.P.L.Kavihe. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Portland Cement with Sugarcane Waste Fibre Ash (SWFA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2013;6(3):97-114.
J.N.Mwero, S.O.Abuodha, S.W.Mumenya, G.O.Rading, F.P.L.Kavihe. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Portland Cement with Sugarcane Waste Fibre Ash (SWFA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2013;Vol 6(3):97-114.mwero_1.docx
J.N.Mwero, S.O.Abuodha, S.W.Mumenya, G.O.Rading, F.P.L.Kavihe. "The Effect of Partial Replacement of Portland with Sugarcane Waste Fibre Ash (SWFA) on Mechanical Properties of Concrete." ICASTOR Journal of Engineering. 2013;6(3):97-114.
Eyvazi J, Irannejad H, Kianmehr MH, Esmaeili M, Akbari QA, Onwonga RN. "The effect of Pellet fertilizer application on Wheat Yield and its Components." International Research Journal of Plant Science. 2010;1(6):163-171.eyvazi_et_al2010_the_effect_of_pellet_fertilizer_application_on_wheat_yield.pdf
Mathenge EM, JE G, M K, M O, LW I, WA H. "Effect of permethrin-impregnated nets on exiting behavior, blood feeding success, and time of feeding of malaria mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya." Journal of medical entomology. 2001;38(4):531-536. AbstractPubMed link

The impact of permethrin-treated bednets on the feeding and house entering/exiting behavior of malaria vectors was assessed in two studies in western Kenya. In one study, matched pairs of houses were allocated randomly to receive bednets or no bednets. Exiting mosquitoes were collected in Colombian curtains hung around half of each house; indoor resting mosquitoes were collected by pyrethrum spray catches. The number of Anopheles gambiae Giles and An. arabiensis Patton estimated to have entered the houses was unaffected by the presence of bednets; Anopheles funestus Giles was less likely to enter a house if bednets were present. Anopheles gambiae and An. funestus were less likely to obtain a blood meal and significantly more likely to exit houses when bednets were present. No difference was detected in An. arabiensis rates of blood feeding and exiting. In a second experiment, hourly night biting collections were done on 13 nights during the rainy season to assess whether village-wide use of permethrin-treated bednets caused a shift in the time of biting of malaria vectors. A statistically significant shift was detected in the biting times of An. gambiae s.l., although the observed differences were small. No change was observed in the hourly distribution of An. funestus biting. Our study demonstrated that, at least in the short-term, bednets reduced human-vector contact and blood feeding success but did not lead to changes in the biting times of the malaria vectors in western Kenya.

Wafula CN, Wamalwa CM, Elamenya L, Ambetsa M, Osano B, Bosire KO, Wamalwa D, Okalebo FA, Wandolo, G. K. "Effect of pesticide exposure on serum cholinesterase levels among asthmatic children in Naivasha sub county, Kenya." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2015;4(1).
N. WC, Wamalwa CM, Ambetsa M, Elamenya L, Osano B, Okalebo FA, Bosire KO, Wandolo G, Karimi PN. "Effect of Pesticide Exposure on SerumCholinesterase Levels among Asthmatic Children in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya. Afr. J.Pharmacol. Ther.2015. 4(1):." Afr. J.Pharmacol.. 2015;4(1):7-15. Abstractwafula_c.pdf

Effect of Pesticide Exposure on Serum Cholinesterase Levels among Asthmatic Children in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya
Caroline N. Wafula a,b,*, Cecilia M. Wamalwa a,b, Margaret Ambetsa b,c, Linet Elamenya a,b, Boniface Osano d, Dalton Wamalwa d, Faith A. Okalebo c, Kefa O. Bosire c, George Wandolo e, and Peter N. Karimi a

a Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, Kenya b Ministry of Health, Kenya

c Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, Kenya d Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
e Department of Human Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Kenya
_____________

* Corresponding author: Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. Tel: +254-72-3245127; Email: wafulacaroline@yahoo.com

Background: Pesticide exposure is a risk factor for asthma exacerbations in flower farm regions in the world. Data on levels of serum cholinesterase among asthmatic children exposed to pesticides in Kenya is scanty.

Objectives: To compare and identify variables which affect the concentration of serum cholinesterases in children who are exposed and unexposed to pesticides.

Methodology: The design was a comparative cross-sectional study that involved exposed and unexposed children. The study was conducted between May and July, 2014 in Naivasha, Kenya. Patients were interviewed and serum samples were analysed for cholinesterase levels. Multi-linear regression was done to identify variables that affected cholinesterase activity.

Results: Children who were exposed to pesticides had a lower median ChE activity of 5828 [IQR 4863, 6443] compared to the unexposed arm whose median was 7133 [IQR 6063, 8179]. Five predictor variables were found to be significantly associated with depression of serum cholinesterase levels. The most important predictor variable for the levels of ChE in children, was not using protective clothing by the parent [adjusted β -1457.0 (95% CI - 2594, 1319.8)]. Others were not using household pesticides [adjusted β 96.3, (95% CI 22.6, 170.0)], female sex [adjusted β - 695.7 (95% CI -1296.2, - 95.3)], non school attendance [adjusted β -1676.8 (95% CI -3371.6, 18.1)] and not taking a break after spraying [adjusted β 1105.5 (95% CI (315.0, 1895.2)].

Conclusion: Children who were exposed to pesticides had low cholinesterase levels. Parents should therefore be encouraged to wear protective gear as this conferred protection of children from the effects of pesticide exposure.

Key words: asthma, exposure, children, pesticides, cholinesterase.

Received: November, 2014

Published: March, 2015

Rashid K;, Waithaka K. "The effect of phosphorous fertilization on growth and tuberization of sweet potato, ipomoea Batatas L.".; 1985. Abstract

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of phosphorus fertilizer levels on the growth and tuberization of two sweet potato cultivars. P did not cause any significant influence on growth or yield of vines and tubers in either cultivar. Cv. I (Musinya) produced significantly longer and a higher yield of vines than cv. II (Gikanda), but the latter produced a significantly higher yield and number of tubers than the former. There was no significant difference in dry matter accumulation in the tubers of both cultivars at all P levels and the control. However, cv. I accumulated significantly higher dry matter in the vines than cv. II, whereas cv. II accumulated significantly higher dry matter in tubers than cv. I during both seasons but P fertilization did not influence the accumulation.

EL-BANHAWY PROFEL-SAYED. "Effect of photoperiod, light intensity and temperature on the development and reproduction of the predacious mite, Amblyseius brazilli (Mesostigmata : Phytoseiidae). Rev. Brasil. Biol., 37: 579 .". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1977. Abstract
We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten
Muruga BN, Wagacha JM, Kabaru JM, Amugune N, Duboise SM. "Effect of physicochemical conditions on growth rates of cyanobacteria species isolated from Lake Magadi, a soda lake in Kenya." WebPub J Sci Res. 2014;2:41-50.
Jawuoro SO, Koech OK, Karuku GN, Mbau JS. "Effect of piospheres on physio-chemical soil properties in the Southern Rangelands of Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017;6:14.
Ojiambo PS, P.O A, Narla RD, Nyabundi JO. "Effect of plant age on sesame infection by Alternaria leaf spot." African Crop Science . 1999;7:91-96.
Nguthi FN;, Chweya JA;, Kimani PM. "Effect of plant density on growth, yield and quality of bulb onions."; 1984.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Njogu SM. "Effect of Plant Derived Organic Binders on The Mechanical Properties of Kaolin - Based Refractories." Journal of Material Science., 43, 4107 - 4111.. 2008;43:4107-4111. AbstractWebsite

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Clematis brachiata Thunberg (Ranunculaceae) is used in Kenya for the management of headaches, malaria and other febrile illnesses, abdominal disorders, yaws and for skin disorders.  Old stems and leaves are chewed for the management of toothaches and sore throats. 
Extracts of the plant were subjected to tests for antimalarial, antibacterial and antifungal activity.  The toxicity of the extracts was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay.
 
The root extract gave the highest in vitro antimalarial activity against a mulitidrug resistant strain, Plasmodium falciparum VI/S (IC50=39.24 mg/ml). The stem and leaf extracts had insignificant antiplasmodial activity.  The leaf, stem and root extracts had bacterial or fungal growth even at very high concentrations of 10 mg/ml. The LD50 values of the stem and leaf methanol extracts against the brine shrimp larvae was 365.60 and 66.5 mg/ml respectively.
The in vitro anti malarial activity of the root extract in part supports the ethnobotanical use of the plant to manage malaria.
 KEY WORDS
Clematis, Ranunculaceae, antimalarial, brine shrimp, antimicrobial

M.N M, R.D N, R.K M, F.W M. "Effect of plant extracts on growth of Alernaria porri (Ellis) Cif and other fungal pathogens of onion." Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2007;3(1):7-11.
Njogu S, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "Effect of plant-derived organic binders on fracture toughness and fatigue of kaolin-based refractories”,." Journal of Materials Science. 2008;43:107-4111. Abstract

The fracture properties of kaolin – based refractories prepared using plant derived binders from okra and
“mrenda” have been investigated. It was observed that okra binder improved the MOR of fired samples from 194.0± 0.1 MPa to 384 ± 0.1 MPa, while the fracture toughness increased from 3.9 ± 0.1 MPa (for binder free samples) to 5.6 ± 0.1 MPa and 5.7 ± 0.1 MPa for okra and ‘mrenda’ plasticized samples respectively. It is concluded that the use of organic binders enhances the reliability and service life of kaolin refractories used in thermally fluctuating environments.

El-Badry EA, El-Banhawy EM. "The effect of pollen feeding on the predatory efficiency of Amblyseius gossipi (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) Ent. Exp. & Appl., 7: 273.". In: Published by the Democratization and Research Centre, Rome, Vol. 27, No. 3, March. El-Banhawy, E. M.; 1968. Abstract

We surveyed the phytoseid mites in four different geographical zones of Kenya: Zone I, upper highland and tropical alpine (2400-4400m): Zone II, lower highland (1800-2400m); zone III, midland (800-1800m); Zone IV, tropical, hot and humid( 0-800m ). A total of 107 species was found. In the sub family, amblyseeinae there were 14 species in the genus Neoseilus , one in Aspereroseius Chant, one in Paraphytoseius Swirski &Schechter, five in typhlodromips De Leon, five in Transeius Chant & McMurty, one in Graminaseius Chant &McMurty, 11 in Amblyseius Berlese, one in Arrenoseius Wanstein, two in Typhlodromalus muma, seven in Ueckemannseius Chant &McMurty, one in Ambylodromalus Chant &Mcmurty,, 20 in Euseius Wanstein, one in Iphiseius Berlese, one in Phytoseilus Evans and one in Gynaseius Ehara & Imano. In the subfamily Phytoseiinae Berlese there were four species in the genus Phytoseiius Ribaga. In the subfamily Typhlodrominae Wanstein, there were four species in the genus Kuzinellus Wainstein and 27 in Typhlodromus Scheuten

Mbogo PK, Aduda J, Mwangi M. "The Effect of Portfolio Size on the Financial Performance of Portfolios of Investment Firms in Kenya." American Journal of Finance. 2017;1(2):1-15.
KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Effect of Post Basic Psychiatric Nursing Training on Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills of Nurses in the Management of Substance Dependent Patients at Mathari Hospital, Nairobi- Nov.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal KNJ 36:.(2):21-26:2007. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2007. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

PROF. MWANGI RICHARDW. "Effect of post treatment temperature on insecticidal activity of Melia Volkensii fruit extract against Locusta migratoria.". In: African Journal of Science & Technology: 3,20-23. The Icfai University Journal of Architecture, Vol. II No.1, February 2010; 2003.
K PROFGACHENECHARLESK. "The effect of post-harvest crop cover on soil erosion in a maize-legume based cropping system in Gatanga, Kenya. Journal of Agriculture in the Tropics and Subtropics, Vol 103, pp 17-28.". In: Biological Agricultural & Horticultural Journal, Vol 19(1), 49-62. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
DR. KABARU JACQUESM. "EFFECT OF POST-TREATMENT TEMPERATURE ON THE INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF MELIA VOLKENSII GURKE) FRUIT EXTRACT AGAINST THE AFRICAN MIGRATORY LOCUST LOCUSTA MIGRATORIA (REICHE & FAIRMAIRE).". In: Massachusetts. CABI. Pp 209. African Meteorological Society; 2002. Abstract
Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The influence of post- treatment temperature on the insecticidal activity of Melia volkensii (Gurke) fruit extract against the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria (Reiche & Fairmaire) is reported. In laboratory tests conducted Oil adult locusts, the toxicity of crude 80% methanol extracts of M. volkensii fruit increased by more than 20-fold when the post-treatment temperature was raised from 1S"C to 40"C. This temperature-dependent toxicity was observed in insects treated either topically or via injection. This phenomenon could partly explain the wide variability in efficacy of M. volkensii fruit extracts reported by different investigators.  
Kabaru JM, Mwangi RW. "Effect of post-treatment temperature on the insecticidal activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts." Insect Science and its Application. 2000;20(1):77-79.
Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Zanol G, Gemma H. "Effect of Postharvest Hot Air Treatments on Ripening and Soluble Sugars in Banana Fruits, Musa Spp.'Williams'.". In: XXVIII International Horticultural Congress on Science and Horticulture for People (IHC2010): International Symposium on 934.; 2010:. Abstract
n/a
Nguu J, Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO, Musembi RJ. "Effect of Process-Related Parameters on Band Gap of Electrophoretically Deposited TiO2/Nb2O5 Composite Thin Films. ." African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2014;Volume [1], (June 2014 ):43-49.
Munguti LK, Mwathe PM, Robinson Musembi, Munji M, Odari B, Ntilakigwa AA, Nguu J, Aduda B, Muthoka B. "EFFECT OF PROCESS-RELATED PARAMETERS ON BAND GAP OF ELECTROPHORETICALLY DEPOSITED TIO2NB2O5 COMPOSITE THIN FILMS." Science Publishing Group. 2014;1. AbstractJournal Article Website

Pd-F:SnO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using an alcoholic precursor solution consisting of stannic chloride (SnCl4.5H20), ammonium fluoride (NH4F) and palladium chloride (PdCl2). Optimization on the deposition parameters has been done in order to obtain high quality thin films. The effect of varying the fluorine content on the optical properties of Pd-F:SnO2 thin films were studied. Data for transmittance and reflectance in the wavelength range from 300nm – 2500nm was measured using the solid spec 3700DUV spectrophotometer. The calculated optical band gap of the as prepared thin films has been found to range from 3.8eV to 4.11eV. Fluorine incorporation for Pd-F:SnO2 has been found to have a narrowing effect on the band gap, but at its higher concentration the band gap has been seen to increase. The band gap narrowing is due to the incorporation of F- ions in the crystal lattice therefore giving rise to donor levels in the SnO2 band gap which is an essential characteristic for the gas sensor applications. Both annealing and passivation have been found to have very insignificant change in optical band gap of Pd-F:SnO2.

GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "The effect of processing conditions on the quality of drum dried cassava. Proceedings of the eighth symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops. Bangkok, Thailand. Oct. 30 .". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1988. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
GICHOHI PROFKARURIEDWARD. "The effect of Processing parameters on the final quality of food dried by a single Drum Drier (MSc thesis). University of Nairobi & Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich.". In: Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, Vol.2, issue 2: 76-84. Kisipan, M.L.; 1978. Abstract
Objective: To determine the pattern of breast disease at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) Study design:    Retrospective descriptive study Study setting:    Kenyatta National Hospital, a University teaching and National Referral Hospital Patients: Records of 1172 patients were reviewed. Results: An average 469 new patients per year or 11 new patients per clinic visit were seen at the clinic over a two and a half year period. Females predominated (98.9%) in this series. The mean age was 34.71 years (range 1 to 96 years). The average age at menarche was 14.49 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.86 months. Only 2.6% of 843 patients had a positive family history of breast disease. Fibroadenoma was the commonest diagnosis made (33.2%) followed by ductal carcinoma (19.7%). Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion seen in males. Two thirds of patients presenting with tumors had masses measuring more than 5cm.  Overall five conditions (fibroadenoma, ductal carcinoma, breast abscesses, fibrocystic disease and mastalgia) accounted for over 85% of all breast ailments. Surgery formed the main stay of care in over 80% of patients. Conclusions: The pattern of breast diseases at KNH closely mirrors those reported in other studies in the region and beyond. This study indicates that a large proportion of patients presenting with breast disease are treated initially by surgery. It may be wise to consider other alternative forms of therapy where appropriate. The Annals of African Surgery: 2008 June; Vol 2, pg 97-101.
Fonta WM, Ichoku HE, KABUBO-MARIARA J. "The Effect of Protest Zeros on Estimates of Willingness to Pay in Healthcare Contingent Valuation Analysis." Applied Health Economics and Health Policy. 2010;8(4):225-37.
Onjala J, Awiti J, Gideon M. "Effect of Public Spending on Economic Growth in Kenya." Journal of Economics. 2018;6(2).
PN N, LW I, SK M. "Effect of puparia incubation temperature: increased infection rates of Trypanosoma congolense in Glossina morsitans centralis, G. fuscipes fuscipes and G. brevipalpis." Medical and veterinary entomology. 1992;6(2):127-130. AbstractPubMed link

Puparia of Glossina morsitans centralis (Machado), G.fuscipes fuscipes (Newstead) and G.brevipalpis (Newstead) were incubated at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 28 +/- 1:25 +/- 1 degrees C, day:night or 29 +/- 1 degrees C throughout the puparial period, and maintained at 70-80% relative humidity. Puparial mortality was higher at 29 than at 25 degrees C (optimum temperature) in all three species, particularly in G.f.fuscipes and G.brevipalpis. Adults of G.m.centralis from puparia incubated at 29 degrees C, and those of this subspecies, G.f.fuscipes and G.brevipalpis from puparia incubated at 28:25 degrees C, day:night or 25 degrees C throughout, were infected as tenerals (27 h old) by feeding them at the same time on goats infected with Trypanosoma congolense (Broden) IL 1180 after the parasites were detected in the wet blood film. Infection rates on day 25 post-infected feed were higher in G.m.centralis from puparia incubated at 29 degrees C and in adults of the three different tsetse species from puparia incubated at 28:25 degrees C, day:night, than in those from puparia incubated at 25 degrees C. However, in G.f.fuscipes the labral and hypopharyngeal infection rates were not significantly different from those of the tsetse produced by puparia kept at 25 degrees C.

Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "The Effect of Quartz and Mullite Pahses on Strength of Triaxial Porcelain." East African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2004;1(5):11-24. Abstract

The effect of quartz and mullite crystalline phases on the strength of triaxial porcelain in the system
quartz-feldspar-kaolin composed of 20%wt silica and feldspar/kaolin ratio of 5:8 has been
investigated. It was found that secondary mullite crystals enhanced both the compressive strength and
elastic properties of porcelain by the interlocking mechanism. Excess glass formation decreased the
fracture strength of porcelain as a result of the combined effect of circumferential cracks around
quartz grains and the microcracks within the quartz grains. The circumferencial cracks due to the
difference in the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the glassy and the quartz phases,
whereas the microcracks were due to a- to b- quartz phase inversions.

Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "The Effect of Quartz and Mullite Phases on Strength of Triaxial Porcelain." East African Journal of Physical Sciences. 2004;5(1):11-24.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, S. M. Mureithi, O. K. Koech, Karuma AN, CKK G. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017.
Ombega NJ, Mureithi SM, Koech OK, Karuma AN, Gachene CKK. "Effect of rangeland rehabilitation on the herbaceous species composition and diversity in Suswa catchment, Narok County, Kenya." Ecological Processes. 2017;6(1):41.
JOAB PROFBWAYOJOB. "The effect of rapid HIV-1 testing on uptake of perinatal HIV-1 interventions: a randomized clinical trial. Malonza IM, Richardson BA, Kreiss JK, Bwayo JJ, Stewart GC. AIDS. 2003 Jan 3;17(1):113-8.". In: AIDS. 2003 Jan 3;17(1):113-8. Asian Economic and Social Society; 2003. Abstract
Background. The host immune response against mucosally-acquired pathogens may be influenced by the mucosal immune milieu during acquisition. Since Neisseria gonorrhoeae can impair dendritic cell and T cell immune function, we hypothesized that co-infection during HIV acquisition would impair subsequent systemic T-cell responses.   Methods. Monthly screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was performed in high risk, HIV seronegative Kenyan female sex workers as part of an HIV prevention trial. Early HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and subsequent HIV viral load set point were assayed in participants acquiring HIV, and were correlated with the presence of prior genital infections during HIV acquisition.   Results. Thirty-five participants acquired HIV during follow up, and 16/35 (46%) had a classical STI at the time of acquisition. N. gonorrhoeae co-infection was present during HIV acquisition in 6/35 (17%), and was associated with an increased breadth and magnitude of systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, using both interferon- (IFNg) and MIP-1 beta (MIP1b) as an output. No other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response, and neither N. gonorrhoeae nor other genital infections were associated with differences in HIV plasma viral load at set point.   Conclusion. Unexpectedly, genital N. gonorrhoeae infection during heterosexual HIV acquisition was associated with substantially enhanced HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, although not with differences in HIV viral load set point. This may have implications for the development of mucosal HIV vaccines and adjuvants.
Ndiritu A, RUGENDO CAROLINE, Chandi J, Keiyoro P, Mbwesa J. "The effect of Reading skills on academic performance of Distance learners: A case of the University of Nairobi Distance Learners."; 2013. Abstract

Vision 2030 reveals the magnitude of wastage in the transition from secondary to University Education. It notes that secondary school enrolment has risen from 112,229 in the 2006/2007 academic year to 118,239 in 2007/2008 academic year; the passage to university is at 3 percent. To raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) of university students from the present 3 per cent to the projected 15 per cent, the government must continue increasing the number of students joining higher education from 130,000 (2008) to 450,000 (2015). This can be done by expanding the capacities of existing universities through establishment of new courses in Distance Education. The university of Nairobi school of continuing and distance education runs a course in distance education. It has been observed that many students fail to score a total of 40% in a given course and they re-sit the failed units. The failure rate goes up to 63% with 27% out of 38% cases, which is a very high failure rate. High failure rate and the ever increasing time taken to graduate is a chronic problem in Distance learning. One of the reasons why there could be poor performance is lack of quality time in reading. It is therefore worth knowing how efficiency in distance learning can be enhanced. To find out the effect of reading skills on academic performance a study was carried out. A total number of 650 students were selected using stratified random sampling technique. This sample was taken from 4,500 University of Nairobi students who were registered for B.Ed degree in different levels of study in the school of continuing and distance Education. A mixed mode method approach was used in data collection. Correlational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between reading skills and academic performance. The analysis indicated a strong relationship between reading skills and academic [r= 0.569]. The value of r2 =0.324, indicated that reading skills accounts for about 32.4% of the variation in average performance.
Key words reading skills:, Distance Learning

Robinson Musembi, Aduda B, Mwabora J, Rusu M, Fostiropoulos K, Lux-Steiner M. "Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer." International Journal of Energy Engineering. 2013;3(3):183-189. AbstractWebsite

Transport mechanism studies in TiO2/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS eta solar cell have been carried out. The characterizations have been performed both in the dark and under varying illumination intensity for temperature range 200 K – 320 K. Calculations from ideality factor have shown that the recombination process of the eta solar cell in the dark to be tunneling enhanced, while under illumination it is thermally activated and takes place through exponentially distributed energy recombination levels. The temperature has been found to influence series resistance of the solar cell. Series resistance has been found to be high at low temperature and low at higher temperature, thus we can conclude that the recombination is thermally activated.

Keywords: Eta Solar Cell, Recombination, Series Resistance, Buffer Layer

Cite this paper: Robinson Musembi, Bernard Aduda, Julius Mwabora, Marin Rusu, Konstantinos Fostiropoulos, Martha Lux-Steiner, Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer, International Journal of Energy Engineering, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2013, pp. 183-189. doi: 10.5923/j.ijee.20130303.09.

Musembi R;, Aduda B;, Mwabora J;, Rusu M;, Fostiropoulos K;, Lux-Steiner M. "Effect of Recombination on Series Resistance in eta Solar Cell Modified with In(OH)xSy Buffer Layer." Internatio n al J ournal of Ene r g y En gi nee ri ng 20 1 3. 2013. Abstract

Transport mechanism studies in Ti02/In(OH)xSy/Pb(OH)xSy/PEDOT:PSS eta solar cell have been carried out. The characterizations have been performed both in the dark and under Varying illumination intensity for temperature range 200 K - 320 K. Calculations from ideality factor have shown that the recombination process of the eta solar cell in the dark to be tunneling enhanced, while under illumination it is thermally activated and takes place through exponentially distributed energy recombination levels. The temperature has been found to influence series resistance of the solar cell. Series resistance has been found to be high at low temperature and low at higher temperature, thus we can conclude that the recombination is thermally activated.

KEINO DINAHCHEBET, GACHUNGA HAZEL, Ogollah K. "EFFECT OF RECRUITMENT ON EMPLOYER BRANDING IN THE MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATION SECTOR IN KENYA." The strategic Business and change Journal of Management. 2016;3(1):146-166.dinah_keino_gachunga_and_ogollah_2016.pdf
Magoha GAO. "The effect of rectal examination on serum acid phosphatase levels in benign and malignant prostatic disease." Postgraduate Medical Journal . 1982;(58):763-766. Abstract

Serum acid phosphatase was measured in patients with enlarged benign and malignant prostate before and after rectal examination. Amongst the patients with benign glands, rectal examination did not produce any significant false elevation of the enzyme. Rectal examination, however, caused a rise in the enzyme level in a few untreated cancer patients and in cancer patients who has become refractory to hormonal therapy. This rise would help rather than mislead in the diagnosis of malignant prostate and also in the identifying treated patients who had become refractory to treatment. Thus, when serum acid phosphatase is properly determined, elevated levels should always arouse suspicion of malignant prostate or other lesions associated with high enzyme level even is such determination was preceded by rectal examination. There appears to be no merit in the teaching that the determination of serum acid phosphatase should be delayed after rectal examination.

Kinyanjui E, Ochieng DE. "Effect of Remittances from Diaspora on Financial Sector Deepening in the East African Community ." African development finance journal. 2017;1(1):82-10. Abstract

Abstract
Purpose – This paper investigated the effect of diaspora remittances on financial sector deepening in the East African Community. Personal diaspora remittances were used as a measure of remittances from diaspora. The three proxies for financial deepening that were employed in the study were domestic credit as a ratio of GDP, total credit provided by the financial sector as a percentage of GDP and degree of monetization, M2 as a percentage of GDP.
Methodology – The study adopted an explanatory research design. It employed panel data analysis - fixed effects method, to model the linear regression equation. The population of the study was the five East African Community member countries and covered a 20-year period (1997 to 2016). The data for this study was obtained from the World Bank statistics website.
Findings – This study established that there exists a positive relationship between remittances from diaspora and financial sector deepening in the EAC but this relationship is not significant. The three models analyzed in this study, show that a 0.31, 0.08 and 0.28 change respectively, in remittances in the respective models, leads to a unit change in the level of financial sector deepening in the EAC.
Implications – The results of this study show that an increase in the level of remittances leads to increased financial deepening in the EAC economies. There is therefore need for the government in liaison with the private sector, to provide a conducive environment for development of financially innovative products that ease and reduce the cost of sending remittances as this will foster further financial deepening, which has the positive effect of financial inclusion, access to credit and economic growth.
Value – This study recommended the fostering of activities that are geared towards the ease of sending remittances and cost reduction of sending the remittances through employment of new financial technologies. Further studies have also been recommended to increase the frontiers of the study especially on developed countries in order to gain more conclusive understanding and generalizability of the remittances-financial sector deepening nexus.

Key Words; Diaspora remittances, Financial sector deepening, East Africa Community

Mustafa KN;, Chemining'wa GN;, Nyabundi JO. "Effect of rhizobium inoculation of beans on growth and yield of maize and beans under different Intercropping patterns."; 2005. Abstract

The same row and this also out-yielded sole Rhizobium inoculation of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and intercropping patterns of maize and beans were evaluated for two seasons in a field study. Plant population of each crop in all planting patterns was 53,333 plants ha-1. Beans were either uninoculated or inoculated with Rhizobium. Planting patterns consisted of maize and beans intercropped in the same hill, maize and beans intercropped as. alternating plants in the same row, maize and beans intercropped in alternate rows, sole maize and sole beans. Increasing intimacy between the intercrop species and inoculation significantly increased biomass and leaf area indices of both maize and beans, and also the number of nodules per bean plant. Inoculation significantly increased yield of maize in all intercropping treatments. In the inoculated treatments, intercropping maize and beans in the same hill had significantly higher maize grain yield than intercropping in alternate hills in the same row and this, in turn, out-yielded sole maize cropping and intercropping in alternate rows whose yields were not significantly different. When beans were inoculated, similar results were obtained but in the second season no difference was observed between intercropping in the same hill and intercropping in alternate hills in the same row. Sole maize was also significantly superior to maize intercropped with beans in alternate rows. Beans intercropped with maize in the same hill out-yielded beans intercropped with maize in alternate hills in the same row and this also out-yielded sole beans. Beans intercropped with maize in alternate rows had the lowest yield. These results demonstrate the superiority of intercropping maize and beans in close proximity and Rhizobium inoculation both of which promoted nodulation by the bean plants. There is need to establish why beans intercropped with maize in the same hill out¬yielded sole beans.

Muthomi JW, Otieno PE, Chemining´wa GN, Nderitu JH, Wagacha JM. "Effect of root rot pathogens and fungicide seed treatment on nodulation and biomass accumulation." Journal of Biological Sciences. 2007;7:1163-1170.
Muthomi JW;, Otieno PE;, Chemining’wa GN;, Nderitu JH. Effect Of Root Rot Pathogens And Fungicide Seed Treatment On Nodulation In Food Grain Legumes.; 2013. Abstract

Greenhouse experiments were conducted over 2 cropping cycles to investigate the effect of fungicide seed treatment and fungal root rot pathogens on nodulation and dry matter accumulation of selected food legumes. The legumes were common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.var GLP 2), green gram (Vigna radiata L., variety M66) and lablab (Lablab purpureus L.). Treatments included, inoculation of legumes with pathogen alone (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. phaseoli or Macrophomina phaseolina or Sclerotinia sclerotiorum or Rhizoctonia solani), or with appropriate rhizobia alone or application of fungicide (copper oxychloride) or their combinations. Results of the study indicated that fungicide seed treatment reduced disease incidence on Sclerotinia and Rhizoctonia inoculated plants. However, fungicide treatment significantly (p=0.05) depressed nodulation of the legumes but its effect on nodulation was significantly suppressed when applied together with rhizobia on infected seeds. Fungicide application significantly reduced seedlings mortality (pre-emergence damping off) and number of nodules per plant but had no effect on dry matter accumulation. Combination of fungicide and rhizobia inoculation improved nodulation as well as reducing disease incidence. It is therefore concluded that this combination yields better results if the aim is to reduce root rot incidence while improving nodulation concurrently.

SOLOMON DRDERESE. "Effect of Rotenoids from the seeds of Millettia dura on Larvae of Aedes aegypti.". In: Chemical Sciences Journal Vol. 2012: CSJ-56. Elsevier; 2003. Abstract

A crude chloroform extract of seeds of Millettia dura Dunn (Leguminosae) showed high activity (LC50 = 3.5 microg ml(-1) at 24 h) against second-instar larvae of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L (Diptera: Culicidae). The rotenoids, deguelin and tephrosin, isolated from the seeds of this plant also showed potent activities, with LC50 values of 1.6 and 1.4 microg ml(-1) at 24 h, respectively. The related rotenoids millettone and millettosin were inactive at 20 microg ml(-1). Saturation at the B/C ring junction and the presence of methoxy groups at C-2 and/or C-3 in deguelin and tephrosin appear to be important for the observed larvicidal activity.

Otsyina HR, Mbuthia PG, Nguhiu-Mwangi J, Mogoa EGM, Ogara WO. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on haematological and biochemical parameters of sheep and goats." Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;53:5-16. Abstract
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Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia P G, W O. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:435-443.
Otsyina H, Nguhiu J, E M, Mbuthia P G, W O. "Effect of ruminal plastic bags on wellbeing of goats." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa. 2017;65:435-443. Abstract
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MBUYA TO, ODUORI MF, Rading GO, WEKESA MS. "Effect of runner design on mechanical properties of permanent mould aluminium castings.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

A comparison of the influence of different runner designs on the mechanical properties of aluminium castings has shown that filtered rectangular runners (FRRs) yield aluminium castings with higher and more reliable mechanical properties than the conventional unfiltered rectangular runners. Unfiltered vortex flow runners have also been shown to improve the reliability of the modulus of rupture of cast aluminium alloys over unfiltered rectangular runners. In the present paper, experimental results of a comparative study on the effect of the unfiltered vortex flow and FRR designs on the tensile strength of permanent mould aluminium castings are reported. The results show that an FRR yields castings with higher and more reliable tensile strengths than the unfiltered vortex flow runner. Castings poured into a mould with an FRR had strengths between 269 and 291 MPa and a Weibull modulus of 50·2 while castings poured into the vortex flow runner had strengths between 255 and 280 MPa and a Weibull modulus of 40·3.

MBUYA TO, ODUORI MF, Rading GO, WEKESA MS. "Effect of runner design on mechanical properties of permanent mould aluminium castings.". 2006. AbstractWebsite

A comparison of the influence of different runner designs on the mechanical properties of aluminium castings has shown that filtered rectangular runners (FRRs) yield aluminium castings with higher and more reliable mechanical properties than the conventional unfiltered rectangular runners. Unfiltered vortex flow runners have also been shown to improve the reliability of the modulus of rupture of cast aluminium alloys over unfiltered rectangular runners. In the present paper, experimental results of a comparative study on the effect of the unfiltered vortex flow and FRR designs on the tensile strength of permanent mould aluminium castings are reported. The results show that an FRR yields castings with higher and more reliable tensile strengths than the unfiltered vortex flow runner. Castings poured into a mould with an FRR had strengths between 269 and 291 MPa and a Weibull modulus of 50·2 while castings poured into the vortex flow runner had strengths between 255 and 280 MPa and a Weibull modulus of 40·3.

MBUYA TO, ODUORI MF, Rading GO, WEKESA MS. "Effect of Runner System Design on the Mechanical Properties of Permanent Mould Aluminium Castings." International Journal of Cast Metals Research. 2006;19(6):357-360. AbstractWebsite

Essential thrombocythaemia was diagnosed in a series of 18 patients on the basis of platelet counts greater than 1,000 X 10(9)/1. Radionuclide studies have been carried out to distinguish thrombocythaemia as a primary disease from polycythaemia vera, myelofibrosis and chronic granulocytic leukaemia presenting with high platelet counts. These have included blood volume and spleen function, and radio-iron (52Fe) has been used to demonstrate the presence of extramedullary (splenic) erythropoiesis. The value of these investigations in distinguishing between the various myeloproliferative disorders associated with thrombocythaemia is illustrated.
PMID: 3933244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ambuko JL, Sekozawa Y, Sugaya S, Itoh F, Nakamura K, Gemma H. "Effect of seasonal variation, cultivar and production system on some postharvest characteristics of the banana.". In: IV International Conference on Managing Quality in Chains-The Integrated View on Fruits and Vegetables Quality 712.; 2006:. Abstract
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Mumia BI, Muthomi JW, Narla RD, Nyongesa M, Olubayo FM. "Effect of Seed Potato Tuber Storage Methods on Occurrence of Potato Diseases." International Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences . 2017;4(4):23-48.
Buyela SN, Muthomi JW, Mwang’ombe AW, Njau P, Olubayo F. "Effect of Seed Treatment on Wheat Seed Viability and Vigour." American Journal of Agricultural Science. 2018;5(1):1-9.
Mwangi PM, Ochieng DE. "The Effect of Selected Macro-economic Variables on Exchange Rates in Kenya." African development finance journal. 2017;1(2):162-177. Abstractthe_effect_of_selected_macro_economic_variables_on_exchange_rates_in_kenya.pdf

Purpose – This paper sought to establish the effect of selected macro-economic variables
on exchange rates in Kenya. The selected macro-economic variables for this study were
interest rates, inflation rates and trade flows.
Methodology – The study was modeled as a descriptive survey. A data collection sheet
was used to collect secondary data from the published bulletin and other publications by
Central Bank of Kenya and Kenya National Bureau of Statistics for a period of ten years
between 2006 and 2015. The data was examined using descriptive, correlation and
regression analyses.
Findings - Results of the study showed that interest rate had a positive correlation
coefficient of 0.446 with exchange rate, Inflation rate and exchange rate had a correlation
coefficient of negative 0.395 while the Level of aggregation of trade flows had a
correlation coefficient of positive 0.829 to the exchange rate. The value of R square was
0.745, a discovery that 74.5 percent of the deviations in exchange rates in Kenya
occurred due to changes in interest rate, inflation rate and trade flows at 95 percent
confidence level. The significance value obtained was less than p=0.05 implying that the
model was statistically significant in predicting how the macro economic variables of
interest rate, inflation rate and trade flows affect exchange rates in Kenya.
Implications - The Kenyan shilling has been depreciating in value over the years
implying a weakening of its purchasing power in the international markets. Policy makers
should come up with policies that will contribute to reversing this trend. Managing the
prevailing levels of inflation, interest rates and trade flows will be key as they have been
found to significantly affect exchange rates.
Value - The study will act as a guide to variou

N MRMAINGIELIUD. "Effect of selection pressure for thiabendazole resistance on fitness of Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Parasitology, 100:327-335.". In: Tidsskrift for Dansk Fareavl (Danish Sheep Breeders Journal) 60: 19-20. Kisipan, M.L.; 1990. Abstract

Isolated mouse interstitial cells were incubated with different concentrations of khat (Catha edulis) extract (0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml. 6 mg/ml. 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) and cell viability as well as testosterone concentration measured at 30 min intervals over a 3 h incubation period. High concentrations of khat extract (30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml) significantly inhibited testosterone production while low concentrations (0.06 mg/ml. 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml) significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) testosterone production by mouse interstitial cells. Similarly, at concentrations of 30 mg/ml and 60 mg/ml, there was a significant decrease in interstitial cell viability, whereas at 0.06 mg/ml, 0.6 mg/ml and 6 mg/ml there was no significant decrease. There was only a weak correlation (r= 0.39) between testosterone production and viable interstitial cells. We postulate that khat extract at high concentrations may cause reproductive function impairment in the user but at low concentrations. may enhance testosterone production with accompanying effects on reproductive functions in male mice. @2006 Publishedby Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Kel'lVords: In dtro; Khat; Testosterone; Interstitial cells; Mouse

Abong'o DA, Onyatta JO, Mbugua H. "The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances on Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya." European International Journal of Science and Technology. 2017;6(3):1-10.
A A’oD, J.O O, M H. "The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances On Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya:." The Effect of Septic Tanks Sewage Disposal System Distances On Borehole Water Quality in Ongata Rongai, Kajiado County, Kenya. 2017;6(3):1-10.
Munyao SM, ODOCK SO, Rucha K. "Effect of service quality management practices on operational performance of petroleum distributing firms in Kenya." International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce. 2017;2(2):49-71. Abstract

The desire of any service organization is to deliver quality service that meets their customer expectations so as to remain profitable and in business. The service market has now become more competitive than ever before and meeting customer needs is a necessity. Petroleum distributing firms in Kenya are at a great task of perfecting their service delivery systems to ensure that their customers get quality product at the right time, right quantity and above all safely. Well managed service quality practices have the potential of transforming the operational performance of an organization. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent of adoption of service quality management practices by petroleum distributing firms in Kenya, the challenges they face in the implementation of these practices and the effect of these practices on the firms’ operational performance. The study was carried out through a descriptive survey of 32 petroleum distributing firms in Kenya. Drop and pick later questionnaires were used to collect primary data. The collected data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and descriptive statistics like mean and standard deviation used to summarize the findings. The regression analysis technique was used to establish the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The research findings were presented in tables. The findings indicated that petroleum distributing firms adopted various service quality management practices to a large extent. The findings also indicated that the firms were faced by various challenges in their endeavour to implement the service quality management practices. Further, the findings indicated that there existed generally a positive relationship between service quality management practices and operational performance. The main conclusion was that the adoption of service quality management practices by petroleum distributing firms was inevitable since it improved the operational performance of these firms. The researcher recommends that policy makers should ensure organizations embrace service quality management practices for improved productivity and better returns from their investments. The researcher concludes by suggesting that similar research to be carried out in other sectors of the economy other than petroleum industry.

Abayo GO;, Ransom JK;, Oswald A;, Ariga ES;, Friesen D. "Effect Of Short-term Improved Fallow On Striga Infestation In Maize.".; 2000.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. "Effect of Silica Additions on Strength and Elastic Modulus of Kenyan Industrial Clay Ceramics." African Journal of Science. 2000;2(2):77-89.
Kimani ST;, Patel NB;, Kioy PG. "Effect of single and daily khat (Catha edulis) extract on locomotor behaviour in CBA mice." Scientific Research and Essay. 2008;3(5):187-196.
Kimani, S.T. PKNBPG. "Effect of single and repeated khat (Catha edulis) extract on locomotor behaviour in CBA mice." Scientific Research and Essays . 2008;3(5):187-196.
Kimani, S.T. PKNBPG. "Effect of single and repeated khat (Catha edulis) extract on locomotor behaviour in CBA mice." Scientific Research and Essays. 2008;3(5):187-196.
and Kimani NSTAW. "Effect of single daily khat (Catha edulis) extract on spatial learning and memory in CBA mice." Behavioral Brain Research. 2008;(195):192-197.
Nyongesa FW, Aduda BO. Effect of Sintering Temperature on Material Properties of Kenyan Industrial Clay Ceramics. Kampala, Uganda: Makere University; 1999.
K DRKARUUSIMONP. "The effect of SO 4 2- , Cl - , F - and PO 4 3- on sewer fabric with emphasis on the concrete systems" 231 pages.". In: Proceedings of the Australian Soc. of Reproductive Biology, Melbourne, 27 31 August, 1984. Page 60. Central artificial Insemination Station Magazine; 2000. Abstract
This report concerns an outbreak that occurred during July/August 1997. Ten pigs from a herd of 181 pigs in a medium-scale, semi-closed piggery in Kiambu District, Kenya, contracted the clinical disease. The main clinical findings in affected pigs included: fever (40.5-41.8 degrees C), prostration, inappetence, dog-sitting posture, abortion, erythema and raised, firm to the touch and easily palpated light pink to dark purple diamond-shaped to square/rectangular spots on the skin around the belly and the back. Based on the pathognomonic skin lesions, a clinical diagnosis of swine erysipelas was made. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae organisms from the blood and skin biopsies taken from the affected pigs. Response to treatment with a combination of procaine penicillin and dihydrostreptomycin at the dosage rate of 20,000 IU/kg body weight (based on procaine penicillin) for 3 days was good and all the affected pigs recovered fully. The farm was placed under quarantine to prevent spread of the disease
Wanjekeche E;, Imungi JK;, Karuri EG. "Effect of Soaking on the Cookability and Nutritional Quality of Mucuna Bean."; 2010. Abstract

Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) is a legume with high but unexploited potential for food and soil fertility improvement. Use of the seed as food is limited by the hard-to-cook defect and the presence of several antinutritional factors notably the non-protein amino acid, 3, 4 ...

Wanjekeche E;, Imungi JK;, Karuri EG. "Effect of Soaking on the Cookability and Nutritional Quality of Mucuna Bean."; 2010. Abstract

Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) is a legume with high but unexploited potential for food and soil fertility improvement. Use of the seed as food is limited by the hard-to-cook defect and the presence of several antinutritional factors notably the non-protein amino acid, 3, 4 .

J MROKELLOJULIUS. "Effect of social capital on performance of smallholder producer organizations in western Kenya.". In: Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Technology. 1. Okello, J.J., C. J. Lagerkvist, S. Hess, M. Ngigi, and N. Karanja; 2011. Abstract
The effect of acqueous extract of the tuber of Adenia globosa on the isolated preparation of the rat uterus was determined. The crude drug caused a dose-dependent contraction of the tissue preparation. This action was enhanced by a small dose of oxytocin. The results are discussed in relation to the traditional uses of this plant.
M W, MW O, GO A', J M, JN K. "Effect of Soil Characteristics on Potato Tuber Minerals Composition of Selected Kenyan Varieties." Journal of Agricultural Science. 2014;6(12):163-171.soil_and_tuber__mineral.pdf
Wekesa MN, Okoth MW, Abong’ GO, Muthoni J, Kabira JN. "Effect of Soil Characteristics on Potato Tuber Minerals Composition of Selected Kenyan Varieties." Journal of Agricultural Science;. 2014;6(12).wekesa_2014a_effect_of_soil_characteristics_potato.pdf
Morris MM, Muthomi JW, Wagacha JM. "Effect of Soil Fertility and Intercropping on the Incidence and Severity of Root Rot Diseases of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). ." World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2017;5(4):189-199.
Wachira PM, Okoth S, Kimenju J, Mibey RK, Kiarie J. "Effect of soil fertility management practices on nematode destroying fungi in Taita, Kenya." Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems. 2011;(13):43-49. Abstract

The study aimed at identifying soil fertility practices that promoted nematode destroying fungi in the soil and the treatments comprised of Mavuno fertilizer, Triple super- phosphate and calcium ammonium nitrate (TSP+CAN), cow manure and a control where no amendments were applied. This experiment was replicated in ten farms for three planting seasons. There were significant difference (P= 1.705 x 10-06) in occurrence of the nematode destroying fungi between soil fertility treatments. The highest mean occurrence of nematode destroying fungi was 1.6 which was recorded in soils amended with cow manure and the least was in soils from the control plots. A mean of 0.78 was recorded in soils from both TSP+CAN and Mavuno fertilizers. Plots amended with cow manure gave the highest diversity of nematodes followed by the control, then TSP+CAN and least in Mavuno with shannon indices of 0.34, 0.15, 0.13 and 0.11 respectively. Sixty percent of all the isolated nematode destroying fungi genera were from plots treated with cow manure and only twenty percent were from plots amended with the inorganic fertilizer

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