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Kaniu MI, Angeyo KH, Darby IG, Muia LM. "Rapid in-situ radiometric assessment of the Mrima-Kiruku high background radiation anomaly complex of Kenya." J. Environ. Radioact.. 2018;188:47-57. Abstract

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Kaniu MI, Angeyo KH, MANGALA MJ,... "Feasibility for chemometric energy dispersive X‐ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectroscopy method for rapid soil quality assessment." X‐Ray …. 2011. AbstractWebsite

Soil quality assessment (SQA) is important for modulating agricultural productivity and thus requires simple and rapid analysis of soil (macro & micro) nutrients (here called soil quality indicators–SQIs). We report proof of concept of a chemometrics‐assisted energy dispersive …

Kaniu I, Darby IG, Kalambuka Angeyo H. "Radiological Mapping of the Alkaline Intrusive Complex of Jombo, South Coastal Kenya by In-Situ Gamma-Ray Spectrometry.". In: EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts. Vol. 18.; 2016:. Abstract
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Kanja L, Skåre JU, Nafstad I, Maitai CK, Løkken P. "Organochlorine pesticides in human milk from different areas of Kenya 1983-1985." J Toxicol Environ Health. 1986;19(4):449-64. Abstract

Residue levels of the chlorinated hydrocarbons p,p'-DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane), p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), aldrin, dieldrin, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in human milk of Kenyan mothers living in different areas of Kenya. The main organochlorine contaminants found in all the milk samples analyzed were p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. Great regional differences were found, and mean levels of sum DDT and DDT/DDE ratio ranged from 1.1 to 18.7 mg/kg milk fat and from 0.7 to 5.7, respectively. In general, relatively low residue levels of HCB, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, aldrin, and dieldrin were detected in 59, 37, 27, 37, and 19%, respectively, of all the milk samples analyzed. Quantifiable residue levels of PCBs and alpha-HCH were not found. The results were examined in relation to differences in living conditions with regard to agricultural activities, dietary habits, and reported use of pesticides in the various sampling areas.

Kanja LW, Skaare JU, Ojwang SB, Maitai CK. "A comparison of organochlorine pesticide residues in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood, cord blood, and human milk from mother/infant pairs." Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.. 1992;22(1):21-4. Abstract

A total of 41 samples of maternal blood, milk, subcutaneous fat and umbilical cord blood were collected from mothers giving birth by Caesarean operation at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi in 1986. The samples were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The main contaminants found in all the samples were p,p'-DDT (100%), p,p'-DDE (100%), o,p'-DDT (59%), dieldrin (27%), transnonachlor (15%), beta-HCH (12%) and lindane (2%) of all the samples analyzed. Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) residues were not detected in any of the samples. The mean levels (mg/kg fat) of sum of DDT were 5.9 in subcutaneous fat, 4.8 in mothers milk, 2.7 in maternal serum and 1.9 in umbilical cord serum. There was a significant correlation between the levels of sum DDT in subcutaneous fat and milk fat (r = 0.963), subcutaneous fat and maternal serum fat (r = 0.843), and maternal serum fat and maternal milk fat (r = 0.868), indicating the coherence of DDT in the body. Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) was found in subcutaneous fat and milk fat with the mean levels of 0.03 and 0.26 mg/kg fat, respectively. Dieldrin detected in mothers milk and subcutaneous fat could not be quantified.

with Kanji N, Braga C. Promoting Rights in Africa: How do NGOs make a difference? . London: iied.; 2002.
Kankey A, Ogot M. "Improving the acoustics in a historic building using axiomatic design and TRIZ." The TRIZ Journal. 2005. Abstract

This article investigates the use of TRIZ and Axiomatic Design to solve the problem of poor acoustics in
the historic Schwab Auditorium on the Penn State University Park campus. The problem is dissected to its
functional requirements and the design parameters which govern the requirements. TRIZ and Axiomatic
Design are then used to create an uncoupled design which solves all the functional requirements with one
design parameter each. Finally there is a suggestion on how to combine all of the solutions to solve the
poor acoustic problem in Schwab Auditorium.

Keywords: Axiomatic Design, Acoustics, Physical Contradictions

Kankonda OM, Dudu A, Walangululu M, Ong’amo GO, Ru B-PL. "Stem borer species composition on maize and two non-cereal hosts in the forest zone of Kisangani, DRC." Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A. 2014;(4):822-829.
Kanori JN. "Libraries and Rural development in Kenya: Problems and prospects .". In: Library Workshop. University of Nairobi; 1984.
Kanori, E.N., Kimani G.N., Kalai JM. "Service tangibility, teaching and learning, and students’ satisfaction at the University of Nairobi, Kenya. ." Journal of Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy in Academic Practice (JPAHAP). 2020;1(2):16-28.
Kanori E, Cheloti S OR. "Principal's Management Styles and Students' Unrest in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya." Journal of Education and Practice. 2014;5(29):29-37.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. AbstractWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti, Olago, D. O., Akech, Nyamai, C.M., Dulo, Ayah, Taylor, D. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu." Kenya Policy Briefs . 2020;1(1).
KANOTI JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo S, Ayah R. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya." Journal of Water Resource & Protection. 2019;11:404-418. AbstractWebsite

Safe water of adequate quantity, and dignified sanitation, is vital for the sustenance of a healthy and productive human population. In the recognition of this, the United Nations formulated the Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 to ensure access to safe water and sanitation by all by 2030. Actualization of this Goal requires information on the existing status of water resources and sanitation levels. Knowledge on contamination of groundwater is essential to prevent risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater contamination in Kisumu, Kenya. A total of 275 water samples were collected from 22 sites within the informal settlements between December 2016 and December 2017. The samples were analysed for bacterial contamination and physical chemical quality. Thermal tolerant coliform bacteria enumeration was used as a proxy to bacteria contamination, and the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature were used as physical chemical indicators of contamination. The results indicate that groundwater in Kisumu hosed coliform bacteria and therefore didn’t comply with contamination limits for domestic water proposed by WHO and local KEBS standards. The results further indicated that the levels of bacteriological contamination vary with water type, shallow well having the highest bacterial loads. The study concluded that there were potential risks to human health due to high content of coliform bacteria. The study attributed the contribution to pit latrines that were present in virtually all compounds. The pit latrines are located close to the water points. The study recommended the definition of minimum distance between the pit latrines and shallow wells to minimize contamination. The low income dwellers should be educated on simple ways of treating drinking water contaminated by microbial to minimize enteric infections.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "An overview of groundwater and sanitation challenges in Kisumu City, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;8(4). AbstractWebsite

The sub-surface is used in most parts of Africa as a repository of human waste and as a source of groundwater through pit latrines and shallow wells respectively. The wells provide freshwater to millions of people in Africa who are either not connected to the piped water or have intermittent supplies. These shallow wells are hand dug and therefore are mostly less than 20 meters in depth. This same sub-surface environment is also used as a repository of human waste through pit latrines. The water points and the sanitation facilities are mostly located close to each other. This study aimed at appraising the groundwater and sanitation challenges based on a rapid survey, sampling, interviews, existing literature review and historical borehole data in Kisumu city, Kenya. Previous studies in the area have shown that the number of shallow wells, city buildings, density of unimproved pit latrines and sanitary risks have increased tremendously between 1999 and 2019. Most of the wells are shallow and therefore prone to contamination by pollutants. Fluoride and chloride content in most boreholes are above the recommended WHO maximum values and the local KEBS standards. The study confirmed that the main water and sanitation challenges in Kisumu are poor and deteriorating water quality, poor waste disposal management systems and poor sanitation services. There is need for the introduction of new and sustainable groundwater approaches supported by scientific models and involving all stakeholders. Current deficiencies in the provision of adequate water and dignified sanitation to the poor in Kisumu can be remedied through improved knowledge on shallow aquifer dynamics and innovative research. It was noted that apart from the donor agencies and multi-national NGOs, the private investors are unwilling to invest in water projects in Kisumu due in part to government legislation that constrains the cost that may be levied on water

Kanoti JR. "SUSTAINABLE URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEM: NAIROBI CASE STUDY.". In: Submitted during the Sustainable Communities Course: Urban Environmental Management. Bangkok, Thailand; 2012. Abstract

One way of dealing with urban floods is to ignore them. In many countries, Kenya included, neither the people nor the authorities want to take the danger due to urban floods seriously, partly due to large recurrent intervals of most urban floods. It may also be that the risk due to floods are taken for granted, given the many dangers and problems confronted with in people’s daily lives (Van Westen, C.J., 2000 ).
To effectively reduce the impacts of floods in our cities, including Nairobi, they must be managed before they turn into disaster. The primary objectives of sustainable urban drainage system can be considered to be the protection of life, property, the community and the environment. The process comprises a series of well-known stages, which begins with urban drainage evaluation. The second stage involves the evaluation, selection and implementation of flood reduction measures, and the establishment of enforcement procedures. This stage links urban flood management to emergency planning and management that are subsequent stages of the process. Preparedness, response and recovery are the three principal stages within emergency planning and management. The final stage in the flood management process is the feedback stage, where post-event appraisal of mitigation measures and other phases are evaluated (Starosolszky, O., and Melder O.M., 1990).
The sustainable urban drainage management process is open to institutional arrangements and policies, political economy and the technological environment. These influences exert both positive and negative forces on the drainage management thereby making it either effective or ineffective. The nature of hazardous environment need not be overemphasized because it determines the need for management. To make the process smooth, public cooperation is needed.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Kanoti J, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo SI, Taylor R. "Characterisation of geogenic controls on groundwater quality in a volcano-sedimentary aquifer in Kenya using graphical and statistical methods.". In: 46th IAH Congress. Malaga, Spain; 2019. Abstractcontribution.pdf

Geogenic controls on groundwater quality are often dominant but remain inadequately characterized for many aquifer systems. The volcano-sedimentary aquifer of Kisumu (Kenya) is used widely to provide safe water to the informal settlements and acts as a strategic, supplementary supply to the city during interruptions in service from the main piped water supply network drawing from Lake Victoria. Little is known, however, of the geogenic controls on groundwater quality in the Kisumu aquifer. We characterize the origin and composition of solutes in groundwaters sampled from the Kisumu aquifer using a range of techniques. Classical graphical methods (i.e. Durov, Piper, Schoeller, Stiff and Ternary plots) were used as interpretative tools of the main hydrogeochemical processes whereas principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) methods were used to assess hydrochemical variations and water types. An agglomeration schedule with five cluster solutions and between-groups linkage method of clustering using the squared Euclidian distance was employed. Variables were standardized to z-scores so that each variable contributed equally to the clusters. The study identifies three main groundwater geochemical signatures in the Kisumu study area: cation exchange (Ca-Na, Ca-Mg) between aqueous and solid phases, the chemistry of recharge water, and groundwater mixing. The concentration of major ions in groundwater varies with geology and also seasonally. The dominant water facies is Na-Ca-HCO3 type; other hydrochemical facies include Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-HCO3. Hydrochemical plots suggest that dissolution of carbonates and halite are the other major chemical processes, in addition to cation exchange, that control the groundwater chemistry in the Kisumu aquifer. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the main cations and anions discriminated satisfactorily the various water types in the study area.

Kanoti, Olago, D. O., Opiyo, P., Nyamai, C.M., Dulo, Ayah, Taylor, D. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya. ." Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 2019;11:404-418.
Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "An overview of groundwater and sanitation challenges in Kisumu City, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;8(4). Abstract

The sub-surface is used in most parts of Africa as a repository of human waste and as a source of groundwater through pit latrines and shallow wells respectively. The wells provide freshwater to millions of people in Africa who are either not connected to the piped water or have intermittent supplies. These shallow wells are hand dug and therefore are mostly less than 20 meters in depth. This same sub-surface environment is also used as a repository of human waste through pit latrines. The water points and the sanitation facilities are mostly located close to each other. This study aimed at appraising the groundwater and sanitation challenges based on a rapid survey, sampling, interviews, existing literature review and historical borehole data in Kisumu city, Kenya. Previous studies in the area have shown that the number of shallow wells, city buildings, density of unimproved pit latrines and sanitary risks have increased tremendously between 1999 and 2019. Most of the wells are shallow and therefore prone to contamination by pollutants. Fluoride and chloride content in most boreholes are above the recommended WHO maximum values and the local KEBS standards. The study confirmed that the main water and sanitation challenges in Kisumu are poor and deteriorating water quality, poor waste disposal management systems and poor sanitation services. There is need for the introduction of new and sustainable groundwater approaches supported by scientific models and involving all stakeholders. Current deficiencies in the provision of adequate water and dignified sanitation to the poor in Kisumu can be remedied through improved knowledge on shallow aquifer dynamics and innovative research. It was noted that apart from the donor agencies and multi-national NGOs, the private investors are unwilling to invest in water projects in Kisumu due in part to government legislation that constrains the cost that may be levied on water

KANOTI JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo S, Ayah R. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya." Journal of Water Resource & Protection. 2019;11:404-418. AbstractWebsite

Safe water of adequate quantity, and dignified sanitation, is vital for the sustenance of a healthy and productive human population. In the recognition of this, the United Nations formulated the Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 to ensure access to safe water and sanitation by all by 2030. Actualization of this Goal requires information on the existing status of water resources and sanitation levels. Knowledge on contamination of groundwater is essential to prevent risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater contamination in Kisumu, Kenya. A total of 275 water samples were collected from 22 sites within the informal settlements between December 2016 and December 2017. The samples were analysed for bacterial contamination and physical chemical quality. Thermal tolerant coliform bacteria enumeration was used as a proxy to bacteria contamination, and the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature were used as physical chemical indicators of contamination. The results indicate that groundwater in Kisumu hosed coliform bacteria and therefore didn’t comply with contamination limits for domestic water proposed by WHO and local KEBS standards. The results further indicated that the levels of bacteriological contamination vary with water type, shallow well having the highest bacterial loads. The study concluded that there were potential risks to human health due to high content of coliform bacteria. The study attributed the contribution to pit latrines that were present in virtually all compounds. The pit latrines are located close to the water points. The study recommended the definition of minimum distance between the pit latrines and shallow wells to minimize contamination. The low income dwellers should be educated on simple ways of treating drinking water contaminated by microbial to minimize enteric infections.

Kanoti JR. THE GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY ASSOCIATED WITH MAFIC AND ULTRAMAFIC INTRUSIVES OF THE MOZAMBIQUE BELT IN MBEERE AND THARAKA-NITHI DISTRICTS, EASTERN KENYA. Nairobi - Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2001. Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed geology, the geochemistry and the mineralogy associated with the mafic and the ultramafic intrusives of the Mozambique Belt, eastern Kenya. To achieve this, a detailed geological mapping and sampling of the intrusives was done followed by laboratory analysis. The significance of the study was to highlight the nature, relative age and genesis of the intrusives and the potential for economic mineralization.

This study has revealed that the intrusive rocks and the regional foliation trends are inter-related suggesting that the intrusives developed in vertical structures during regional metamorphism. The elongated shapes of the bodies and their alignment with the enclosing regional structural grain of the gneisses suggest compressional deformation during the regional Mozambique Belt Orogeny. This is considered as evidence for at least a synorogenic emplacement of these intrusive rock bodies.
The mafic and the ultramafic rocks represent a range of differentiated rocks from fairly primitive magma (Mg-number = 79) to highly fractionated magma (Mg-number = 36). However, the fact that the rocks are intrusive brings out the possibility that none of them may represent parental magma composition. The magmas have undergone modification by crystal fractionation processes either in high-level magma chambers or during ascent from their mantle source regions. The gradual composition change in the feldspars, olivine and the pyroxenes is from high- to low-temperature members of their respective solid-solution series. This outlines the crystallization sequence.

The whole rock chemical analysis shows that rocks rich in magnesium oxide are also rich in chromium and nickel and those rich in potassium oxide are also rich in rubidium and barium in conformity with the rules of partitioning. This implies that they originated from one parent magma. The rocks show iron enrichment trend and have high nickel and low aluminium oxide contents. This chemical evidence supports a tholeiitic magma affinity for the intrusive rocks.
An attempt is made to construct the mineralogy of the gabbros based on the mineral chemistry. This has revealed that they are composed of magnesium-rich olivine (chrysolite) with approximately 80% forsterite. The pyroxene is both magnesium and calcium rich and has an enstatite molecular percentage of about 18%. It is an orthopyroxene (bronzite) in the enstatite-ferrosilite solid-solution series. The plagioclase feldspars show a range of composition from about 90-20% anorthite. This
range shows that the magma crystallized slowly. Crystallization over a wide temperature has resulted in the formation of alkali feldspars and other minor constituents.

Economically, the area has the potential for base metals. Chromium and nickel are present in concentrations higher than that found in average igneous rocks. Further geophysical work is recommended to reveal some more information in terms of the possibilities of economic deposits in this project area. Some of the pegmatite, particularly those near Muthanthara contains small needles of beryl. The beryl is blue green in colour but not of gem quality.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

KANOTI JR. RIVER FLOOD HAZARD MANAGEMENT IN THE NETHERLANDS - A REFERENCE FOR KENYA.. ENSCHEDE, THE NETHERLANDS: International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences; 2000. Abstract

Throughout history man has been attracted to the land adjacent to rivers. The soil is normally fertile, there is a constant water supply, it is a cheap means of transportation etc. Settlements along or beside rivers are however hazardous. Once in a while, the rivers may overflow their banks and inundate the built up areas resulting in damage to crops and property, and sometimes loss of life as well.

Netherlands is worldly renown for its fight against floods. Therefore other countries can emulate a lot. The study tried to investigate the flood control and management practices in the Netherlands, and the feasibility of applying some of the methods to a developing country like Kenya.

From the study, the importance of good institutional framework is exemplified. A clear definition of flood management policy is essential if a country is to establish and maintain adequate arrangements to deal with floods.

In identifying what options are available as elements of national policy, it is useful to study all aspects of hazard management, namely; prevention (mitigation), preparedness, response and recovery. As one African saying goes, prevention is better than cure. But due to the social-economic constraints and engineering feasibility problems, some mitigation measures are beyond the reach for many developing countries. Therefore structural mitigation measures are not the most cost-effective methods for solving flood problems. The best methods are non-structural since they involve little costs and are more sustainable. Preparedness, response, and recovery must be covered in national policy to the best possible extent through government decrees, statements, legislation, regulations and other means.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environmental Earth Science.. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb2.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4). Abstract47529-51080-1-pb1.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

KANOTI JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dulo S, Ayah R. "Microbial and Physical Chemical Indicators of Groundwater Contamination in Kenya: A Case Study of Kisumu Aquifer System, Kenya." Journal of Water Resource & Protection. 2019;11:404-418. Abstractjwarp_2019042514420797.pdfWebsite

Safe water of adequate quantity, and dignified sanitation, is vital for the sustenance of a healthy and productive human population. In the recognition of this, the United Nations formulated the Sustainable Development Goal No. 6 to ensure access to safe water and sanitation by all by 2030. Actualization of this Goal requires information on the existing status of water resources and sanitation levels. Knowledge on contamination of groundwater is essential to prevent risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine groundwater contamination in Kisumu, Kenya. A total of 275 water samples were collected from 22 sites within the informal settlements between December 2016 and December 2017. The samples were analysed for bacterial contamination and physical chemical quality. Thermal tolerant coliform bacteria enumeration was used as a proxy to bacteria contamination, and the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature were used as physical chemical indicators of contamination. The results indicate that groundwater in Kisumu hosed coliform bacteria and therefore didn’t comply with contamination limits for domestic water proposed by WHO and local KEBS standards. The results further indicated that the levels of bacteriological contamination vary with water type, shallow well having the highest bacterial loads. The study concluded that there were potential risks to human health due to high content of coliform bacteria. The study attributed the contribution to pit latrines that were present in virtually all compounds. The pit latrines are located close to the water points. The study recommended the definition of minimum distance between the pit latrines and shallow wells to minimize contamination. The low income dwellers should be educated on simple ways of treating drinking water contaminated by microbial to minimize enteric infections.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Taylor R, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "Situational analysis of threats to groundwater in the Lake Victoria Basin: A case study of Kisumu City, Kenya.". In: IAH Congress. Daejeon, South Korea; 2018. Abstract

Based on a five-town case-study cohort in Kenya, a conceptual framework has been developed to enable the formulation of holistic and effective strategies that encompass the national aspirations and regional to global sustainability agendas, and which can be used to monitor progress in achieving set objectives. The approach is flexible, scalable and transferrable, so that it can be applied in different contexts and using different indicators, based upon the same construct. Insufficient technical knowledge of urban aquifers and their interplay with the wider social-ecological system constrains the development of holistic, effective and robust management systems to ensure their sustainability for intended uses. The objective was to consider governance and management solutions that could promote water security for urban towns in Kenya through the sustainable use of groundwater in the context of its complex hydrogeology, water access disparities, competing uses and future risks. The in force national and county water policies, strategies, and plans for the case study areas were critically reviewed. The status of aquifer knowledge, water access disparities, competing uses, and risks was evaluated from critical literature reviews and data compilation, fieldwork, and analysis of indicator datasets from the Kenya 2009 census. Key aquifers need urgent characterisation to reverse the current situation whereby development proceeds with insufficient aquifer knowledge. Private sector and public participation in management should be enhanced through decentralised management approaches. Water infrastructure and technologies should be fit-for-purpose in application and scale, and the pro-poor focus should be underpinned by appropriately focused management regimes.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. AbstractWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kanoti JR. Investigation of Ground Water dynamics in the Lake Victoria Basin using Hydrogeochemical and Isotope Hydrology. Nairobi - Kenya: University of Nairobi; 2013. Abstract

Kenya is classified as a water-scarce country with per capita water being below the global benchmark of 1,000 cubic meters. In 2005 the estimated per capita was about 647 cubic meters for all uses. This scarcity is expected to worsen by 2025 when per capita is projected to be about 235 cubic meters. This poses a serious threat to socio-economic development, the integrity of national ecosystems and the quest to achieve the Vision 2030. There is therefore urgency to investigate and understand the available freshwater resources and water dynamics so as to formulate informed policy. This study targets the Nyanzian trough in the neighborhood of the freshwater Lake Victoria. This region faces a lot of water challenges related to water quantity, water quality deterioration, transboundary water issues and perennial flooding.

To counter the challenges, we need to improve our understanding of the water cycle since it is one of the key elements of scientific information necessary for developing policies toward a sustainable management of freshwater resources. Water supplies in the area come from various sources including surface water, shallow and deep wells.

The aim of this study is to investigate the groundwater characteristics using suitable environmental isotope techniques in order to establish the links between groundwater and the surface water for better exploitation strategy. It will investigate and demonstrate if there is any link between the lake water and the boreholes and if water mining is occurring in some regions within the basin.

This study also aims to answer local hydrologic questions about the aquifers through studies with pumping tests and stable isotopes. Specifically, of interest is the amount of dispersion in the deeper aquifer, its degree of hydraulic connectivity, and whether there are signs of younger, shallow groundwater intrusion. On a regional scale, we would like to know what the age and recharge rates of groundwater are at depth, thus allowing the estimates of groundwater flowlines and their changes with shifting deep groundwater usage.

The study will explore the near-surface processes of the land phase of the hydrologic cycle (surface and shallow subsurface processes) in particular the movement of water near the earth's land surface, the physical and the chemical interactions with earth materials accompanying that movement.
Flow system analysis and tracer hydrology will be used to evaluate the water resources within the basin.

This will involve determination of the characteristics of the natural groundwater flow field, flow systems and hydrogeochemical facies analysis of water samples. The definition of the facies and classification of water types in the basin including identification of groundwater origin will be undertaken during this study.

Different methods of analyses and assessment of hydrological flow systems will be used including hydro-chemical and tracer hydrological approaches to delineate flow systems and understanding flow patterns in the Basin. The use of tracer techniques will illustrate the flow pathways, residence times of the water, the hydraulic properties of flow systems, and the mixing of different water compartments if any.

It is envisaged that through this study the general use and acceptance of hydrogeochemical proxies and by extension, isotope methodologies into the mainstream hydrology and water resources management in Kenya will be adopted since isotope techniques may provide, among others, adequate information on recharge conditions, quality and age of groundwater. It may also unravel the role groundwater dynamics contributes to the Lake Victoria waters and to the flooding in the Basin.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C. "An overview of groundwater and sanitation challenges in Kisumu City, Kenya." International Journal of Innovative Research & Development. 2019;8(4). Abstract144205-350530-1-sm.pdfWebsite

The sub-surface is used in most parts of Africa as a repository of human waste and as a source of groundwater through pit latrines and shallow wells respectively. The wells provide freshwater to millions of people in Africa who are either not connected to the piped water or have intermittent supplies. These shallow wells are hand dug and therefore are mostly less than 20 meters in depth. This same sub-surface environment is also used as a repository of human waste through pit latrines. The water points and the sanitation facilities are mostly located close to each other. This study aimed at appraising the groundwater and sanitation challenges based on a rapid survey, sampling, interviews, existing literature review and historical borehole data in Kisumu city, Kenya. Previous studies in the area have shown that the number of shallow wells, city buildings, density of unimproved pit latrines and sanitary risks have increased tremendously between 1999 and 2019. Most of the wells are shallow and therefore prone to contamination by pollutants. Fluoride and chloride content in most boreholes are above the recommended WHO maximum values and the local KEBS standards. The study confirmed that the main water and sanitation challenges in Kisumu are poor and deteriorating water quality, poor waste disposal management systems and poor sanitation services. There is need for the introduction of new and sustainable groundwater approaches supported by scientific models and involving all stakeholders. Current deficiencies in the provision of adequate water and dignified sanitation to the poor in Kisumu can be remedied through improved knowledge on shallow aquifer dynamics and innovative research. It was noted that apart from the donor agencies and multi-national NGOs, the private investors are unwilling to invest in water projects in Kisumu due in part to government legislation that constrains the cost that may be levied on water

Kanoti J, Olago D, Nyamaoi C, Dulo SI, Ayah R, Taylor R. "Sanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenya." Kenya Policy Briefs. 2020;1(1):15-16. AbstractSanitation challenges, groundwater perspectives and their intertwined relationships in Kisumu, Kenyauonresearch.org

Groundwater is the preferred alternative water source during times of shortages and in areas not served by piped water supplies. Pit latrines are the main sanitation facilities in Kisumu where sewerage extends over less than 20 per cent of the city. Pit latrines contribute to microbial contamination of shallow groundwater in Kisumu.

Kanoti JR, Olago D, Opiyo N, Nyamai C, Dindi E, Kuria Z. "Characterization of Major Ion Chemistry and Hydro-Geochemical Processes in Mt. Elgon Trans-Boundary Aquifer and Their Impacts on Public Health." Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019;9(4):38-45. Abstract47529-51080-1-pb.pdfWebsite

There is a gradual paradox shift from the utilization of surface water to groundwater in both urban and rural Kenya. This is because surface water is both diminishing in quantity due to climate variability and deteriorating in quality due to high levels of anthropogenic contamination. In the quest to attain the Sustainable Development Goal number 6 that aim at ensuring access to safe water by all by 2030, the Government of Kenya is encouraging the development of groundwater resources whose potential is enormous though it has not been quantified. The Inter-governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) supported this research on the shared Mt. Elgon trans-boundary aquifer between Kenya and Uganda aimed at understanding its dynamics. Mt. Elgon is a Tertiary age mountain that straddles the Kenya-Uganda border and has a trans-boundary aquifer. This study investigated the groundwater chemistry and its implication on water management and human health. Physico-chemical parameters of water that included electrical conductivity, pH, and temperature were measured in the field and the major cations and anions were measured at the Central Laboratories of the State Department for Water. Geological mapping and identification of sanitary risks were undertaken during the field work. The study revealed that the concentration of cations and anions in the groundwater varied spatially and temporally. Abundance of these ions were in the order Ca²⁺ > Na⁺ > Mg²⁺ > K⁺ for most samples and HCO₃⁻ > Cl⁻ > SO₄²⁻ >NO₃⁻. Interpretation of hydro-chemical data suggests that calcium carbonate dissolution, halite dissolution, Ca/Na ion exchange and Mg/Na ion exchange are the major processes that control the ground-water chemistry. Chemical results indicate further that the groundwater is suitable for domestic use but is threatened by both anthropogenic and geological factors. Extensive use of fertilizer and the destruction of the catchment area coupled with low permeability and rock-water interactions in the metamorphic rock terrains are the main threats to groundwater quality in the region. A few water points had water with some ionic composition exceeding WHO and the local KEBS maximum limits for drinking water. Such water pose a risk to human health.

Kante M, Chepken C, Oboko R. "Methods for translating ICTs’ survey questionnaire into French and Bambara." Knowledge and Innovation for Social and Economic Development. 2017. Abstract
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Kante M, Oboko R, Chepken C. "Influence of Perception and Quality of ICT‐Based Agricultural Input Information on Use of ICTs by Farmers in Developing Countries: Case of Sikasso in Mali." The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 2017;83(1):1-21.Full website link
Kante M, Chepken C, Oboko R. "Partial least square structural equation modelling’use in information systems: an updated guideline in exploratory settings." Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation. 2018;6(1):49-67. AbstractFull website link

The purpose of many studies in the field of Information Systems (IS) research is to analyse causal relationship between variables. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is a statistical technique for testing and estimating those causal relationship based on statistical data and qualitative causal assumption. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) is the technique that is mostly used in IS research. It has been subject to many reviews either in confirmatory or exploratory settings. However, it has recently emerged that PLS occupies the middle ground of exploratory and confirmatory settings. Thus, this paper intends to propose an updated guideline for the use of PLS-SEM in Information Systems Research in exploratory settings maintaining interpretability. A systematic literature review of 40 empirical and methodological studies published between 2012 and 2016 in the leading journal of the field guide future empirical work.

Kante M, Oboko R, Chepken C, Hamunyela S. "Farmers' perceptions of ICTs and its effects on access and use of agricultural input information in developing countries: Case of Sikasso, Mali.". In: 2017 IST-Africa Week Conference (IST-Africa). IEEE; 2017:. Abstract
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Kante M, Chepken C, Oboko R. "Partial least square structural equation modelling’use in information systems: an updated guideline in exploratory settings." Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation. 2018;6(1):49-67. AbstractFull website link

The purpose of many studies in the field of Information Systems (IS) research is to analyse causal relationship between variables. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is a statistical technique for testing and estimating those causal relationship based on statistical data and qualitative causal assumption. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) is the technique that is mostly used in IS research. It has been subject to many reviews either in confirmatory or exploratory settings. However, it has recently emerged that PLS occupies the middle ground of exploratory and confirmatory settings. Thus, this paper intends to propose an updated guideline for the use of PLS-SEM in Information Systems Research in exploratory settings maintaining interpretability. A systematic literature review of 40 empirical and methodological studies published between 2012 and 2016 in the leading journal of the field guide future empirical work.

Kante M, Chepken C, Oboko R. "Methods for translating ICTs’ survey questionnaire into French and Bambara.". In: Egerton University, 11th international conference. Njoro, Kenya; 2017. Abstract

Researchers have used many instruments to gather data on the use of Information and
Communication Technology to disseminate information on agricultural inputs towards farmers.
These instruments are in English and based on some theories. The Technology Acceptance Model
(TAM), the Diffusion of Innovation Theory (DOI) and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of
Technology (UTAUT) are the three most popular contemporary technology acceptance models. For
other speaking languages especially French and Bambara, there is a need to translate. The increasing
need for non-English data collection instruments and other survey materials has clearly given recent
figures. Despite the availability of tools for translation, the DOI’s instrument has been barely
translated into French and Bambara. In this paper, we used an adaptation method to translate the
DOI’s instrument into French and Bambara. We produced a method for translating English survey
questionnaire into French and Bambara. The method specifies and describes five steps, which are
prepare, translate, pretest, revise and document.
Keywords: ICT, Agriculture, Translation, French, Bambara

Kante M, Chepken C, Oboko R. "Partial least square structural equation modelling’use in information systems: an updated guideline in exploratory settings." Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation. 2018;6(1):49-67. AbstractFull website link

The purpose of many studies in the field of Information Systems (IS) research is to analyse causal relationship between variables. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is a statistical technique for testing and estimating those causal relationship based on statistical data and qualitative causal assumption. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) is the technique that is mostly used in IS research. It has been subject to many reviews either in confirmatory or exploratory settings. However, it has recently emerged that PLS occupies the middle ground of exploratory and confirmatory settings. Thus, this paper intends to propose an updated guideline for the use of PLS-SEM in Information Systems Research in exploratory settings maintaining interpretability. A systematic literature review of 40 empirical and methodological studies published between 2012 and 2016 in the leading journal of the field guide future empirical work.

Kante M, Oboko R, Chepken C. "An ICT model for increased adoption of farm input information in developing countries: A case in Sikasso, Mali." Information Processing in Agriculture. 2019;6:26-46. Abstract
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Kante M, Oboko R, Chepken C. "Influence of perception and quality of ICT-based agricultural input information on use of ICTs by farmers in developing countries: Case of Sikasso in Mali." The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 2017;83:1-21. Abstract
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Kanui TI, Karim F, Towett PK. "The formalin test in the naked mole rat(Heterocephalus glaber)analgesic effects of morphine nefopam and paracetamol.". 1992. Abstract

The present experiment were initiated to study the effects of morphine, nefoparn and paracetamol in the naked mole-rat. a hairless rodent that live in subterranean colonie of up to 300. following the inability to demonstrate morphine analgesia in the hot-plate test in the rodent. The formalin test was used. Injection n u:formalin produced two period of high licking and pain behaviour. the early (0- 5min),and the late phase (\5-60 min). 10rphine (I() n _0 mg/ ,nefopam (10 or 20 rngj/kg) and paracetamol 200 mg/kg) significant] inhibited the \\\0 phase. Paracetamol (400 ms/kg) produ d. ignifieant analgesia only during the late phase. It i concluded that, unlike in the hot-plate test. it i., possible to demonstrate the analgesic effects of morphine in the naked mole-rat, in the formalin test

Kanui TI, Karim F, Towett PK. "The formalin test in the naked mole-rat (< i> Heterocephalus glaber): analgesic effects of morphine, nefopam and paracetamol.". 1993. Abstract

The present experiments were initiated to study the effects of morphine, nefopam and paracetamol in the naked mole-rat, a hairless rodent that lives in subterranean colonies of up to 300, following the inability to demonstrate morphine analgesia in the hot-plate test in the rodent. The formalin test was used. Injection of 20 μl 10% formalin produced two periods of high licking and pain behaviour, the early (0–5 min) and the late phase (15–60 min). Morphine (10 or 20 mg/kg), nefopam (10 or 20 mg/kg) and paracetamol (200 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the two phases. Paracetamol (400 mg/kg) produced significant analgesia only during the late phase. It is concluded that, unlike in the hot-plate test, it is possible to demonstrate the analgesic effects of morphine in the naked mole-rat, in the formalin test.

Kanui TI, Hole K, Miaron JO. "Nociception in Crocodiles: Capsaicin Instillation, Formalin and Hot Plate Tests: COMMUNICATION: Physiology.". 1990. Abstract

Three tests of nociception were adapted for the use in crocodiles (47.0-65.2cm long). In the capsaicin instillation test, capsaicin in concentrations of 10^<-9> to 10^<-3> g/ml instilled in the eye induced concentration related protective reactions which were counted. In the formalin test, 150 μl of 5% formalin was injected subcutaneously in the fore paw, and the time spent "lifting the foot" and "not using the foot" was recorded. In the hot plate test, the plate temperature was set at 55℃ and the latency until the following behavioural categories occurred was recorded: "lifting toes", "lifting foot", and "attempt to escape". This test could be repeated with similar results after an interval of 60 min. It was concluded that the crocodile has a well developed nociceptive system, and it may be possible to study the function of this system using these modifications of well known tests of nociception.

Kanui TI, Karim F, Towett PK. "The formalin test in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber): analgesic effects of morphine, nefopam and paracetamol.". 1993. Abstract

The present experiments were initiated to study the effects of morphine, nefopam and paracetamol in the naked mole-rat, a hairless rodent that lives in subterranean colonies of up to 300, following the inability to demonstrate morphine analgesia in the hot-plate test in the rodent. The formalin test was used. Injection of 20 μl 10% formalin produced two periods of high licking and pain behaviour, the early (0–5 min) and the late phase (15–60 min). Morphine (10 or 20 mg/kg), nefopam (10 or 20 mg/kg) and paracetamol (200 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the two phases. Paracetamol (400 mg/kg) produced significant analgesia only during the late phase. It is concluded that, unlike in the hot-plate test, it is possible to demonstrate the analgesic effects of morphine in the naked mole-rat, in the formalin test.

Kanui T, Mwendia C, Aulie A;, Wanyoike M. "Effects of temperature on growth, food uptake and retention time of juvenile nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).". 1991. Abstract

1. The body growth, food uptake and gastro-intestinal passage time were studied in juvenile Nile crocodiles kept at different temperature regimes. Group A was kept at 30°C, group B at 30 and 25°C for 12 hr each and group C at 25°C. 2. After 14 weeks, the weight of group A increased by 18%, while both group B and C lost weight (13 and 66%, respectively). During the same period, group A and B increased their body length (6.5 and 6.6%, respectively), while group C decreased in length (5.4%). 3. Group A fed at the same interval as group B, but group A ate more than the other groups. 4. The gastro-intestinal passage time was shorter in group A (35 hr) than in group B (42 hr) and C (44 hr).

Kanya JI, Kinyamario JI, Amugune ON, Hauser PT. "Hybridization Potential Between Cultivated Rice Oryza sativa and African Wild Rice Oryza longistaminata." International Journal of agricultural research. 2012;7(6):291-302.
Kanya JI, Kinyamario JI, Amugune NO, Hauser TP. "Dispersal distance of rice (Oryza Sativa L.) pollen at the Tana River delta in the coast province, Kenya." African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;8(10):2265-2270.
Kanya JI, Hauser TP, Kinyamario JI, Amugune NO. "Hybridization potential between cultivated rice Oryza sativa and African wild rice Oryza longistaminata." International Journal of Agricultural Research. 2012;7(6):291-302.
Kanyanya IM, Othieno CJ, Ndetei DM. "Psychiatric morbidity among male sex offenders at Kamiti Prison, Kenya.". 2007.
Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Wilson AJ;, Allonby EW;, Allonby EW. "trypanotolerance And Economics Among East African Goats Compared To Their Crosses With Two Exotic Breeds".".; 1982.
Kanyari PWN;, Ngatia TA;, Mathiu PM;, Oyejide A;, Srivastava KK. "Some Causes of Poor performance and chick mortality in farmed ostriches in Alabama[USA] and Kenya."; 2005.
Kanyari PW, Kagira JM. "Occurrence of risk factors for zoonoses in kisumu city, kenya: a questionnaire survey.". 2010. Abstract

Objective: To determine the occurrence of risk factors amongst farmers keeping livestock in Kisumu municipality, Kenya. Methods: Thirty four contact house-holds involved in livestock keeping constituted the study group. The head of the household was interviewed using a structured questionnaire relating to public health issues affecting water, food and sanitation Results: The water consumed at the household level originated from the taps (56%), bore holes (18%), local rivers (15%) and wells (15%). The wells were shallow and open to contamination. Fourty one percent (41%) of the households consumed water without boiling or any other form of treatment. Farmers had a history of slaughtering cattle (79%) and pigs (66%) at their homes and these animals were not inspected by legalized government officers. During the last five years, porcine cysticercosis and taeniosis (9%) were reported to occur amongst the homesteads. Although toilets were found in most homes, some were overflowing (27%), while children below 4 years (mean) of age defaecated in the bushes/grass within the neighbourhood. Most farmers (62%) disposed the manure next to the animal boma resulting in creation of small manure ‗hills‘ that were a nuisance and breeding ground for vector flies. Other risk factors for disease transmission included consumption of unwashed raw food (48%), dried raw fish (21%) and failure to wash cows‘ udder before milking (29%). Conclusion: The study shows that risk factors for transmission of zoonoses are common in house holds keeping livestock in the study area and highlights the need for public health education to raise awareness of these factors. Further studies should be conducted to determine the possibilities of zoonoses occurrences among the human population.

Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Wilson AJ;, Allonby EW;, Allonby EW. "trypanotolerance And Economics Among East African Goats Compared To Their Crosses With Two Exotic Breeds".".; 1982.
Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ng'ang'a JC;, Ngotho J. "Epidemiology Of Bovine Toxocara Vitulorum In Faecal And Milk Samples In Kenya."; 1996.
Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ng'ang'a JC;, Ngotho J. "Epidemiology Of Bovine Toxocara Vitulorum In Faecal And Milk Samples In Kenya."; 1996.
Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ngotho J, Njiro M;, Mbuthia PG;, Ngatia TA;. "gross Lesions Encountered In Slaughtered Wild Animals In A Game Ranching Farm In Kenya."..; 1996.Website
Kanyari PW, Wandaka FK. "A Qualitative Risk Assessment of Kenya for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) for Purposes of Exportation of Cooked Pork Frankfurters to USA.". 2005. Abstract

Kenya like other developing countries requires foreign exchange to meet the many challenges facing it and relies heavily on agriculture for this. The pig population in Kenya constitutes 5% of livestock contributing less than 1.0% Agricultural domestic product. The pig industry provides employment and supplies pork and pork products to the tourist sector, exports to other African countries, Middle East- Bahrain & South Arabia. Export to the world markets is encouraged and to this end, Farmer\'s Choice a private company produces and processes pork and its products for both domestic and export markets. Therefore, in order to comply with the World Trade Organization [WTO] Sanitary Phytosanitary [SPS] regulations, this Risk Analysis was conducted in response in order to assure USDA-APHIS and FSIS that export of smoked and cooked pork frankfurters from Kenya will not introduce Foot and Mouth Disease [FMD] to USA. The risk factors considered were: Authority, structure/Organization and infrastructure of Kenya's Veterinary Services; Policy, Law and Infrastructure of Disease Control; Disease outbreak history and prevalence status; Diagnostic Laboratory capabilities; Active disease control Programmes; Surveillance: Type and extent; Vaccination Status. Livestock Demographics and Marketing practices; Disease outbreak history and Prevalence in adjacent regions; Control of the movement of animals from regions of high risk. A critical analysis of all the risk factors determined that, the likelihood of infected meat from a pig carcass being exported to the United States was minimal. Further, it is prudent to conclude that, pork frankfurters processed through the Farmers Choice farms and facilities and exported to the United States pose minimal risk.

Kanyari PWN;, Munyua W k;, Ng'ang'a JC;, Ngotho J. "Epidemiology Of Bovine Toxocara Vitulorum In Faecal And Milk Samples In Kenya."; 1996.
Kanyari PWN, Kagira JM, Mhoma RJ. "Prevalence and intensity of endoparasites in small ruminants kept by farmers in Kisumu Municipality, Kenya.". 2009. Abstract

The keeping of small ruminants is a common practice in most urban and peri-urban areas in Africa, despite its illegality. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of endoparasites in sheep and goats kept by farmers in Kisumu Municipality, Kenya. Faecal samples were collected from 66 sheep and 60 goats, from different areas in the municipality. The helminth and coccidia species were identified and the level of infection compared between age, sex, body condition and area of origin. The prevalence of various types of parasites in sheep and goats were respectively: strongyles 80%, 90%; Strongyloides spp 5%, 13%; Trichuris spp 0%, 2%; Fasciola spp 37%, 36%; Paramphistomum spp 30%, 12%; Moniezia spp 21%, 16%; Coccidia 35%, 48%; Entamoeba spp 87%, 77%; Balantidium coli 2%, 3%; and Giardia spp 10%, 10%. Majority of animals excreted either 2 or 3 parasite types, while only a few sheep had 4 different parasite types. A relatively higher number of animals had heavy infections with strongyles (mean EPGs of 1253 and 1108 in sheep and goats, respectively), while for other helminths and coccidia most animals had light infections. Although the adults had higher levels of infections with trematodes, young animals had higher infections of the other types of parasites. Apart from trematodes and coccidia, male animals had higher prevalence and intensity of the other parasites. Sheep with poor body condition were significantly associated with higher mean EPGs of strongyles while in goats it was Moniezia spp. The association between the prevalence and intensity of the parasites and the independent factors are discussed. The occurrence of parasites with zoonotic significance (Fasciola spp, Entamoeba spp, Balantidium coli, and Giardia spp) is also discussed in the light of livestock farming in urban areas.

Kanyari PWN, Kagira JM, Mhoma JRL. "Prevalence of endoparasites in cattle within urban and peri-urban areas of Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya with special reference to zoonotic potential.". 2010. Abstract

The growing human population and the tendency to keep livestock in urban settlements in developing countries in particular has caused concern due to the unplanned nature of such developments and the constraints they cause. A study was carried in six sites within Kisumu urban and peri-urban areas, focused on the cattle endoparasites. Feces were sampled from three different age groups for determination of the prevalence and infection levels of various helminths and protozoans, with focus on those with zoonotic potential. Associations and correlations between different variables were determined using computer software. The prevalence of various parasite types was 51% strongyles, 2% Strongyloides papillosus, 2% Toxocara vitulorum, 2% Trichuris spp. Others were Fasciola 64.2%; Paramphistomum 31.3%, Moniezia spp (16%) and Entamoeba 83%; Eimeria spp. 30%; Giardia spp. 14% and Balantidium coli 6.6%. The correlations in prevalence and intensity between age, breed, different parasite types and area of origin are discussed. Strongyles were the most common nematodes especially among the under-one-year olds. Trematodes were significantly more frequent and intense in young stock and adults compared to the calves. Majority of cattle had 2 to 3 parasite types while very few had none, single or multiple infections involving 4 parasite types. The zoonotic potential for these parasites is discussed in relation to the possible human infections.

Kanyari. P.W.N, Munyua. W.K, Ng'ang'a. C.J, J.W. N. "Epidemiology of bovine Toxocara vitulotum in faecal and milk samples in an endemic district of Kenya." Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa. 1996;44:255-256.22_kanyari_et_al_1996.pdf
Kanyari.P.W.N, Kagira J.M MPOJRL. "Parasitic causes of liver and heart Condemnation and their economic effects in the Lake Victoria Basin." Scientia Parasitologica . 2012;13(4):139-143.
Kanyata D, Odula P, Nyamai L, Nduati P. "Morphology and location of surface landmarks of foramen ovale in Kenyans." Int. J. Morphol. 2015;33(2):471-475.kanyata_fo.pdf
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Kibe, M.K, Coppin, A., Dendouga, N., Oria, G., Meurice, E., Mortuaire, M., Madec, E., Tomavo, S. (2005). Transcriptional regulation of two stage-specifically expressed genes in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Nucleic Acids Research. 33, 1722-173.". In: Nucleic Acids Research. 33, 1722-1736. University of Nairobi.; 2005. Abstract

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii differentially expresses two distinct enolase isoenzymes known as ENO1 and ENO2, respectively. To understand differential gene expression during tachyzoite to bradyzoite conversion, we have characterized the two T.gondii enolase promoters. No homology could be found between these sequences and no TATA or CCAAT boxes were evident. The differential activation of the ENO1 and ENO2 promoters during tachyzoite to bradyzoite differentiation was investigated by deletion analysis of 5'-flanking regions fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter followed by transient transfection. Our data indicate that in proliferating tachyzoites, the repression of ENO1 involves a negative distal regulatory region (nucleotides -1245 to -625) in the promoter whereas a proximal regulatory region in the ENO2 promoter directs expression at a low level. In contrast, the promoter activity of ENO1 is highly induced following the conversion of tachyzoites into resting bradyzoites. The ENO2 promoter analysis in bradyzoites showed that there are two upstream repression sites (nucleotides -1929 to -1067 and -456 to -222). Furthermore, electrophoresis mobility shift assays demonstrated the presence of DNA-binding proteins in tachyzoite and bradyzoite nuclear lysates that bound to stress response elements (STRE), heat shock-like elements (HSE) and other cis-regulatory elements in the upstream regulatory regions of ENO1 and ENO2. Mutation of the consensus AGGGG sequence, completely abolished protein binding to an oligonucleotide containing this element. This study defines the first characterization of cis-regulatory elements and putative transcription factors involved in gene regulation of the important pathogen T.gondii.

KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Smith, G.R., Turner, A. and Kibe, M.K. (1985). Immunogenicity of Fusobacterium necrophorum. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 19 (13) Viii.". In: Journal of Medical Microbiology, 19 (13) Viii. University of Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract
Bacteriophage clones containing ribosomal RNA genes of Theileria parva were isolated from genomic DNA libraries. Physical mapping studies revealed 2 ribosomal DNA units, which were distinguishable by restriction enzyme site polymorphisms in flanking sequences. The cloned ribosomal DNA units were mapped to 2 separate T. parva chromosomes. Analysis of sequences contained in lambda EMBL3 recombinants, together with Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA and data on the copy number of the rRNA genes, suggested that the rDNA units were not tandemly repeated. This organisation of ribosomal transcription units is similar to that described for other genera of apicomplexan protozoa, but 2 rDNA units, each containing single copies of the rRNA coding genes, would be the lowest copy number described for any eukaryote in which amplification of rRNA genes is not known to occur. EcoRI restriction fragment length polymorphisms, which were revealed using rRNA gene probes, separated T. parva stocks into 2 categories. Nucleotide sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified internal transcribed spacer DNA revealed 2 different ITS sequences derived from rDNA transcription units within the genome of a cloned T. parva parasite. Polymorphism was also observed between ITS sequences amplified from the DNA of different T. parva stocks. A synthetic oligonucleotide derived from T. parva Uganda ribosomal ITS DNA sequences hybridised to DNA from the T. parva Uganda stock, but not to the DNA of the T. parva Muguga stock. This oligonucleotide is potentially useful as a marker for the T. parva Uganda stock.
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Kibe, M.K., ole-MoiYoi, O.K., Nene, V., Khan, B., Allsopp, B., Collins N.E., Morzaria, S.P., Gobright, E. and Bishop, R.P. (1994). Evidence for two single copy units in Theileria parva ribosomal RNA genes. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 66: 249-2.". In: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 66: 249-259. University of Nairobi.; 1994. Abstract
Bacteriophage clones containing ribosomal RNA genes of Theileria parva were isolated from genomic DNA libraries. Physical mapping studies revealed 2 ribosomal DNA units, which were distinguishable by restriction enzyme site polymorphisms in flanking sequences. The cloned ribosomal DNA units were mapped to 2 separate T. parva chromosomes. Analysis of sequences contained in lambda EMBL3 recombinants, together with Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA and data on the copy number of the rRNA genes, suggested that the rDNA units were not tandemly repeated. This organisation of ribosomal transcription units is similar to that described for other genera of apicomplexan protozoa, but 2 rDNA units, each containing single copies of the rRNA coding genes, would be the lowest copy number described for any eukaryote in which amplification of rRNA genes is not known to occur. EcoRI restriction fragment length polymorphisms, which were revealed using rRNA gene probes, separated T. parva stocks into 2 categories. Nucleotide sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified internal transcribed spacer DNA revealed 2 different ITS sequences derived from rDNA transcription units within the genome of a cloned T. parva parasite. Polymorphism was also observed between ITS sequences amplified from the DNA of different T. parva stocks. A synthetic oligonucleotide derived from T. parva Uganda ribosomal ITS DNA sequences hybridised to DNA from the T. parva Uganda stock, but not to the DNA of the T. parva Muguga stock. This oligonucleotide is potentially useful as a marker for the T. parva Uganda stock.
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Dzierszinski, F., Kibe, M., Mortuaire, M., Dendouga, N., Popescu, O. and Tomavo, S. (2001). Differential expression of two plant-like enolases with distinct enzymatic and antigenic properties during stage conversion of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma go.". In: Proceedings of 4th International congress on Toxoplasmosis p 37. University of Nairobi.; 2001. Abstract

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii differentially expresses two distinct enolase isoenzymes known as ENO1 and ENO2, respectively. To understand differential gene expression during tachyzoite to bradyzoite conversion, we have characterized the two T.gondii enolase promoters. No homology could be found between these sequences and no TATA or CCAAT boxes were evident. The differential activation of the ENO1 and ENO2 promoters during tachyzoite to bradyzoite differentiation was investigated by deletion analysis of 5'-flanking regions fused to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter followed by transient transfection. Our data indicate that in proliferating tachyzoites, the repression of ENO1 involves a negative distal regulatory region (nucleotides -1245 to -625) in the promoter whereas a proximal regulatory region in the ENO2 promoter directs expression at a low level. In contrast, the promoter activity of ENO1 is highly induced following the conversion of tachyzoites into resting bradyzoites. The ENO2 promoter analysis in bradyzoites showed that there are two upstream repression sites (nucleotides -1929 to -1067 and -456 to -222). Furthermore, electrophoresis mobility shift assays demonstrated the presence of DNA-binding proteins in tachyzoite and bradyzoite nuclear lysates that bound to stress response elements (STRE), heat shock-like elements (HSE) and other cis-regulatory elements in the upstream regulatory regions of ENO1 and ENO2. Mutation of the consensus AGGGG sequence, completely abolished protein binding to an oligonucleotide containing this element. This study defines the first characterization of cis-regulatory elements and putative transcription factors involved in gene regulation of the important pathogen T.gondii.

KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Kibe, M.K., Bidwell, D.E., Turp, P. and Smith, G.R. (1985). Demonstration of cross-reactive antigens in F38 and related Mycoplasmas by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting. Journal of Hygiene (Camb), 95: 95-106.". In: Journal of Hygiene (Camb), 95: 95-106. University of Nairobi.; 1985. Abstract
The ELISA and an immunoblotting technique were used to study F38-type mycoplasmas - an important cause of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia - and a number of related mycoplasma species, subspecies, types or serogroups. Two-way ELISA cross-reactivity was demonstrated between five mycoplasmas, namely strain F38, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (LC strain), M. equigenitalium, M. primatum and bovine serogroup 7. In addition one-way cross-reactivity was demonstrated between F38 and each of the following mycoplasmas: M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (two SC strains), M. mycoides subsp. capri, and bovine serogroup L. F38 and M. capricolum did not cross-react. Immunoblot analysis, unlike ELISA, revealed that F38 and M. capricolum were closely related. At least four major protein antigens were shared between F38, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (SC and LC strains), M. mycoides subsp. capri and bovine serogroup 7. The ELISA cross-reactions (above) shown by M. equigenitalium and M. primatum with each other, with F38 and with other mycoplasmas were not apparent by immunoblotting.
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Bishop, R.P., Baylis, H., Allsopp, B., Toye, P., Nene, V., Dolan, T., Spooner, P., Kibe, M.K. and Morzaria, S.P. (1992). Genomic polymorphisms in Theileria parva. In: Genome analysis of protozoan parasites (Morzaria, S .P., Ed), pp 6 1 -66, ILRAD, Nairobi.". In: parasites (Morzaria, S .P., Ed), pp 6 1 -66, ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya. University of Nairobi.; 1992. Abstract
Bacteriophage clones containing ribosomal RNA genes of Theileria parva were isolated from genomic DNA libraries. Physical mapping studies revealed 2 ribosomal DNA units, which were distinguishable by restriction enzyme site polymorphisms in flanking sequences. The cloned ribosomal DNA units were mapped to 2 separate T. parva chromosomes. Analysis of sequences contained in lambda EMBL3 recombinants, together with Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA and data on the copy number of the rRNA genes, suggested that the rDNA units were not tandemly repeated. This organisation of ribosomal transcription units is similar to that described for other genera of apicomplexan protozoa, but 2 rDNA units, each containing single copies of the rRNA coding genes, would be the lowest copy number described for any eukaryote in which amplification of rRNA genes is not known to occur. EcoRI restriction fragment length polymorphisms, which were revealed using rRNA gene probes, separated T. parva stocks into 2 categories. Nucleotide sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified internal transcribed spacer DNA revealed 2 different ITS sequences derived from rDNA transcription units within the genome of a cloned T. parva parasite. Polymorphism was also observed between ITS sequences amplified from the DNA of different T. parva stocks. A synthetic oligonucleotide derived from T. parva Uganda ribosomal ITS DNA sequences hybridised to DNA from the T. parva Uganda stock, but not to the DNA of the T. parva Muguga stock. This oligonucleotide is potentially useful as a marker for the T. parva Uganda stock.
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Kibe, M.K., Macklin, D.M., Gobright, E., Bishop, R., Urakawa, T. and ole-MoiYoi, O.K. (2001). Characterisation and expression of single domain ATP binding cassette protein homologues of the lymphocyte transforming protozoan parasite Theileria parva. Paras.". In: Parasitology Research, 87: 741-50. University of Nairobi.; 2001. Abstract
Two distinct genes encoding single domain, ATP-binding cassette transport protein homologues of Theileria parva were cloned and sequenced. Neither of the genes is tandemly duplicated. One gene, TpABC1, encodes a predicted protein of 593 amino acids with an N-terminal hydrophobic domain containing six potential membrane-spanning segments. A single discontinuous ATP-binding element was located in the C-terminal region of TpABC1. The second gene, TpABC2, also contains a single C-terminal ATP-binding motif. Copies of TpABC2 were present at four loci in the T. parva genome on three different chromosomes. TpABC1 exhibited allelic polymorphism between stocks of the parasite. Comparison of cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that TpABC1 contained seven short introns, between 29 and 84 bp in length. The full-length TpABC1 protein was expressed in insect cells using the baculovirus system. Application of antibodies raised against the recombinant antigen to western blots of T. parva piroplasm lysates detected an 85 kDa protein in this life-cycle stage.
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Assenga SP, You M, Shy CH, Yamagishi J, Sakaguchi T, Zhou J, Kibe MK, Xuan X, Fujisaki K. (2006). The use of a recombinant baculovirus expressing a chitinase from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis and its potential application as a bioacaricide for .". In: Parasitology Research 98, 111-118. University of Nairobi.; 2006. Abstract
Baculoviruses are specific insect pathogens used as selective biological insecticides on lepidopteran insects. We have tested a recombinant baculovirus expressing a chitinase gene for its efficacy as a tick bioacaricide. The recombinant Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus expressing a chitinase enzyme (AcMNPV-CHT1) from the hard tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, was constructed and found to have a novel bioacaricidal effect against ticks. The recombinant baculovirus was used to express the chitinase enzyme in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells. Topical application of the supernatant harvested from the insect cell culture was found to cause mortality in nymphal ticks of H. longicornis. High temperature (>30 degrees C) and infrared radiation affected the chitinase enzyme activity and recombinant baculovirus infectivity by reducing the speed of tick killing by 60%. A mixture of recombinant virus and chitinase was found to kill ticks faster (p < 0.01) than pure chitinase and recombinant virus alone. Thus, the recombinant virus showed a synergistic effect with the foreign chitinase gene. In order to reduce the excessive use and cost of acaricides, it was found that a mixture of recombinant virus and flumethrin could halve the dose of the chemical acaricide used. These findings are important for the safe use of the recombinant virus expressing chitinase as a bioacaricide against ticks.
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Kibe, M.K. and Smith, G.R. (1984). A study of F38 and related Mycoplasmas by mycoplasmaemia and cross-immunisation tests in mice. Journal of Hygiene (Camb), 93: 465-474.". In: Journal of Hygiene (Camb), 93: 465-474. University of Nairobi.; 1984. Abstract
The ELISA and an immunoblotting technique were used to study F38-type mycoplasmas - an important cause of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia - and a number of related mycoplasma species, subspecies, types or serogroups. Two-way ELISA cross-reactivity was demonstrated between five mycoplasmas, namely strain F38, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (LC strain), M. equigenitalium, M. primatum and bovine serogroup 7. In addition one-way cross-reactivity was demonstrated between F38 and each of the following mycoplasmas: M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (two SC strains), M. mycoides subsp. capri, and bovine serogroup L. F38 and M. capricolum did not cross-react. Immunoblot analysis, unlike ELISA, revealed that F38 and M. capricolum were closely related. At least four major protein antigens were shared between F38, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides (SC and LC strains), M. mycoides subsp. capri and bovine serogroup 7. The ELISA cross-reactions (above) shown by M. equigenitalium and M. primatum with each other, with F38 and with other mycoplasmas were not apparent by immunoblotting.
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Kibe, M.K. and Smith, G.R. (1986). Enhancement and inhibition of the growth of F38 and related Mycoplasmas by bacterial products. British Veterinary Journal, 142: 389-390.". In: British Veterinary Journal, 142: 389-390. University of Nairobi.; 1986. Abstract
Bacteriophage clones containing ribosomal RNA genes of Theileria parva were isolated from genomic DNA libraries. Physical mapping studies revealed 2 ribosomal DNA units, which were distinguishable by restriction enzyme site polymorphisms in flanking sequences. The cloned ribosomal DNA units were mapped to 2 separate T. parva chromosomes. Analysis of sequences contained in lambda EMBL3 recombinants, together with Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA and data on the copy number of the rRNA genes, suggested that the rDNA units were not tandemly repeated. This organisation of ribosomal transcription units is similar to that described for other genera of apicomplexan protozoa, but 2 rDNA units, each containing single copies of the rRNA coding genes, would be the lowest copy number described for any eukaryote in which amplification of rRNA genes is not known to occur. EcoRI restriction fragment length polymorphisms, which were revealed using rRNA gene probes, separated T. parva stocks into 2 categories. Nucleotide sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified internal transcribed spacer DNA revealed 2 different ITS sequences derived from rDNA transcription units within the genome of a cloned T. parva parasite. Polymorphism was also observed between ITS sequences amplified from the DNA of different T. parva stocks. A synthetic oligonucleotide derived from T. parva Uganda ribosomal ITS DNA sequences hybridised to DNA from the T. parva Uganda stock, but not to the DNA of the T. parva Muguga stock. This oligonucleotide is potentially useful as a marker for the T. parva Uganda stock.
KANYI DRKIBEMICHAEL. "Kibe MK, Macklin M, Gobright E, Bishop R, Urakawa T, ole-MoiYoi OK.Characterisation of single domain ATP-binding cassette protien homologues of Theileria parva.Parasitol Res. 2001 Sep;87(9):741-50.". In: Parasitol Res. 2001 Sep;87(9):741-50. University of Nairobi.; 2001. Abstract
Two distinct genes encoding single domain, ATP-binding cassette transport protein homologues of Theileria parva were cloned and sequenced. Neither of the genes is tandemly duplicated. One gene, TpABC1, encodes a predicted protein of 593 amino acids with an N-terminal hydrophobic domain containing six potential membrane-spanning segments. A single discontinuous ATP-binding element was located in the C-terminal region of TpABC1. The second gene, TpABC2, also contains a single C-terminal ATP-binding motif. Copies of TpABC2 were present at four loci in the T. parva genome on three different chromosomes. TpABC1 exhibited allelic polymorphism between stocks of the parasite. Comparison of cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that TpABC1 contained seven short introns, between 29 and 84 bp in length. The full-length TpABC1 protein was expressed in insect cells using the baculovirus system. Application of antibodies raised against the recombinant antigen to western blots of T. parva piroplasm lysates detected an 85 kDa protein in this life-cycle stage.
Kanyinga K. "Just what ails higher education in this country?" Daily Nation, January 31, 2016.
Kanyinga K. "Debate revealed that Kenya will not change at all." Sunday Nation, February 16, 2013.
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Kanyinga K, Sebastian. N. ". The Non-Profit Sector in Kenya: Size. Scope and Financing. – ISBN: 978 – 9966-786-01-5." University of Nairobi, IDS ; 2007.
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Kanyinga K. "From speeches, Uhuru will focus on quick deliverables." Sunday Nation, April 21, 2013.
Kanyinga K. "Public participation is not civic education, don’t confuse the two." Daily Nation, April 24, 2016.

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