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Kalai, J.M., Mulu C. "Determinants of Female Teachers' Progression to Governance Positions in Public Primary Schools in Mutitu Sub County , Kenya.". In: International Conference on Research and Innovation in Education University of Nairobi.; 2019.
Kalai, J.M. "Moving and stuck schools: Improving academic achievement in primary schools.". In: Heads of Primary Schools in Kitui County under the Auspices Department of Basic Education. Kitui County Government at Kenya Forest Research Institute, Kitui; 2016.
Kalai, J.M., Kunyiha, E.W., KANORI EN, Matula, P.D. "Influence of Teachers Service Commission Human Resource Management practices on Teachers’ Commitment in public secondary schools in Tetu Sub County, Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Sciences & Education. 2016;Volume 2 (1)(ISSN 2105 6008):01-16.
Kalai JM, KANORI EN, Kunyiha EW. "Secondary School Teachers’ Perceptions of factors that Influence their job Commitment in Tetu Sub County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Social Sciences and Education. 2016;5(4):241-250.kalai.pdf
Kalai JM. "Relationship between administrative service quality and students’ satisfaction in public universities in Kenya. ." The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;6(1):20-30.
Kalai JM. "School principals’ preparation and development." Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic publishers.. 2011;(ISSBN-978-3-8465.).
Kalai, J.M. &, Kunyiha, E.W., KANORI EN, Matula, P.D. "Influence of Teachers Service Commission Human Resource Management practices on Teachers’ Commitment in public secondary schools in Tetu Sub County, Nyeri County, Kenya." International Journal of Social Sciences & Education. 2016;2(1):01-16.
Kalai, J.M. "Impediments to realization of students’ potential Stock taking: Moving or stuck school? .". In: Target setting in schools . Blue Post, Thika ; 2012.
Kalai, J.M.& Kara AM. "Relationship between teaching quality and students’ satisfaction in public universities in Kenya." The Cradle of Knowledge: African Journal of educational and Social Science Research. 2018;6(1):63-78.
Kalai JM. School principals’ preparation and development.. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic publishers. ISSBN-978-3-8465.; 2012.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Sliding spark spectrometry: A pulsed plasma technique for the direct trace element analysis of non-conducting solids and dielectric surface layers.". In: Proceedings of the 2 nd International School on Plasma Diagnostics & Technology, 4 . GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2002. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Spectral diagnostics of the sliding Spark plasma.". In: J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom. (in press) 2005. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2005. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON, P PROFPATELJAYANTI. "Measurements of trace elements levels in Kenyan cigarettes with energy dispersive X-ray fluroscence spectroscopy technique.". In: J. Trace & Microprobe Techniques, Vol. 16, No.2, 233 . Canadian Center of Science and Education; 1998. Abstract
Twenty variceal banding sessions were performed in eight patients between February 1995 and September 1996. A total of 69 rings were used to band the varices and at each session between two to six rings were used. Two of the eight had active bleeding and both underwent variceal banding to successfully arrest their bleeding as inpatients. Sixteen other variceal banding sessions were performed on an outpatient basis to obliterate their varices. Four of the eight patients had had sclerotherapy before and varices were still present. No acute or long term complications were noted. In one patient, variceal banding could not be performed as he developed stridor upon placement of the overtube. All the patients had advanced varices (Grade III or IV) and extended for more than 15 cms in the oesophagus. Endoscopic variceal obliteration remains the treatment of choice for patients with portal hypertension with variceal bleeding. Variceal banding is associated with a superior outcome when compared with sclerotherapy; the variceal kill time is shorter, infective complications less, rebleeding occurs less commonly and transfusion requirements are lower.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Sliding spark spectroscopy of sediment samples.". In: J. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 374, 756 . GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2002. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Plasma-Radiative Modelling and Characterisation of the Sliding Spark Discharge: Implications for Direct Dielectric Solid Trace Quantitative Spectroscopy.". In: J. Radiative & Quantit. Spectres. (In Press), 2005. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2005. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON, P PROFPATELJAYANTI. "Measurements of trace elements levels in Kenyan cigarettes with energy dispersive X-ray fluroscence spectroscopy technique.". In: J. Trace & Microprobe Techniques, Vol. 16, No.2, 233 . GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 1998. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
KALAMBUKA DRANGEYOHUDSON. "Trace Element Analysis by Sliding Spark Spectrometry.". In: J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom. (in press) 2005. GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg, July 2009; 2005. Abstract
A preliminary study of microbiological quality of honey was carried out using 26 samples obtained from the National Bee Keeping Research Station. Total viable counts (TVC) of aerobic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and Clostridium species were done. Of the 26 samples, 24 (92.3%) had a TVC ranging from 3 x10 -87 x 10 colony forming units (cfu) per gram of honey. Two samples did not yield any microorganisms. Of the 24 positive samples, 9 (37.5%) were found to contain Clostridium species per gram while eight (33.3%) were positive for moulds with counts ranging from 10-100 c.f.u / g. No yeasts were detected. In addition, three samples yielded the three types of microorganisms.
Kalambuka Angeyo H, Kaniu I, Darby IG. "Radiological Mapping of the Alkaline Intrusive Complex of Jombo, South Coastal Kenya by In-Situ Gamma-Ray Spectrometry." EGU General Assembly 2016. 2016. AbstractWebsite

Carbonatites and alkaline intrusive complexes are rich in a variety of mineral deposits such as rare earth elements (REEs), including Nb, Zr and Mn. These are often associated with U and Th bearing minerals, including monazite, samarskite and pyrochlore. Mining waste resulting from mineral processing activities can be highly radioactive and therefore poses a risk to human health and environment. The Jombo complex located in Kenya's south coastal region is potentially one of the richest sources of Nb and REEs in the world. It consists of the main intrusion at Jombo hill, three associated satellite intrusions at Mrima, Kiruku and Nguluku hills, and several dykes. The complex is highly heterogeneous with regard to its geological formation as it is characterized by alkaline igneous rocks and carbonatites which also influence its radio-ecological dynamics. In-situ gamma spectrometry offers a low-cost, rapid and spatially representative radioactivity estimate across a range of landscapes compared to conventional radiometric techniques. In this work, a wide ranging radiological survey was conducted in the Jombo complex as follow up on previous studies[1,2], to determine radiation exposure levels and source distributions, and perform radiological risk assessments. The in-situ measurements were carried out using a 2.0 l NaI(Tl) PGIS-2 portable detector from Pico Envirotec Inc integrated with GPS, deployed for ground (back-pack) and vehicular gamma-ray spectrometry. Preliminary results of radiological distribution and mapping will be presented. [1] Patel, J. P. (1991). Discovery and Innovation, 3(3): 31-35. [2] Kebwaro, J. M. et. al. (2011). J. Phys. Sci., 6(13): 3105-3110.

Kalambuka Angeyo H, KokonyaSichangi E, Dehayem-Kamadjeu A, Mangala M. "Hybridized robust chemometrics approach for direct rapid determination of trace biometals in tissue utilizing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Radiation Physics and Chemistry . 2018;153:198-207. Abstract

Direct rapid energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) analysis of trace biometals in soft body tissues is important because it has an immense potential for biomedical applications. Unfortunately this is challenging because soft body tissues are characterized by dark matrix problems, weak analyte fluorescence, scattering, poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the analyte and spectral overlaps due to the properties of the detector and detection process. We report on hybridized utility of robust chemometrics approach for spectral preprocessing towards improving the quality of spectra towards quantitative analysis of trace biometals in soft body tissue. The study was based on (5–20 µm thick) paraffin wax model ‘standards’ spiked with biometals Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Co, Na and Mg. Wavelet transform (WT) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used conjointly for de-noising and mathematical enhancement of resolution. There was improved SNR of spectra by a factor of 3 compared to use of WT alone. The preprocessed spectra were used as input to artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least squares (PLS) models for developing multivariate calibration strategies for quantitative analysis. Both models predicted the concentrations of the biometals better than when raw spectra were utilized (R2 ~ 0.892–0.954 before, and ~ 0.990–0.998 after preprocessing for ANNs; and R2 ~ 0.876–0.931 before, and ~ 0.977–0.992 after preprocessing for PLS). There was also improvement in prediction of Na and Mg in model tissue when both fluorescence and scatter were utilized conjointly (EDXRFS) i.e. R2 = 0.970 for fluorescence alone and R2 = 0.998 for both fluorescence and scatter for Na; and R2 = 0.934 for fluorescence alone and R2 = 0.993 for both fluorescence and scatter for Mg for ANN model. The accuracy of the calibration model was tested using Oyster tissue (NIST 1566b). The results of all analyzed elements were in agreement with certified values to ≤ 6%. This shows proof-of-concept for use of hybridized robust chemometrics approaches for direct rapid determination of trace biometals in soft tissue utilizing EDXRFS spectrometry; an approach that has potential for biomedical applications of EDXRF.

Kalambuka Angeyo H, Odumo BO’, Carbonell G, Patel JP, Torrijos M, Martín JAR. "Impact of gold mining associated with mercury contamination in soil, biota sediments and tailings in Kenya." Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2016. Abstract

This work considered the environmental impact of artisanal mining gold activity in the Migori–Transmara area (Kenya). From artisanal gold mining, mercury is released to the environment, thus contributing to degradation of soil and water bodies. High mercury contents have been quantified in soil (140 μg kg−1), sediment (430 μg kg−1) and tailings (8,900 μg kg−1), as expected. The results reveal that the mechanism for transporting mercury to the terrestrial ecosystem is associated with wet and dry depositions. Lichens and mosses, used as bioindicators of pollution, are related to the proximity to mining areas. The further the distance from mining areas, the lower the mercury levels. This study also provides risk maps to evaluate potential negative repercussions. We conclude that the Migori–Transmara region can be considered a strongly polluted area with high mercury contents. The technology used to extract gold throughout amalgamation processes causes a high degree of mercury pollution around this gold mining area. Thus, alternative gold extraction methods should be considered to reduce mercury levels that can be released to the environment.

Kalambuka Angeyo H, KokonyaSichangi E, AlixDehayem-Massop. "Trace metal biomarker based Cancer diagnostics in body tissue by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometry." Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2019;(Available online 10 June 2019). Abstract

Direct diagnosis and characterization of cancer in tissue via trace biometals analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is challenging, as it requires sensitive detection and accurate quantitative analysis of the appropriate cancer biomarkers. The EDXRF spectrometry technique is not directly applicable due to the complexity of the tissue biopsy samples that are of limited size and irregular geometry, enhanced scatter from the sample dark matrix and extreme matrix effects as well as spectral overlaps and prominent Bremsstrahlung that masks the subtle biomarker analyte peaks. We report on the direct determination of biometals namely Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn; Mg, Co and Na and associated speciation (for Cu, Mn, Fe) in soft body tissue in the context of disease diagnostics utilizing a robust chemometrics enabled energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering (EDXRFS) spectrometric method. The EDXRFS method exploits, in addition to multiple fluorescence spectral signatures, scatter profiles associated with the trace metals and dark matrix to determine through hybridized multivariate chemometrics calibration models, the biometals in thin (10 μm) tissue sections. Wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) were used for spectral preprocessing towards model optimization using con-jointly artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least squares (PLS) based on paraffin wax ‘standards’ spiked with the cancer biomarker trace metals. Results obtained from applying oyster tissue standard validated models (to ≤6% accuracy) to dog tissues (used here as human body tissue analogues) show that both prostate and mammary malignant tissues have significantly high concentration of Zn i.e. 301 ± 4 μg/g and 301 ± 4 μg/g respectively when compared to benign tissues i.e. 160 ± 3 μg/g and 171 ± 10 μg/g. The same is the case for Fe and Cu. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mg in malignant (mammary) as compared to benign tissues occur in the ratios 3:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 2:1. On the other hand, for prostate malignant compared to benign tumor the corresponding ratios are 5:2, 2:1, 2:1 and 2:1 respectively. Prostate cancer was found to be characterized by strong positive correlation between Cu and Mg (0.999) and Mn and Fe (0.999) while mammary cancer is characterized by strong negative correlations between Cu and Mg (−0.994), Mn and Fe (−0.974). ICA and PCA were further used to successfully discriminate the dog tissue to 97% accuracy as either cancerous or non-cancerous based on validated pattern recognition PCA-ICA models for the determination of speciation of Cu, Fe and Mn in soft body tissue. For both mammary and prostate cancer malignancy was characterized by higher speciation of Cu, Fe and Mn (i.e. Cu2+, Fe3+, and Mn7+) compared to the benign. The results of this study demonstrate that robust chemometrics enabled EDXRFS spectrometry not only determine directly and rapidly but also accurately in a diagnostics manner cancer biomarker trace metals in soft body tissue. The technique has an additional advantage in that it has inbuilt multivariate capability to model the determined levels, their ratios and correlations as well as alterations in the speciation of the biometals to detect and characterize cancer (according to severity) as well discriminate among different types of cancer in the same tissue in a simple methodology that has potential for clinical applications.

Kalambuka Angeyo H. "Developing Kenya." International Journal of Nuclear Security. 2018;4:2. Abstract
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Kalaria RN, Ogengo, J.A., Patel NB, et al. "Evaluation of risk factors for Alzheimer's Disease in elderly East Africans." Brain Research Bulletin. 1997;44:573-577.kalaria1997.pdf
Kalaria RN, Ogeng'o JA, Patel NB, Sayi JG, Kitinya JN, Chande HM, Matuja WB, Mtui EP, Kimani JK, Premkumar DR, Koss E, Gatere S, Friedland RP. "Evaluation of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease in elderly east Africans." Brain Res. Bull.. 1997;44(5):573-7. Abstract

A number of biological risk factors have been implicated for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The investigation of prevalence rates of AD in crosscultural populations has much potential in validating these factors. We previously assessed brain amyloid beta (A beta) protein deposition and other lesions associated with AD as possible markers for preclinical AD in elderly nondemented East Africans. In further analysis, we demonstrate that 17-19% of elderly East African subjects without clinical neurological disease exhibited neocortical A beta deposits and minimal neurofibrillary changes at necropsy that was qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that in an age-matched elderly control sample from Cleveland, OH. A beta deposits varied from numerous diffuse to highly localized neuritic plaques and were predominantly reactive for the longer A beta 42 species. In parallel studies, we evaluated another recently implicated factor in AD, the apolipoprotein E genotype. We found relatively high frequencies of the apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele in elderly nondemented East Africans. The frequencies were comparable to those in other African populations but higher than in subjects from developed countries. Our limited study suggests that elderly East Africans acquire cerebral lesions found in AD subjects but the apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele may not be a highly specific factor for the disease among East Africans.

Kalebi A, Muchiri L GGRD. "Medical Students and the Autopsy: A survey of medical students in a Nairobi Medical School.". In: 9th APECSA Conference. Mombasa, Kenya; 2008.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Data Flow and Buffer Management in a Multi-Channel Data Link Controller, S. Varada, V. Oduol, A. Shelat, Conference on Local Computer Networks, 1999. LCN '99,.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1999. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Transient Analysis of a Single-Server Queue with Fixed-Size Batch Arrivals, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Electronics, Communications and Computer Engineering Vol.1, No.1, pp.55-60, June 2009.". In: International Journal of Electronics, Communications and Computer Engineering. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technolgy; 2009. Abstract
The transient analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch Poisson arrivals and a single server with exponential service times is presented. The focus of the paper is on the use of the functions that arise in the analysis of the transient behaviour of the queuing system. These functions are shown to be a generalization of the modified Bessel functions of the first kind, with the batch size B as the generalizing parameter. Results for the case of single-packet arrivals are obtained first. The similarities between the two families of functions are then used to obtain results for the general case of batch arrival queue with a batch size larger than one.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Transient Analysis of a Single-Server Queue with Batch Arrivals Using Modeling and Functions Akin to the Modified Bessel Functions, Vitalice K. Oduol, International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol.5, No.1, pp.34-39, 2009.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol.5, No.1, pp.34-39, May 2009. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2009. Abstract
The paper considers a single-server queue with fixed-size batch Poisson arrivals and exponential service times, a model that is useful for a buffer that accepts messages arriving as fixed size batches of packets and releases them one packet at time. Transient performance measures for queues have long been recognized as being complementary to the steady-state analysis. The focus of the paper is on the use of the functions that arise in the analysis of the transient behaviour of the queuing system. The paper exploits practical modelling to obtain a solution to the integral equation encountered in the analysis. Results obtained indicate that under heavy load conditions, there is significant disparity in the statistics between the transient and steady state values.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Soft-Decision Decoding Applied to the Generalized Type-11 Hybrid ARQ Scheme, S. D. Morgera, V. Oduol, IEEE International Conference on Communications, vol.2, 1988,.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1988. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Satellite on-Board Processing", V. K. Oduol, Seminar Presentation at MPB Technologies, Montreal, Canada, October 1991.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1991. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. ""Integration of Wireless Local Loop (WLL) and VSATs For Rural Communications", V. K. Oduol,Presentation at INTELSAT, Washington, DC, May 1996.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1996. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Frame and Burst Acquisition in TDMA Satellite Communication Networks with Transponder Hopping, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Electronics, Communications and Computer Engineering, Vol.1, No.2, pp.100-105, July 2009.". In: International Journal of Electronics, Communications and Computer Engineering. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technolgy; 2009. Abstract
The paper presents frame and burst acquisition in a satellite communication network based on time division multiple access (TDMA) in which the transmissions may be carried on different transponders. A unique word pattern is used for the acquisition process. The search for the frame is aided by soft-decision of QPSK modulated signals in an additive white Gaussian channel. Results show that when the false alarm rate is low the probability of detection is also low, and the acquisition time is long. Conversely when the false alarm rate is high, the probability of detection is also high and the acquisition time is short. Thus the system operators can trade high false alarm rates for high detection probabilities and shorter acquisition times.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Performance of Block Codes Using the Eigenstructure of the Code Correlation Matrix and Soft-Decision Decoding of BPSK, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol.5, No.1, pp.48-53, 2009.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol.5, No.1, pp.48-53, 2009. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 2009. Abstract
A method is presented for obtaining the error probability for block codes. The method is based on the eigenvalue-eigenvector properties of the code correlation matrix. It is found that under a unary transformation and for an additive white Gaussian noise environment, the performance evaluation of a block code becomes a one-dimensional problem in which only one eigenvalue and its corresponding eigenvector are needed in the computation. The obtained error rate results show remarkable agreement between simulations and analysis.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Meteor Burst Communications in the Post 2000 Era, C. Marriott, V. Oduol, A. Ghosh, B.Tailor, IEEE Military Communications Conference, 1990. MILCOM '90, Conference Record, A New Era. 1990 IEEE, 1990.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1990. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Rain Fade Mitigation, A. Dissanayake, V. Oduol, NASA ACTS Results Conference, Sept. 11-13,1995.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1995. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "System Overflow/Blocking Transients For Queues with Batch Arrivals Using a Family of Polynomials Resembling Chebyshev Polynomials, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol.5, No. 2, pp.102-1.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 2009. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "BIP-Based Alarm Declaration and Clearing in SONET Networks Employing Automatic Protection Switching, Vitalice K. Oduol, Cemal Ardil, International Journal of Computer, Information, and Systems Science, and Engineering, Vol.3, No.1, pp.30-35, 2009.". In: International Journal of Computer, Information, and Systems Science, and Engineering, Vol.3, No.1, pp.30-35, 2009. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 2009. Abstract
The paper examines the performance of bit-interleaved parity (BIP) methods in error rate monitoring, and in declaration and clearing of alarms in those transport networks that employ automatic protection switching (APS). The BIP-based error rate monitoring is attractive for its simplicity and ease of implementation. The BIP-based results are compared with exact results and are found to declare the alarms too late, and to clear the alarms too early. It is concluded that the standards development and systems implementation should take into account the fact of early clearing and late declaration of alarms. The window parameters defining the detection and clearing thresholds should be set so as to build sufficient hysteresis into the system to ensure that BIP-based implementations yield acceptable performance results.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Soft-Decision Decoding Applied to the Generalized Type-11 Hybrid ARQ Scheme, S. D. Morgera, V.K Oduol,. IEEE Transactions on Communications, Volume: 37 Issue: 4, April 1989.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1989. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
KALECHA DRODUOLVITALIS. "Performance Evaluation of the Generalized Type-11 Hybrid ARQ Scheme with Noisy Feedback on Markov Channels, V.K. Oduol, S. D. Morgera, IEEE Transactions on Communications,.". In: International Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology; 1993. Abstract
The paper shows that in the analysis of a queuing system with fixed-size batch arrivals, there emerges a set of polynomials which are a generalization of Chebyshev polynomialsof the second kind. The paper uses these polynomials in assessing the transient behaviour of the overflow (equivalently call blocking) probability in the system. A key figure to noteis the proportion of the overflow (or blocking) probability resident in the transient component,which is shown in the results to be more significant at the beginning of the transient and naturally decays to zero in the limit of large t. The results also show that the significanceof transients is more pronounced in cases of lighter loads, but lasts longer for heavier loads.
Kalele DN, Ogara WO, Oludhe C, Onono JO. ", Climate change impacts and relevance of smallholder farmers’ response in arid and semi-arid lands in Kenya." Scientific African. 2021;12:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2021.e00814.
Kalerwa GP, Migosi J. "Organisational structure and Knowledge Sharing in Public Research Institutes: Experiences from a developing country." The Cradle of Knowledge: Africa Journal of Educational and Social Science Research. 2013;1(1):98-107.
Kalovwe SK, Mwaniki IJ. "Modeling Stock Returns Volatility of the Nairobi Securities Exchange Index and Other Indices." Journal of Advanced Statistics. 2016;1(2):87-93. AbstractWebsite

This paper seeks to model daily, weekly and monthly stock indices returns using GARCH
(1,1) model which is expected to reproduce most of the stylized facts of financial time series data which,
in most cases, are found in different types of market. In addition, the distributional behavior of returns
as the data changes from daily through to monthly returns is investigated by performing the JB and
K-S tests. The results indicate evidence of volatility clustering, leverage effects, Gaussianity and
leptokurtic distribution in the stock returns. A key observation is that the monthly returns of the three
indices follow a Gaussian distribution (i.e. as the data changes from daily through to monthly returns
it follows a normal distribution)

Kalui DM, Moturi CA. "E-Readiness assessment of microfinance institutions in Kenya." Information and Knowledge Management. 2015;5(10):61-80. Abstract

The financial industry has in recent years embraced the use of information and communication technologies
(ICTs) such as e-banking for transactions, m-banking for payment channels development and e-business for
logistics. Digital financial service delivery channels and methodologies face a number of challenges mainly the
e-readiness assessment of Microfinance institutions. This paper presents the results of a study on the level of e-
Readiness in Microfinance Institutions in Kenya and an Integrated Framework for Assessing (IFA) the e-
Readiness levels of Microfinance Institutions. We deployed the proposed framework on selected microfinance
institutions in Kenya to evaluate its performance and the case study shows our method can achieve a satisfactory
results.

Kalui DM, Moturi CA, Muketha GM, Tarus JK. "An Investigation into Customers' Requirements for Electronic Banking: A Case Study of Microfinance Institutions in Kenya." International Journal of Innovation in the Digital Economy. 2017;8(2):39-54. AbstractIGI Global

There is a general consensus that governments, businesses and all individuals need to harness the power of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and ICT enabled services for wider access and improved welfare standards. The requirements of MFI clients in regard to electronic banking (e- banking) have received limited attention in the reviewed literature. In Kenya, little is known and understood about the customers' requirements with emergence of e-banking. In this paper, the authors investigate the MFIs clients' e-banking requirements to align with the MFIs preparedness for sustainable success. Besides, it narrows the digital divide in provision of financial services to Kenyans. Findings from this study indicate that in Kenya, MFI clients are ready for e-banking. The paper finally recommends some possible solutions that MFIs could embrace towards successful implementation of e-banking.

Kaluku LNEN&. "Drugs and substance abuse in Kenyan secondary schools. Is it a reality?" IJRDO-Journal of Educational Research. 2017;2(3):182-190.
Kaluku LNEN&. "A study of students’ performance in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education with special reference to Biology." IJRDO-Journal of Educational Research. 2017;2(3):191-201.
Kalungu JW, Mbuge DO. "Assessing the impacts of Kenyan universities in adapting to climate change.". In: African Regional Conference of Vice Chancellors, Provosts and Deans of Science, Engineering and Technology (COVIDSET 2013). Gabarone, Botswana; 2013.
Kaluwa CK, Oduma JA, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG. "Medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of female reproductive health dysfunction in Tana River County, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Abstract
Reproductive dysfunction is a major health concern amongst the inhabitants of Tana River County. An ethno botanical study was conducted in Garsen, Itsowe and Ngao sub divisions of Tana River County to document the utilization of medicinal plants for the management of female reproductive ailments. The target population was practicing herbalists from Pokomo, Ormo and Giryama communities in the study area. Structured questionnaires and focused group discussions were used to collect data. Forty eight plant species distributed in 40 genera and 29 families were documented as being important for the management of pregnancy related complications, menstrual disorders, infertility, fibroids and as contraceptives. The species most frequently cited by the herbalists were fourteen. Fifty two percent of the plant species were probably being mentioned for the first time as being useful in reproductive health management. In conclusion, Tana River has a pool of TMPs with a wealth of indigenous knowledge that needs to be exploited. The plants used to treat dysmenorrhea for example may be important analgesic agents that need further investigation while those with anti-fertility properties may contain steroidal phyto chemical compounds. Such species therefore need further investigation to establish their efficacy and mechanism of action.

Keywords medicinal plants, female reproductive ailments, Tana River, Kenya

Kama-Kama F, Midiwo J, Nganga J, Maina N, Schiek E, Omosa LK, Osanjo G, Naessens J. "Selected ethno-medicinal plants from Kenya with in vitro activity against major African livestock pathogens belonging to the “Mycoplasma mycoides cluster”." Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2016;192:524-534. AbstractFull text link

Members of ‘Mycoplasma mycoides cluster’ are important ruminant pathogens in Africa. Diseases caused by these Mycoplasma negatively affect the agricultural sector especially in developing countries through losses in livestock productivity, mortality and international trade restrictions. There is therefore urgent need to develop antimicrobials from alternative sources such as medicinal plants to curb these diseases. In Kenya, smallholder farmers belonging to the Maasai, Kuria and Luo rely on traditional Kenyan herbals to treat respiratory symptoms in ruminants. In the current study extracts from some of these plants were tested against the growth of members of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster.
Aim

This study aimed at identifying plants that exhibit antimycoplasmal activities using an ethnobotanical approach.

Materials and methods

Kenyan farmers of Maasai, Luo and Kuria ethnic groups were interviewed for plant remedies given to livestock with respiratory syndromes. The plant materials were thereafter collected and crude extracts prepared using a mixture of 50% of methanol (MeOH) in dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), neat methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and water to yield four crude extracts per plant part. The extracts were tested in vitro against five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, five strains of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides and one strain of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp capricolum using broth micro-dilution assays with an initial concentration of 1 mg/ml. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the most active extracts were determined by serial dilution.
Results

Extracts from five plants namely: Solanum aculeastrum, Albizia coriaria, Ekebergia capensis, Piliostigma thonningii and Euclea divinorum exhibited the highest activities against the Mycoplasma strains tested. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides were more susceptible to these extracts than Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and Mycoplasma capricolum susp. capricolum. The activities of the crude extracts varied with the solvent used for extraction. The MICs mean values of the active extracts varied from 0.02 to 0.6 mg/ml.
Conclusions

The results suggested that these plants could potentially contain antimicrobial compounds that might be useful for the treatment of respiratory diseases in ruminants. Future work should focus on the isolation and identification of the active compounds from the plant extracts that showed interesting activities and evaluation of their antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential.
Mycoplasma mycoidesEthnobotanyAntimicrobial activityLivestockEthno-medicinal from plants from Kenya

Kama-Kama F, Omosa LK, Nganga J, Maina N, Osanjo G, Yaouba S, Ilias M, Midiwo J, Naessens J. "Antimycoplasmal Activities of Compounds from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii against Strains from the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster." Frontiers in pharmacology. 2017;8:920. Abstract

Infections caused by Mycoplasma species belonging to the ‘mycoides cluster’ negatively affect the agricultural sector through losses in livestock productivity. These Mycoplasma strains are resistant to many conventional antibiotics due to the total lack of cell wall. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop new antimicrobial agents from alternative sources such as medicinal plants to curb the resistance threat. Recent studies on extracts from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii revealed interesting antimycoplasmal activities hence the motivation to investigate the antimycoplasmal activities of constituent compounds. The CH2Cl2/MeOH extracts from the berries of S. aculeastrum yielded a new β-sitosterol derivative (1) along with six known ones including; lupeol (2), two long-chain fatty alcohols namely undecyl alcohol (3) and lauryl alcohol (4); two long-chain fatty acids namely; myristic acid (5) and nervonic acid (6) as well as a glycosidic steroidal alkaloid; (25R)-3β-{O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy-22α-N-spirosol-5-ene (7) from the MeOH extracts. A new furan diglycoside, (2,5-D-diglucopyranosyloxy-furan) (8) was also characterized from the CH2Cl2/MeOH extract of stem bark of P. thonningii. The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 7 and 8 isolated in sufficient yields were tested against the growth of two Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm), two M.mycoides. capri (Mmc) and one M. capricolum capricolum (Mcc) using broth dilution methods, while the minimum …

Kama-Kama F, Omosa LK, Nganga J, Maina N, Osanjo G, Yaouba S, Ilias M, Midiwo J, Naessens J. "Antimycoplasmal Activities of Compounds from Solanum aculeastrum and Piliostigma thonningii against Strains from the Mycoplasma mycoides Cluster." Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2017;9:920.
Kamali A, Price MA, Lakhi S, Karita E, Inambao M, Sanders EJ, Anzala O, Latka MH, Bekker L-G, Kaleebu P, Asiki G, Ssetaala A, Ruzagira E, Allen S, Farmer P, Hunter E, Mutua G, Makkan H, Tichacek A, Brill IK, Fast P, Stevens G, Chetty P, Amornkul PN, Gilmour J. "Creating an African HIV clinical research and prevention trials network: HIV prevalence, incidence and transmission." PLoS ONE. 2015;10(1):e0116100. Abstract

HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner.

Kamamia EK, Maitho T, Purushotham K, Pratima S, Rajsree I, Ajay KK, Sudheer KM. "Formulation development of orally retentive antimalarial lozenges for pediatric patients." Medical Research and Practice. 2013;(2)7:197-200.
Kamanda M, Kiboi JG. "AN APPARENTLY AGGRESSIVE CRANIOFACIAL OSTEO-DYSPLASTIC LESION PRECIPITATING DEBILITATING SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS: CASE REPORT." East Afr Med J. 2012;89(6):214-6. Abstract

This is a case report of an 18 year old man with craniofacial fibro-osteo-dysplastic lesion which exhibited both exophytic and endophytic growth patterns. We discuss the extent of tumour growth and its associated secondary changes.

Kamanja IT, Githigia SM, Muchemi GM, Mwandawiro C. "A Survey of Schistosoma Bovis in cattle in Kwale District Kenya.". 2011. Abstract

A study was carried out to determine the prevalence and possible public health importance of Schistosoma bovis in cattle in Kwale District. Abattoir surveys were carried out where the mesenteric veins of the carcasses were visually examined for the presence of adult S. bovis worms. Three abattoirs were visited. These were Ngombeni and Kwale slaughter houses in Matuga division and Mwambungo slaughter house in Msabweni division. Identification of S. bovis eggs was done after sedimentation of rectal faecal samples. A total of 492 samples from various divisions in the district were analyzed. Snails were sampled using the scooping method in the water bodies and digging in riverbeds. They were put in 24-well microtitre plates under the shade for at least two hours to induce shedding of cercariae. Stool and urine samples from school going children from Matuga Msabweni and Kinango divisions were analyzed for S. bovis eggs. The prevalence of S. bovis eggs as 16.9% while the prevalence of S. bovis adult worms was 25.1%. Snails of the genus Bulinus were recovered from the various water bodies. No S. bovis eggs were recovered from the stool samples. Eggs of S. haematobium were recovered from urine samples. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed that the adult worms recovered from slaughtered cattle were S. bovis. It was concluded that S.bovis is prevalent in cattle in Kwale district. The water bodies were infested with the snail intermediate host.

Kamanja IT, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Mbaabu M, Lanyasunya A, Gakuya DW, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG. "Medicinal plants used in the management of sexually transmitted infections by the Samburu community Kenya." International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2015;7:44-52.
Kamanja IT, Mbaria JM, Gathumbi PK, Lanyasunya A, Gakuya DW, Kabasa JD, Kiama SG. "Medicinal Plants used in the Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections by the Samburu, Community, Kenya. ." of Pharmaceutical Research,. 2015;7:44-52.
Kamanu JK, Chemining'wa GN, Nderitu JH, Ambuko J, others. "Growth, yield and quality response of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to different inorganic fertilizers applications in central Kenya." Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2012;55:3944-3952. Abstract
n/a
Kamanu JK;;, Chemingwa GN;, Nderitu JH, Ambuko J. "Effect of varying inorganic nitrogen fertilizer regimes on growth, yield and quality of snapbeans.". In: Agro2011. UoN; 2011.
KAMASARA VO. "Survey of Management Accounting Practices in Kenya,.". In: Nairobi Journal of Management. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 2004. Abstract

The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.

KAMASARA VO. "Impact of Bank Failures an Economic Development in Kenya.". In: Student Accountant. Kireti VM, Atinga JEO; 1986. Abstract

The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, showed eighteen midgut proteins ranging between 12 and 117 kDa, when analysed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Seven of them (12 kDa, 17 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 40 kDa, 55 kDa and 97 kDa) were major bands based on their intensity of staining. The immunization of rabbits with a midgut extract elicited the production of protective polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies reacted strongly with all major midgut proteins as well as with 63 kDa and 117 kDa proteins when tested by the Western blot technique. The analysis of the proteins revealed that the 12 kDa, 25 kDa, 29 kDa, 35 kDa, 45 kDa, 87 kDa and 97 kDa proteins are glycosylated and none of them contained a lipid moiety. By electroelution, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa were purified. On trypsinization, the proteins of 35 kDa and 63 kDa produced four major fragments (F1, F2, F3, and F4) when resolved on a 18% SDS-PAGE. The F1 fragment of the 35 kDa protein reacted with the polyclonal antibodies by the immunoblot technique.

Kamatenesi-Mugisha M, Makawiti DW, Oryem-Origa H, Odyek O. "The anti-bacterial bioactivity of some medicinal lants used in productive healthcare from western,Uganda.". 2000. AbstractWebsite

Bacterial infections in rural western Uganda,particularly in women are treated using herbal medicine.The ethanolic crude plant extracts of tetradenia riparia,tithonia diversifolia and geniosporum rotundifolium some of the medicinal plants used traditionally in treating bacterial infections were tested for their activity against microorganism.Test organism used were three species of gram-positive bacteria namely staphylococcus aureus,Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis and gram-negative bacteria escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for bioassay.Disk diffusion method was used to carry out the antimicrobial test and the inhibitory concentrations of both the MIC and IC of the herbal extracts were calculated Tetradenia riparia,Tithonia diversifolia and geniosprum rotundifolium showed promising results as antibacterial potential drugs. Thus plants used in traditional medicine for particular ailments are sometimes potential leads in drug discovery and development

Kamau GN, Dulo SO, Syagga PM, Waswa-Sabuni B. "Rice Husk Ash Cement - An Alternative Pozzolana Cement For Kenyan Building Industry.".; 2002.
Kamau JW, and Mwaura F. "Climate change adaptation and EIA studies in Kenya." International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management” (IJCCSM. 2013;Vol 5(2):152-165.
KAMAU MRNJOROGELUCAS. "Njoroge, L.K (1998) Contribution of Foreign aid to growth in Kenya (1965-1995): An empirical analysis.". In: Master of Science in Economics, University of Zimbabwe. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
Kamau W, Kameri-Mbote P, Ichang’i D, Mwangi W, Kibugi R. "Land, Environment & Natural Resources-Presentation.". 2013. Abstract
n/a
Kamau JM, Mwai A, Kinyanjui PW, Iraqi FA. "Trypanotolerance effect as a result of genomic imprinting in F murine population.". 2007. Abstract

African tsetse-fly transmitted trypanosomosis affects a wide range of wild and domesticated animal species. Trypanotolerance, the ability of some breeds to withstand the infection has been recognized and provides a sustainable option in animal production. While a genetic contribution, several behavioural traits are not in doubt, an attempt to find the responsible genes has proven to be complicated. One advance towards generating trypanotolerant animals has been the demonstration of an effective genetic im printing phenomenon in crossbred mice, similar to that observed following challenge. We report a novel reciprocal crossing strategy that exploits epistasis and heterosis in inbred mouse strains to identify imprinting effect controlling trypanosomosis using an F2 (129/ J x CS7BL/6) resource populations. The results indicate that genetic control for trypanotolerance is complicated and the identification of imprinting effect may provide new insights of introgressing trypanotolerance in livestock

Kamau G. "Neighbors’ soil conservation and crop production in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2012;8(19):95-109.
KAMAU MRMUBUUPETERSON. "Inheritance laws and practices in Kenya: Pilot study report; presented at women and law.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAMAU DRGACHIIMICHAEL. "Generalised Deletion Designs.". In: African Journalof Scienceand Technology, Volume 4 Number 2. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2003. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Kamau, Paul CO. "The EU-EPAs: Separating the Myths from the Truths.". University of Nairobi Press; 2012. Abstract
n/a
Kamau A, Bornemann R, Laaser U. "Psychosocial influences on adolescent sexuality and identity in rural Kenya." Health Sociology Review. 2006;15(3):305-316.
KAMAU W. "WOMEN JUDGES AND MAGISTRATES IN KENYA: CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES AND CONTRIBUTIONS.". In: GENDER AND JUDGING. LONDON: OXFORD HART PUBLISHERS; 2013. Abstractwinnie_kamau_abstract.docwinnie_kamau_abstract.docwinnie_kamau_abstract.pdf

Women in Kenya are under-represented in the legal sphere, both as professionals in legal practice and in the judiciary. In particular, they have been excluded or marginalized in the higher courts and are more concentrated in the subordinate courts which have lower status and less attractive terms and conditions. There are various structural and institutional barriers to women’s selection and upward mobility in the judiciary, which need to be addressed. It is laudable that despite women being a minority in Kenyan judiciary, they have made their marks in terms of articulation of gender issues within the judiciary, particularly through the Kenya Women Judges Association and the Jurisprudence of Equality Project. The Constitution of 2010 has introduced important reforms in the structure and organization in the judiciary and have already produced some positive results. However, there is need for more concrete policies and measures specifically targeted at ensuring gender equality and equity in the Kenyan courts.

KAMAU DRGACHIGI. "K. wa Gachigi, "Crack Detection in Green Ceramics Using Ultrasonic NDT and Artificial Neural Networks", presented at weekly Ferroelectrics seminar at MRL, The Pennsylvania State University, Fall, 1994.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAMAU MRMUBUUPETERSON. "Determinants of women's political participation in Kenya.". In: draft research report (GOK/UNDP-WLEA/FIDA/ICJ Project). Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1999. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Kamau SJ, Rambo CM, Mbugua JM. "Perception of Head Teachers and District Education Officers (DEOs) on School Infrastructure Policy Governance in Somaliland." Universal Journal of Management . 2021;9(1):20-27.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Electricity Generation by Clostridiumspp and Proteus Vulgaris from Rotten Tomatoes in a Double Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell." International Journal of Research Studies in Microbiology and Biotechnology (IJRSMB). 2018;4(4):32-38. Abstract

Low electron transfer efficiency from bacteria to electrodes remains one of the major bottlenecks
that limit industrial applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Elucidating biological mechanism of the electron transfer processes is of great help in improving the efficiency of MFCs. The electricigens and its activity have an important influence on the power generation capacity and organic matter degradation ability of MFC system.
In the current study, rotten tomatoes were used as a substrate in a double chamber microbial fuel cells using Clostridiumspp. and Proteus vulgarisbacteria cultures. Proximate analysis of tomatoes wastes shows 4.38% and 85.63 % volatile matter and15.08 and 292.37 Kcal/100g energy for fresh and dry weight respectively.Maximum generated voltage was 0.622V, 0.465V and 0.759V from Clostridium Spp., Proteus and rumen fluid respectively. Daily current recorded was in the range of 0.04 to 0.059mA for rumen fluid inoculum.The power density and current density of 8.12mW/m2 and 13.02mA/m2 were generated using Clostridium spp. which is five times compared to what was generated using Proteus vulgaris culture.

KAMAU DRGACHIGI. "K. Yamakawa, K. wa Gachigi, S. Troiler-McKinstry and J.P. Dougherty, "Phase Transitions of Antiferroelectric Lead Zirconate Thin Films in High Electric Fields", Ferroelectric Letters, vol. 20, pp. 149-155, 1996.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1996. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAMAU MRMUBUUPETERSON. "Co-authored with Patricia Mbote: Women and property rights in Kenya.". In: A study commissioned by the international federation of women lawyers (FIDA-K). Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Kamau JW, Kuria W, Mathai M, Atwoli L, Kangethe R. "Psychiatric morbidity among HIV-infected children and adolescents in a resource-poor Kenyan urban community.". 2012. Abstract

The course of HIV / AIDS in children has been transformed from an acute to a chronic one with the advent of Anti-Retroviral Therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric morbidity in HIV-infected children and adolescents between 6 and 18 years of age and the relationship between their socio-demographic factors, immune suppression and psychiatric morbidity. The study was conducted at a paediatric HIV clinic in Nairobi, between February and April 2010. One hundred and sixty-two HIV-infected children and adolescents aged between 6 and 18 years and their guardians were interviewed. Seventy-nine (48.8%) of the study participants were found to have psychiatric morbidity. The most prevalent Diagnostic Statistical Manual, 4th Edition TR psychiatric disorders were: Major depression (17.8%), Social phobia (12.8%), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (12.1 %) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (12.1 %). Twenty-five per cent of the study participants had more than one psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in HIV-infected children is higher than that found in children in the general population. There is therefore a need to integrate psychiatric services into the routine care of HIV-infected children.

Kamau, C. WDPMN'ang'a NMPWGL. "Developing an Open source spell checker for Gikuyu." In: Guy De Pauw GHJ, De Schryver G-M, eds. Proceedings of the Second Workshop on African Language Technology (AfLaT 2010), European Language Resources Association (ELRA.; 2010:. Abstract

In this paper, we describe the development of an open source spell checker for Gikuyu language using the Hunspell language tools. We explore the morphology of Gikuyu, highlighting the inflection of various parts of speech in Gikuyu including verbs, nouns, and adjectives among others. In Hunspell, surface words are realized as a set of continuation classes, with each class providing a morpheme with a specific function. In addition, circumfixation, which is prevalent in Gikuyu derived nouns, is implemented. Hunspell also provides for word suggestion using character prevalence and replacement rules. Given that the developed Gikuyu spellchecker and the Hunspell tools are open source, the spell checking function developed in this work can be adopted in major open-source products such as Mozilla and OpenOffice products. The spell checker has a fairly representative Gikuyu lexicon and achieves an acceptable realization of a Gikuyu spellchecker. When tested on a test corpus, the spell checker attains a precision of 82%, recall of 84% and an accuracy of 75%.

Kamau FN, Kibwage IO, G.Muriuki, Guantai AN, others. "Estrogenic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of a Steroidal Indoxyl." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm.Sci. . 2001;5:44-48 .
Kamau HN, Koech OK, Mureithi SM, Wasonga OV, Gachene CKK. "Grass species for range rehabilitation: Perceptions of a pastoral community in Narok North sub-county, Kenya." African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2020;16(8):1204-1212.grass_species_for_range_rehabilitation-_perceptions_of_a_2020.pdf
Kamau, Paul DMCPL. "Post-Multifibre Arrangement: Analysis of the textile and garment Sectors in Kenya." IDS Bulletin Vol. 37 No.1, pp 80-88; 2006. Abstract
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Kamau NG, Ilovi CS, Mutisya I, Mecha JO. Partnership in Advanced Care and Treatment, Centres of Excellence: Perspective from a Centre of Excellence.. University of Nairobi : University of Maryland and University of Nairobi ; 2012.
Kamau 1. P, Mawdsley E, McCann G. "The Impact of India-Kenya Trade Relations on the Kenya Garment Industry.". In: Changing Geographies of Power. Cape Town: Fahamu. ISBN 978-1-906387-65-5; 2011.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Proximate analysis of fruits and vegetables wastes from Nairobi County, Kenya." Research Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2020;5(1):9-15. Abstract

Proximate analysis of twenty fruits and vegetable waste from Nairobi County was evaluated. They were obtained from Kangemi and Wakulima markets. Standard procedures were used for the analysis of crude fat, protein,fiber, carbohydrates, moisture, ash, nitrogen-free extract and energy. The results obtained revealed that moisture content was in the range of 82.8 to 95.86% apart from sweet potato and banana which was 62.05 and 74.30% respectively. Protein range was between 0.57 to 3.49% with high-fat content being recorded in avocado at 9.03%. The ash content was highest
in comfrey at 3.46% and lowest in mango at 0.44%. The carbohydrate level obtained by the difference method was lowest in courgette at 1.99% with crude fiber ranging from 0.69 to 2.73%. The total calculated energy ranged from 1.94 to 39.98 Kcal/100g. The macro-nutrient concentrations were 3.59 and 1.53% for potassium and calcium respectively. Lead, iron and zinc were detected at 15.1±3.6, 3742±235 and 176±11 ppm respectively. There is the presence of proximate properties in the edible portion of wasted fruits and vegetable and therefore, this study recommends proper fruits and vegetable handling during harvest, transportation, storage and marketing. Besides, the unavoidable waste should be used as biomass in energy production to deal with landfilling issues in the market places.

Kamau RW, Midiwo JO, Mgani QA, Masila VM, Omosa LK, Bwire RN, Jacob MR, Wiggers FT, Muhammad I. "Oleanolic Acid and other Compounds Isolated from Cordia africana Lam which Inhibit Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(6):91-95. Abstract

ABSTRACT
Introduction: Treatment of microbial infections has become complicated
due to increased resistance of microbes to the current drugs. The current
study investigates crude extracts and seven compounds from root and
stem bark of Cordia africana Lam. for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity.
Methods: Extraction was done using 50% methanol in dichloromethane,
followed by chromatographic separation of compounds, whose structures
were established by interpretation of spectroscopic data. The in vitro
susceptibility of selected microbes to the crude extracts and pure compounds was determined. Cytotoxicity of 1, 6 and 7 was determined against
the drug sensitive, CCRF-CEM and resistant CEM/ADR-5000 cells, with
doxorubicin used as the standard. Results: The root bark extract of
C. africana yielded six known compounds: oleanolic acid (1), 3-β-lup-20(29)-
en-3-ol (2) stigmast-5,22-dien-3β-ol (3), 2-(2Z) -(3-hydroxy-3,7-dimethylocta2,6-dienyl)-1,4-benzenediol (4), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy- benzaldehyde (5)
and 7-hydroxy-4′-methoxyisoflavone (6). The stem bark extract resulted to
1 and 2 alongside, ubiquinone-8 (7) and 1-octacosanol (8). Compound 1
showed moderate activity against Enterococcus faecium (IC50 of 14.44 µg/
mL), with vancomycin being inactive. Compounds 1, 6 and 7 showed cell
viability >50% against CEM/ADR5000 and CCRF-CEM cells at 10 µM and
therefore were considered inactive. Surprisingly, 1 was relatively more active compared to the standard, with cell viability of 57.93% against CEM/
ADR5000, versus 78.97% for doxorubicin. Conclusion: To the best of our
knowledge, this is the first report of the eight compounds from C. africana.
The cytotoxicity of 1, 6 and 7 are reported here for the first time. Traditional
use of the plant extract in management of various infections may be attributed to presence of 1, which displayed moderate antimicrobial activity.
Key words: Cordia africana, Ubiquinone-8, Oleanolic acid acid, 7-hydroxy4′-methoxyisoflavone, VRE.
Correspondence:
Rahab W. Kamau
Department of Chemistry, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 190-50100-Kakamega, KENYA.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Microbial Fuel Cells: Influence of External Resistors on Power, Current and Power Density." Journal of Thermodynamics & Catalysis. 2017;8(1):1-5. Abstract

The effect of external resistance on voltage, current, power, power density and current density is investigated in a microbial fuel cells using cowdung is investigated. This involves use of varying resistance resistors. The fuel cells were operated under anaerobic condition for 9 days. PVC pipe was used to make a salt bridge using lamp wicks and potassium chloride. The obtained results indicated that the maximum voltage was on day 7 with 0.153 V across 33 kΩ resistor. The power was in the range of 0.000001 to 0.01 mW, current density was in the 0.1 to 23.29 mA/m2
range while the power density was in 7.5 × 10-7 to 3.1036 mW/m2 range.

Kamau W, Kameri-Mbote P, Ichang’i D, Mwangi W, Kibugi R. "Land, Environment & Natural Resources-Presentation.". 2013. Abstract
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Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2, 4, 5, 6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2019;4(2):28-35. AbstractJournal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery

Description
Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463 to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

KAMAU DRGACHIGI. "E. Breval, K. wa Gachigi, C. Wang, and J. Douhgherty, ""PLZT Phases near Lead Titanate. I. Determination by X-ray Diffraction"", J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88 [2], 437-442, 2005 K. Gachigi, P.M. Pruna, C.A. Randall, T.R. Shrout, S.-J. Jang and J.P. Dougherty.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2005. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Kamau IN. Trace Gas Emissions for Biomass Cookstoves in Kiambu and Bungoma Districts. (A Pilot Study). Wandiga PS, Kithinji DJ, eds. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2000.
Kamau JM, Maloiy GMO. "The relationship between rate of oxygen consumption, heart rate and thermal conductance of the dik-dik antelope (Rhynchotragus kirkii) at various ambient temperatures.". 1982. Abstract

The extent of cardiovascular adjustments to heat and cold were investigated between ambient temperatures of 5 and 45 degrees C by measuring conductance and the rates of oxygen consumption and heart beats. 2. Minimum heart rate was observed at 25 degrees C (114 +/- 9 beats/min). In the heat at 45 degrees C heart rate was observed to increase only slightly (127 +/- 12 beats/min) but in the cold -5 degrees C heart rate nearly doubled that at 25 degrees C. 3. Thermal conductance was on average 0.031 mlO2 (g. hr. degrees C)-1 below 25 degrees C but increased by more than 20 times at 40 degrees C. 4. A positive correlation between heart rate and rate of oxygen consumption was demonstrated below 25 degrees C and the relation may be of practical use.

Kamau S, Barrios E, K.Karanja N, O.Ayuke F, Lehmann J. "Short-term casting activity of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) after biochar additions." Soil Biology and Biochemistry . 2020;143.
Kamau FN, Kibwage IO, Muriuki G, others, others. "Steroidal Indoxyls: Evaluation of pKa Values and Anti-inflammatory activity." East Cent. Afr.J.Pharm Sci.. 2006;9:5-9 .
Kamau, Paul George Michuki DMCDA. "Dynamics of Labour Availability and Technical Skills in the Kenyan Garment Industry." ACFRN Working Paper 12.06.; 2012. Abstract
n/a
Kamau G. "Novel Solar Cell Technology.". 2000.
Kamau LN, Mathiu M, Gathumbi PK, Mbaria JM, Kiama S. "Medicinal plants used in the management of diabetes by traditional healers of Narok County, Kenya.". 2017;7(2):1-10.
Kamau J, de Vos AJ, Playford M, Salim B, Kinyanjui P, Sugimoto C. "Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks." Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:22. Abstract

Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli), T. orientalis (ikeda), T. orientalis (chitose) and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP) or type C (SSU rRNA). The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C) previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak.

KAMAU MRNJOROGELUCAS. "Njoroge, L.K (1998) Macroeconomics, economic reforms and macro consistency project for Zimbabwe A.". In: paper presented at an Economics symposium held on 20th to 25th November 1998, University of Zimbabwe. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1998.
Kamau JM;, Macharia JK;, Gitahi JN;, Kaburia HK;, Kitala PM;, Mbaria JM;, Njeruh, F. M., M; Gathura PB, Mbaka M. "An Assessment of the Presence of Escherichia coli in the roof-collected rainwater from some areas around Nairobi.". 2004. Abstract

One of the sources of feacal contamination of rainwater harvested from roofs is wind-blown dust containing particulate matter from animal faeces, or through direct defecation. Since the primary habitat for Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the gastro-intestinal tract of mammals and birds (Atlas 1984), it\'s a good indictor of feacal contamination (Hazen, 1988). This study aimed to investigate the presence of E.coli. In rainwater samples collected from roofs in some areas around Nairobi, which have different levels of livestock density. Forty four of the 89 samples collected tested positive for the presence of E.coli from Ngong Division, which had a cattle density of 1446 per square Kilometre was, 55%, but it was not significantly different from both Kikuyu Division: cattle density of 166; both of which had 34% of the samples testing positive to E.coli (p=0.3094). It was concluded that rain water harvested from roofs for human consumption in the study area should be treated before use.

Kamau SM. "Alpha-Lactalbumin: Its Production Technologies and Bioactive Peptides.". 2010. AbstractWebsite

Alpha-lactalbumin (α-La), a globular protein found in all mammalian milk, has been used as an ingredient in infant formulas. The protein can be isolated from milk using chromatography/gel filtration, membrane separation, enzyme hydrolysis, and precipitation/aggregation technologies. α-La is appreciated as a source of peptides with antitumor and apoptosis, antiulcerative, immune modulating, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, opioid, mineral binding, and antioxidative bioactivities, which may be utilized in the production of functional foods. Nanotubes formed by the protein could find applications in foods and pharmaceuticals, and understanding its amyloid fibrils is important in drawing strategies for controlling amyloidal diseases. Bioactive peptides in α-La are released during the fermentation or ripening of dairy products by starter and nonstarter microorganisms and during digestion by gastric enzymes. Bioactive peptides are also produced by deliberate hydrolysis of α-La using animal, microbial, or plant proteases. The occurrence, structure, and production technologies of α-La and its bioactive peptides are reviewed.

Kamau LN, Mbaabu PM, Gathumbi PK, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG. "Medicinal plants used in the management of diabetes by traditional healers of 2338 Narok County, Kenya." Tang Humanitas Medicine. 2017;7(2):1-10.
Kamau MW, Chindia ML, Dimba EAO, Awange D, Gathece L. "Clinico-histopathologic types of maxillofacial malignancies with emphasis on sarcomas: A 10-year review." East African Medical Journal. 2011;88:39-45. Abstract
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KAMAU MRNJOROGELUCAS. "Njoroge, L. K and Njeru J (2003) The Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS in the Rural Areas: A Case Study for the Nomadic Pastoralist Communities in Kenya.". In: My Current Assignment and Submitted as a Research Proposal to the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern and Southern Africa (OSSREA), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2003.
Kamau G. "Social interactions and returns to farm inputs in smallholder agriculture in Kenya." European Scientific Journal. 2012;8(15):180-201.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Cow dung to kilo watt using double chamber microbial fuel cell." International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2017;3:70-79. AbstractInternational Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology

Description
In the current study, voltage is generated from cow waste at varying time duration of 6 to 11 days. PVC pipe was used to make a salt bridge using agarose and potassium chloride and Sodium chloride. The performance of microbial fuel cells was evaluated by characterizing the generated voltage, current, power and surface power density. It was observed that despite the high impedance of the substrate, all the generated parameters have shown maximum values at day 6 and then a decline in trend was observed on 7 days onwards. The highest values of voltage, current, power, current density and power density obtained were 0.5090 V, 0.28 μA, 0.0093 μW, 0.05181 mA/m2 and 0.0000006 W/m2 respectively. The study concluded that microbial fuel cells technology can be used to generate electricity from cow dung.

Kamau K, IRIBEMWANGI PI. "Uchapishaji wa Bunilizi za Kiswahili: Ukweli-kinzani na Umuhimu wa Mwelekeo Mpya.". In: Ukuzaji wa Kiswahili: Dhima na Majukumu ya Asasi Mbalimbali. Nairobi: Focus Publishers Ltd; 2014.
KAMAU DRGACHIIMICHAEL. "Deletion Designs by M.K. Gachii and J.W.Odhiambo.". In: Journal of Science and Technology, 7, (2002), 323- 332,. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 2002. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.
Kamau NP, M. DMM. "Influence of Managerial Skills on Growth of Projects in Kenya: A Case of Uwezo Funded Youth Projects in Thika Town." International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications,. 2018;8(9):575-585.kamau_publication.pdf
Kamau E, Kayima J, Otieno C, Maritim MC, Wanzala P. "Health related quality of life of patients on maintenance haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital." East African Medical Journal. 2012;89(3):39-45. Abstract

Background: Health related quality of life is increasingly being recognized as a primary outcome measure in treatment of end stage renal disease. The health related quality of life of patients on maintenance haemodialysis is reduced. Several interventions directed at modifiable risk factors have been shown to improve quality of life of patients on haemodialysis.
Objective: To assess the health related quality of life of patients on maintanance haemodialysis at Kenyatta National Hospital.
Design: Cross sectional descriptive study
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Renal Unit.
Subjects: The study was conducted on 96 patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis. Socio-Demographic and clinical factors were recorded for all patients. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-36 questionnaire. Two summary scores and three sub-scale scores were calculated.
Results: The mean physical composite summary and mental composite summary scores were 39.09+/- 9.49 and 41.87+/- 10.56 respectively. The burden of kidney disease sub-scale, symptom and problems sub-scale and effect of kidney disease on daily life sub-scale score were 16.15+/- 21.83, 73.46+/-18.061 and 67.63+/-23.45 respectively.
Conclusion: Health related quality of life of patients on maintenance hemodialysis is reduced. The physical quality of life is more affected than the mental quality of life. The burden of kidney disease sub-scale is the most affected sub-scale score.

KAMAU DRGACHIGI. "K. wa Gachigi, U. Kumar and J.P. Dougherty, "Grain Size Effects in Barium Titanate", Ferroelectrics, vol. 143, pp.229-238, 1993.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1993. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAMAU MRMUBUUPETERSON. "Women in marriage and household resources management in Kenya main study report; presented at women and law regional conference.". In: Ranch on the Lake Hotel, Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Kamau FN. "Synthesis of Steroidal Indoxyl, and Derivatives from 3-ketosteroid.". 2005. Abstract

5&alpha-Androstan-17&beta-ol-3-one condenses with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde in alkaline conditions to give the steroidal indoxyl 17&beta-hydroxy-1-(3′-oxoindan-2′-yliden)-3-nor-1,2-secoandrostan-3-oic acid (I) which on refluxing with acetic anhydride affords the lactam 17&beta-acetoxy-3′-aza-4a-homoandrost-1-eno-(3,2-a)-indan-3′,4-dione (II). Reduction of I with sodium borohydride gives the indole 17&beta-hydroxy-1-(indol-2′-yl)-3-nor-1, 2-secoandrostan-3-oic acid (III). The results of this synthesis suggest that 3-ketosteroids saturated in ring A react in a similar manner to 17-ketosteroids, with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde.

Kamau G, Njiraine D. "An Assessment of the Accessibility of Electronic Information Resources by Academic Library Users: A Case of the University of Nairobi.". In: Emerging Trends in Information and Knowledge Management. Eldoret; 2017.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM. Biogas Digester Automation.; 2020.
KAMAU DRGACHIGI. "R.P. Brodeur, K. wa Gachigi, P.M. Pruna and T.R. Shrout, "Ultra-High Strain Ceramics with Multiple Field-Induced Phase Transitions", J. Am.Ceram.Soc., vol.77, no.11, pp.3042-44, 1994.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1994. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAMAU MRMUBUUPETERSON. "Gender and land rights in Kenya: The role of civil society sector in policy advocacy:.". In: A paper presented in gender and land rights in East Africa regional workshop at Sheraton Hotel Kampala Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Kamau, Paul OW. "Public Procurement Reforms: Lessons from Kenya,Tanzania and Uganda." OECD Technical Paper Number 208; 2004. Abstract
n/a
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, B. MF. "Application of microbial fuel cells in the degradation of 2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil)." Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Discovery. 2018;4(2):28-35. Abstract

Pesticide’s persistence in the environment due to the relatively slow degradation mechanism leads to their bio-accumulation which in turn has adverse impacts on human health. Bio-remediation involves utilization of microbes from nature to the breakdown of organic molecules. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of microbes in degrading chlorothalonil. Aerobic-anaerobic combined conditions in an H-shaped double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) were employed for the breakdown of chlorothalonil. Decomposing tomatoes were used as the major substrate with their proximate properties being analyzed using standard method. Glucose loaded with different concentrations of chlorothalonil was introduced to the cells on day 10 when voltage production had stabilized. The voltage and current generated were monitored using a digital multi-meter while pesticide concentrations were obtained using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The highest voltage readings were obtained on day 9 of degradation, with values ranging from 0.463
to 0.537 V. The current ranged from 0.002 to 0.076 mA. Higher voltage and current values were recorded in solutions with lower pesticide concentration. The obtained degradation level was highest in 10 g glucose at 95.95 and 98.75% for day 10 and 20 respectively. The lowest breakdown was observed in the cells without glucose at 10.54 and 31.04% on day 10 and 20 respectively. The results demonstrate that MFC technology can be employed in mineralization of chlorinated pesticides as an alternative for incineration and photo-degradation.

Kamau A, Paul Kamau, Muia D, Baiya H, Ndung'u J. "Bridging the entrepreneurial gender gap through social protection among women small-scale traders in Kenya.". In: Women Entrepreneurs and the Myth of ‘Underperformance’: A New Look at Women’s Entrepreneurship Research. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing; 2018.1-14619-flier.pdf
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaura FB. "Utilization of rumen fluid in production of bio–energy from market waste using microbial fuel cells technology." J Appl Biotechnol Bioeng. 2018;5(4):227-231. Abstract

Description
Environmental Protection Agency classifies slaughter house waste as one of the most toxic environmental pollutants due to high pathogen content. Composting and anaerobic digestion are among the most common methods used for its disposal. In this study, utilization of rumen fluid as bio–catalyst in microbial fuel cells is investigated. Different market wastes were converted to electricity by loading them in anodic anaerobic chamber and then adding rumen fluid from Dagoretti slaughterhouse. 0.584 V was obtained on day 19 from avocado fruit waste while the maximum voltage for tomato waste was 0.701 V on day 20. Water melon and fruits mixture produced the least voltage. The maximum power from the tested substrate was obtained from tomato wastes. The power and current density were in the range of 1.825 to 60.041 mW/m2 and 6.762 and 99.174 mA/m2 respectively for tomato wastes. A maximum voltage of 0.584 V was obtained from tomato wastes when 500ml rumen fluid was used while 0.248 Vwas obtained for avocado fruit waste with the same amount of rumen fluid. Electrode surface area of 0.006666 m2 gave the highest voltage and power amongst 0.00399 m2 and 0.01331 m2. When the influence of external resistors was investigated, power, voltage and current obtained across a 45kΩ were 0.385 V, 0.038 Ma and 0.01463 mW on day 7 respectively for tomato wastes.

Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB. "Utilization of rumen fluid in production of bio–energy from market waste using microbial fuel cells technology." J Appl Biotechnol Bioeng. 2018;5(4):227-231. AbstractJ Appl Biotechnol Bioeng

Description
Environmental Protection Agency classifies slaughter house waste as one of the most toxic environmental pollutants due to high pathogen content. Composting and anaerobic digestion are among the most common methods used for its disposal. In this study, utilization of rumen fluid as bio–catalyst in microbial fuel cells is investigated. Different market wastes were converted to electricity by loading them in anodic anaerobic chamber and then adding rumen fluid from Dagoretti slaughterhouse. 0.584 V was obtained on day 19 from avocado fruit waste while the maximum voltage for tomato waste was 0.701 V on day 20. Water melon and fruits mixture produced the least voltage. The maximum power from the tested substrate was obtained from tomato wastes. The power and current density were in the range of 1.825 to 60.041 mW/m2 and 6.762 and 99.174 mA/m2 respectively for tomato wastes. A maximum voltage of 0.584 V was obtained from tomato wastes when 500ml rumen fluid was used while 0.248 Vwas obtained for avocado fruit waste with the same amount of rumen fluid. Electrode surface area of 0.006666 m2 gave the highest voltage and power amongst 0.00399 m2 and 0.01331 m2. When the influence of external resistors was investigated, power, voltage and current obtained across a 45kΩ were 0.385 V, 0.038 Ma and 0.01463 mW on day 7 respectively for tomato wastes.

KAMAU DRGACHIGI. ""Temperature Dependence of Phase Stability in La3+, Ca2+ and Ti4+ Modified PbZrO3 Ceramics", Proceedings of the 9th International Meeting on Ferroelectrics (IMF-9), Seoul, S. Korea, Aug. 24-29th, 1997.". In: East Africa regional conference, The Nile Hotel Kampala, Uganda. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 1997. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Kamau E, Kayima J, Otieno CF. "THE DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF PATIENTS ON MAINTENANCE HAEMODIALYSIS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, KENYA." East African Medical Journal. 2014;91(10):368-374. Abstract

Background: Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly being recognised as a primary outcome measure in the treatment of end stage renal disease. In addition to being an important surrogate marker of quality of care in patients on maintenance haemodialysis, HRQOL measures have being shown to be robust predictors of mortality and morbidity.

Objective: To determine the health related quality of life and its determinants in patients on maintenance haemodialysis at the Kenyatta National Hospital.

Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

Setting: Renal unit, Kenyatta National Hospital.

Subjects: Adult patients with end stage renal disease on maintenance haemodialysis.

Results: The mean physical composite summary and mental composite summary scores were 39.09 ± 9.49 and 41.87 ± 10.56 respectively. The burden of kidney disease sub-scale, symptom and problems sub-scale and effect of kidney disease on daily life sub-scale scores were 16.15 ± 21.83, 73.46 ± 18.06 and 67.63 ± 23.45 respectively. No significant correlations were found between the health-related quality of life scores, socio-demographic and clinical factors assessed.

Conclusion: The health-related quality of life of patients on maintenance haemodialysis is reduced. The physical quality of life is more affected than the mental quality of life. No independent determinants of health-related quality of life were identified.

Kamau FN, Njogui PM, Thoithi GN, Mwangi JW, Kibwage IO, Kariuki ST, Yenesew A, Mugoi HN, Mwalukumb JM. ". Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Investigation of Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis (Urticaceae).". 2011. Abstract

Root and stem extracts of Girardinia diversifolia exhibited varying degrees of activity against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three compounds namely ~-sitosterol, 7bydroxysitosterol and 3-bydroxystigmast-5-en-7-one, were isolated from the petroleum ether root extract. The present study gives scientific credence to the traditional use of Girardinia diversifolia in the management of microbial infections.

Kamau G, James K, Jones M, Benedict M. Alternative Approach to Mining of Heavy Minerals in Kenya.; 2002.
Kamau S, Barrios E, K.Karanja N, O.Ayuke F, Lehmann J. "Short-term casting activity of earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae) after biochar additions." Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2020;143:107736.
Kamau FN, Kibwage IO, Muriuki G, Munenge R. "Anti-inflammatory and Anti-diarrhoeal Activities of a Steroidal Indoxyl." East Cent.Afr.J.Pharm.Sci.. 2003;6:26-29.
Kamau RW, Midiwo JO, Mgani QA, Masila VM, Omosa LK, Bwire RN, Jacob MR, Frank T. Wiggers IM. "Oleanolic Acid and other Compounds Isolated from Cordia Africana Lam which Inhibit Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus." Pharmacognosy Communications. 2019;9(3):91-95.rahab_et_al_2019_pharmacognosy.pdf
Kamau FN, Kibwage IO, Muriuki G, Guantai, A N, Chepkwony H, Hoogmartens J, Roets E, Busson R. "Steroidal Indoxyls: Evaluation of Pk, values and anti-inflammatory activity.". 2006. Abstract

Three steroidal indoxyls, 3-oxo-16,17-seco-16;.nor-l,4-androstadien-15-(7'-methoxy-2-indoxyliden)17-oic acid, 1-(2'-indoxyliden)-2-nor-l,2-secocholestan-3~ oic acid and 1-(5'- chloro-2-indoxyliden)-2-nor-l,2-secocholestan-3-oic acid were synthesized and screened for anti-inflammatory activity. Their pK. values were also determined using a solubility method. The first compound, 3-oxo-16,17- seco-16-nor-l ,4-androstadien-15-(7' -methoxy-2-indoxyliden) 17 -oic acid, had an EDso value of 15.3 mg/kg and a pK. of 7.09. The cholestane derivative, 1-(2'-indoxyliden)-2-nor-l,2-secocholestan-3-oic acid, and its chloro analogue 1-(5'-chloro-2-indoxyliden)-2-nor-l,2-secocholestan-3-oic acid had EDso values of 16.2 and 22.8 mg/kg, while their pK. values were 6.56 and 7.07, respectively, suggesting that these compounds are relatively weak acids.

Kamau W. "Legal Treatment of Consent in Sexual Offences in Kenya." Law Society of Kenya . 2014;1(10):27.
Kamau A, Ngeranwa J, Ombaka D, Mutiso M. "Adoption of Eco-Friendly Dry-Land Agriculture and Water Technologies in Kitui County, Kenya.". In: Technology and Management at the Interface of Cultures: Harnessing culture and technology for sustainable development, good governance and innovative technology transfer. Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology (JOUST), Bondo; 2015.abstract_joust_final.pdf
Kamau BN, Wandiga SO, Madadi VO. "Dissipation Studies of Ridomil Gold Pesticide on Potatoes in Nyandarua County, Kenya." IJSRSET. 2017;3(5):221-229.
KAMAU MRNJOROGELUCAS. "Njoroge, L.K (1997) Financial Sector reforms and Economic growth in Kenya.". In: Research workshop on Reforms and Growth on 9th August 1997 in Harare-Zimbabwe. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 1997.
Kamau FN, Thoithi GN, Kibwage. IO. "Quality of ampicillin preparations on the Kenyan market." East Cent. Afr. J. Pharm. Sc.. 2001;4:25-29.
Kamau D(M)RG, Kamau AK. "NON-CONVENTIONAL APPROACHES TO FINANCING LOW-COST HOUSING SCHEMES IN KENYA." UNHCS (Habitat). 1983.
Kamau MM, Ndavula JO, Mberia HK. "Online Campaign in Kenya : Implementing the Facebook Campaign in the 2013 General Elections." International Journal of Education and Research. 2015;Vol. 3(No. 7):255-266.
Kamau MM. Law and Ethics of Media: English Adaptation. Nairobi: Pauline Publications; 2002.
KAMAU MRNJOROGELUCAS. "Njoroge, L.K (2001) The interest rates premium: the case for Kenya.". In: a research proposal that was presented to the Africa Economic Research Consortium-AERC- in the Dec 2001 Bi-annual workshop. Gitau, W., Ogallo L. A. and Mutemi, J. N.,; 2001.
Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB, Kamau GN. "Microbial fuel cells: influence of external resistors on power, current and power density." J Thermodyn Catal. 2017;8(1):100-182. AbstractJ Thermodyn Catal

Description
Copyright:© 2017 Kamau JM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Kamau J, Melis R, Laing M, Shanahan P, Derera J, Ngugi K, Migwa Y. "Farmers’ Perceptions of Production Constraints and Preferences in Cassava Grown in Semi-Arid Areas of Kenya." International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2016;5(3):844-859.farmers_perceptions_of_production_constraints_and_preferences.pdf
KAMAU DRGACHIIMICHAEL, WINGA MRODHIAMBOJOHN. "Asymmetrical Single Replicate Designs.". In: South African Statistical Journal. F.N. kamau, G. N Thothi and I.O Kibwage; 1998. Abstract
A model for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional geodetic reference datum is presented. Starting from the three-dimensional integrated geodetic network model, formulations for the establishment of a four-dimensional regional datum are developed. Astronomic latitudes, astronomic longitudes, gravity values, gravity potential differences, gravity differences, and GPS-vectors are considered as observables. The estimated parameters defining the datura are point coordinates, deflections of the vertical and geoidai undulations, and velocities and accelerations on the positional coordinates. The network datum is considered observed over several epochs with parameters estimated from previous epochs being introduced into later epochs as stochastic prior information parameters.

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