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KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, MUCHINA MRWAITHAKAPETER, THUU MRKIMANISAMUEL. "Strengthening Masters of Community Health Nursing in Kenya By Prof.. Anna Karani, Ms Kazuko Nasire, Prof. Junko Tashiro, Kimani, Waithaka, et al. Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2. Sgma Theta Tau International : Honor Society For Nursing; 2008. Abstract

Introduction: In the East African region no nurse had done a master programme in Community Health Nursing. Therefore, a needs assessment was done followed by a study on developing / strengthening community health nursing in Kenya as a model for the region. This was done with Collaboration of University of Nairobi-Kenya and WHO St

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kangethe, Simon; Karani, Anna and Wambua, Kyalo Planning & Implementation of Innovative Medical Education. Amazing, No 019, December, 2004.". In: Amazing, No 019, December, 2004. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna. , et al, Registered Theatre Nursing Clinical Log. Nursing Council of Kenya. Nairobi, May, 1999.". In: Nursing Council of Kenya. Nairobi, May, 1999. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 1999. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Utrasound findings; Their Importance and their Nursing and Medical Education Implication- The Case of Ectopic Pregnancies.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, 38 (1) 55-59. Dr. Onditi Elias G.D, Prof. Anna K. Karani & Prof. Simon Kangethe; Submitted. Abstract

Background: Utrasound  technology continues advancing in techniques and diagnosis. It remains a field of specialists where nurses and other health workers are uneducated on it. Objectives: Determine pattern of ultrasound findings in ectopic pregnancy, involvement of nursing staff, determine medical education implications.Design: Retrospective, prospective and on-going study over 8 year period. Focus group discussions with nursing and medical education analysts. Setting: Memorial Hospital Eldoret, Kenya.Participants - 81 patients with ectopic pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasound.Results: Age range 19-39 years - 34.6% Unruptured ectopic pregnancy - 44.5%, Ruptured 43.2%, chronic leaking 2.3%.Conclusion: Ultrasound aids diagnosis and can grade type of pregnancy. Need to demystify science to nurses, clinical officers and other health workers.Recommendation: Medical education to include ultrasound to existing curriculaspecifying roles by health workers. Use participatory teaching methods for ultrasound technology. 

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "101 Global Leadershjp Lessons For Nurses (Chapter 92"Synergy and Win-Win: The Goals of Effective Leadership") By Prof. Anna K. Karani and Patrick K. Wairiri.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Sgma Theta Tau International : Honor Society For Nursing; 2009. Abstract

The Goals of the book are to:1,  Illustrate the process and rewards of mentoring for the organization, mentee,      and mentor.2.  Offer salient , tangible, subject-based lessons for new and experienced       leaders alike.3.  demonstrate that mentee-mentor competences are more readily gained      through personal example, channeled practice, or experience than      through pure education and training.At the end of every chapter there are reflective questions.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Maina, Philomena, Karani, Anna, et al.Problems Encountered by Middle Level Nurse Managers in Ensuring Quality Nursing Care in Kenyatta National Hospital. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32 No.2, December, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32 No.2. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna Nursing Education and Practice in Kenya. Kirin Information on Drugs and Science Journal. Excerpta Medica, Japan. Vol. 11, No. 1. 2001.". In: Kirin Information on Drugs and Science Journal. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2001. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "S. Kangethe, A. Karani, J. Njagi, E Kamaara, C, Syallow, J.M. Ole Kiu, Mengich, Gladys. ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Pediatricians, for example spend most of their time catering to the needs of children, while nurses, pharmacists and dentists in their own areas. Medical Educators, however, spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Grace Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege THE ROLE OF CLINICAL PLACEMENT ON KRCHN GRADUATES PERFORMANCE IN THE NCK REGISTRATION EXAMINATION.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Ms Grace Gachuiri, Prof. Anna Karani, Dr Margaret Chege; Submitted. Abstract

The study sought to establish the factors affecting the diploma graduates performance in the Nursing registration examination. Necessitated by poor performance recorded in recent years, this study was aimed at seeking to establish the reasons why. This was a descriptive study. Quantitative data was collected using self-administered semi structured questionnaires from 75 KRCHN graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital. The study areas were purposively selected and the study subjects selected through simple random sampling. Qualitative data was collected using a study from lecturers

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna First Aid Awareness among Paediatric Accident Victims at Kenyatta National Hospital. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol.32 No.1, June, 2004. Also Published on Line .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2005. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna, & ECSACON members, HIV/AIDS,A Guide for Nurses / Midwives and other health care workers. Publisher, Commonwealth Regional Health Community Secretariat, Arusha, Tanzania. 2001.". In: CommonWealth Regional Health Community Secretariat. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2001. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "ROLES OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS IN THE ADVANCEMENT OF HEALTH PROFESSIONS .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal - KNJ Vol. 41(2) 65-67. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

Health care professionals are absorbed daily in the practices of their professional areas of specialization. Medical Educators,  spend their time catering to the educational needs of all health care professionals, whatever their specialization. A recent area of concern in the medical education curricula has been the inclusion of the topic

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani - University of Nairobi-Nursing Mr. Stephen Kainga - University of Nairobi-Nursing Mrs Diana Mwarania .". In: 1st International Conference University of Nairobi . Conference; 2011. Abstract

The purpose was  to determine their perceptions about the  nursing profession and implications to students in order to recommend how to  improve their attitude through continuing education and review of BScN curriculum. Methodology, the study  design was descriptive cross sectional  with both  qualitative and descriptive components. The study tool was a  supervised self administered questionnaire and focus group discussions. Results indicated that the graduates gained competence as they gained experience after internship. The t-test supported the alternative hypothesis that BScNs had competent skills  after internship on IT, Report writing, Team work but need to improve  competencies on assessing levels of unconsciousness, mental status of patients, communicating sensitive messages such as death of  relatives and handling medical-legal issues of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion was that BScN nurses at KNH perceive their role as clinical practitioners positively with potential  to improve as they gain experience on clinical skills after adequate exposure during internship. Recommendation was to evaluate BScN programs for achievements and improvement needed for quality BScN graduate nurses.   

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kangethe, S. and Karani, Anna Ethical Issues in Health Research in Developing Countries. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No.1, June, 2005.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No.1, June, 2005. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2005. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna Attitude of Young People Towards Old People in Nairobi. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 31 No.1, December, 2003.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 31 No.1, December, 2003. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2003. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "1. Naruse Kazuko, Tashiro Junko, Sankyo Yumi, Ichikawa Wakako, Karani Anna Stakeholders.". In: Annual Scientific Conference of National Nurses Association of Kenya on 5th - 7th October, 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College in Nyeri, Kenya. Blackwell Publishing Co.; Submitted. Abstract

After the World Health Assembly approved WHA 45.5 in 1992 addressing the nursing shortage by refocusing nurses and midwifes to meet community health needs, community demands for educated nurses and the needs of higher nursing education in developing countries increased.  Therefore in Kenyan a major university school of nursing initiated a collaborative study with a well established Japanese nursing college to determine the service-providers

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kibaru S., Mardsen S., Godia P. , Karani A. et al. National Guidelines for Provision of Adolescent Youth-Friendly Services (YFS) in Kenya. Ministry of Health, Division of Reproductive Health,Nairobi, Kenya. 2005.". In: Ministry of Health, Division of Reproductive Health,Nairobi, Kenya. 2005. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2005. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna ; Edith, Ndungu & Grace Kandie Nursing Trends in Kenya. Option Publishers, Nairobi, 2003.". In: Option Publishers, Nairobi, 2003. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2003. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Clinical competence of Nursing Graduates in Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery and Womens.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. 1. Margaret Njambi Chege, Ephantus W. Kabiru, Anna Karani and Anseline Derese; Submitted. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Where will this illness take me? Reactions to HIV Diagnosis From Women Living with HIV in Kenya. Authors : Peninnah M. Kako; Patricia E. Stevens, (University of Wisconsin .". In: Health Care For Women International. Health Care For Women International; 2011. Abstract

The purpose of the study was to develop an in-depth  understanding of reactions of 40 urban and rural HIV-infected Kenyan women to HIV diagnosis. We employed narrative inquiry principles to guide this qualitative cross-sectional study. We conducted individual in-depth interviews using open- ended questions in April and May 2006. In this article we focus on women

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "2. Strengthening Masters of community Health Nursing in Kenya.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal KNJ 37(2) 58-64. Decemer, 2008. Prof. Karani Anna, Kazuko Nasire,Prof. Junko Tashiro,Waithaka Peter, Yumi Sakyo,Wakako Ichikawa; 2008. Abstract

Development / Strengthening Masters on Community Health Nursing Curriculum in Kenya. In the East African region no nurse had done a master programme in Community Health Nursing. Therefore, a needs assessment was done followed by a study on developing / strengthening community health nursing in Kenya as a model for the region. This was done in collaboration with a nursing institution in Kenya and another in Japan.Aim was to develop/strengthen Masters in Community Health Nursing programme in Kenya and the region.The study was conducted between 2005 and 2006 in Kenya. Two provinces were selected due to proximity and accessibility. The national hospital, one provincial hospital, five district hospitals and five health centres were randomly selected as study areas. The 22 subjects (Registered Community Health Nurses) purposely selected were lecturers, administrators and service providers. The tool used was recorded interview, checklist and focus group discussions at the subjects working area followed by transcription of interview. Five data collectors were trained for 2 days and tools pre-tested. The study revealed that majority of the subjects (50%) wanted lifelong learning at the place of work with progress onto masters to PhD by distance learning. Masters graduates should be responsible for teaching, administration and policy. A core curriculum, distance learning, learning manuals, clear job descriptions and exchange programme were declared most important.Conclusion: Core curriculum developed for implementation, clear job descriptions recommended, distance learning to be started using modules and support for exchange program needed.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kibui Lawrence; Karani, Anna, et al Needs Assessment on Training of Mental Health Nurses in Counselling at Mathari Hospital, Nairobi. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32 No.2, December, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna .". In: National Nurses Association of Kenya, Nursing Journal, August 1998 pp. 29 - 30. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 1998. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Dr. Peninnah M. Kako, Prof. Anna K. Karani, Prof.Patricia E. Stevens Reactions to HIV Diagnosis from Women Living with HIV in Kenya.". In: Paper presented at Safari Park Hotel STTI Conference on 3rd July, 2010. Dr.Peninnah M.Kako, Prof. Anna K. Karani, Prof.Patricia E. Stevens; Submitted. Abstract

Background: HIV prevalence in Kenya stands at 7.8%, with women being most affected with infection rates being 2-3 times higher than that of their male counterparts.  Studies that focus on health needs of HIV-infected women in Kenya are needed and necessary. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of the reactions of 40 urban and rural HIV-infected Kenyan women to HIV diagnosis. Methods: Narrative inquiry principles were employed to guide this qualitative cross-sectional study. We conducted in-depth interviews using open-ended questions in April and May 2006.  Findings: Participants

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani , Prof. Simon Kangethe NURSING LEADERSHIP FOR CHANGE - LEADERS ATTITUDE. Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2. Sgma Theta Tau International : Honor Society For Nursing; 2008. Abstract

Leadership is a key factor in effective management. A leader is a problem solver, a servant leader who provides for his followers. He influences others, sets a good pace for others and fights a good fight. A leader succeeds for keeping right images in heart. A good leader always has vision. The attitude of the leader determines the altitude, that is how far up one can go or fly. The attitude of the leader sets the standard for the altitude and determines the perspective. The leader looks for opportunities. Nurse leaders need heroes in life, who would bring greatness in the life of the profession. A qualified nurse has reached age of wisdom and should not be limited in their thinking. Plant a seed of hope, courage and inspire others. Learn to take advantage of God given opportunities. Don

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kibui Lawrence; Karani, Anna, et al.Needs Assessment on Training of Mental Health Nurses in Counselling at Mathari Hospital, Nairobi. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32 No.2, December, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32 No.2. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

Kagure KA. "Utrasound findings; Their Importance and their Nursing and Medical Education Implication- The Case of Ectopic Pregnancies.". 2007. Abstract

Ultrasound technology continues advancing in techniques and diagnosis. It remains a field of specialists where nurses and other health workers are uneducated on it. Objectives: Determine pattern of ultrasound findings in ectopic pregnancy, involvement of nursing staff, determine medical education implications.Design: Retrospective, prospective and on-going study over 8 year period. Focus group discussions with nursing and medical education analysts. Setting: Memorial Hospital Eldoret, Kenya.Participants - 81 patients with ectopic pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasound.Results: Age range 19-39 years - 34.6% Unruptured ectopic pregnancy - 44.5%, Ruptured 43.2%, chronic leaking 2.3%. Conclusion: Ultrasound aids diagnosis and can grade type of pregnancy. Need to demystify science to nurses, clinical officers and other health workers.Recommendation: Medical education to include ultrasound to existing curriculaspecifying roles by health workers. Use participatory teaching methods for ultrasound technology.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna., et al, Performance Evaluation For Kenya Enrolled Community Health Nurses. Graduates of September, 1998. Nursing Council of Kenya, Nairobi.". In: Nursing Council of Kenya, Nairobi. 2001. . Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2001. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani ; Stephen Kainga; Prof. Simon Kangethe; Diana Mwarania - PERCEPTION OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING (BScN) ON THEIR ROLE ON NURSING IN A HOSPITAL SETTING.". In: KNJ Dec. 2011; vol.41:2. Impress Communications; Submitted. Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the clinical Competence of Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates working at Kenyatta National Hospital in March 2011. The objective was to assess the perceptions of graduate nurses about the nursing profession and the implications on the development of BScN undergraduates from the University of Nairobi and other Universities with a view to improving their perception about the profession  through continuing education and curriculum review. It was a cross sectional study with a sample size of 50 nurses, total population selected on purpose. A supervised questionnaire and focus group discussion tools were used for data collection.  The findings indicated that majority of the Bachelor of Science Nursing graduates

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna K. Karani RE - DISCOVERING THE CHRISTIAN NURSE.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal 1st.July 2010. Prof. Anna K. Karani; Submitted. Abstract

The old nurse was there during the colonial  era. They were trained mainly by missionaries who were Christians. Therefore, they had the discipline and the Christian foundation principles. The joy of a Christian institution like Kijabe is that it still has that foundation. So all is not lost. We have to make sure that the lost PASSION, LOVE & CARE are back in the nursing profession. We have to restore that passion. That idea or feeling

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna. Sustaining Nursing Leadership in the 21st Century and Beyond. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol.32 No.1, June, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol.32 No.1. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna et al Kenya Registered Community Health Basic Nursing Programme (Pre-Service) Student Training Manual, 2ndedition. Nursing Council of Kenya Publication, Nairobi. 2001.". In: Nursing Council of Kenya Publication. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2001. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Nyangena, E., Mutema, A. & Karani, A. Evaluation of clinical training in nursing in Kenya.". In: Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal - Dec. 2011 1(2) 22-30. Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal; Submitted. Abstract

 The  research evaluated clinical training provided by the academic institutions that offer Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN) program. The purpose of the study was to describe the adequacy of clinical training and the graduates preparedness for nursing practice. The study was conducted from Sept. 2008 to March 2010. Design was cross sectional using questionnaires and focus group interviews (FGI) methods to collect data. The sample comprised of 232 subjects including pre-service BScN graduates and nursing supervisors at four teaching and referral hospitals in Kenya. Results revealed that clinical training provided by academic institutions was adequate but quality of training varied widely among the training institutions. The conclusion was that clinical training provided by BScN programs in Kenya was of high quality. The study recommends that urgent attention was required by nurse educators to address identified gaps in clinical training especially clinical instruction and supervision.   

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Gichigi Esther, Prof. Anna Karani Dr Margaret Chege .". In: Kenya Nursing Journal June, Vol. 39(1) 57-61. Ms Gichigi Esther, Prof. Anna Karani Dr Margaret Chege; Submitted. Abstract

Mentorship programs are offered to support students in program completion, confidence building and transitioning to further education or the work force. However mentoring relationships have been faced by challenges such as inadequate knowledge and negative attitude. This study aimed at evaluating knowledge, attitude and perceived benefits on mentorship among the nursing students in Kenyan universities. The study was conducted in September, 2009.  A descriptive cross sectional survey  used both qualitative and quantitative methods to gather information. The study participants were students from University of Nairobi (U.O.N) and Kenya Methodist University (K.E.M.U). A sample of 188 students was selected from a total population of 403 in both universities. The data were coded, entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Presentation of data was done in form of descriptive statistics, frequency distribution and graphs. Pearsons chi square tests were used to compare the two groups. The tests level of significance was set at 5%. Results showed that there was a significance difference between mentorship programmes in the two institutions ( χ 2= 17.02,  d.f=1 , p < 0.001)           . Fourty four (72%) of the students at K.E.M.U felt that the program had positive impact on students

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Khalil Doris and Karani Anna, Are Nurses Victims or Perpetrators of Violence . Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 2 December, 2005.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 33 No. 2 December, 2005. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2005. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna Youth Health Action for Kenya. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol.31 No.1 December, 2003.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol.31 No.1 December, 2003. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2003. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Ms Chore Jane Njambi; Prof. Anna Karani Dr. Margaret Chege. Assessment of Challenges Facing Preceptors at Kenyatta National Hospital Specialized Units.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, vol. 40:1: 6-13. Impress Communication Printers and Stationers; Submitted. Abstract

The main aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to assess challenges faced by preceptors at Kenyatta National Hospital specialized units. The study was conducted among preceptors with more than one year experience at Kenyatta National Hospital specialized units and combined both quantitative and qualitative methods. Data was collected using a self administered semi-structured questionnaire distributed to 113 randomly sampled preceptor nurses and an interview guide was used to collect qualitative data from five unit managers. The data was coded, computed and analyzed by SPSS version 17 (qualitative data was analyzed manually).Commonly reported challenges by preceptors included; heavy patient workload 85.71%, lack of adequate resources 59.52% and a high number of students attached to a preceptor 59.52%. Chi square was used to establish relationships between variables. Motivation to serve as a preceptor was strongly associated with the number of years a participant had served as a nurse. (X=11.30; p=0.01).

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kibaru S., Mardsen S., Godia P. , Karani A. et al National Guidelines for Provision of Adolescent Youth-Friendly Services (YFS) in Kenya. Ministry of Health, Division of Reproductive Health, Nairobi, Kenya. 2005.". In: Ministry of Health, Division of Reproductive Health. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2005. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna and Miriam Wagoro Disaster Management : HighLights. Option Publishers, Nairobi, 2003.". In: Option Publishers, Nairobi, 2003. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2003. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

Kagure KA. "Challenges in Accessing HIV-related Healthcare in Resource Limited Communities: Lessons from HIV-infected Women in Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Background: Increasing access to HIV-related health care is very important in access resource limited countries. In Kenya HIV prevalence increased in 2008 to 7.8 from 6.7 in 2003. Women are mostly affected with infection rates 2-3 times more than men. Challenges women face attempting to access HIV care is urgent.Purpose: Study sought to identify health needs of HIV infected women in Kenya grapple with.Method: Forty Urban (Nairobi) and rural (Eastern Province) infected women participated in the study. A cross sectional qualitative narrative study elicited life stories of health needs. Unstructured in-depth interviews,tape recorded, transcribed and translated to English. Data analysis used N-vivo qualitative analysis soft ware. Multistage narrative analysis was used to explore emergent themes.Findings: Women of mean age 37 years and 3 years since diagnosis described prolonged illnesses suffered by spouses, themselves and children burdened by inadequate HIV care.Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment Interventions are necessary for well being and long life.

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe, Mr. Johannes Njagi, Njoka ,Media Resources in Medical Education: Critical issues and factors to consider in instructional media development in the training of health professionals.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; Submitted. Abstract

 Media resources are critical component in teaching and learning process. Studies indicate that media resources provide the substitute for direct learning experiences during instruction and enable educators to present the learners with the requisite experience necessary for the acquisition of appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes.The researchers set out to explore the philosophical, psychological and educational basis that provides guidelines on the development of media resources in the effective education and training of health professionals. Methodology was a historical critique of information from books, journals,magazines and internet on media resources in Medical education.  The findings indicate that the process of media resources development and administration is highly creative venture according to Mason (1977).plan, prepare, present, preview and follow up activities after use of equipment. Therefore educators must be able to demonstrate these issues when developing and administering them. 

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "NURSE.". In: Annual Scientific Conference on 5th-7th Oct. 2011 at Kagumo Teachers College - Nyeri, Kenya. National Nurses Association of Kenya; Submitted. Abstract

 Prof. Anna Karani on - Authentic Leadership focus on impact of integrity so that leadership is better prepared to face the toughest challenges, inspire transparency and trust. It requires building in mind the customers served. Behaviour change is essential for long term growth and it avoids peripheral vision. Focused leadership identifies the missing link, addresses priority issues and information that is accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, simple, timely, and verifiable. Nurses have a purpose, a destiny and need to accomplish things. They are trained to make a difference in peoples

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE, KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Dr. Margaret N. Meme others, Prof. Anna Karani, et al Book .". In: Ministry of Public Heath and Sanitation and Ministry of Medical Services. Ministry of Public Health & Sanitation and Ministry of Medical Services; 2011. Abstract

The purpose of the  sexuality curriculum is to improve service provider

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Effect of Post Basic Psychiatric Nursing Training on Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills of Nurses in the Management of Substance Dependent Patients at Mathari Hospital, Nairobi- Nov.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal KNJ 36:.(2):21-26:2007. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2007. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Maina, Philomena, Karani, Anna, et al Problems Encountered by Middle Level Nurse Managers in Ensuring Quality Nursing Care in Kenyatta National Hospital. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32 No.2, December, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Registered Theatre Nursing Clinical Log.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal,. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 1995. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Prof. Anna Karani Facing Today.". In: Paper presented at Safari Park Hotel STTI Conference on 3rd July, 2010. Prof. Anna K. Karani; Submitted. Abstract

A leader is one who has the  Vision to see, Faith to believe, Will to learn, Humility to serve, Courage to do, Resilience to rise up in times of knock downs. What  is leadership? The ability to get things done through people.  What challenges have you encountered in leadership as you work? How have you overcome these challenges? What sets you apart from everybody else? What is it that you do differently from the nurse of to-day? It is your leadership. The way you do things for the community you serve. The commitment to serve selflessly. The way you are disciplined. It is not just money.  We all want to learn how to become more effective leaders in providing health care to the  community. We have to prepare for many challenges with the advanced technology, rapid development, and fast changing health systems, emerging diseases, rising poverty, hard economic times, changing social systems, Education , political , environment, climate among many others that affect the communities we serve. Facing Today

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Agnes Wangechi Karuga, Alice Gathogo , Teresia Mbua, Nancy Ndungu, Prof. Ann Karani Retrospective study on overcrowding in Thika and Kiambu District Hospitals Medical Wards 2006 - 2007 . Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal Dec. 2008. vol. 33 No.2. Sgma Theta Tau International : Honor Society For Nursing; 2008. Abstract

The study was conducted at Thika and Kiambu District Hospitals Medical wards covering September 2005

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Kipturgo Matthew and Karani, Anna. One Level Nurse Movement in Kenya. Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32No.2. December, 2004.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, Vol. 32No.2. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2004. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Karani, Anna., et al, Research Guidelines. Nursing Council of Kenya. Nursing Council of Kenya, Nairobi. 2001.". In: Nursing Council of Kenya, Nairobi. 2001. Mutunga Catherine and Karani Anna; 2001. Abstract

{ Abuse of substances of dependence have risen dramatically and spawned major health problems in Kenya. We conducted a study on the effects of post-basic psychiatric training on nurses

KAGURE PROFKARANIANNE. "Challenges in Accessing HIV-related Healthcare in Resource Limited Communities: Lessons from HIV-infected Women in Kenya.". In: Kenya Nursing Journal, 38(1) 24-31. Dr. Peninnah M. Kako,Univ.W1; Prof. Anna K. Karani,UoN & Prof. Patricia E. Stevens, Univ.W1; Submitted. Abstract

 Background: Increasing access to HIV-related health care is very important in access resource limited countries. In Kenya HIV prevalence increased in 2008 to 7.8 from 6.7 in 2003. Women are mostly affected with infection rates 2-3 times more than men. Challenges women face attempting to access HIV care is urgent.Purpose: Study sought to identify health needs of HIV infected women in Kenya grapple with.Method: Forty Urban (Nairobi) and rural (Eastern Province) infected women participated in the study. A cross sectional qualitative narrative study eilicited life stories of health needs. Unstructured in-depth interviews,tape recorded, transcribed and translated to English. Data analysis used N-vivo qualitative analysis soft ware. Multistage narrative analysis was used to explore emergent themes.Findings: Women of mean age 37 years and 3 years since diagnosis described prolonged illnesses sufferred by spouses, themselves and children burdened by inadequate HIV care.Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment Interventions are necessary for wellbeing and long life.

Kagwe J, Masinde M. "Survey on DNS configurations, interdependencies, resilience and security for *.ke domains.". In: ACM Annual Symposium on Computing for Development, ACM DEV '12. Atlanta, Georgia; 2012.
KAHAKI DRKIMANI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Listo BN, Kollmann KHM, Kimani K, Owino C.Ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH Clinic). East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 27-34.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular conditions in HIV/AIDS patients attending HIV/AIDS care clinic (AMPATH). Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study. Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH CLINIC) ,Eldoret, Kenya. Subjects: HIV/AIDS patients seen at AMPATH, clinic. Results: Two hundred patients with HIV/AIDS were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular findings was 154 patients (77%). One hundred and eighteen patients (59%) were on ARV therapy. The main findings were posterior segment lesions (53%), anterior segment disorders (26.5%). Posterior segment findings included; Retinal microvasculopathy (75 patients ,37.5%), chorioretinitis (9 patients, 4.5%), vitreous opacities (8 patients, 4%), macula edema (8 patients, 4%) and CMV retinitis (5 patients , 2.5%). Fibrous membrane attached to the iris mostly near the pupillary margin (37 patients, 18.5%) and iridocyclitis (11 patients, 5.5%) were the main anterior segment findings. Conjunctival growths (13 patients, 6,5%) and Kaposi (10 patients, 5%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (8 patients, 4%) and molluscum contagiosum (5 patients, 2.5%) were the main ocular adnexal findings. Tuberculosis was the main systemic findings (53%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the severity of clinical disease staging (e.g. WHO stages III and IV) and severity of immune suppression (CD4+ count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in adolescents and adults with HIV/AIDS. Retinal microvasculopathy was the commonest posterior segment finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual findings of the fibrous membrane attached to the iris observed in this study.
KAHAKI DRKIMANI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Listo BN, Kollmann KHM, Kimani K, Owino C.Ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH Clinic). East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 27-34.". In: East African Journal of Ophthalmology. I.E.K Internatioanl Conference l; 2009. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular conditions in HIV/AIDS patients attending HIV/AIDS care clinic (AMPATH). Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study. Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH CLINIC) ,Eldoret, Kenya. Subjects: HIV/AIDS patients seen at AMPATH, clinic. Results: Two hundred patients with HIV/AIDS were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular findings was 154 patients (77%). One hundred and eighteen patients (59%) were on ARV therapy. The main findings were posterior segment lesions (53%), anterior segment disorders (26.5%). Posterior segment findings included; Retinal microvasculopathy (75 patients ,37.5%), chorioretinitis (9 patients, 4.5%), vitreous opacities (8 patients, 4%), macula edema (8 patients, 4%) and CMV retinitis (5 patients , 2.5%). Fibrous membrane attached to the iris mostly near the pupillary margin (37 patients, 18.5%) and iridocyclitis (11 patients, 5.5%) were the main anterior segment findings. Conjunctival growths (13 patients, 6,5%) and Kaposi (10 patients, 5%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (8 patients, 4%) and molluscum contagiosum (5 patients, 2.5%) were the main ocular adnexal findings. Tuberculosis was the main systemic findings (53%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the severity of clinical disease staging (e.g. WHO stages III and IV) and severity of immune suppression (CD4+ count). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in adolescents and adults with HIV/AIDS. Retinal microvasculopathy was the commonest posterior segment finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual findings of the fibrous membrane attached to the iris observed in this study.
KAHAKI DRKIMANI, MARTIN DRKOLLMANNKH. "Listo BN, Kollmann KHM, Kimani K, Owino C.Ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH Clinic). East Afr. j. ophthalmol. 2009 Jul; 15(1): 27-34.". In: African Journal of Midwifery and Womens. Prof. Anna karani, Prof. Simon Kangethe & Johannes Njagi Njoka; 2009. Abstract

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Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular conditions in HIV/AIDS patients attending HIV/AIDS care clinic (AMPATH).

Design: Hospital-based cross sectional study.

Setting: Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (AMPATH CLINIC) ,Eldoret, Kenya.

Subjects: HIV/AIDS patients seen at AMPATH, clinic.

Results: Two hundred patients with HIV/AIDS were examined. The overall prevalence of ocular findings was 154 patients (77%). One hundred and eighteen patients (59%) were on ARV therapy. The main findings were posterior segment lesions (53%), anterior segment disorders (26.5%). Posterior segment findings included; Retinal microvasculopathy (75 patients ,37.5%), chorioretinitis (9 patients, 4.5%), vitreous opacities (8 patients, 4%), macula edema (8 patients, 4%) and CMV retinitis (5 patients , 2.5%). Fibrous membrane attached to the iris mostly near the pupillary margin (37 patients, 18.5%) and iridocyclitis (11 patients, 5.5%) were the main anterior segment findings. Conjunctival growths (13 patients, 6,5%) and Kaposi (10 patients, 5%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (8 patients, 4%) and molluscum contagiosum (5 patients, 2.5%) were the main ocular adnexal findings. Tuberculosis was the main systemic findings (53%). This study found that ocular findings are directly related to the severity of clinical disease staging (e.g. WHO stages III and IV) and severity of immune suppression (CD4+ count).

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest a high prevalence of ocular findings in adolescents and adults with HIV/AIDS. Retinal microvasculopathy was the commonest posterior segment finding observed. Further studies are needed to investigate the unusual findings of the fibrous membrane attached to the iris observed in this study.

Kahaki K, Ciku M, Sheila M, Onyango O, Wachira W, Elkana O, Kagondu F, Karimurio J, Hans L. "Outcome and Barriers in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet Districts, Kenya. East Afr J Ophthalmol." East Afr J ophthalmol. 2008;14(1):35-40. Abstract

Objective: To assess the cataract surgical coverage, outcome of cataract surgery
and barriers to uptake of cataract surgical services.
Setting: Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts CES Project.
Design: Cross-sectional population based survey using rapid assessment of
avoidable blindness (RAAB) method.
Participants: Fifty one clusters of 50 people aged 50 years or older were selected by probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters. Compact segment sampling was used to select households within the clusters. Two thousand five hundred and forty six people were eligible for the survey of which 2419 (95%) were examined.
Methods: Participants underwent a comprehensive ocular examination in their homes by an ophthalmologist. The visual acuity was measured using a tumbling E chart. The cause of visual impairment was established. Those who had undergone cataract surgery were questioned about the details of the operation and their satisfaction with the surgery. Those who were visually impaired from cataract were asked why they had not gone for surgery.
Results: Cataract was found to be the main cause of blindness (42.9%) and visual impairment (42.7%) in those aged 50 years and older. The cataract surgical coverage was high, with 87.2% of those with bilateral cataract who needed surgery having had surgery at V/A<3/60. The quality of surgery was of concern with 20.7% of the 222 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery having a best corrected vision of <6/60. The main barriers to cataract surgery were cost and lack of awareness.
Conclusions: The cataract surgical coverage in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts is high. The outcome of surgery is below the WHO standard and needs improvement.

Kahaki K, Ciku M, Sheila M, Onyango O, Wachira W, Elkana O, Kagondu F, Karimurio J, Hans L. "Cataract Surgical Services, Outcome and Barriers in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet Districts, Kenya.". 2008. AbstractWebsite

Objective: To assess the cataract surgical coverage, outcome of cataract surgery and barriers to uptake of cataract surgical services. Setting: Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts CES Project. Design: Cross-sectional population based survey using rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) method. Participants: Fifty one clusters of 50 people aged 50 years or older were selected by probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters. Compact segment sampling was used to select households within the clusters. Two thousand fi ve hundred and forty six people were eligible for the survey of which 2419 (95%) were examined. Methods: Participants underwent a comprehensive ocular examination in their homes by an ophthalmologist. The visual acuity was measured using a tumbling E chart. The cause of visual impairment was established. Those who had undergone cataract surgery were questioned about the details of the operation and their satisfaction with the surgery. Those who were visually impaired from cataract were asked why they had not gone for surgery. Results: Cataract was found to be the main cause of blindness (42.9%) and visual impairment (42.7%) in those aged 50 years and older. The cataract surgical coverage was high, with 87.2% of those with bilateral cataract who needed surgery having had surgery at V/A<3/60. The quality of surgery was of concern with 20.7% of the 222 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery having a best corrected vision of <6/60. The main barriers to cataract surgery were cost and lack of awareness. Conclusions: The cataract surgical coverage in Kericho, Bureti and Bomet districts is high. The outcome of surgery is below the WHO standard and needs improvement.

Kahi, H.C, M, M. Nyangito P, C.K.K. Gachene P. Land Use Change in Upper River Kibwezi Riparian Ecosystem From 1985 to 2015.; 2018.
Kahiga RM. "Health, well-being and welfare in childhood in Kenya." Bloomsbury Education and Childhood Studies.. 2018.
Kahiga RM, Kibui K, Mwaniki B, Gichuhi L, Nyaga G, Ngesu L. "Multicultural Education as a mechanism for promoting positive ethnicity in Kenya." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology (IJSRIT). 2015;2(3):9-16.
and and Kahiga, R. M. KNSRWE. Movement activities. Grade Two. Teacher’s guide.. Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.; 2018.
and Kahiga, R. M. KNSRWE. Movement activities. Grade One. Teacher’s guide..; 2018.
Kahiga RW, Oyier CR, Odundo PA, Ganira KL. "Effects of ICT integration in management of private secondary schools in Nairobi County, Kenya: Policy options and practices." World Journal of Education. 2015;5(6):14-22.
Kahiga, Ruth M; Gatumu JNJC;. "SUSTAINABILITY OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRESCHOOL PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM IN NAIROBI AND NYERI COUNTIES." International Journal of Education and Research. 2017.
and Kahiga, R. M. NKWR. Movement activities. Grade Three. Teacher’s guide.. Kenya Literature Bureau.; 2018.
Kahiga RM, Gatumu JC, Nteere JS. "Sustainability of the implementation of the Preschool physical education curriculum in Nairobi and Nyeri counties.". In: Africa for Research in Comparative Education Society. Kenya Science Campus; Forthcoming.
Kahiga RM, Kibui AW, Nyaga G, Ngesu LM, Mwaniki IN, Mwaniki B. "Health policies in Kenya and the new constitution for vision 2030." International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology (IJSRIT). 2015;2(1):127-134.
Kahiga RM. "Providing for individual differences among preschool children.". In: Teaching Children: a handbook for preschool teachers. Nairobi: Vidic Investment Limited; 2014.
Kahigi CM, Muasya IW, Ngesu LM, Kanja PW. "TFD 301: Sociology of Education.". 2011. Abstract
n/a
Kahigi CM, Muasya IW. "Social Problems and Education.". 2012. Abstract
n/a
Kahigi CM. Influence of sources of sexual information and personal characteristics on secondary school students' sexual behaviour in Thika West Sub-County, Kenya. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2015. Abstract

The purpose of this research was to investigate reliable sources of sexual
information for secondary school students that influence their sexual
behaviour. This research was carried out in Kenya, specifically Thika West
sub-County. It was conducted among sampled secondary school students, their
head teachers and teacher counsellors. The specific objectives of the study
were to: establish how sexual information obtained through the school
curriculum influences secondary school students' sexual behaviour; establish
how sexual information received through the family setting influences
secondary school students' sexual behaviour; investigate how sexual
information received through religious institutions influences secondary
school students' sexual behaviour; establish how sexual information obtained
through the peer group influences secondary school students' sexual
behaviour; investigate how sexual information accessed through the media
influences secondary school students' sexual behaviour; and how students'
personal characteristics influence their sexual behaviour. The study was
carried out using survey research design and was guided by six hypotheses.
Research tools used comprised questionnaires for student respondents and
interview schedules for head teachers and teacher counsellors. The data
collected was processed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS
IBM statistics 21). The statistics were tabulated and subjected to regression
analysis using ANOVA and coefficient models. Pertinent findings have
indicated that: an overwhelming proportion of secondary school students are
sexually active. This may have contributed in a rise in cases of premarital
pregnancies and subsequent abortions, student drop out from schools, Human
Immune Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Sexually
Transmitted infections. The results established that mass media as a source of
sexual information is the most influential, followed by peer group and school
curriculum respectively. However all respondents reported that the
information received through the school curriculum is too little and
economical especially on emotional aspects of sexuality. Sexual information
from the family members though considered as reliable is too little to be of
any significance on students' sexual behaviour. Information received through
religious institutions is almost non-existent and has the lowest level of
significance on students' sexual behaviour. Finally, students' personal
characteristics of age and gender were revealed as influencing students' choice
of being sexually active. Study results reveal that the preferred agents of
transmitting sexuality information were; school curriculum, media, family,
peer counsellors, and teacher counsellors respectively. Others mentioned
included religion, mentors, and specialized personnel. In a nutshell, there is no
any reliable source of sexual information that students can rely on. All student
respondents indicated their support for comprehensive sexuality information to
enable them avoid pitfalls from lack of knowledge. All key informants who
included head teachers and teacher counsellors supported that information
about the use of contraceptives should be made available to students.

Kahihura D, Kamau RK NPM:. "A prospective Study on the Outcome ofCaesarean Section at Chogoria Hospital:." J Obst/Gyn. East Cert Afr. . 2003;16(1):18-22.
Kahindi JHP, P; George T, de Moreira FMS, Karanja NK, Giller KE. "Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and ecosystem function in the tropics: the role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.". 1997. Abstract

Among the nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria, the rhizobia in symbiosis with legumes are generally the most important in agriculture, although Frankia, cyanobacteria and heterotrophic free-living N2 -fixers may fix significant amounts of nitrogen under specific conditions. The taxonomy of N2-fixing bacteria is undergoing substantial revisions due to the advent of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, and in certain cases this has proved useful in unravelling ecological relationships among confusing groups. Molecular methods are also proving useful in studies of biodiversity within populations of rhizobial species. Rhizobia are surprisingly competent free-living bacteria, although few fix nitrogen in the free-living state, and the major factors that determine their population sizes in the absence of legume hosts are environmental stresses (such as soil acidity factors), protozoal grazing and some factors associated with agricultural intensification such as increases in salinity or heavy metal pollution of the soil. Rhizobial populations generally increase in response to the presence of the host legume. Due to the high degree of host-specificity between legume hosts and rhizobial species, loss of a single rhizobial species can result in loss of N2-fixation by that legume, although many legumes can be nodulated by several species of rhizobia. However, as only a single, compatible rhizobial genotype or strain is necessary for establishment of effective N, -fixation (i.e. the basis of the rhizobial inoculant industry), it is questionable whether biodiversity within species is necessary to ensure function, although this may confer resilience in the face of further environmental stresses.

KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "The role of molecular markers in the improvement of drought tolerance and insect resistance in maize.". In: International conference on Biotechnology organized by Biotechnology Trust Africa, September 2nd-5th, Nairobi, Kenya. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Locating Quantitative Trait Loci for maize stem borer resistance in Kenya through molecular markers. African Journal of Crop Science.". In: Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Agricultural Biotechnology Global Genetic Revolution. The role of molecular marker assisted breeding.". In: Symposium organized by the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, 30th October 2001. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2001. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Improvement of drought tolerance through molecular markers in a tropical maize population bred for semi-arid areas of Kenya. African Journal of Crop Science.". In: Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2003. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "The use of genetic diversity in maize breeding in Kenya. In C. Almekinders and Walter De Boef (editors) Encouraging Diversity. The conservation and development of plant genetic resources. Intermediate Technology Publications, 2000, p 156- 160.". In: Symposium organized by the African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, 30th October 2001. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2000. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
KAHIU DRNGUGIELIUD. "Molecular marker breeding for drought tolerance in a tropical maize population developed for semi-arid Kenya;.". In: In International workshop on biotechnological interventions for dryland agriculture opportunities and constraints, July 2002, Hyderabad, India. Pp41-55. Korean Society of Crop Science and Springer; 2002. Abstract
Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of eye diseases and visual impairment in the Nairobi Comprehensive Eye Care Services (NCES) Project; the catchment area of the Mbagathi District Eye Unit of Nairobi. Design: Community based survey conducted from October 15th to 31st 2007 Setting: Kibera and Dagoreti divisions of Nairobi City Subjects: 4200 people of all ages were randomly selected; 4056 were examined (96.6% response rate). 122 (2.9%) were not available and 15 (0.4%) declined to be examined. Results: Females: 54.2%, Males: 45.8%. Mean age; 22.4 years, SD; 16.5. Only 241(5.9%) aged >50years old. The leading eye disorders in Kibera and Dagoretti divisions are conjunctival disorders including allergic conjunctivitis and conjunctival growths. This was found to affect 7.6% of the subjects. This was followed by refractive errors found in 5.3% of the subjects. Cataract was found in 30 subjects (0.7%). Disorders of the retina and the optic nerve were found in 1.1% of the subjects and corneal disorders in 0.5%. The prevalence of visual impairment was 0.6%, severe visual impairment was 0.05% and blindness was 0.1%. This indicates that most of the ocular disorders encountered were not visually threatening. The main cause of visual impairment is refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness are cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Conclusion: The population of the NCES is relatively young and the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment is low. The main cause of visual impairment was refractive errors and the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness were cataract, corneal opacity and glaucoma. Recommendations: The level of blindness in NCES is low and the project should focus more on rendering eye care and not treatment of blindness. There is need to address the issue of refractive errors as this was one of the main ocular problems encountered. In this survey, it was not possible to perform detailed refraction and hence it was recommend that a refractive error survey be conducted; especially in school going children.
Kahiu Ngugi*, Jerono Cheserek, Muchira C, Dept GC’wa. "Anthesis to Silking Interval Usefulness in Developing Drought Tolerant Maize." Journal of Renewable Agriculture. 2013;1(5):84-88.anthesis_to_silking_interval_usefulness_in_developing_drought_tolerant_maize.pdf
Kahiu Ngugi*, Abigail J. Ngugi, Sarah Osama, Mugoya C. "COMBATING STRIGA WEED IN SORGHUM BY TRANSFERRING RESISTANCE QUANTITATIVE TRAIT." Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science . 2015;3(3): 67-76.combating_striga_weed_in_sorghum_by_transferring_resistance.pdf
Kahle EM, Hughes JP, Lingappa JR, John-Stewart G, Celum C, Nakku-Joloba E, Njuguna S, Mugo N, Bukusi E, Manongi R, Baeten JM. "An empiric risk scoring tool for identifying high-risk heterosexual HIV-1-serodiscordant couples for targeted HIV-1 prevention." J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.. 2013;62(3):339-47. Abstract

Heterosexual HIV-1-serodiscordant couples are increasingly recognized as an important source of new HIV-1 infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A simple risk assessment tool could be useful for identifying couples at highest risk for HIV-1 transmission.

Kahn TR, Desmond M, Rao D, Marx GE, Guthrie BL, Bosire R, Choi RY, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-discordant couples in Kenya." AIDS Care. 2013;25(3):265-72. Abstract

Timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is particularly important for HIV-discordant couples because viral suppression greatly reduces the risk of transmission to the uninfected partner. To identify issues and concerns related to ART initiation among HIV-discordant couples, we recruited a subset of discordant couples participating in a longitudinal study in Nairobi to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about ART. Our results suggest that partners in HIV-discordant relationships discuss starting ART, yet most are not aware that ART can decrease the risk of HIV transmission. In addition, their concerns about ART initiation include side effects, sustaining an appropriate level of drug treatment, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, medical/biological issues, psychological barriers, misconceptions about the medications, the inconvenience of being on therapy, and lack of social support. Understanding and addressing these barriers to ART initiation among discordant couples is critical to advancing the HIV "treatment as prevention" agenda.

Kahn TR, Desmond M, Rao D, Marx GE, Guthrie BL, Bosire R, Choi RY, Kiarie JN, Farquhar C. "Delayed initiation of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-discordant couples in Kenya." AIDS Care. 2013;25(3):265-72. Abstract

Timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is particularly important for HIV-discordant couples because viral suppression greatly reduces the risk of transmission to the uninfected partner. To identify issues and concerns related to ART initiation among HIV-discordant couples, we recruited a subset of discordant couples participating in a longitudinal study in Nairobi to participate in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions about ART. Our results suggest that partners in HIV-discordant relationships discuss starting ART, yet most are not aware that ART can decrease the risk of HIV transmission. In addition, their concerns about ART initiation include side effects, sustaining an appropriate level of drug treatment, HIV/AIDS-related stigma, medical/biological issues, psychological barriers, misconceptions about the medications, the inconvenience of being on therapy, and lack of social support. Understanding and addressing these barriers to ART initiation among discordant couples is critical to advancing the HIV "treatment as prevention" agenda.

Kahome P, Opiyo ETO, Okello-Odongo W. "Agent Application In The Stock Market.". In: Operations Research Society of Eastern Africa. Nairobi; 2014.
Kahonge AM, Okello-Odongo W, Miriti EK. "Increasing Auditability in Web Application Security." International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Systems (IJEECS) . 2012;11(2).
Kahonge AM, Odongo WO, Miriti EK, Abade E. "Web Security and Log Management: An Application Centric Perspective.". 2013. Abstract
n/a
Kahonge AM, Okello-Odongo W, Miriti E, Abade E. "Web Security and Log Management: An Application Centric Perspective." Journal of Information Security. 2013;4(3):138-43.
Kahoro HW. "Impact of female genital mutilation on education of public primary school girls in Kiambu county - Kenya.". In: First Annual Conference in Education. Riara University, Nairobi, Kenya.; 2013.
Kahunyo JM, Maitai CK, Frøslie A. "Organochlorine pesticide residues in chicken fat: a survey." Poult. Sci.. 1986;65(6):1084-9. Abstract

One hundred and five chicken fat samples were collected between April, 1980 and February, 1982 from seven geographical locations in Kenya (15 samples/area). The samples were subjected to standard extraction and clean up procedures to recover organochlorine pesticides and were subsequently analysed using gas-liquid-chromatography. alpha-, beta-, and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane/benzene hexachloride (HCH/BHC; Lindane), aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, [1,1-dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene] (p,p'-DDE), [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1, 1-dichloroethane] (o,p'-DDD/TDE), p,p'-DDD, [2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1, 1-trichloroethane] (o,p'-DDT), and p,p'-DDT were detected in the samples in varying concentrations. A few samples had lindane, dieldrin, and total DDT residue levels above the respective practical residue limit (PRL) values, but for all pesticides, the mean residue values were below the PRL.

Kahurananga J;, Akundabweni L;, Jutzi S;, Kategile JA. "Collection and preliminary forage evaluation of some ethiopian trifolium species. Proceedings.".; 1985.
Kaigongi, M.M., Lukhoba, C.W., Yaouba, S., Makunga NP, Githiomi, J., Yenesew A. "In vitro antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of the root bark extract and isolated chemical constituents of Zanthoxylum paracanthum kokwaro (Rutaceae)." Plants . 2020;9(7):920.
Kaigongi MM, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Musila FM. "Antimicrobial Activity, Toxicity and Phytochemical Screening of Four Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Msambweni District, Kenya." Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(28).
Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW, Taylor M, Yenesew A, Makunga NP. "LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) Populations." Molecules. 2020;25(18):4130. AbstractMolecules

Description
Dodonaea viscosa Jacq (Sapindaceae) is a medicinal plant with a worldwide distribution. The species has undergone enormous taxonomic changes which caused confusion amongst plant users. In Kenya, for example, two varieties are known to exist based on morphology, ie, D. viscosa var. viscosa along the coast, and D. viscosa var. angustifolia in the Kenyan inland. These two taxa are recognized as distinct species in some reports. This prompted us to apply metabolomics to understand the relationship among naturally occurring populations of D. viscosa in Kenya, and to identify compounds that can assist in taxonomic delineation of the different varieties of D. viscosa from different parts of Kenya. The phytochemical variability of Kenyan D. viscosa var. angustifolia populations collected from four different geographical regions (Nanyuki, Machakos, Nairobi, and Narok) and one coastal D. viscosa var. viscosa (the Gazi) were analyzed by LC-MS using a metabolomics-driven approach. Four known compounds, two diterpenoids (dodonic acid (1), hautriwaic acid lactone (3), and two flavonoids (5, 7, 4′, 5′-tetrahydroxy-3, 6, 2′-trimethoxyflavone (2) and catechin (4)) were isolated and purified from the Gazi coastal collection. The presence of these compounds and their relative abundance in other populations was determined by LC-MS analyses. Multivariate statistical analyses of LC-MS data was used for the visualization of the patterns of variation and identification of additional compounds. Eleven discriminant compounds responsible for separating chemometric clusters were tentatively identified. In an antimicrobial assay, hautriwaic acid …

Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba, C.W., Ochieng, P., Taylor, D, Yenesew A, Makunga NP. "LC-MS-Based Metabolomics for the Chemosystematics of Kenyan Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. (Sapindaceae) Populations." Molecules. 2020;25 (18):4130.
Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW, Yaouba S, Makunga NP, Githiomi J, Yenesew A. "In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of the Root Bark Extract and Isolated Chemical Constituents of Zanthoxylum paracanthum Kokwaro (Rutaceae)." Plants. 2020;9(7):920. AbstractPlants

Description
Zanthoxylum paracanthum Kokwaro (Rutaceae) is an endemic Kenyan and Tanzanian plant used in folk medicine by local populations. Although other Zanthoxylum species have been studied, only Z. paracantum stem extracts have been profiled, even though the roots are also used as herbal remedies. As root extracts may be another source of pharmaceutical compounds, the CH 2 Cl 2/MeOH (1: 1) root bark extract was studied in this report. Eight root bark compounds were isolated and their structural identities were confirmed by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)(using COSY, HSQC, NOESY and HMBC) analyses. The structural identities were determined as follows: the fatty acid—myristic acid (1); the sterol—stigmasterol (2); the lignan—sesamin (3); two β-carboline alkaloids—10-methoxycanthin-6-one (6) and canthin-6-one (7); and three phenanthridine alkaloids—8-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine (4), arnottianamide (5) and 8-oxochelerythrine (8). Some of these compounds were identified in the species for the first time. These compounds and the extract were then tested in vitro against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) before tests for antiproliferative activity against the human breast cancer (HCC 1395), human prostate cancer (DU 145) and normal (Vero E6) cell lines were conducted. Minimum inhibition concentration values of 3.91, 1.95, 0.98 and 7.81 µg/mL against MRSA, S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans, respectively, were recorded. Among the isolates, canthin-6-one was the …

Kaigongi MM, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Musila FM. "Antimicrobial Activity, Toxicity and Phytochemical Screening of Four Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Msambweni District, Kenya." Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(28):6-12. Abstractkagongi_et_al._2014.pdf

This study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical composition of
organic and aqueous crude extracts of Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. (Rutaceae), Adansonia digitata L.
(Bombacaceae), Launaea cornuta (Hocht. ex Oliv. & Hern) C.Jeffrey (Compositae) and Grewia trichocarpa
Hochst. ex A.Rich (Tiliaceae) traditionally used by local communities of Msambweni District in Kenya.
Aqueous and organic [Chloroform: Methanol (1: 1)] crude extracts were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using broth dilution and disc diffusion methods. Toxicity was determined using Brine-shrimp larvae (Artemia salina L. nauplii) assay. The crude extracts were screened to determine the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and sesquiterpene lactones using standard techniques. It was observed that the organic crude extracts from all the species tested except L. cornuta exhibited dose dependent activity against B. cereus, MRSA, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. None of the crude extracts showed any inhibition against E. coli. Adansonia digitata and Grewia trichocarpa had LC50>1000 μg/ml and were shown to be non-toxic to Brine shrimp larvae unlike those of Z. chalybeum and L. cornuta which both had LC50<500 ug/ml and were considered to be toxic. Phytochemical screening of the crude extracts showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, sesquiterpene lactones and saponins were present in the four plants tested.The study has shown that A. digitata and Z. chalybeum possess promising antimicrobial activity against microbes of health importance and could lead to the isolation of new and potentially effective antimicrobial compounds.
Keywords: Medicinal plants; Antimicrobial activity; Brine shrimp lethality test; Phytochemical analysis;
Msambweni district; Kenya.

Kaigongi MM, Lukhoba CW. "The chemosystematics of the genus Zanthoxylum L.(Rutaceae) in Kenya." Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2021; 98, :104319.
Kaigongi MM, Dossaji SF, Nguta JM, Lukhoba CW, Musila FM. "Antimicrobial activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of four medicinal plants traditionally used in Msambweni district, Kenya." Journal of Biology Agriculture and Healthcare. 2014;4(28).
Kaijage ES, Elly D. "EFFECT OF CORPORATE CHARACTERISTICS ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE DECISIONS OF SMES: A CASE OF DTMs IN KENYA.". In: THE 14TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN BUSINESS AND SMALL BUSINESS (ICAESB). THE UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM BUSINESS SCHOOL (UDBS); 2014. Abstracteffect_of_corporate_characteristics_on_capital_structure_decisions_of_smes.pdf

The choice between debt and equity for a business firm has implications on the value of a firm as well as strategic importance for corporate managers. Previous studies have addressed the issue of capital structure decisions from the point of view of large firms. The capital structure of Small and Medium - sized Enterprises (SMEs) has become a research topic only recently despite the fact that SMEs play a very crucial role in fostering growth and employment in many countries. Some research studies have investigated the relationship between capital structure mix as an independent variable and specific corporate characteristics as dependent variables. This paper reverses this order by investigating the influence of various corporate characteristics on the capital structure of deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs) in Kenya. DTMs are a special group of SMEs in Kenya, which create money through deposit mobilization and lending and are regulated by the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK). Using secondary data from financial reports of 7 out of 9 Licensed DTMs in Kenya for the period 2008 to 2012, this study has applied ordinary least squares (OLS) fixed - effect regression models to estimate the influence of firm corporate characteristics on capital structure measure of debt equity ratio. The corporate characteristics considered are: size, profitability, liquidity, growth, tangibility of assets and volatility of earnings. The study findings suggest that size and growth positively influence, in a significant way, the capital structure of DTMs in Kenya. Furthermore, liquidity, profitability, and tangibility of assets have been found to be negatively influencing the capital structure of the DTMs. These findings generally concur with the predictions of the pecking order theory and the signaling effects of capital structure decisions of firms.

Key Words: Deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs), Microfinance institutions (MFIs), Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Capital Structure and Corporate characteristics.

Kaijage ES, Elly D. "FINANCIAL INTEGRATION RELATIONSHIPS AND LINKAGES IN EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY (EAC) EQUITY MARKETS.". In: ORSEA. lower Kabete; 2014. Abstractfinancial_integration_relationships_and_linkages_in_east.pdf

This paper investigates financial integration and linkage relationships amongst equity markets in East Africa Community over time by determining the speed and levels of integration using monthly market return data for the period 2007 to 2013. The study also examines the short run and long run relationships amongst the markets. The study was motivated by the ongoing plans of establishment of the East Africa Monetary Union
(EAMU) which will be characterized by mobility of labor and capital as factors of production across the member states. Using beta and sigma convergence measures, the study notes that financial integration
has not deepened in the EAC over the years though there are trends towards full integration. Correlation analysis suggests strong significant relationships amongst EAC equity market returns. Johansen Cointegration tests suggest existence of three stochastic trends in the equity markets. Vector auto regression analysis and impulse response analysis suggest linkages amongst the markets hinging on the NSE and mean reversion in all the equity markets. The study findings suggest that the EAC equity markets are weak form efficient and there are arbitraging opportunities across the equity markets. The responses to the shocks in any of the markets are found to be dependent on the relationships between the markets. From the study findings, it is inferred that the roadmap to EAMU should be fast tracked by facilitating efficiency in the EAC markets where rates of return are market determined. Policy initiatives should be put in place to eliminate arbitrage opportunities across the markets and to encourage capital mobility through the equity markets. To support integration, there should be academic studies on the existence of home bias in the
EAC equity market segments. Key Words: East Africa Community (EAC), East Africa Monetary Union (EAMU), Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE), Financial Integration, Nairobi Securities Exchange
(NSE), Uganda stock Exchange (USE).

Kaijage E, Wheeler D. Supporting Entrepreneurship Education in East Africa Report for Presentation to Stakeholders.; 2013. Abstractentrepreneurship_education_in_east_africa._kaijage_and_wheeler_2013.pdfWebsite

Executive Summary
The University of Nairobi School of Business and Plymouth University Business School were commissioned by the UK Department for International Development to assess the capacity of business schools and other institutions to support entrepreneurship through development of entrepreneurship education in East Africa.
The research was carried out in three phases:
 A literature review and desk research on entrepreneurship education and training in three case study countries: Kenya, Tanzania an South Sudan;
 Semi- structured Interviews with 61 stakeholders and a survey of 420 stakeholders in the three case study countries which explored perceptions of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education and training; and
 A workshop which further refined insights from the interviews and survey
The main conclusion from the literature review and desk research was that there is a gulf between formal business education in East Africa and the needs of entrepreneurs, especially for women, young people and marginalised groups. It is essential, therefore, to develop a new paradigm for entrepreneurship education that is grounded in the economic and social context of the entrepreneurs.
A major finding from the interviews, survey and workshop was the relative lack of interest among graduates and unemployed youth in pursuing self-employment compared to corporate or public sector employment. Other important findings included the importance of:
 introducing entrepreneurship at all levels of education from primary to postgraduate;
 social enablers such as trust building, communications and negotiation skills for the success of entrepreneurs;
 experiential over theoretical learning;
 mentoring, coaching and peer-peer learning over other forms of learning support;
 context specific skills development for entrepreneurs;
 a commonly held definition of entrepreneurship that embraces broader societal and developmental goals
Stakeholders identified the need for:
 integrated policy making between governments, the private sector, civil society organisations and educational institutions;
 special consideration for disadvantaged groups in policy formulation;
 social and cultural change eg through social mobilisation;
 agreed conceptual frameworks for entrepreneurship promotion and entrepreneurship education (allowing for cultural and linguistic differences);
 integrated interventions addressing all levels of education: primary, and secondary schools, colleges and vocational training schemes and universities/business schools; and
 the development of curricula and resources appropriate for all levels of intervention.
The need for experiential learning opportunities and mentoring, combined with relative disinterest in pursuing self-employment and entrepreneurship as a chosen career path means that significant levels of training and capacity building, supplemented by processes of behavioural and social change will need to be explored if ‘systemic entrepreneurship’ is to be realised in East Africa.
Based on from these findings, six cross cutting themes for future capacity building are identified:
 Developing Shared Knowledge and Conceptual Frameworks
 Enhancing National Education Policies and Practices
 Developing Accessible Learning Materials
 Training Trainers and Building Enterprise Educator Support Networks
 Supporting Social Networks and the Informal Sector
 Embedding Research and Continuous Improvement
Recommendations are made in six areas, based on the results of the research:
 Presentation and dissemination of findings;
 Convening conferences of interested parties;
 Establishing country based networks of enterprise educators;
 Establishing a system for learning object capture and distribution using various media;
 Developing integrative pilot projects in focal countries and elsewhere reflecting the analysis of this report and the need for both rural and urban entrepreneurship education initiatives focused on the young, women and disadvantaged groups; and
 Developing mechanisms for sharing the results of pilot projects and publicising outcomes..

Kaijage ES, Elly D. "EFFECT OF CORPORATE CHARACTERISTICS ON CAPITAL STRUCTURE DECISIONS OF SMES: A CASE OF DTMs IN KENYA.". In: THE 14TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN BUSINESS AND SMALL BUSINESS (ICAESB). THE UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM BUSINESS SCHOOL (UDBS); 2014. Abstracteffect_of_corporate_characteristics_on_capital_structure_decisions_of_smes.pdf

The choice between debt and equity for a business firm has implications on the value of a firm as well as strategic importance for corporate managers. Previous studies have addressed the issue of capital structure decisions from the point of view of large firms. The capital structure of Small and Medium - sized Enterprises (SMEs) has become a research topic only recently despite the fact that SMEs play a very crucial role in fostering growth and employment in many countries. Some research studies have investigated the relationship between capital structure mix as an independent variable and specific corporate characteristics as dependent variables. This paper reverses this order by investigating the influence of various corporate characteristics on the capital structure of deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs) in Kenya. DTMs are a special group of SMEs in Kenya, which create money through deposit mobilization and lending and are regulated by the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK). Using secondary data from financial reports of 7 out of 9 Licensed DTMs in Kenya for the period 2008 to 2012, this study has applied ordinary least squares (OLS) fixed - effect regression models to estimate the influence of firm corporate characteristics on capital structure measure of debt equity ratio. The corporate characteristics considered are: size, profitability, liquidity, growth, tangibility of assets and volatility of earnings. The study findings suggest that size and growth positively influence, in a significant way, the capital structure of DTMs in Kenya. Furthermore, liquidity, profitability, and tangibility of assets have been found to be negatively influencing the capital structure of the DTMs. These findings generally concur with the predictions of the pecking order theory and the signaling effects of capital structure decisions of firms.

Key Words: Deposit taking microfinance institutions (DTMs), Microfinance institutions (MFIs), Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), Capital Structure and Corporate characteristics.

Kaijage ES, Nzioka OM. "INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF FIRM CHARACTERISTICS ON FINANCING OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS IN KENYA.". In: THE 14TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AFRICAN BUSINESS AND SMALL BUSINESS (ICAESB). Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 2014. Abstract

This paper investigates whether firm characteristics have an influence on financing of SMEs in Kenya using a sample of 12 Microfinance firms. Primary and secondary data were collected and subjected to multiple regression and correlation analysis in order to achieve the study objectives. The independent variables of the study are firm characteristics, which include; size measured by total assets, profitability measured by ROA and ROE, then risk, while the dependent variable is the total debt of the firm divided by the Equity and the ratio of capital to total assets. Results of this study suggest that, a strong negative association between return on equity and total assets has an equally strong negative effect/influence on the debt equity ratio. This implies that, the two variables have a strong negative effect on the financing of Micro Finance institutions. Overall, the implications of the findings of this study support both the trade-off theory and the pecking order theory of capital structure.

Kaijage PE, Wheeler PD. "Supporting Entrepreneurship in East Africa.". 2013.
Kailemia M, Kariuki N, Laving A, Agweyu A, Wamalwa. D. "Caregiver oral rehydration solution fluid monitoring charts versus standard care for the management of some dehydration among Kenyan children: a randomized controlled trial." International Health. 2018;10(6):442-450. Abstract

Diarrhoea is a major cause of child mortality. Although oral rehydration solution (ORS) is an efficacious intervention for correcting dehydration, inadequate monitoring may limit its effectiveness in routine settings. We evaluated the effect of using a caregiver-administered chart to monitor oral fluid therapy on hydration status among children with some dehydration.

Kaimenyi JT, Guthua SW, Wakiaga J, Kisumbi B. "Utilization of dental auxiliaries in private dental surgeries in Kenya." East African medical journal. 1994;71:811-815. Abstract
n/a
Kaimenyi JT. "Cause of tooth mortality at the dental unit at Kenyatta National Hospital Nairobi, Kenya.". 1996. AbstractWebsite

The purpose of Dentistry is to make the mouth healthy and preserve teeth in good function for what they are worth, namely a beautiful smile, better phonetics, a youthful look and ease of chewing all sorts of food without having to make uncalled for choices.(3) In the past, most people didn't value teeth at all. Loss of teeth was considered as an inevitable consequence 01 old age. The contemporary society however values teeth in a big way. Many people today will go along way to preserve their teeth notwithstanding the high expense to be incurred and the many man hours spent in attending dental clinic. Demand to preserve teeth by a patient whatever the cost doesn't necessarily have to be met by the dental surgeon. The decision to preserve teeth or not must be considered in the light of the pathology of dental disease in question regarding its onset, course, termination and the like hood of its response to treatment. Any attempt to preserve teeth with very poor prognosis is not only heroic but eventuates into frustrating the patient and the dental surgeon when the desired results are not met.

Kaimenyi C., Kidombo H, T. S. "Legal Framework and Implementation of Workforce Diversity Policies in Public Universities in Kenya.". In: Africa at Development Crossroads .; 2017.
Kaimuri J, Otieno SPV. Aritwa. Kaimuri J, ed. Talent Empire Kenya; 2013.
Kaindi DWM, Schelling E, et al. "Risk factors in symptoms of food poisoning among children and young adults in Isiolo, Kenya." Journal of Zoonoses and Public Health. 2012.
Kaindi DWM, Schelling E, Wangoh J, Imungi JK, Farah Z, Meile L. "Risk Factors for Symptoms of Gastrointestinal Illness in Rural Town Isiolo, Kenya." Zoonoses and Public Health. 2012;59:118-125.2012-risk_factors_diarrhoea_and_vomiting.pdf
Kaindi MDW. Microbiological quality of camel milk along the market chain and its correlation with foodborne illness among children and young adults in Isiolo, Kenya. Wangoh J, Schelling E, Imungi JK, eds. University of Nairobi; 2009. Abstract

General Abstract
The study was done to determine the microbiological quality of raw camel milk along the
informal market chain and to assess risk factors in symptoms of food-borne illnesses and the
role of camel milk in the diet of camel pastoralists. Camel milk samples were collected from
the milking point, camel milk first collection point (primary collectors) in the local market
center and at the final market in Nairobi. Microbiological assessment involved enumeration
of total bacterial count (TBC), presumptive Streptococcal/ Enterococcal count (PSEC), Yeast
and Mold count (YMC), Enterobacteriaceae count (EBC) , and presumptive Staphylococcal
count (PSC). Deterrn ination of the shelf Iife of pasteurized camel milk stored at 4-7°C, 2SoC,
and at 30°C was also investigated. Raw camel milk was pasteurized at 6SoC for 30 minutes in
a water bath. Further, a cross sectional study was carried out by interviewing 993 randomly
selected households in peri-urban zone of Isiolo town to assess risk factors in symptoms of
food-borne illnesses with special attention given to the consumption of camel milk, cow milk
and goat milk.
Results indicate that microbial counts were increasing along the marketing chain. Camels'
milk milked in aseptic manner from the udder had TBC 2.1 x 101-4. 7x 104 cfuml', PSEC
1.8xI01-2.4xI04 cfumrl. Bulked milk at the herd level had TBC 9.2xl02-1.7xl04 cfuml",
I PSEC 3.7x10 I-3.4x.I0- ~ cfuml -I, YMC 2.lx10 I-?2.7xI0- cfurnl -I,EBC I.lxlO I-8.lxI0 2 cfuml -I
and PSC 3.Sxl02-8.3xl03 cfumrl. Bulked camel milk at the primary collector at the local
market center had TBC I.lxl03-S.6xl05 cfuml", PSEC 3.1xlOI-2.7xl04 cfuml', YMC
bulked milk at the final market in Nairobi had TBC 4.7xl05-107 cfuml", PSEC 2.0xl02-
9.lxI04-2.8xl05 cfumrl.Milk at the milking level had TBCs not exceeding microbiological
XIV
limit of 105 cfumri and thus a grade I quality milk. At primary collectors 25% had EBC
exceeding 103 cfuml' indicating grade Il quality of milk. 75% of bulked milk at the final
market exceeded the TBC acceptable limits of 106 cfuml' and EBC of 5.0xl 04 cfumri which
is in grade III and IV quality of raw milk which per the Kenya bureau of Standards 2006,
indicates poor quality milk and a threat to human health.
The Kenya Bureau of Standards specifications for pasteurized cow milk were applied as
criteria to establish the shelf life of camel milk. The shelf life was considered ended when the
Total bacteria counts exceeded 3.0x 104 cfurnl', Enterobacteriaceae count was> 10 cfum!"i
or alcohol test positive. Raw milk used had Total Bacteria Count 5.7x 105 cfuml',
Enterobacteriaceae Count l.4x 104 cfuml", Presumptive Streptococcal/ Enterococcal Count
1.2xl04 cfuml', Presumptive Staphylococcal Count 6.7x103 cfuml', Yeast and mold Count
9.5xlOi cfuml', acidity 0.16%, pH 6.64, antibiotic residue free, hydrogen peroxide free and
alcohol test negative. The residue TBC after pasteurization process was less than 10 cfuml i
while EBC, PSEC, PSC and YMC were completely destroyed. TBC of pasteurized camel
milk stored at 4-7°C exceeded the KEBS specifications in 49-54 days while TBCs of camel
milk stored at 25°C and at 30°C exceeded the limit in less than 24 hours. Thus with
appropriate refrigeration, pasteurized camel milk keeps for longer periods than when exposed
to high ambient temperatures.
Results of the cross-sectional survey indicate raw camel milk as highly significant to foodborne
illnesses. Raw camel milk had odds ratio (OR) 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38-
3.22, and p-value of 0.001 for cases with diarrhoea and/or vomiting either with or without
fever. Raw camel milk was also found to have OR 3.4; 95% CI= 1.52-7.80; p= 0.003 for
cases with diarrhoea and/or vomiting without fever and was not significant for cases with
xv
vomiting without fever (OR 2.9; 95% CI 0.91- 8.97; p=0.071). Backward selection
multivariate logistic regression indicates raw camel milk as a risk factor to food-borne
poisoning with OR 2.6; 95% CI=1.61-4.31, p=O.OOO; Log likelihood value (P (LRX2)) =
8.0002; raw cow milk emerged as a protective factor with OR 0.5; 95% CI=0.33-0.89,
p=0.015, P (LRX2) = 0.0145. Washing of hands with soap, treating drinking water, boiling of
milk, presence of proper drainage system and improved pit latrine emerged as significant
protective factors to symptoms of food-borne poisoning. Since unhygienically handled raw
camel milk was associated with food-borne illnesses, consumers of camel milk should be
sensitized either to boil or consume processed camel milk. This study recommends for urgent
development and adaptation of feasible and sustainable interventions to improve the camel
milk hygiene and safety in Kenya and to mitigate food-borne related diseases in the agropastoral
ist regions.

Kaindi DWM, Schelling E, et al. "Microbiological Quality of Raw Camel Milk Across the Kenyan Market Chain." Global Science Books. 2011.
Kaindi DWM, Schelling E, Wangoh J, Imungi JK, Farah Z, Meile L. "Microbial Quality of Raw Camel Milk Across the Kenyan Market Chain." Food 5. Global Science Books. 2011;((Special Issue 1)):79-83.2011_microbial_quality_of_raw_camel.pdf
Kaingu CK, Mbaria J, Oduma JA, Kiama SG. "Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants used in Tana River County for Management of Illnesses." Asian Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine,. 2014; 02(02)::01-05.
Kaingu CK, Mbaria J, Oduma JA, Kiama SG. "Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants traditionally used in Tana River County for management of illnesses.". In: Asian Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine 0 2 (0 2 ); 201 4 ; 0 1 - 05.; 2014. Abstract

Aim of the study: The objective of the study was to identify and document medicinal plants traditionally used by people of Tana River County, Kenya for the management of various ailments. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in March 2012. Information was gathered from 80 traditional practitioners who lived and practiced in Garsen, Itsowe and Ngao Subdivisions of Tana River using semi-structured questionnaires and focused group discussion. Voucher specimen of cited plants were collected and deposited at the university of Nairobi herbarium. Results: A total of 31 plants distributed in 25 families were identified. The most popular plant species were eleven and were used for the management of pneumonia, arthritis, kidney problems, fibroids, typhoid, breast cancer, tooth ache, malaria, diabetis, convulsions, stomach ache, constipation, poisoning, cholera, diarrhea, mastitis, migraine, tonsilitis, ulcers, asthma, high blood pressure, urinary incontinence, body warts, milk letdown and as immune boosters. Conclusion: The use of herbs is still very common amongst Tana River inhabitants and the healers still rely largely on naturally growing plant species in their locality. Furthermore, the documented medicinal plants can be used as a basis for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Keywords: medicinal plants, indigenous management of illnesses Tana River.

Kaingu CK, Oduma JA, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG. "Ethnobotanical survey of Medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of male sexual dysfunction and infertility in Tana River County, Kenya." Journal of Ethnobiology and Traditional Medicine.. 2013; Photon 119(3):453-463.
Kaingu CK. "Ricinus communis and Euclea divinorum of the family Euphorbiaceae and Ebenaceae, respectively, are.". 2012. Abstract

Ricinus communis and Euclea divinorum of the family Euphorbiaceae and Ebenaceae, respectively, are traditionally used by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) in Machakos district of Kenya to induce or augment labor, manage protracted labor, post-partum hemorrhage and retained after birth. Ethnopharmacological relevance of the study will be the provision of scientific evidence and justification for the ethnic use of both plants as oxytocic agents in the initiation of labor, treatment of prolonged labor, post-partum hemorrhage and retained placenta. Materials and methods: The plants were harvested in the wild, identified and voucher specimens preserved. The root bark was processed to powder form, from which aqueous and ethanol extracts were obtained. Each of the extracts was separately tested on isolated uterine muscle tissue from nonpregnant and pregnant rabbits. The effect on contraction frequency (number of contractions per second) in the absence or presence of oxytocin was evaluated statistically using ANOVA. P values o0.05 were considered significant. Results and conclusions: All uteri exhibited a strong initial contraction following exposure to the aqueous and ethanol root bark extracts of both plants. After recovery, the resumed contraction frequencies varied with the plant extract and exogenous hormone. The results show that the extracts of both plants were able to stimulate uterine tissue contractility directly and to augment the tissue’s response to oxytocin. The increase in uterine contractions as a percentage relative to negative controls was particularly significant in pregnant rabbit tissues in the presence of oxytocin, where increments of up to 245% were observed. Further pharmacological studies are however required to determine the active principles, possible mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety margins of the plant extracts.

Kaingu CK, Oduma JA, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG. "Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used For the Management of Male Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility in Tana River County, Kenya.". 2013. Abstract

Sexual dysfunction afflicts 10% of men of all ages, ethnicities and cultural background. In Tana River County a large percentage of reproductive health ailments are managed by traditional healers. Unfortunately, in traditional medicine practice, there is no documentation and information is passed on verbally from generation to generation. The aim of this study therefore was to identify and document plants that are used for the management of male sexual dysfunctions and infertility in Tana River County. An ethno botanical survey was carried out using structured questionnaires. Nineteen plants belonging to 15 genera and 13 families were reportedly used to treat hypoactive sex drive, manage erectile dysfunction/ impotence and treat male infertility. The plant remedies described and documented in this study represent valuable baseline data on indigenous knowledge, upon which further research can be based. Future scientific research into the efficacy and safe use of the herbs could then prove very useful to herbal medicine practitioners and researchers and will contribute immensely towards future conservation efforts of both the plants and the indigenous knowledge.

kaluwa Kaingu DC, Mbaria PJ, Oduma DJA, Kiama PSG. "Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants traditionally used in Tana River County for management of illnesses." Asian Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine 02 (02); 2014; 01-05.. 2014;02(02):01-05.
Kaingu CK, Oduma JA, Mbaria JM, Kiama SG. "Medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of female reproductive health dysfunction in Tana River County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Genuine Traditional Medicine . 2013;3(2):1-4.
Kaingu; 9.24 CK, Kiama SG, Mbaria; J, Jemimah A. Oduma. "). Effects of Croton menyharthii and Uvariodendron kirkii Extracts on Ovarian Corpora Lutea and Reproductive Hormone." Discovery Phytomedicine . 2017;4(1): 21-25: 21-25.
Kairithia Fredrick, Karanja, N.K, Eunice Cheserem, Kinuthia John, Mwangi C, Dalton W. "Adequacy of vital signs monitoring in post delivery mothers at the Naivasha District Hospital of Nakuru County, Kenya. ." International Journal of Medical and Clinical Sciences. 2015; 2(1): 030-035.
Kairithia Fredrick, Karanja JG, Eunice Cheserem, Kinuthia John, Dalton W. "Health education on HIV testing, family planning, immunization, breastfeeding, Neonatal Cord Care and danger signs to mothers at the Naivasha District Hospital, Nakuru County." Kenya Global Research Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology . 2015; 3(1)(ISSN-2360-792):: 065-070.
Kairu WM, Gatari MM, MUIA ML, Mumenya SW,... "Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound." pdfs.semanticscholar.org. Submitted. AbstractWebsite

Concrete is one of the commonly used materials worldwide in the construction industry due to its durability [1]. Civil infrastructures such as power plants, bridges and large buildings are typically built using concrete. It is typically composed of aggregate, sand, cement, water as …

Kairu WM, GATARI MJ, BIRIR JK. "Back to Basics: Scattering of Ultrasonic Guided Waves." ISNT Journal of Nondestructive Testing & Evaluation. 2019.
Kairu W, Gatari M, Maina D, Muia M, Birir J. Quality of Reinforced Concrete used on Selected Buildings in Nairobi, Kenya. Prague: ECNDT; 2014.
Kairu WM, Gatari MM, Mumenya SW, MUIA ML, Rajagopa P. Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound. IIT MADRAS, CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA; 2018.
Kairu WM, Gatari MM, Mumenya SW, MUIA ML, Rajagopa P. Health monitoring of concrete using rebar-guided ultrasound. IIT MADRAS, CHENNAI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA; 2018.
Kairu-Wanyoike SW, Kaitibie S, Taylor NM, Gitau GK, Heffernan C, Schnier C, Kiara H, Taracha E, McKeever D. "Eliciting willingness-to-pay and benefits of livestock vaccination in Kenya.". 2011.
Kairu-Wanyoike S, Nyamwaya D, Wainaina M, Johanna Lindahl, Ontiri E, Bukachi S, Njeru I, Johanna Lindahl, Bett B. "Positive association between Brucella spp seroprevalences in livestock and humans from a cross-sectional study in Garissa and Tana River Counties, Kenya. cross-sectional study in Garissa and Tana River Counties, Kenya." PLoS Negl Trop Dis . 2019;13(10):e0007506.
Kairu-Wanyoike SW, Kaitibie S, Taylor NM, Gitau GK, Heffernan C, Schnier C, Kiara H, Taracha E, McKeever D. "Exploring farmer preferences for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccination: A case study of Narok District of Kenya." Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2013;110(3-4):356-369. Abstractexploring_farmer_preferences_for_contagious_bovine_pleuropneumonia_vaccination.pdf

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is an economically important disease in most of sub-Saharan Africa. A conjoint analysis and ordered probit regression models were used to measure the preferences of farmers for CBPP vaccine and vaccination attributes. This was with regard to inclusion or not of an indicator in the vaccine, vaccine safety, vaccine stability as well as frequency of vaccination, vaccine administration and the nature of vaccination. The analysis was carried out in 190 households in Narok District of Kenya between October and December 2006 using structured questionnaires, 16 attribute profiles and a five-point Likert scale. The factors affecting attribute valuation were shown through a two-way location interaction model. The study also demonstrated the relative importance (RI) of attributes and the compensation value of attribute levels. The attribute coefficient estimates showed that farmers prefer a vaccine that has an indicator, is 100% safe and is administered by the government (p < 0.0001). The preferences for the vaccine attributes were consistent with expectations. Preferences for stability, frequency of vaccination and nature of vaccination differed amongst farmers (p > 0.05). While inclusion of an indicator in the vaccine was the most important attribute (RI = 43.6%), price was the least important (RI = 0.5%). Of the 22 household factors considered, 15 affected attribute valuation. The compensation values for a change from non inclusion to inclusion of an indicator, 95–100% safety, 2 h to greater than 2 h stability and from compulsory to elective vaccination were positive while those for a change from annual to biannual vaccination and from government to private administration were negative. The study concluded that the farmers in Narok District had preferences for specific vaccine and vaccination attributes. These preferences were conditioned by various household characteristics and disease risk factors. On average the farmers would need to be compensated or persuaded to accept biannual and private vaccination against CBPP. There is need for consideration of farmer preferences for vaccine attribute levels during vaccine formulations and farmer preferences for vaccination attribute levels when designing delivery of vaccines.

KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Regional variations in the microscopic organisation of the human rectus sheath." Braz. J. Morphol. Sci.. 2009;26(2):84-90. Abstractregional_variations_in_the_microscopic_organisation_of_the_human_rectus_sheath.pdfWebsite

The pattern of formation of the rectus sheath from the aponeuroses of external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles shows regional variations. These variations may influence the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath. Specimens were collected during autopsies from thirty one subjects (16 male, 15 female) aged 18-70 years old. The rectus sheath was exposed through gentle dissection of the superficial fascia of the anterior abdominal wall. Five millimeter thick sections were harvested and processed for light microscopy. Both walls of the rectus sheath were made up of three distinct zones: superficial, intermediate, and deep. The superficial and deep zones were fibroelastic while the intermediate zones comprised compact bundles of collagen fibres. In the anterior wall of the rectus sheath, these bundles above and below the arcuate line, respectively, were obliquely and transversely disposed. The bundles of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath were, however, transversely aligned. In conclusion, the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath is determined by its pattern of formation. This sheath is mainly formed by the aponeuroses of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis.

KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Role of Laparoscopy in management of Gastric adenocarcinoma. Review.". In: Int. J. Morphol. Wiley; 2010. Abstract
Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy is a rare condition that poses a myriad of challenges in diagnosis and management of the patient. It demands on the clinician a high index of suspicion, expeditious treatment involving resuscitation and good judgment in handling of the bowel in face of added potential morbidity and mortality to the mother and fetus. We report a case of gangrenous sigmoid volvulus with a viable third trimester pregnancy and discuss potential pitfalls in diagnosis and management.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "9. The femoral collodiaphyseal angle amongst selected Kenyan ethnic groups. Kaisha W, Pulei A, Koech A. Journal of morphological sciences.". In: Int. J. Morphol. Journal of Morphological sciences; 2011.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Structural age related changes in the crural diaphragm changes with age. Congress of International Federation of anatomists.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:44-46. Wiley; 2009. Abstract
The pattern of formation of the rectus sheath from the aponeuroses of external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles shows regional variations. These variations may influence the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath. Specimens were collected during autopsies from thirty one subjects (16 male, 15 female) aged 18-70 years old. The rectus sheath was exposed through gentle dissection of the superficial fascia of the anterior abdominal wall. Five millimeter thick sections were harvested and processed for light microscopy. Both walls of the rectus sheath were made up of three distinct zones: superficial, intermediate, and deep. The superficial and deep zones were fibroelastic while the intermediate zones comprised compact bundles of collagen fibres. In the anterior wall of the rectus sheath, these bundles above and below the arcuate line, respectively, were obliquely and transversely disposed. The bundles of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath were, however, transversely aligned. In conclusion, the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath is determined by its pattern of formation. This sheath is mainly formed by the aponeuroses of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Sigmoid Volvulus in pregnancy: Case report.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:44-46. Wiley; 2010. Abstract
Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy is a rare condition that poses a myriad of challenges in diagnosis and management of the patient. It demands on the clinician a high index of suspicion, expeditious treatment involving resuscitation and good judgment in handling of the bowel in face of added potential morbidity and mortality to the mother and fetus. We report a case of gangrenous sigmoid volvulus with a viable third trimester pregnancy and discuss potential pitfalls in diagnosis and management.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Locating the arcuate line of douglas: is it of surgical relevance?". In: Int. J. Morphol. Wiley; 2010.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "The correlation of Esophageal body length with measure of external body parameters." Int. J. Morphol.. 2011;29, (3):895-898.Website
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "The prevalence of malignancies among 1st and 2nd degree relatives of breast cancer patients.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:44-46. Kenya Medical Association; 2007. Abstract
  Objective: To determine the prevalence malignancies among relatives of breast cancer patients. Design: Prospective study from October 2003 to October 2007. Setting:  Private clinic Kenyatta National Hospital doctors plaza Subjects: 156 Breast cancer patients being followed up in the breast clinic. Methods: H/o malignant disease in relatives was ascertained. Results: 23 (14.7%) of 156 patients had a relative affected.  8 (5.1%) had a pattern suggestive of  genetic breast cancer.  22 (52.4%)  1ST degree relatives (father 10, mother 4, sister 7 and brother 1).  GIT malignancy (18/42 relations), breast cancer (9/42) & prostate cancer (5/42) were the most frequent malignancies. Conclusion: H/o of malignancy in 1ST degree relatives & multiple malignancies appear to be assoc with breast cancer.
Kaisha WO, Khainga S. "Causes and pattern of unilateral hand injuries." East Afr Med J. 2008;85(3):123-8. Abstract

To assess the causes and pattern of hand injuries in patients with isolated unilateral acute hand injuries managed at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH).

KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Kaisha WO, Khainga S. Causes and pattern of unilateral hand injuries. East Afr Med J. 2008 Mar;85(3):123-8.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:44-46. Kenya Medical Association; 2008. Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the causes and pattern of hand injuries in patients with isolated unilateral acute hand injuries managed at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Design: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between May and August 2006. SUBJECTS: All patients with isolated unilateral acute hand injuries who presented at the casualty department. RESULTS: A total of 99 patients were recruited. The mean age was 28.2 years with the modal age being 21-30 years. More males were injured than females. Occupational injuries and assaults were the most prevalent causes of hand injury. Majority of the injuries included lacerations, fractures and tendon injuries. The distal phalanges of the ring and long fingers were the most common sites of injury on the digits. CONCLUSION: Occupational hand injuries, a largely preventable problem, are the most prevalent cause of hand injury. This offers opportunity for strategies in preventing a large number of hand injuries by initiating safety measures at the work place.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Variations in the pattern of formation of Human Rectus sheath among Kenyans. Braz. J. Morphol. Sci., 2009, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 84-90.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:44-46. Wiley; 2009. Abstract
The pattern of formation of the rectus sheath from the aponeuroses of external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles shows regional variations. These variations may influence the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath. Specimens were collected during autopsies from thirty one subjects (16 male, 15 female) aged 18-70 years old. The rectus sheath was exposed through gentle dissection of the superficial fascia of the anterior abdominal wall. Five millimeter thick sections were harvested and processed for light microscopy. Both walls of the rectus sheath were made up of three distinct zones: superficial, intermediate, and deep. The superficial and deep zones were fibroelastic while the intermediate zones comprised compact bundles of collagen fibres. In the anterior wall of the rectus sheath, these bundles above and below the arcuate line, respectively, were obliquely and transversely disposed. The bundles of the posterior wall of the rectus sheath were, however, transversely aligned. In conclusion, the microscopic organisation of the rectus sheath is determined by its pattern of formation. This sheath is mainly formed by the aponeuroses of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy. The Annals of African surgery. January 2010 .". In: Int. J. Morphol. Wiley; 2010. Abstract
Sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy is a rare condition that poses a myriad of challenges in diagnosis and management of the patient. It demands on the clinician a high index of suspicion, expeditious treatment involving resuscitation and good judgment in handling of the bowel in face of added potential morbidity and mortality to the mother and fetus. We report a case of gangrenous sigmoid volvulus with a viable third trimester pregnancy and discuss potential pitfalls in diagnosis and management.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Topography of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in relation to the thyroid artery, Zuckerkandl tubercle, and Berry ligament in Kenyans.". In: Int. J. Morphol. Clin Anatomy.; 2011. Abstract
Injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is an important but avoidable complication of thyroidectomy. This complication may be avoided by the identification of the nerve facilitated by important landmarks found along its course. The setting for this work is the Human Anatomy Laboratory of the University of Nairobi. The aim of this work is to determine the topographic relationship of the RLN with the inferior thyroid artery (ITA), the tubercle of Zuckerkandl (TZ), and the ligament of Berry (LB) in a Kenyan population. The relationship between the nerve and the above landmarks was determined during dissection of 146 right and left thyroid lobes. One right side of the neck had a nonrecurrent nerve. Of the specimens where relationship was determined, the nerve was anterior to the ITA in 37% of cases and posterior in 51.4%. In relation to the LB, 45.3% were superficial (dorsolateral). The TZ was clearly delineated in 86 of the 146 specimens. No nerve traversed the tubercle. The RLN exhibited variations similar to those in other populations. The TZ when present was a reliable landmark to the nerve.
KAISHA DROTSIANYIWYCKLIFFE. "Esophageal stricture due to a common household water purifying agent.". In: The Ann Afr Surg 2010; 5:44-46. Kenya Medical Association; 2006. Abstract
  Objective: To determine the prevalence malignancies among relatives of breast cancer patients. Design: Prospective study from October 2003 to October 2007. Setting:  Private clinic Kenyatta National Hospital doctors plaza Subjects: 156 Breast cancer patients being followed up in the breast clinic. Methods: H/o malignant disease in relatives was ascertained. Results: 23 (14.7%) of 156 patients had a relative affected.  8 (5.1%) had a pattern suggestive of  genetic breast cancer.  22 (52.4%)  1ST degree relatives (father 10, mother 4, sister 7 and brother 1).  GIT malignancy (18/42 relations), breast cancer (9/42) & prostate cancer (5/42) were the most frequent malignancies. Conclusion: H/o of malignancy in 1ST degree relatives & multiple malignancies appear to be assoc with breast cancer.
k Kaitany B, Mulaku MN, Amugune BK, Guantai EM. "Management of type 2 diabetes at Vihiga county referral hospital, Kenya: compliance with guidelines and prevalence of complications." African Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics . 2017;Vol. 6(No. 1 , February 2017 ).
Kaitany BK, Mulaku MN, Amugune BK, Guantai EM. "Management of Type 2 Diabetes at Vihiga County referral hospital, Kenya: compliance with guidelines and prevalence of complications." Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther.. 2017;6(1):43-47.
Kajubi SK. "Iodine in the {Ugandan} environment." East African medical journal. 1971;48:427-432. AbstractWebsite
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Kaka RM, Jung'a JO, M. Badamana, Ruwa RK, Karisa HC. "Morphometric variations among populations of the wild Penaeid shrimps in Malindi–Ungwana Bay along the Northern Coast of Kenya." Journal of Aquaculture, Fisheries & Fish Science. 2019;2(2):155-164.
Kaka RM, Jung’a JO, Badamana M, Ruwa RK, Karisa HC. "Morphometric length-weight relationships of wild penaeid shrimps in Malindi-Ungwana Bay: Implications to aquaculture development in Kenya." The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research. 2019;45(2):167-173.
Kakitahi J, Okui O. "Iodine deficiency disorders in {Kisoro}, {Bundibugyo}, {Hoima} and {Kapchorwa} districts." Preliminary report to MOH, Uganda December. 1991. Abstract
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Kakoi, Kaluli NT’o. "Banana pith as a natural coagulant for polluted river wate." Ecological Engineering. 2016;95:699-705.

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